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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prognostic factors, long-term survival, and outcome of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in the intensive care unit.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Prognostic factors and outcomes of cancer patients with acute organ failure receiving chemotherapy (CT) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are still incompletely described. We therefore retrospectively studied all patients who received CT in any ICU of our institution between October 2006 and November 2013. Fifty-six patients with hematologic (n = 49; 87.5 %) or solid (n = 7; 12.5 %) malignancies, of which 20 (36 %) were diagnosed in the ICU, were analyzed [m/f ratio, 33:23; median age, 47 years (IQR 32 to 62); Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), 3 (2 to 5); Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), 50 (39 to 61)]. The main reasons for admission were acute respiratory failure, acute kidney failure, and septic shock. Mechanical ventilation and vasopressors were employed in 34 patients (61 %) respectively, hemofiltration in 22 (39 %), and extracorporeal life support in 7 (13 %). Twenty-seven patients (48 %) received their first CT in the ICU. Intention of therapy was cure in 46 patients (82 %). Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) developed in 20 patients (36 %). ICU and hospital survival was 75 and 59 %. Hospital survivors were significantly younger; had lower CCI, SAPS II, and TLS risk scores; presented less often with septic shock; were less likely to develop TLS; and received vasopressors, hemofiltration, and thrombocyte transfusions in lower proportions. After discharge, 88 % continued CT and 69 % of 1-year survivors were in complete remission. Probability of 1- and 2-year survival was 41 and 38 %, respectively. Conclusively, administration of CT in selected ICU cancer patients was feasible and associated with considerable long-term survival as well as long-term disease-free survival.
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Role of angiogenic factors/cell adhesion markers in serum of cirrhotic patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Hepatopulmonary syndrome is a complication of chronic liver disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. It is caused by intrapulmonary vascular dilations and arteriovenous connections with devastating influence on gas exchange. The pathogenesis is not completely understood but evidence mounts for angiogenesis. Aims of this study were to identify angiogenic factors in serum of patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome and to study the possibility to predict its presence by these factors.
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Independent or synergistic relationship of proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate on patient and renal survival in patients with glomerulonephritis?
J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) identifies patients at risk for death or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CKD staging by GFR should incorporate proteinuria to augment risk stratification. We therefore tested the predictive power of the combination of GFR with proteinuria in patients with different histologically-diagnosed types of glomerulonephritis (GN).
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Von Willebrand factor antigen for detection of hepatopulmonary syndrome in patients with cirrhosis.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) occurs in 20-30% of patients with liver cirrhosis and is associated with a >2 fold increased mortality. Endothelial dysfunction seems to play a central role in its pathogenesis. von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF-Ag), an established marker of endothelial dysfunction, is significantly elevated in patients with liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and in experimental HPS. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of vWF-Ag as a screening marker for presence of HPS in patients with stable cirrhosis.
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Statin therapy is associated with reduced incidence of hypoxic hepatitis in critically ill patients.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is a frequent and life-threatening complication associated with states of oxygen depletion in critically ill patients. Ischemia and reperfusion contribute to liver injury in HH. Experimental data suggest beneficial effects of statins in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study was conducted to investigate whether statin treatment prior to intensive care unit (ICU) admission affects incidence rates and severity of HH.
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Pioglitazone decreases portosystemic shunting by modulating inflammation and angiogenesis in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic portal hypertensive rats.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Development of the portal-hypertensive syndrome is mediated by splanchnic inflammation and neoangiogenesis. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists like pioglitazone (PIO) regulate inflammatory response and inhibit angiogenesis in endothelial cells, we evaluated PIO as treatment for experimental portal hypertension.
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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adult patients with hematologic malignancies and severe acute respiratory failure.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the main reason for intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs). We report the first series of adult patients with ARF and HMs treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
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Kidney biopsy results versus clinical parameters on mortality and ESRD progression in 2687 patients with glomerulonephritis.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Physicians refer proteinuric patients to kidney biopsy in order to clarify the issue of underlying renal disease. We compared kidney biopsy results with classical outcome parameters in a large cohort of patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN).
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Therapeutic options in pulmonary hepatic vascular diseases.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Pulmonary-hepatic vascular disorders are frequent complications in patients with portal hypertension and cirrhosis. Both hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of HPS should be confirmed early by arterial blood gas analysis and contrast enhanced echocardiography whereas POPH is finally diagnosed by presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension evaluated via right heart catheterization and presence of portal hypertension. Therapeutic options are initiation of long term oxygen therapy and liver transplantation in patients with severe HPS. Patients with POPH should receive targeted medical therapies with endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and/or prostanoids. In contrast, ?-blockers should be avoided. It is unclear whether liver transplantation cures POPH or not. This review summarizes current knowledge of underlying conditions and focuses on therapeutic options in patients with pulmonary-hepatic vascular disorders.
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Pharmacokinetics of Ganciclovir during Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration in Critically Ill Patients.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Ganciclovir is an antiviral agent that is frequently used in critically ill patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) is a common extracorporeal renal replacement therapy in intensive care unit patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir in anuric patients undergoing CVVHDF. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed for nine critically ill patients with proven or suspected CMV infection who were undergoing CVVHDF. All patients received a single dose of ganciclovir at 5 mg/kg of body weight intravenously. Serum and ultradiafiltrate concentrations were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and these data were used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Mean peak and trough prefilter ganciclovir concentrations were 11.8 ± 3.5 mg/liter and 2.4 ± 0.7 mg/liter, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters elimination half-life (24.2 ± 7.6 h), volume of distribution (81.2 ± 38.3 liters), sieving coefficient (0.76 ± 0.1), total clearance (2.7 ± 1.2 liters/h), and clearance of CVVHDF (1.5 ± 0.2 liters/h) were determined. Based on population pharmacokinetic simulations with respect to a target area under the curve (AUC) of 50 mg · h/liter and a trough level of 2 mg/liter, a ganciclovir dose of 2.5 mg/kg once daily seems to be adequate for anuric critically ill patients during CVVHDF.
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Unmeasured anions are associated with short-term mortality in patients with hypoxic hepatitis.
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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Hypoxic hepatitis is a common cause of hepatic impairment in critically ill patients and is an independent risk factor for mortality. An elevated level of unmeasured anions is another unfavourable prognostic marker in many disease entities. While the biochemical nature of unmeasured anions is unknown, data suggest that they may be released from the liver. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the strong ion gap-the gold standard for estimation of unmeasured anions-is elevated and associated with outcome in patients with hypoxic hepatitis.
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Reagent-free monitoring of multiple clinically relevant parameters in human blood plasma using a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser based sensor system.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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We present a semi-automated point-of-care (POC) sensor approach for the simultaneous and reagent-free determination of clinically relevant parameters in blood plasma. The portable sensor system performed direct mid-infrared (MIR) transmission measurements of blood plasma samples using a broadly tunable external-cavity quantum cascade laser source with high spectral power density. This enabled the use of a flow cell with a long path length (165 ?m) which resulted in high signal-to-noise ratios and a rugged system, insensitive to clogging. Multivariate calibration models were built using well established Partial-Least-Squares (PLS) regression analysis. Selection of spectral pre-processing procedures was optimized by an automated evaluation algorithm. Several analytes, including glucose, lactate, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein as well as albumin, were successfully quantified in routinely taken blood plasma samples from 67 critically ill patients. Although relying on a spectral range from 1030 cm(-1) to 1230 cm(-1), which is optimal for glucose and lactate but rather unusual for protein analysis, it was possible to selectively determine the albumin and total protein concentrations with sufficient accuracy for POC application.
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Lipocalin 2 deactivates macrophages and worsens pneumococcal pneumonia outcomes.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Macrophages play a key role in responding to pathogens and initiate an inflammatory response to combat microbe multiplication. Deactivation of macrophages facilitates resolution of the inflammatory response. Deactivated macrophages are characterized by an immunosuppressive phenotype, but the lack of unique markers that can reliably identify these cells explains the poorly defined biological role of this macrophage subset. We identified lipocalin 2 (LCN2) as both a marker of deactivated macrophages and a macrophage deactivator. We show that LCN2 attenuated the early inflammatory response and impaired bacterial clearance, leading to impaired survival of mice suffering from pneumococcal pneumonia. LCN2 induced IL-10 formation by macrophages, skewing macrophage polarization in a STAT3-dependent manner. Pulmonary LCN2 levels were tremendously elevated during bacterial pneumonia in humans, and high LCN2 levels were indicative of a detrimental outcome from pneumonia with Gram-positive bacteria. Our data emphasize the importance of macrophage deactivation for the outcome of pneumococcal infections and highlight the role of LCN2 and IL-10 as determinants of macrophage performance in the respiratory tract.
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Clinical impact of arterial ammonia levels in ICU patients with different liver diseases.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Increased arterial ammonia levels are associated with high mortality in patients with acute liver failure (ALF). Data on the prognostic impact of arterial ammonia is lacking in hypoxic hepatitis (HH) and scarce in critically ill patients with cirrhosis.
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Austrian consensus on the definition and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications (Billroth II).
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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In November 2004, the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (ÖGGH) held for the first time a consensus meeting on the definitions and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications in the Billroth-Haus in Vienna, Austria (Billroth I-Meeting). This meeting was preceded by a meeting of international experts on portal hypertension with some of the proponents of the Baveno consensus conferences (http://www.oeggh.at/videos.asp). The consensus itself is based on the Baveno III consensus with regard to portal hypertensive bleeding and the suggestions of the International Ascites Club regarding the treatment of ascites. Those statements were modified by new knowledge derived from the recent literature and also by the current practice of medicine as agreed upon by the participants of the consensus meeting. In October 2011, the ÖGGH organized the second consensus meeting on portal hypertension and its complications in Vienna (Billroth II-Meeting). The Billroth II-Guidelines on the definitions and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications take into account the developments of the last 7 years, including the Baveno-V update and several key publications.
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Hypoxic liver injury and cholestasis in critically ill patients.
Curr Opin Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Liver dysfunction frequently complicates the clinical picture of critical illness and leads to increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to characterize the most frequent patterns of liver dysfunction at the intensive care unit, cholestasis and hypoxic liver injury (HLI), and to illustrate its clinical impact on outcome in critically ill patients.
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Storage of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and accuracy of microbiologic diagnostics in the ICU: a prospective observational study.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial treatment is a cornerstone in managing pneumonia. Because microbiologic processing may not be available around the clock, optimal storage of specimens is essential for accurate microbiologic identification of pathogenetic bacteria. The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of two commonly used storage approaches for delayed processing of bronchoalveolar lavage in critically ill patients with suspected pneumonia.
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Nebivolol treatment increases splanchnic blood flow and portal pressure in cirrhotic rats via modulation of nitric oxide signalling.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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We evaluated the effects of nebivolol, a third generation beta-blocker capable of increasing NO-bioavailability on portal pressure, and on splachnic and systemic haemodynamics in a cirrhotic portal hypertensive rat model.
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Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of daptomycin during continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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Daptomycin is bactericidal against Gram-positive bacteria, with peak-dependent effect but trough-dependent toxicity. This study was performed to develop dosing recommendations in continuous venovenous haemodia?ltration (CVVHDF).
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Extracorporeal artificial liver support systems in the management of intractable cholestatic pruritus.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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Pruritus can occur as a severe complication of cholestasis. Several hypotheses suggest an important role for the accumulation of bile acids, endogenous opioids and - mire recently - lysophosphatidic acid. Bile acid sequestrants are the first-line therapeutic agents. In refractory cases, a stepwise approach using rifampicin, oral opiate antagonists and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline should be tested. Recent case series reported effective relief of pruritus using extracorporal liver support systems and plasmapheresis.
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Extracorporeal artificial liver support in hypoxic liver injury.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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The incidence of hypoxic liver injury, most commonly referred to as hypoxic hepatitis (HH), is up to 10% in critically ill patients. In the majority of cases, HH occurs as a consequence of haemodynamic impairment following cardiogenic or septic shock. A marked, dramatic increase in the aminotransferase levels in a setting of cardiocirculatory failure is the key characteristic of HH. HH may contribute to several complications such as hepatopulmonary syndrome and hypoglycaemia. The overall mortality after the onset of HH is approximately 50-60% within 1 month. We report a case of severe HH that was successfully bridged using the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System. In addition to the possible effects of extracorporeal liver support devices, the recognition of HH and therapy of the underlying disease that led to the occurrence of HH is of central importance.
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Impact of hypoxic hepatitis on mortality in the intensive care unit.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is a form of hepatic injury following arterial hypoxemia, ischemia, and passive congestion of the liver. We investigated the incidence and the prognostic implications of HH in the medical intensive care unit (ICU).
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Post-resuscitation care at the emergency department with critical care facilities--a length-of-stay analysis.
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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An emergency department providing critical care will have an effect on outcome and intensive-care-units resources by avoiding unnecessary or futile intensive-care admissions and thereby save hospital expenses. The study focussed on this result.
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A surge of flu-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome in an Austrian tertiary care hospital during the 2009/2010 Influenza A H1N1v pandemic.
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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We report on 17 patients with influenza A H1N1v-associated Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between June 11th 2009 and August 10th 2010 (f/m: 8/9; age: median 39 (IQR 29-54) years; SAPS II: 35 (29-48)). Body mass index was 26 (24-35), 24% were overweight and 29% obese. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was 1 (0-2) and all but one patient had comorbid conditions. The median time between onset of the first symptom and admission to the ICU was 5 days (range 0-14). None of the patients had received vaccination against H1N1v. Nine patients received oseltamivir, only two of them within 48 hours of symptom onset. All patients developed severe ARDS (PaO(2)/FiO(2)-Ratio 60 (55-92); lung injury score 3.8 (3.3-4.0)), were mechanically ventilated and on vasopressor support. Fourteen patients received corticosteroids, 7 patients underwent hemofiltration, and 10 patients needed extracorporeal membrane-oxygenation (ECMO; 8 patients veno-venous, 2 patients veno-arterial), three patients Interventional Lung Assist (ILA) and two patients pump driven extracorporeal low-flow CO(2)-elimination (ECCO(2)-R). Seven of 17 patients (41%) died in the ICU (4 patients due to bleeding, 3 patients due to multi-organ failure), while all other patients survived the hospital (59%). ECMO mortality was 50%. The median ICU length-of-stay was 26 (19-44) vs. 21 (17-25) days (survivors vs. nonsurvivors), days on the ventilator were 18 (14-35) vs. 20 (17-24), and ECMO duration was 10 (8-25) vs. 13 (11-16) days, respectively (all p = n.s.). Compared to a control group of 241 adult intensive care unit patients without H1N1v, length of stay in the ICU, rate of mechanical ventilation, days on the ventilator, and TISS 28 scores were significantly higher in patients with H1N1v. The ICU survival tended to be higher in control patients (79 vs. 59%; p = 0.06). Patients with H1N1v admitted to either of our ICUs were young, overproportionally obese and almost all with existing comorbidities. All patients developed severe ARDS, which could only be treated with extracorporeal gas exchange in an unexpectedly high proportion. Patients with H1N1v had more complicated courses compared to control patients.
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Jejunal tube placement in critically ill patients: A prospective, randomized trial comparing the endoscopic technique with the electromagnetically visualized method.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Head-to-head comparison of the success rate of jejunal placement of a new electromagnetically visualized jejunal tube with that of the endoscopic technique in critically ill patients.
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Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of anidulafungin during continuous venovenous haemofiltration.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Clinical studies support a role for anidulafungin as first-line treatment of invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients and postulate no need for dose adjustments in mild to severe renal failure. Although intensive care patients requiring renal replacement therapy are at particular risk of invasive fungal infection, no pharmacokinetic data on anidulafungin during continuous venovenous haemo?ltration (CVVHF) are available.
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Prognostic factors for intensive care unit admission, intensive care outcome, and post-intensive care survival in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia: a single center experience.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2010
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Acute myeloid leukemia is a life-threatening disease associated with high mortality rates. A substantial number of patients require intensive care. This investigation analyzes risk factors predicting admission to the intensive care unit in patients with acute myeloid leukemia eligible for induction chemotherapy, the outcome of these patients, and prognostic factors predicting their survival.
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Hypoxic hepatitis - epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical management.
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischemic hepatitis or shock liver, is characterized by centrilobular liver cell necrosis and sharply increasing serum aminotransferase levels in a clinical setting of cardiac, circulatory or respiratory failure. Nowadays it is recognized as the most frequent cause of acute liver injury with a reported prevalence of up to 10% in the intensive care unit. Patients with HH and vasopressor therapy have a significantly increased mortality risk in the medical intensive care unit population. The main underlying conditions contributing to HH are low cardiac output and septic shock, although a multifactorial etiology is found in the majority of patients. HH causes several complications such as spontaneous hypoglycemia, respiratory insufficiency due to the hepatopulmonary syndrome, and hyperammonemia. HH reverses after successful treatment of the basic HH-causing disease. No specific therapies improving the hepatic function in patients with HH are currently established. Early recognition of HH and its underlying diseases and subsequent initiation of therapy is of central prognostic importance. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnostic and therapeutic options of HH.
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Hypoxic hepatitis: underlying conditions and risk factors for mortality in critically ill patients.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is a frequent cause of acute hepatocellular damage at the intensive care unit. Although mortality is reported to be high, risk factors for mortality in this population are unknown.
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Liver dysfunction and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signalling in early sepsis: experimental studies in rodent models of peritonitis.
PLoS Med.
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Hepatic dysfunction and jaundice are traditionally viewed as late features of sepsis and portend poor outcomes. We hypothesized that changes in liver function occur early in the onset of sepsis, yet pass undetected by standard laboratory tests.
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No association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin 2 receptor blocker intake with acute kidney injury in patients undergoing kidney biopsy.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
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Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin 2 receptor blockers (ARBs) is associated with an increased risk for acute kidney injury after cardiovascular interventions. However, for patients undergoing kidney biopsy, no data is available.
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Health-related quality of life of long-term survivors of intensive care: changes after intensive care treatment. Experience of an Austrian intensive care unit.
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
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The aim of the study was to determine if health-related quality of life of long-term survivors changes 24 months after intensive care treatment compared to the quality of life before admission.
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Transesophageal echocardiography during orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with esophagoastric varices.
Transplantation
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Hemodynamic monitoring using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients with signs of portal hypertension undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) carries potential risk of esophageal and gastric variceal hemorrhage. The aim of our retrospective analysis was to evaluate the safety of intraoperative TEE monitoring during OLT in patients with esophagogastric varices.
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Jaundice increases the rate of complications and one-year mortality in patients with hypoxic hepatitis.
Hepatology
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Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is the most frequent cause of acute liver injury in critically ill patients. No clinical data exist about new onset of jaundice in patients with HH. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and clinical effect of jaundice in critically ill patients with HH. Two hundred and six consecutive patients with HH were screened for the development of jaundice during the course of HH. Individuals with preexisting jaundice or liver cirrhosis at the time of admission (n = 31) were excluded from analysis. Jaundice was diagnosed in patients with plasma total bilirubin levels >3 mg/dL. One-year-survival, infections, and cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal (GI), renal, and hepatic complications were prospectively documented. New onset of jaundice occurred in 63 of 175 patients with HH (36%). In patients who survived the acute event of HH, median duration of jaundice was 6 days (interquartile range, 3-8). Patients who developed jaundice (group 1) needed vasopressor treatment (P < 0.05), renal replacement therapy (P < 0.05), and mechanical ventilation (P < 0.05) more often and had a higher maximal administered dose of norepinephrine (P < 0.05), compared to patients without jaundice (group 2). One-year survival rate was significantly lower in group 1, compared to group 2 (8% versus 25%, respectively; P < 0.05). Occurrence of jaundice was associated with an increased frequency of complications during follow-up (54% in group 1 versus 35% in group 2; P < 0.05). In particular, infections as well as renal and GI complications occurred more frequently in group 1 during follow-up.
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Kidney biopsy in patients with glomerulonephritis: is the earlier the better?
BMC Nephrol
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Interventional diagnostic procedures are established for several diseases in medicine. Despite the KDOQI guideline recommendation for histological diagnosis of kidney disease to enable risk stratification, its optimal time point has not been evaluated. We have therefore analyzed whether histological diagnosis of glomerulonephritis (GN) at an early stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with different outcome compared to diagnosis at a more advanced stage.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.