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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis MB20 bv. equi Isolated from a Pectoral Abscess of an Oldenburg Horse in California.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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The genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis MB20 bv. equi was sequenced using the Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) platform, and showed a size of 2,363,089 bp, with 2,365 coding sequences and a GC content of 52.1%. These results will serve as a basis for further studies on the pathogenicity of C. pseudotuberculosis bv. equi.
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Protective Effects of Lactococci Strains Delivering Either IL-10 Protein or cDNA in a TNBS-induced Chronic Colitis Model.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Oral treatment with Lactococcus lactis strains secreting the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 has previously shown success as a therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).
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Milk Fermented with a 15-Lipoxygenase-1-Producing Lactococcus Lactis Alleviates Symptoms of colitis in a Murine Model.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are characterized by extensive inflammation due to dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system whose exact etiology is not yet completely understood. Currently there is no cure for IBD, thus the search for new molecules capable of controlling IBD and their delivery to the site of inflammation are the goal of many researchers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the administration of milks fermented by a Lactococcus (L.) lactis strain producing 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) using a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced IBD mouse model. The results obtained demonstrated that 15-LOX-1 producing L. lactis was effective in the prevention of the intestinal damage associated to inflammatory bowel disease in a murine model. The work also confirmed previous studies showing that fermented milk is an effective form of administration of recombinant lactic acid bacteria expressing beneficial molecules.
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C. pseudotuberculosis Phop confers virulence and may be targeted by natural compounds.
Integr Biol (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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The bacterial two-component system (TCS) regulates genes that are crucial for virulence in several pathogens. One of such TCS, the PhoPR system, consisting of a transmembrane sensory histidine kinase protein (PhoR) and an intracellular response regulator protein (PhoP), has been reported to have a major role in mycobacterial pathogenesis. We knocked out the phoP in C. pseudotuberculosis, the causal organism of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), and using a combination of in vitro and in vivo mouse system, we showed for the first time, that the PhoP of C. pseudotuberculosis plays an important role in the virulence and pathogenicity of this bacterium. Furthermore, we modeled the PhoP of C. pseudotuberculosis and our docking results showed that several natural compounds including Rhein, an anthraquinone from Rheum undulatum, and some drug-like molecules may target PhoP to inhibit the TCS of C. pseudotuberculosis, and therefore may facilitate a remarkable attenuation of bacterial pathogenicity being the CLA. Experiments are currently underway to validate these in silico docking results.
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An improved interolog mapping-based computational prediction of protein-protein interactions with increased network coverage.
Integr Biol (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Automated and efficient methods that map ortholog interactions from several organisms and public databases (pDB) are needed to identify new interactions in an organism of interest (interolog mapping). When computational methods are applied to predict interactions, it is important that these methods be validated and their efficiency proven. In this study, we compare six Blast+ metrics over three datasets to identify the best metric for protein-protein interaction predictions. Using Blast+ to align the protein pairs, the ortholog interactions from DIP were mapped to String, Intact and Psibase pDBs. For each interaction mapped to each pDBs, we retrieved the alignment score, e-value, bitscore, similarity, identity and coverage. We evaluated these Blast+ values, and combinations thereof, with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and computed the Area Under Curve (AUC). To validate these predictions, we used a subset of the Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP) composed of experimental interactions curated by the International Molecular Exchange (IMEx). The cut-off point for each metric/pDB was computed aiming to identify the best one that separates the true and false predicted interactions. In contrast to other methods that only compute the first Blast hit, we considered the first 20 hits, thus increasing the number of predicted interaction pairs. In addition, we identified the contribution of each individual pDB, as well as their combined contribution to the prediction. The best metric had an AUC of 0.96 for a single pDB and AUC of 0.93 for combined pDBs. Compared to other studies, with a cut-off point of 0.70 representing a specificity of 0.95 and a sensitivity of 0.90 for individual pDB, our method efficiently predicts protein-protein interactions.
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Recombinant Lactococcus lactis fails to secrete bovine chymosine.
Bioengineered
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Bovine chymosin is an important milk-clotting agent used in the manufacturing of cheeses. Currently, the production of recombinant proteins by genetically modified organisms is widespread, leading to greatly reduced costs. Lactococcus (L.) lactis, the model lactic acid bacterium, was considered a good candidate for heterologous chymosin production for the following reasons: (1) it is considered to be a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) microorganism, (2) only one protease is present on its surface, (3) it can secrete proteins of different sizes, and (4) it allows for the direct production of protein in fermented food products. Thus, three genetically modified L. lactis strains were constructed to produce and target the three different forms of bovine chymosin, prochymosin B, chymosin A and chymosin B to the extracellular medium. Although all three proteins were stably produced in L. lactis, none of the forms were detected in the extracellular medium or showed clotting activity in milk. Our hypothesis is that this secretion deficiency and lack of clotting activity can be explained by the recombinant protein being attached to the cell envelope. Thus, the development of other strategies is necessary to achieve both production and targeting of chymosin in L. lactis, which could facilitate the downstream processing and recovery of this industrially important protein.
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KeyPathwayMiner 4.0: condition-specific pathway analysis by combining multiple omics studies and networks with Cytoscape.
BMC Syst Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Over the last decade network enrichment analysis has become popular in computational systems biology to elucidate aberrant network modules. Traditionally, these approaches focus on combining gene expression data with protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Nowadays, the so-called omics technologies allow for inclusion of many more data sets, e.g. protein phosphorylation or epigenetic modifications. This creates a need for analysis methods that can combine these various sources of data to obtain a systems-level view on aberrant biological networks.
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Elucidation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related pathways in a triple-negative breast cancer cell line model by multi-omics interactome analysis.
Integr Biol (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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In life sciences, and particularly biomedical research, linking aberrant pathways exhibiting phenotype-specific alterations to the underlying physical condition or disease is an ongoing challenge. Computationally, a key approach for pathway identification is data enrichment, combined with generation of biological networks. This allows identification of intrinsic patterns in the data and their linkage to a specific context such as cellular compartments, diseases or functions. Identification of aberrant pathways by traditional approaches is often limited to biological networks based on either gene expression, protein expression or post-translational modifications. To overcome single omics analysis, we developed a set of computational methods that allow a combined analysis of data collections from multiple omics fields utilizing hybrid interactome networks. We apply these methods to data obtained from a triple-negative breast cancer cell line model, combining data sets of gene and protein expression as well as protein phosphorylation. We focus on alterations associated with the phenotypical differences arising from epithelial-mesenchymal transition in two breast cancer cell lines exhibiting epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like morphology, respectively. Here we identified altered protein signaling activity in a complex biologically relevant network, related to focal adhesion and migration of breast cancer cells. We found dysregulated functional network modules revealing altered phosphorylation-dependent activity in concordance with the phenotypic traits and migrating potential of the tested model. In addition, we identified Ser267 on zyxin, a protein coupled to actin filament polymerization, as a potential in vivo phosphorylation target of cyclin-dependent kinase 1.
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Lactococcus lactis carrying the pValac DNA expression vector coding for IL-10 reduces inflammation in a murine model of experimental colitis.
BMC Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are intestinal disorders characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Interleukin-10 is one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines involved in the intestinal immune system and because of its role in downregulating inflammatory cascades, its potential for IBD therapy is under study. We previously presented the development of an invasive strain of Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) producing Fibronectin Binding Protein A (FnBPA) which was capable of delivering, directly to host cells, a eukaryotic DNA expression vector coding for IL-10 of Mus musculus (pValac:il-10) and diminish inflammation in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse model of intestinal inflammation. As a new therapeutic strategy against IBD, the aim of this work was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two L. lactis strains (the same invasive strain evaluated previously and the wild-type strain) carrying the therapeutic pValac:il-10 plasmid in the prevention of inflammation in a dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced mouse model.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of Lactococcus lactis NCDO 2118 during the remission period of chemically induced colitis.
Gut Pathog
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Many probiotic bacteria have been described as promising tools for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Most of these bacteria are lactic acid bacteria, which are part of the healthy human microbiota. However, little is known about the effects of transient bacteria present in normal diets, including Lactococcus lactis.
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Correlation between fibronectin binding protein A expression level at the surface of recombinant lactococcus lactis and plasmid transfer in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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BackgroundFibronectin Binding Protein A (FnBPA) is an invasin from Staphylococcus aureus that allows this pathogen to internalize into eukaryote cells. It was previously demonstrated that recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing FnBPA were invasive and able to transfer a plasmid to eukaryotic cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the invasivity of recombinant strains of Lactococcus lactis that express FnBPA under the control of its constitutive promoter or driven by the strong nisin inducible expression system (NICE) were studied.ResultsIt was demonstrated that the nisA promoter allows an increase of FnBPA expression on the surface of Lactococcus lactis surface, as shown by flow cytometry, which subsequently enhanced internalization and plasmid transfer properties in vitro in Caco2 cells and Bone Marrow Dendritic Cells. In vivo, the use of nisA promoter increase the plasmid transfer in cells of both the small and large intestine of mice.ConclusionFnBPA expression at the surface of recombinant L. lactis is positively correlated to internalization and DNA transfer properties. The recombinant strains of L. lactis that expresses FnBPA under the control of the nisin inducible expression system could thus be considered as an improved tool in the field of DNA transfer.
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Fine-tuned characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Newbould 305, a strain associated with mild and chronic mastitis in bovines.
Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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S. aureus is a major aetiological agent of ruminant mastitis worldwide. The chronic nature of S. aureus mastitis makes it difficult to cure and prone to resurgence. In order to identify the bacterial factors involved in this chronicity, Newbould 305 (N305), a strain that can reproducibly induce mild and chronic mastitis in an experimental setting, was characterized in depth. We employed genomic and proteomic techniques combined with phenotype characterization, in order to comprehensively analyse N305. The results were compared with data obtained on S. aureus RF122, a strain representative of the major clone involved in severe bovine mastitis worldwide. Five mobile genetic elements were identified in the N305 genome as carrying virulence factors which correlated with phenotypic features such as cytotoxicity, mammary epithelial cell invasion or host-adaptation. In particular, the presence and characteristics of surface exposed proteins correlated well with the greater adhesion and internalization capacities of N305 in bovine mammary epithelial cells. N305 also displayed less diversity of toxin genes but secreted larger quantities of these toxins, associated with a higher cytotoxicity potential. Our data are consistent with the invasiveness and host-adaptation features which contribute to the chronicity of S. aureus mastitis. Mobile genetic elements, exoproteins and surface exposed proteins constitute good targets for further research to explore the underlying mechanisms related to mastitis chronicity.
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?(ECF) factors of gram-positive bacteria: a focus on Bacillus subtilis and the CMNR group.
Virulence
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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The survival of bacteria to different environmental conditions depends on the activation of adaptive mechanisms, which are intricately driven through gene regulation. Because transcriptional initiation is considered to be the major step in the control of bacterial genes, we discuss the characteristics and roles of the sigma factors, addressing (1) their structural, functional and phylogenetic classification; (2) how their activity is regulated; and (3) the promoters recognized by these factors. Finally, we focus on a specific group of alternative sigma factors, the so-called ?(ECF) factors, in Bacillus subtilis and some of the main species that comprise the CMNR group, providing information on the roles they play in the microorganisms' physiology and indicating some of the genes whose transcription they regulate.
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On the limits of computational functional genomics for bacterial lifestyle prediction.
Brief Funct Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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We review the level of genomic specificity regarding actinobacterial pathogenicity. As they occupy various niches in diverse habitats, one may assume the existence of lifestyle-specific genomic features. We include 240 actinobacteria classified into four pathogenicity classes: human pathogens (HPs), broad-spectrum pathogens (BPs), opportunistic pathogens (OPs) and non-pathogenic (NP). We hypothesize: (H1) Pathogens (HPs and BPs) possess specific pathogenicity signature genes. (H2) The same holds for OPs. (H3) Broad-spectrum and exclusively HPs cannot be distinguished from each other because of an observation bias, i.e. many HPs might yet be unclassified BPs. (H4) There is no intrinsic genomic characteristic of OPs compared with pathogens, as small mutations are likely to play a more dominant role to survive the immune system. To study these hypotheses, we implemented a bioinformatics pipeline that combines evolutionary sequence analysis with statistical learning methods (Random Forest with feature selection, model tuning and robustness analysis). Essentially, we present orthologous gene sets that computationally distinguish pathogens from NPs (H1). We further show a clear limit in differentiating OPs from both NPs (H2) and pathogens (H4). HPs may also not be distinguished from bacteria annotated as BPs based only on a small set of orthologous genes (H3), as many HPs might as well target a broad range of mammals but have not been annotated accordingly. In conclusion, we illustrate that even in the post-genome era and despite next-generation sequencing technology, our ability to efficiently deduce real-world conclusions, such as pathogenicity classification, remains quite limited.
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Reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis identified through analysis of RNA-seq data.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Reference genes presenting stable expression profiles over a wide variety of conditions are required in relative expression studies of specific bacterial genes by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). High-throughput sequencing of bacterial transcriptomes using the RNA-seq methodology now provides a wealth of data that may be searched for identification of the most stably expressed genes of a given bacterium. Herein, we searched a RNA-seq dataset from various experiments with the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, grown under different stress conditions, in order to select appropriate candidate reference genes for this species. Nineteen genes involved in maintenance of basic cellular functions, so-called housekeeping genes, were chosen for study and their expression profiles in C. pseudotuberculosis were evaluated throughout all growth conditions. Eight of these genes (atpA, dnaG, efp, fusA, gyrA, gyrB, rpoB, and rpoC), mostly participating in DNA replication and transcription, matched the defined criteria to be included as candidate reference genes. Transcriptional levels of these genes were quantified by RT-qPCR assays after growth of C. pseudotuberculosis under two additional conditions. Expression stability analysis by NormFinder indicated the combination of genes encoding DNA gyrase subunit A (gyrA) and elongation factor P (fusA) as the most suitable for normalization of RT-qPCR studies in C. pseudotuberculosis.
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Characterization of the Opp peptide transporter of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and its role in virulence and pathogenicity.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Despite the economic importance of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), a chronic disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, few genes related to the virulence of its etiologic agent have been characterized. The oligopeptide permease (Opp) transporters are located in the plasma membrane and have functions generally related to the uptake of peptides from the extracellular environment. These peptide transporters, in addition to having an important role in cell nutrition, also participate in the regulation of various processes involving intercellular signaling, including the control of the expression of virulence genes in pathogenic bacteria. To study the role of Opp in C. pseudotuberculosis, an OppD deficient strain was constructed via simple crossover with a nonreplicative plasmid carrying part of the oppD gene sequence. As occurred to the wild-type, the ?oppD strain showed impaired growth when exposed to the toxic glutathione peptide (GSH), indicating two possible scenarios: (i) that this component can be internalized by the bacterium through an Opp-independent pathway or (ii) that there is toxicity while the peptide is extracellular. Additionally, the ?oppD mutant presented a reduced ability to adhere to and infect macrophages compared to the wild-type, although both strains exhibit the same potential to colonize spleens and cause injury and death to infected mice.
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Omics profiles used to evaluate the gene expression of Exiguobacterium antarcticum B7 during cold adaptation.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Exiguobacterium antarcticum strain B7 is a Gram-positive psychrotrophic bacterial species isolated in Antarctica. Although this bacteria has been poorly studied, its genome has already been sequenced. Therefore, it is an appropriate model for the study of thermal adaptation. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptomes and proteomes of E. antarcticum B7 grown at 0[degree sign]C and 37[degree sign]C by SOLiD RNA-Seq, Ion Torrent RNA-Seq and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry (2D-DIGE-MS/MS).
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An iron-acquisition-deficient mutant of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis efficiently protects mice against challenge.
Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic disease that affects sheep and goats worldwide, and its etiological agent is Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Despite the economic losses caused by CLA, there is little information about the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis, and current immune prophylaxis against infection has been unable to reduce the incidence of CLA in goats. Recently, 21 different mutant strains of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified by random mutagenesis. In this study, these previously generated mutants were used in mice vaccination trials to develop new immunogens against CLA. Based on this analysis, CZ171053, an iron-acquisition-deficient mutant strain, was selected. After challenge with a virulent strain, 80% of the animals that were immunized with the CZ171053 strain survived. Furthermore, this vaccination elicited both humoral and cellular responses. Intracellular survival of the bacterium was determined using murine J774 cells; in this assay, the CZ171053 had reduced intracellular viability. Because iron acquisition in intracellular bacteria is considered one of their most important virulence factors during infection, these results demonstrate the immunogenic potential of this mutant against CLA.
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Oral combined therapy with probiotics and alloantigen induces B cell-dependent long-lasting specific tolerance.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Allogeneic hematopietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is widely used for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Although aHSCT provides a good response against the malignant cells (graft-versus-leukemia [GVL]), it also leads to the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a severe disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. Therapy for GVHD is commonly based on nonspecific immunosupression of the transplanted recipient, resulting in the concomitant inhibition of the GVL effect. In this study, we propose an alternative approach to specifically suppress GVHD while sparing the GVL, based on oral treatment of transplant donors with recipient Ags, associated with the intake of probiotic Lactococcus lactis as tolerogenic adjuvant (combined therapy). We show that treatment of C57BL/6 donor mice with combined therapy before the transplant protects the recipients F1 (C57BL/6 × BAL/c) mice from clinical and pathological manifestations of disease, resulting in 100% survival rate. Importantly, the animals keep the immunological competence maintaining the GVL response as well as the response to third-party Ags. The protection is specific, long lasting and dependent on donor IL-10-sufficient B cells activity, which induces regulatory T cells in the host. These data suggest that combined therapy is a promising strategy for prevention of GVHD with preservation of GVL, opening new possibilities to treat human patients subjected to transplantation.
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Value of a newly sequenced bacterial genome.
World J Biol Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made high-throughput sequencing available to medium- and small-size laboratories, culminating in a tidal wave of genomic information. The quantity of sequenced bacterial genomes has not only brought excitement to the field of genomics but also heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting in an exponential increase in draft (partial data) genome deposits in public databases. If no further interests are expressed for a particular bacterial genome, it is more likely that the sequencing of its genome will be limited to a draft stage, and the painstaking tasks of completing the sequencing of its genome and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the "scientific value" of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses the factors that could be leading to the increase in the number of draft deposits and the consequent loss of relevant biological information.
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Serological proteome analysis of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from different hosts reveals novel candidates for prophylactics to control caseous lymphadenitis.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a highly prevalent disease in goats and sheep worldwide, which is caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Although several prophylactic methods against CLA have been proposed previously, the identification of new C. pseudotuberculosis proteins that are really produced during the infectious process is still needed to improve efficiency and accuracy in vaccines and diagnostics. In this study, we used optimized conditions for serological proteome analysis (SERPA) in order to identify new immune-reactive proteins in C. pseudotuberculosis culture supernatants of two strains, 1002 and C231, isolated from goats and sheep, respectively. Using a sheep and goat serum pool, 13 novel immune-reactive exoproteins common to the two strains were identified. Four of these proteins present known functions and were already described as immune-reactive proteins in other microorganisms, whereas the other nine are of unknown function and show low similarity with proteins from other bacterial species. These data reveal promising targets for immunoprophylactic methods against CLA.
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Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium ulcerans FRC58, Isolated from the Bronchitic Aspiration of a Patient in France.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Corynebacterium ulcerans is a bacterial species with high importance because it causes infections in animals and, rarely, in humans. Its virulence mechanisms remain unclear. The current study describes the draft genome of C. ulcerans FRC58, which was isolated from the bronchitic aspiration of a patient in France.
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Differential transcriptional profile of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in response to abiotic stresses.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The completion of whole-genome sequencing for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1002 has contributed to major advances in research aimed at understanding the biology of this microorganism. This bacterium causes significant loss to goat and sheep farmers because it is the causal agent of the infectious disease caseous lymphadenitis, which may lead to outcomes ranging from skin injury to animal death. In the current study, we simulated the conditions experienced by the bacteria during host infection. By sequencing transcripts using the SOLiDTM 3 Plus platform, we identified new targets expected to potentiate the survival and replication of the pathogen in adverse environments. These results may also identify possible candidates useful for the development of vaccines, diagnostic kits or therapies aimed at the reduction of losses in agribusiness.
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The conserved mitochondrial gene distribution in relatives of Turritopsis nutricula, an immortal jellyfish.
Bioinformation
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Turritopsis nutricula (T. nutricula) is the one of the known reported organisms that can revert its life cycle to the polyp stage even after becoming sexually mature, defining itself as the only immortal organism in the animal kingdom. Therefore, the animal is having prime importance in basic biological, aging, and biomedical researches. However, till date, the genome of this organism has not been sequenced and even there is no molecular phylogenetic study to reveal its close relatives. Here, using phylogenetic analysis based on available 16s rRNA gene and protein sequences of Cytochrome oxidase subunit-I (COI or COX1) of T. nutricula, we have predicted the closest relatives of the organism. While we found Nemopsis bachei could be closest organism based on COX1 gene sequence; T. dohrnii may be designated as the closest taxon to T. nutricula based on rRNA. Moreover, we have figured out four species that showed similar root distance based on COX1 protein sequence.
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Evaluation of ERIC-PCR as genotyping method for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) as a tool for molecular typing of C. pseudotuberculosis isolates from eight different hosts in twelve countries. Ninety-nine C. pseudotuberculosis field strains, one type strain (ATCC 19410T) and one vaccine strain (1002) were fingerprinted using the ERIC-1R and ERIC-2 primers, and the ERIC-1R+ERIC-2 primer pair. Twenty-nine different genotypes were generated by ERIC 1-PCR, 28 by ERIC 2-PCR and 35 by ERIC 1+2-PCR. The discriminatory index calculated for ERIC 1, ERIC 2, and ERIC 1+2-PCR was 0.89, 0.86, and 0.92, respectively. Epidemiological concordance was established for all ERIC-PCR assays. ERIC 1+2-PCR was defined as the best method based on suitability of the amplification patterns and discriminatory index. Minimal spanning tree for ERIC 1+2-PCR revealed three major clonal complexes and clustering around nitrate-positive (biovar Equi) and nitrate-negative (biovar Ovis) strains. Therefore, ERIC 1+2-PCR proved to be the best technique evaluated in this study for genotyping C. pseudotuberculosis strains, due to its usefulness for molecular epidemiology investigations.
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Local and systemic immune mechanisms underlying the anti-colitis effects of the dairy bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Several probiotic bacteria have been proposed for treatment or prevention of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), showing a protective effect in animal models of experimental colitis and for some of them also in human clinical trials. While most of these probiotic bacteria are isolated from the digestive tract, we recently reported that a Lactobacillus strain isolated from cheese, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CNRZ327 (Lb CNRZ327), also possesses anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that common dairy bacteria may be useful in the treatment or prevention of IBD. Here, we studied the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of Lb CNRZ327 in vivo, in a mouse dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model. During colitis, Lb CNRZ327 modulated the production of TGF-?, IL-6, and IL-12 in colonic tissue and of TGF-? and IL-6 in the spleen, and caused an expansion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the cecal lymph nodes. Moreover, a strong tendency to CD4+Foxp3+ expansion was also observed in the spleen. The results of this study for the first time show that orally administered dairy lactobacilli can not only modulate mucosal but also systemic immune responses and constitute an effective treatment of IBD.
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Immune response elicited by DNA vaccination using Lactococcus lactis is modified by the production of surface exposed pathogenic protein.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, we compared immune responses elicited by DNA immunization using Lactococcus lactis or L. lactis expressing the Staphylococcus aureus invasin Fibronectin Binding Protein A (FnBPA) at its surface. Both strains carried pValac:BLG, a plasmid containing the cDNA of Beta-Lactoglobulin (BLG), and were designated LL-BLG and LL-FnBPA+ BLG respectively. A TH2 immune response characterized by the secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 in medium of BLG reactivated splenocytes was detected after either oral or intranasal administration of LL-FnBPA+ BLG. In contrast, intranasal administration of LL-BLG elicited a TH1 immune response. After BLG sensitization, mice previously intranasally administered with LL-BLG showed a significantly lower concentration of BLG-specific IgE than the mice non-administered. Altenatively administration of LL-FnBPA+ BLG didn't modify the BLG-specific IgE concentration obtained after sensitization, thus confirming the TH2 orientation of the immune response. To determine if the TH2-skewed immune response obtained with LL-FnBpA+ BLG was FnBPA-specific or not, mice received another L. lactis strain producing a mutated form of the Listeria monocytogenes invasin Internalin A intranasally, allowing thus the binding to murine E-cadherin, and containing pValac:BLG (LL-mInlA+ BLG). As with LL-FnBPA+ BLG, LL-mInlA+ BLG was not able to elicit a TH1 immune response. Furthermore, we observed that these difference were not due to the peptidoglycan composition of the cell wall as LL-FnBPA+ BLG, LL-mInlA+ BLG and LL-BLG strains shared a similar composition. DNA vaccination using LL-BLG elicited a pro-inflammatory TH1 immune response while using LL-FnBPA+ BLG or LL-mInlA+ BLG elicited an anti-inflammatory TH2 immune response.
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Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii INCQS 00594.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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An epidemic of surgical-site infections by a single strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii affected >1,700 patients in Brazil from 2004 to 2008. The genome of the epidemic prototype strain M. abscessus subsp. bolletii INCQS 00594, deposited in the collection of the National Institute for Health Quality Control (INCQS), was sequenced.
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Multiplex polymerase chain reaction to identify and determine the toxigenicity of Corynebacterium spp with zoonotic potential and an overview of human and animal infections.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium ulcerans and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis constitute a group of potentially toxigenic microorganisms that are related to different infectious processes in animal and human hosts. Currently, there is a lack of information on the prevalence of disease caused by these pathogens, which is partially due to a reduction in the frequency of routine laboratory testing. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay that can simultaneously identify and determine the toxigenicity of these corynebacterial species with zoonotic potential was developed. This assay uses five primer pairs targeting the following genes: rpoB (Corynebacterium spp), 16S rRNA (C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis), pld (C. pseudotuberculosis), dtxR (C. diphtheriae) and tox [diphtheria toxin (DT) ]. In addition to describing this assay, we review the literature regarding the diseases caused by these pathogens. Of the 213 coryneform strains tested, the mPCR results for all toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of C . diphtheriae, C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were in 100% agreement with the results of standard biochemical tests and PCR-DT. As an alternative to conventional methods, due to its advantages of specificity and speed, the mPCR assay used in this study may successfully be applied for the diagnosis of human and/or animal diseases caused by potentially toxigenic corynebacterial species.
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Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain SA20-06, a fish pathogen associated to meningoencephalitis outbreaks.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is the causative agent of meningoencephalitis in fish, mastitis in cows, and neonatal sepsis in humans. Meningoencephalitis is a major health problem for tilapia farming and is responsible for high economic losses worldwide. Despite its importance, the genomic characteristics and the main molecular mechanisms involved in virulence of S. agalactiae isolated from fish are still poorly understood. Here, we present the genomic features of the 1,820,886 bp long complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SA20-06 isolated from a meningoencephalitis outbreak in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil, and its annotation, consisting of 1,710 protein-coding genes (excluding pseudogenes), 7 rRNA operons, 79 tRNA genes and 62 pseudogenes.
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High efficiency application of a mate-paired library from next-generation sequencing to postlight sequencing: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis as a case study for microbial de novo genome assembly.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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With the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms, there has been a reduction in the cost and time of sequencing. With these advantages, new challenges have emerged, such as the handling of large amounts of data, quality assessment, and the assembly of short reads. Currently, benchtop high-throughput sequencers enable the genomes of prokaryotic organisms to be sequenced within two hours with a reduction in coverage compared with the SOLiD, Illumina and 454 FLX Titanium platforms, making it necessary to evaluate the efficiency of less expensive benchtop instruments for prokaryotic genomics. In the present work, we evaluate and propose a methodology for the use of the Ion Torrent PGM platform for decoding the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, for which 15 complete genome sequences have already been deposited based on fragment and mate-paired libraries with a 3-kb insert size. Despite the low coverage, a single sequencing run using a mate-paired library generated 39 scaffolds after de novo assembly without data curation. This result is superior to that obtained by sequencing using libraries generated from fragments marketed by the equipments manufacturer, as well as that observed for mate-pairs sequenced by SOLiD. The generated sequence added an extra 91kb to the genome available at NCBI.
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Complete Genome of a Methanosarcina mazei Strain Isolated from Sediment Samples from an Amazonian Flooded Area.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Methanosarcina mazei is a strictly anaerobic methanogen from the Methanosarcinales order, which is known for its broad catabolic range among methanogens and is widespread throughout diverse environments. The draft genome of the strain presented here was cultivated from sediment samples collected from the Tucuruí hydroelectric power station reservoir.
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Complete Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium urealyticum Strain DSM 7111, Isolated from a 9-Year-Old Patient with Alkaline-Encrusted Cystitis.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Corynebacterium urealyticum is a common skin colonizer with potent urease activity. It is clinically recognized as an opportunistic pathogen causing urinary tract infections. The annotated genome sequence of strain DSM 7111, isolated from the urine of a young boy with an ectopic kidney, provides new insights into the pathomechanisms of this bacterium.
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Brazilian Microbiome Project: Revealing the Unexplored Microbial Diversity-Challenges and Prospects.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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The Brazilian Microbiome Project (BMP) aims to assemble a Brazilian Metagenomic Consortium/Database. At present, many metagenomic projects underway in Brazil are widely known. Our goal in this initiative is to co-ordinate and standardize these together with new projects to come. It is estimated that Brazil hosts approximately 20 % of the entire worlds macroorganism biological diversity. It is 1 of the 17 countries that share nearly 70 % of the worlds catalogued animal and plant species, and is recognized as one of the most megadiverse countries. At the end of 2012, Brazil has joined GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility), as associated member, to improve the access to the Brazilian biodiversity data in a free and open way. This was an important step toward increasing international collaboration and clearly shows the commitment of the Brazilian government in directing national policies toward sustainable development. Despite its importance, the Brazilian microbial diversity is still considered to be largely unknown, and it is clear that to maintain ecosystem dynamics and to sustainably manage land use, it is crucial to understand the biological and functional diversity of the system. This is the first attempt to collect and collate information about Brazilian microbial genetic and functional diversity in a systematic and holistic manner. The success of the BMP depends on a massive collaborative effort of both the Brazilian and international scientific communities, and therefore, we invite all colleagues to participate in this project.
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Association between haptoglobin and IgM levels and the clinical progression of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Sheep caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp), is associated with direct economic losses and presents significant zoonotic potential. Despite the importance of the disease, a satisfactory vaccine model has not been developed. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between haptoglobin (Hp) and IgM levels and the clinical progression of CLA in primarily infected sheep and in sheep immunized with Cp- secreted antigens adjuvanted with Quillaja saponaria saponins. These animals were kept with CLA-positive sheep to simulate natural exposure that occurs in field conditions. During the experiment, the Hp and IgM levels were monitored for 21 days, and the development of internal CLA lesions was investigated through necropsies on day182 post-immunization.
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Identification of 11 new exoproteins in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis by comparative analysis of the exoproteome.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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This study involves the comparison between the exoproteomes of two different strains of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants. In a previous study, based on a gel-free system (TPP-LC/MS(E)), 70 exoproteins for the strain 1002 and 67 for the strain C231, totaling 93 different extracellular proteins for C. pseudotuberculosis, were identified. In the present work, we have used 2D gel electrophoresis to resolve the extracellular proteins of both strains, which were then digested with trypsin, analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF and identified with the software MASCOT(®). A total of 45 extracellular proteins of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified by this approach. The comparative analysis between the strains 1002 and C231 identified 13 and 3 strain-specific proteins, respectively, 11 of which are novel. These newly identified proteins may play an important role in the physiology and virulence of C. pseudotuberculosis.
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Identification of a vaccine against schistosomiasis using bioinformatics and molecular modeling tools.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Schistosomiasis is a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Although the drugs used to treatment schistosomiasis are effective, the disease continues to expand in all endemic countries due to constant reinfection, poor sanitation, and the lack of effective programs for disease control. However, advances generated through genome projects have provided important information that has improved the understanding of the biology of this parasite. These advances, associated with the advent of bioinformatic analysis, are becoming an important tool in reverse vaccinology. Through database access to the DNA and protein sequences of Schistosoma mansoni and the use of bioinformatics programs, fourteen epitopes were identified. Five epitopes were obtained from proteins whose immunogenic potential had already been assessed in other studies (KP), and nine whose immunogenic potential is unknown (UP). To improve stimulation of the host immune system, the selected epitopes were modeled with a sugar moiety. After this addition, all of the epitopes showed structures similar to those observed in the native proteins, but only eleven of the peptides presented thermodynamically stable structures. Prediction analysis and molecular modeling showed that the glycopeptides presented here are important targets in the search for a vaccine against schistosomiasis. Additionally, they suggest that these molecules may be used in immunological assays to evaluate the level of protection, the effect on pathology reduction and the profile of cytokines and antibodies induced by them.
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Oral immunization with Lactococcus lactis secreting attenuated recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin B induces a protective immune response in a murine model.
Microb. Cell Fact.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Staphylococcus aureus is unrestrictedly found in humans and in animal species that maintain thermal homeostasis. Inadequate cleaning of processing equipment or inappropriate handling can contaminate processed food and cause severe food poisoning. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), a potent superantigenic exotoxin, is produced by 50% of clinical isolates of S. aureus and is associated with massive food poisoning and with the induction of toxic shock syndrome.
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Mucosal targeting of therapeutic molecules using genetically modified lactic acid bacteria: an update.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent a heterogeneous group of microorganisms naturally present in many foods and those have proved to be effective mucosal delivery vectors. Moreover, some specific strains of LAB exert beneficial properties (known as probiotic effect) on both human and animal health. Although probiotic effects are strain-specific traits, it is theoretically possible, using genetic engineering techniques, to design strains that can exert a variety of beneficial properties. During the two past decades, a large variety of therapeutic molecules has been successfully expressed in LAB, and although this field has been largely reviewed in recent years, approximately 20 new publications appear each year. Thus, the aim of this minireview is not to extensively assess the entire literature but to update progress made within the last 2 years regarding the use of the model LAB Lactococcus lactis and certain species of lactobacilli as live recombinant vectors for the development of new safe mucosal vaccines.
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The detection and sequencing of a broad-host-range conjugative IncP-1? plasmid in an epidemic strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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An extended outbreak of mycobacterial surgical infections occurred in Brazil during 2004-2008. Most infections were caused by a single strain of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, which was characterized by a specific rpoB sequevar and two highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns differentiated by the presence of a ?50 kb band. The nature of this band was investigated.
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Differential Exoproteome analysis of two corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis strains isolated from goat (1002) and sheep (C231).
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis a chronic infectious disease affecting small ruminants. The 2D-DIGE technique was used to compare the exoproteomes of two C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis strains isolated from goat (strain 1002) and sheep (strain C231). Seventeen proteins differentially produced were identified here. Nine proteins appeared over-produced in the exoproteome of 1002 goat strain and 8 in that of C231 sheep strain. These proteins were related to various biological functions, such as the cell envelope, respiratory metabolism and proteolysis. This proteomic analysis revealed strain-specific exoproteins although each of the corresponding genes was found in both strain genomes. Such differential expression pattern may reflect inter-strain differences in adaptation to a specific host, in pathogenicity and or in antigenicity of this pathogenic bacterium.
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Chromobacterium violaceum: important insights for virulence and biotechnological potential by exoproteomic studies.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Chromobacterium violaceum is a beta-proteobacterium with high biotechnological potential, found in tropical environments. This bacterium causes opportunistic infections in both humans and animals, that can spread throughout several tissues, quickly leading to the death of the host. Genomic studies identified potential mechanisms of pathogenicity but no further studies were done to confirm the expression of these systems. In this study 36 unique protein entries were identified in databank from a two-dimensional profile of C. violaceum secreted proteins. Chromobacterium violaceum exoproteomic preliminary studies confirmed the production of proteins identified as virulence factors (such as a collagenase, flagellum proteins, metallopeptidases, and toxins), allowing us to better understand its pathogenicity mechanisms. Biotechnologically interesting proteins (such as chitinase and chitosanase) were also identified among the secreted proteins, as well as proteins involved in the transport and capture of amino acids, carbohydrates, and oxidative stress protection. Overall, the secreted proteins identified provide us important insights on pathogenicity mechanisms, biotechnological potential, and environment adaptation of C. violaceum.
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Exoproteome and secretome derived broad spectrum novel drug and vaccine candidates in Vibrio cholerae targeted by Piper betel derived compounds.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC) for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC) are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU) can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets) against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.
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Implications of the human microbiome in inflammatory bowel diseases.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The study of the human microbiome or community of microorganisms and collection of genomes found in the human body is one of the fastest growing research areas because many diseases are reported to be associated with microbiome imbalance or dysbiosis. With the improvement in novel sequencing techniques, researchers are now generating millions of sequences of different sites from the human body and evaluating specific differences in microbial communities. The importance of microbiome constituency is so relevant that several consortia like the Human Microbiome project (HMP) and Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract (MetaHIT) project are focusing mainly on the human microbiome. The aim of this review is to highlight points of research in this field, mainly focusing on particular factors that modulate the microbiome and important insights into its potential impact on our health and well-being.
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Ion Torrent-based transcriptional assessment of a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis equi strain reveals denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography a promising rRNA depletion method.
Microb Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis equi is a Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium which affects a variety of hosts. Besides the great economic losses it causes to horse-breeders, this organism is also known to be an important infectious agent to cattle and buffaloes. As an outcome of the efforts in characterizing the molecular basis of its virulence, several complete genome sequences were made available in recent years, enabling the large-scale assessment of genes throughout distinct isolates. Meanwhile, the RNA-seq stood out as the technology of choice for comprehensive transcriptome studies, which may bring valuable information regarding active genomic regions, despite of the still impeditive associated costs. In an attempt to increase the use of generated reads per instrument run, by effectively eliminating unwanted rRNAs from total RNA samples without relying on any commercially available kits, we applied denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) as an alternative method to assess the transcriptional profile of C. pseudotuberculosis. We have found that the DHPLC depletion method, allied to Ion Torrent sequencing, allows mapping of transcripts in a comprehensive way and identifying novel transcripts when a de novo approach is used. These data encourage us to use DHPLC in future transcriptional evaluations in C. pseudotuberculosis.
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The pan-genome of the animal pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis reveals differences in genome plasticity between the biovar ovis and equi strains.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of several infectious and contagious chronic diseases, including caseous lymphadenitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, mastitis, and edematous skin disease, in a broad spectrum of hosts. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections pose a rising worldwide economic problem in ruminants. The complete genome sequences of 15 C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from different hosts and countries were comparatively analyzed using a pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic, and singleton analyses revealed close relationships among pathogenic corynebacteria, the clonal-like behavior of C. pseudotuberculosis and slow increases in the sizes of pan-genomes. According to extrapolations based on the pan-genomes, core genomes and singletons, the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis shows a more clonal-like behavior than the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar equi. Most of the variable genes of the biovar ovis strains were acquired in a block through horizontal gene transfer and are highly conserved, whereas the biovar equi strains contain great variability, both intra- and inter-biovar, in the 16 detected pathogenicity islands (PAIs). With respect to the gene content of the PAIs, the most interesting finding is the high similarity of the pilus genes in the biovar ovis strains compared with the great variability of these genes in the biovar equi strains. Concluding, the polymerization of complete pilus structures in biovar ovis could be responsible for a remarkable ability of these strains to spread throughout host tissues and penetrate cells to live intracellularly, in contrast with the biovar equi, which rarely attacks visceral organs. Intracellularly, the biovar ovis strains are expected to have less contact with other organisms than the biovar equi strains, thereby explaining the significant clonal-like behavior of the biovar ovis strains.
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Conserved host-pathogen PPIs. Globally conserved inter-species bacterial PPIs based conserved host-pathogen interactome derived novel target in C. pseudotuberculosis, C. diphtheriae, M. tuberculosis, C. ulcerans, Y. pestis, and E. coli targeted by Piper b
Integr Biol (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Although attempts have been made to unveil protein-protein and host-pathogen interactions based on molecular insights of important biological events and pathogenesis in various organisms, these efforts have not yet been reported in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp), the causative agent of Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA). In this study, we used computational approaches to develop common conserved intra-species protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks first time for four Cp strains (Cp FRC41, Cp 316, Cp 3/99-5, and Cp P54B96) followed by development of a common conserved inter-species bacterial PPI using conserved proteins in multiple pathogens (Y. pestis, M. tuberculosis, C. diphtheriae, C. ulcerans, E. coli, and all four Cp strains) and E. Coli based experimentally validated PPI data. Furthermore, the interacting proteins in the common conserved inter-species bacterial PPI were used to generate a conserved host-pathogen interaction (HP-PPI) network considering human, goat, sheep, bovine, and horse as hosts. The HP-PPI network was validated, and acetate kinase (Ack) was identified as a novel broad spectrum target. Ceftiofur, penicillin, and two natural compounds derived from Piper betel were predicted to inhibit Ack activity. One of these Piper betel compounds found to inhibit E. coli O157:H7 growth similar to penicillin. The target specificity of these betel compounds, their effects on other studied pathogens, and other in silico results are currently being validated and the results are promising.
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AutoAssemblyD: a graphical user interface system for several genome assemblers.
Bioinformation
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Next-generation sequencing technologies have increased the amount of biological data generated. Thus, bioinformatics has become important because new methods and algorithms are necessary to manipulate and process such data. However, certain challenges have emerged, such as genome assembly using short reads and high-throughput platforms. In this context, several algorithms have been developed, such as Velvet, Abyss, Euler-SR, Mira, Edna, Maq, SHRiMP, Newbler, ALLPATHS, Bowtie and BWA. However, most such assemblers do not have a graphical interface, which makes their use difficult for users without computing experience given the complexity of the assembler syntax. Thus, to make the operation of such assemblers accessible to users without a computing background, we developed AutoAssemblyD, which is a graphical tool for genome assembly submission and remote management by multiple assemblers through XML templates.
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Lack of endogenous IL-10 enhances production of proinflammatory cytokines and leads to Brucella abortus clearance in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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IL-10 is a cytokine that regulates the balance between pathogen clearance and immunopathology. Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterium that causes chronic disease in humans and domestic animals. Here we evaluated the contribution of IL-10 in host immune response and pathology during B. abortus infection. To assess the role of IL-10 in vivo, IL-10 knockout (KO) or 129 Sv/Ev (wild-type) mice were infected with B. abortus and the number of viable bacteria from the spleen was determined at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 14-weeks postinfection. IL-10 KO mice showed reduced bacterial loads in the spleen when compared to wild-type mice during all time points studied. Additionally, at 14-weeks postinfection IL-10 KO mice had totally cleared the infection. This clearance was preceded by an enhanced IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-17 responses in both the serum and the spleen of IL-10 KO mice. Additionally, dendritic cells from infected IL-10 KO mice produced elevated levels of IL-12 and TNF-? compared to wild-type animals. Histopathology analysis was performed and both KO and wild-type mice developed multifocal granulomas and necrosis in the liver. However, at six-weeks postinfection reduced numbers of granulomas was detected in IL-10 KO mice compared to wild-type animals. This reduced liver pathology at later stage of infection was accompanied by increased numbers of CD4+CD25+foxp3+ T cells and expression of TGF-? in IL-10 KO splenocytes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that IL-10 modulates the proinflammatory immune response to B. abortus infection and the lack of IL-10 increases resistance to Brucella infection.
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Graphical contig analyzer for all sequencing platforms (G4ALL): a new stand-alone tool for finishing and draft generation of bacterial genomes.
Bioinformation
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Genome assembly has always been complicated due to the inherent difficulties of sequencing technologies, as well the computational methods used to process sequences. Although many of the problems for the generation of contigs from reads are well known, especially those involving short reads, the orientation and ordination of contigs in the finishing stages is still very challenging and time consuming, as it requires the manual curation of the contigs to guarantee correct identification them and prevent misassembly. Due to the large numbers of sequences that are produced, especially from the reads produced by next generation sequencers, this process demands considerable manual effort, and there are few software options available to facilitate the process. To address this problem, we have developed the Graphic Contig Analyzer for All Sequencing Platforms (G4ALL): a stand-alone multi-user tool that facilitates the editing of the contigs produced in the assembly process. Besides providing information on the gene products contained in each contig, obtained through a search of the available biological databases, G4ALL produces a scaffold of the genome, based on the overlap of the contigs after curation.
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Staphylococcus aureus-induced G2/M phase transition delay in host epithelial cells increases bacterial infective efficiency.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile, opportunistic pathogen and the etiological agent of a wide range of infections in humans and warm-blooded animals. The epithelial surface is its principal site of colonization and infection. In this work, we investigated the cytopathic effect of S. aureus strains from human and animal origins and their ability to affect the host cell cycle in human HeLa and bovine MAC-T epithelial cell lines. S. aureus invasion slowed down cell proliferation and induced a cytopathic effect, resulting in the enlargement of host cells. A dramatic decrease in the number of mitotic cells was observed in the infected cultures. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an S. aureus-induced delay in the G2/M phase transition in synchronous HeLa cells. This delay required the presence of live S. aureus since the addition of the heat-killed bacteria did not alter the cell cycle. The results of Western blot experiments showed that the G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3, which was correlated with a reduction of the mitotic cell number. Analysis of S. aureus proliferation in asynchronous, G1- and G2-phase-enriched HeLa cells showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial infective efficiency, suggesting that the G2 phase delay may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Taken together, our results divulge the potential of S. aureus in the subversion of key cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, and shed light on the biological significance of S. aureus-induced host cell cycle alteration.
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A singular value decomposition approach for improved taxonomic classification of biological sequences.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Singular value decomposition (SVD) is a powerful technique for information retrieval; it helps uncover relationships between elements that are not prima facie related. SVD was initially developed to reduce the time needed for information retrieval and analysis of very large data sets in the complex internet environment. Since information retrieval from large-scale genome and proteome data sets has a similar level of complexity, SVD-based methods could also facilitate data analysis in this research area.
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Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain CIP 52.97, isolated from a horse in Kenya.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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In this work, we report the whole-genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bv. equi strain CIP 52.97 (Collection Institut Pasteur), isolated in 1952 from a case of ulcerative lymphangitis in a Kenyan horse, which has evidently caused significant losses to agribusiness. Therefore, obtaining this genome will allow the detection of important targets for postgenomic studies, with the aim of minimizing problems caused by this microorganism.
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CoryneRegNet 6.0--Updated database content, new analysis methods and novel features focusing on community demands.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2011
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Post-genomic analysis techniques such as next-generation sequencing have produced vast amounts of data about micro organisms including genetic sequences, their functional annotations and gene regulatory interactions. The latter are genetic mechanisms that control a cells characteristics, for instance, pathogenicity as well as survival and reproduction strategies. CoryneRegNet is the reference database and analysis platform for corynebacterial gene regulatory networks. In this article we introduce the updated version 6.0 of CoryneRegNet and describe the updated database content which includes, 6352 corynebacterial regulatory interactions compared with 4928 interactions in release 5.0 and 3235 regulations in release 4.0, respectively. We also demonstrate how we support the community by integrating analysis and visualization features for transiently imported custom data, such as gene regulatory interactions. Furthermore, with release 6.0, we provide easy-to-use functions that allow the user to submit data for persistent storage with the CoryneRegNet database. Thus, it offers important options to its users in terms of community demands. CoryneRegNet is publicly available at http://www.coryneregnet.de.
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High sero-prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis identified in slaughterhouse samples as a consequence of deficiencies in sheep farm management in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, is one of the most important diseases of sheep and goats, causing considerable economic losses for herd owners.
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Whole-genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis PAT10 strain isolated from sheep in Patagonia, Argentina.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis PAT10 isolate, collected from a lung abscess in an Argentine sheep in Patagonia, whose pathogen also required an investigation of its pathogenesis. Thus, the analysis of the genome sequence offers a means to better understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of virulence of this bacterium.
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Haptoglobin and fibrinogen concentrations and leukocyte counts in the clinical investigation of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep.
Vet Clin Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), a disease that affects small ruminants and is responsible for economic losses, including condemnation of carcasses and damaged hides.
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Host susceptibility to Brucella abortus infection is more pronounced in IFN-? knockout than IL-12/?2-microglobulin double-deficient mice.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. IFN-?, IL-12, and CD8+ T lymphocytes are important components of host immune responses against B. abortus. Herein, IFN-? and IL-12/?2-microglobulin (?2-m) knockout mice were used to determine whether CD8+ T cells and IL-12-dependent IFN-? deficiency would be more critical to control B. abortus infection compared to the lack of endogenous IFN-?. At 1 week after infection, IFN-? KO and IL-12/?2-m KO mice showed increased numbers of bacterial load in spleens; however, at 3 weeks postinfection (p.i.), only IFN-? KO succumbed to Brucella. All IFN-? KO had died at 16 days p.i. whereas death within the IL-12/?2-m KO group was delayed and occurred at 32 days until 47 days postinfection. Susceptibility of IL-12/?2-m KO animals to Brucella was associated to undetectable levels of IFN-? in mouse splenocytes and inability of these cells to lyse Brucella-infected macrophages. However, the lack of endogenous IFN-? was found to be more important to control brucellosis than CD8+ T cells and IL-12-dependent IFN-? deficiencies.
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Anti-inflammatory properties of dairy lactobacilli.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in human health through the modulation of innate immune responses. While selected commensal bacteria are marketed in specific probiotic products to control these responses, relatively little is known about the immune modulation potential of dairy bacteria that have principally been selected for their fermentation properties. The modulation of innate immune responses may reduce chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases like ulcerative colitis.
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Computational vaccinology: an important strategy to discover new potential S. mansoni vaccine candidates.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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The flatworm Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke parasite that causes schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease that occurs throughout the developing world. Current schistosomiasis control strategies are mainly based on chemotherapy, but many researchers believe that the best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization with an antischistosomiasis vaccine combined with drug treatment. Several papers on Schistosoma mansoni vaccine and drug development have been published in the past few years, representing an important field of study. The advent of technologies that allow large-scale studies of genes and proteins had a remarkable impact on the screening of new and potential vaccine candidates in schistosomiasis. In this postgenomic scenario, bioinformatic technologies have emerged as important tools to mine transcriptomic, genomic, and proteomic databases. These new perspectives are leading to a new round of rational vaccine development. Herein, we discuss different strategies to identify potential S. mansoni vaccine candidates using computational vaccinology.
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Comparative analysis of two complete Corynebacterium ulcerans genomes and detection of candidate virulence factors.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Corynebacterium ulcerans has been detected as a commensal in domestic and wild animals that may serve as reservoirs for zoonotic infections. During the last decade, the frequency and severity of human infections associated with C. ulcerans appear to be increasing in various countries. As the knowledge of genes contributing to the virulence of this bacterium was very limited, the complete genome sequences of two C. ulcerans strains detected in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro were determined and characterized by comparative genomics: C. ulcerans 809 was initially isolated from an elderly woman with fatal pulmonary infection and C. ulcerans BR-AD22 was recovered from a nasal sample of an asymptomatic dog.
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A novel comparative genomics analysis for common drug and vaccine targets in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and other CMN group of human pathogens.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Caseous lymphadenitis is a chronic goat and sheep disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp) that accounts for a huge economic loss worldwide. Proper vaccination or medication is not available because of the lack of understanding of molecular biology of the pathogen. In a recent approach, four Cp (CpFrc41, Cp1002, CpC231, and CpI-19) genomes were sequenced to elucidate the molecular pathology of the bacteria. In this study, using these four genome sequences along with other eight genomes (total 12 genomes) and a novel subtractive genomics approach (first time ever applied to a veterinary pathogen), we identified potential conserved common drug and vaccine targets of these four Cp strains along with other Corybacterium, Mycobacterium and Nocardia (CMN) group of human pathogens (Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) considering goat, sheep, bovine, horse, and human as the most affected hosts. The minimal genome of Cp1002 was found to consist of 724 genes, and 20 conserved common targets (to all Cp strains as well as CMN group of pathogens) from various metabolic pathways (13 from host-pathogen common and seven from pathogens unique pathways) are potential targets irrespective of all hosts considered. ubiA from host-pathogen common pathway and an ABC-like transporter from unique pathways may serve dual (drug and vaccine) targets. Two Corynebacterium-specific (mscL and resB) and one broad-spectrum (rpmB) novel targets were also identified. Strain-specific targets are also discussed. Six important targets were subjected to virtual screening, and one compound was found to be potent enough to render two targets (cdc and nrdL). We are currently validating all identified targets and lead compounds.
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Molecular characterization of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolates using ERIC-PCR.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Caseous lymphadenitis is an infectious sheep and goats disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and characterized by abscesses in superficial and visceral lymph nodes. C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from these hosts have been shown to be very difficult to type by the existing methods. The aim of this study is evaluating the potential of the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR) as a tool for molecular typing of C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated in sheep. One hundred and twenty seven isolates of C. pseudotuberculosis were isolated from lesions suspected to have had caseous lymphadenitis collected from sheep at the slaughterhouse. Animals were from 24 flocks in 13 municipalities of the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Species identification of the isolates was performed by routine biochemical tests and mPCR. Fingerprint was performed by RAPD using ERIC-1R, ERIC-2 and ERIC-1R+ERIC-2 primers. Seventeen different genotypes were generated by ERIC 1-PCR, 21 genotypes by ERIC 2-PCR and 21 genotypes by ERIC 1+2-PCR. Hunter-Gaston Discrimination Index (HGDI) found for ERIC 1, ERIC 2, ERIC 1+2 PCR were 0.69, 0.87, and 0.84, respectively. For most herds evaluated observed at most three different genotypes among isolates from animals of these property, in all ERIC-PCR assays. However a few flocks observed between four and nine genotypes per flock. The W Kendall value found for correlation among the three techniques of ERIC-PCR was 0.91 (P<5.0 x 10(-6)). The results show that ERIC-PCR has good discriminatory power and advantages over other DNA-based typing methods, making it a useful tool to discriminate C. pseudotuberculosis isolates.
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Whole genome sequencing of environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from 10 nanograms of DNA using short reads.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
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Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA) of DNA using ?29 (phi29) DNA polymerase amplifies DNA several billion-fold, which has proved to be potentially very useful for evaluating genome information in a culture-independent manner. Whole genome sequencing using DNA from a single prokaryotic genome copy amplified by MDA has not yet been achieved due to the formation of chimeras and skewed amplification of genomic regions during the MDA step, which then precludes genome assembly. We have hereby addressed the issue by using 10 ng of genomic Vibrio cholerae DNA extracted within an agarose plug to ensure circularity as a starting point for MDA and then sequencing the amplified yield using the SOLiD platform. We successfully managed to assemble the entire genome of V. cholerae strain LMA3984-4 (environmental O1 strain isolated in urban Amazonia) using a hybrid de novo assembly strategy. Using our method, only 178 out of 16,713 (1%) of contigs were not able to be inserted into either chromosome scaffold, and out of these 178, only 3 appeared to be chimeras. The other contigs seem to be the result of template-independent non-specific amplification during MDA, yielding spurious reads. Extraction of genomic DNA within an agarose plug in order to ensure circularity of the extracted genome might be key to minimizing amplification bias by MDA for WGS.
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The phage display technique: advantages and recent patents.
Recent Pat DNA Gene Seq
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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Phage display technology has advanced considerably since its creation, and the number of research projects using this technique is constantly increasing, generating numerous antibody and antigen libraries. These libraries, besides expediting library screening, improving selection methods and allowing evaluation of novel applications, have great potential for the development of new vaccines, drugs and diagnosis tests. Consequently, patent registries for the protection of these sequences are essential.
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Rapid hybrid de novo assembly of a microbial genome using only short reads: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis I19 as a case study.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Due to the advent of the so-called Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies the amount of monetary and temporal resources for whole-genome sequencing has been reduced by several orders of magnitude. Sequence reads can be assembled either by anchoring them directly onto an available reference genome (classical reference assembly), or can be concatenated by overlap (de novo assembly). The latter strategy is preferable because it tends to maintain the architecture of the genome sequence the however, depending on the NGS platform used, the shortness of read lengths cause tremendous problems the in the subsequent genome assembly phase, impeding closing of the entire genome sequence. To address the problem, we developed a multi-pronged hybrid de novo strategy combining De Bruijn graph and Overlap-Layout-Consensus methods, which was used to assemble from short reads the entire genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain I19, a bacterium with immense importance in veterinary medicine that causes Caseous Lymphadenitis in ruminants, principally ovines and caprines. Briefly, contigs were assembled de novo from the short reads and were only oriented using a reference genome by anchoring. Remaining gaps were closed using iterative anchoring of short reads by craning to gap flanks. Finally, we compare the genome sequence assembled using our hybrid strategy to a classical reference assembly using the same data as input and show that with the availability of a reference genome, it pays off to use the hybrid de novo strategy, rather than a classical reference assembly, because more genome sequences are preserved using the former.
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Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of milk fermented by a strain of IL-10-producing Lactococcus lactis using a murine model of Crohns disease.
J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is the most important anti-inflammatory cytokine at intestinal level, and its absence is involved in inflammatory bowel diseases. However, oral treatment with IL-10 is difficult because of its low survival in the gastrointestinal tract and systemic treatments lead to undesirable side effects. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the administration of milks fermented by Lactococcus lactis strains that produce IL-10 under the control of the xylose-inducible expression system using a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis murine model. Mice that received milks fermented by L. lactis strains producing IL-10 in the cytoplasm (Cyt strain) or secreted to the product (Sec strain) showed lower damage scores in their large intestines, decreased IFN-? levels in their intestinal fluids and lower microbial translocation to liver, compared to mice receiving milk fermented by the wild-type strain or those not receiving any treatment. The results obtained in this study show that the employment of fermented milks as a new form of administration of IL-10-producing L. lactisis effective in the prevention of inflammatory bowel disease in a murine model.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.