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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Single-domain llama antibodies as specific intracellular inhibitors of SpvB, the actin ADP-ribosylating toxin of Salmonella typhimurium.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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ADP-ribosylation of host cell proteins is a common mode of cell intoxication by pathogenic bacterial toxins. Antibodies induced by immunization with inactivated ADP-ribosylating toxins provide efficient protection in case of some secreted toxins, e.g., diphtheria and pertussis toxins. However, other ADP-ribosylating toxins, such as Salmonella SpvB toxin, are secreted directly from the Salmonella-containing vacuole into the cytosol of target cells via the SPI-2 encoded bacterial type III secretion system, and thus are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. Small-molecule ADP-ribosylation inhibitors are fraught with potential side effects caused by inhibition of endogenous ADP-ribosyltransferases. Here, we report the development of a single-domain antibody from an immunized llama that blocks the capacity of SpvB to ADP-ribosylate actin at a molar ratio of 1:1. The single-domain antibody, when expressed as an intrabody, effectively protected cells from the cytotoxic activity of a translocation-competent chimeric C2IN-C/SpvB toxin. Transfected cells were also protected against cytoskeletal alterations induced by wild-type SpvB-expressing strains of Salmonella. This proof of principle paves the way for developing new antidotes against intracellular toxins.
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Single domain antibodies: promising experimental and therapeutic tools in infection and immunity.
Med. Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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Antibodies are important tools for experimental research and medical applications. Most antibodies are composed of two heavy and two light chains. Both chains contribute to the antigen-binding site which is usually flat or concave. In addition to these conventional antibodies, llamas, other camelids, and sharks also produce antibodies composed only of heavy chains. The antigen-binding site of these unusual heavy chain antibodies (hcAbs) is formed only by a single domain, designated VHH in camelid hcAbs and VNAR in shark hcAbs. VHH and VNAR are easily produced as recombinant proteins, designated single domain antibodies (sdAbs) or nanobodies. The CDR3 region of these sdAbs possesses the extraordinary capacity to form long fingerlike extensions that can extend into cavities on antigens, e.g., the active site crevice of enzymes. Other advantageous features of nanobodies include their small size, high solubility, thermal stability, refolding capacity, and good tissue penetration in vivo. Here we review the results of several recent proof-of-principle studies that open the exciting perspective of using sdAbs for modulating immune functions and for targeting toxins and microbes.
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A polymeric protein induces specific cytotoxicity in a TLR4 dependent manner in the absence of adjuvants.
PLoS ONE
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Lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) is a highly immunogenic decameric protein. It is possible to insert foreign peptides or proteins at its ten-amino acid termini. These chimeras elicit systemic and oral immunity without adjuvants, which are commonly needed in the formulation of subunit-based vaccines. Here, we show that BLS induces the cross presentation of a covalently attached peptide OVA(257-264) and a specific cytotoxic response to this peptide in the absence of adjuvants. Unlike other subunit-based vaccines, this chimera induces rapid activation of CTLs and a specific cytotoxic response, making this polymeric protein an ideal antigen carrier for vaccine development. Adoptive transfer of transgenic OT-I T cells revealed efficient cross presentation of BLS-OVA(257-264)in vivo. BLS-OVA(257-264) immunization induced the proliferation of OVA(257-264)-specific CD8+ lymphocytes and also increased the percentage of OVA(257-264)-specific CD8+ cells expressing the early activation marker CD69; after 5 days, the percentage of OVA(257-264)-specific CD8+ cells expressing high levels of CD44 increased. This cell subpopulation showed decreased expression of IL-7R?, indicating that BLS-OVA(257-264) induced the generation of CD8+ effector cells. BLS-OVA(257-264) was cross presented in vitro independently of the presence of a functional TLR4 in the DCs. Finally, we show that immunization of wild type mice with the chimera BLS-OVA(257-264) without adjuvants induced a strong OVA(257-264)-specific effector cytotoxic response. This cytotoxicity is dependent on TLR4 as is not induced in mice lacking a functional receptor. These data show that TLR4 signaling is necessary for the induction of a cytotoxic response but not for antigen cross presentation.
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Polymeric Display of Proteins through High Affinity Leucine Zipper Peptide Adaptors.
Biomacromolecules
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The polymeric display of proteins is a method that could be used to increase the immunogenicity of antigens and to enhance the interaction strength of binding domains for their target ligands through an avidity effect. However, the coupling of proteins to oligomeric scaffolds is challenging. The chemical conjugation and recombinant fusion techniques have limitations that prevent their general use. In this work we describe a simple and effective method for coupling proteins to the decameric structure of Brucella abortus Lumazine Synthase based on the use of a pair of high affinity heterodimeric coiled coil peptides complementary fused to the scaffold and the target protein. Results obtained with a series of proteins demonstrate the capability of this approach to generate polyvalent particles. Furthermore, we show that the method is able to increase the immunogenicity of antigens and produce polyfunctional particles with promising biomedical and nanotechnological applications.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.