The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) parameters on arterial stiffness measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) in children and adolescents.
The ageing of the vascular tree is a fundamental reflection of biological ageing in general and a determinant of organ function. In the arterial wall this is characterized by a reduction in the elastin content, as well as by an increased content of collagen and its cross-linkages, leading to increased arterial stiffness and elevated central as well as brachial blood pressure, accompanied by increased SBP variability. In recent years a better understanding of these processes have led to the proposal of a condition named early vascular ageing (EVA) in patients with increased arterial stiffness for their age and sex. This is a condition that could increase cardiovascular risk and is associated with various degrees of cognitive dysfunction, as well as other features of biological ageing. This brief review aims to give an update on EVA and how the concept can be used in clinical practice.
Vascular aging is described as a gradual process involving biochemical, enzymatic, and cellular changes of the vasculature and modification of the signals that modulate them. On the basis of this conception a new pathophysiological model for deeper understanding of cardiovascular risk and its treatment was introduced. The idea of early vascular aging, that is the acceleration of vascular aging seems to be a promising tool for clinical guidance in individuals at increased cardiovascular risk or a strong family history of early cardiovascular manifestations. Increased arterial stiffness, dilation of central elastic arteries, impaired endothelial function and vasodilatation are dominant aspects of this premature process.
The increasing trends of blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents pose great concern for the burden of hypertension-related cardiovascular disease. Although primary hypertension in childhood is commonly associated with obesity, it seems that other factors, such as dietary sodium and exercise, also influence BP levels in children and adolescents. Several studies support that sympathetic nervous system imbalance, impairment of the physiological mechanism of pressure natriuresis, hyperinsulinemia and early vascular changes are involved in the mechanisms causing elevated BP in obese children and adolescents. Under the current evidence on the association of salt intake and BP, dietary sodium restriction appears to be a rational step in the prevention of hypertension in genetically predisposed children and adolescents. Finally, interventional studies show that regular aerobic exercise can significantly reduce BP and restore vascular changes in obese with hypertensive pediatric patients. This article aims to summarize previous studies on the role of obesity, salt intake and exercise on BP in children and adolescents.
Differences in 24 h blood pressure (BP) monitoring parameters such as average 24 h BP, day to night BP ratio and BP variability could have an impact in arterial stiffness. The study hypothesis was that despite similar average BP values in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring subjects with increased 24 h BP variability may have increased arterial stiffness. The study population consisted of 115 consecutive young healthy volunteers. Carotid-femoral PWV was measured in all subjects. Clinic BP was measured and an appropriate cuff was fitted on the non-dominant arm of each subject for a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring session. Waist to hip ratio as well as BMI was measured. Family history and smoking habits were recorded. In univariate analysis, estimated carotid-femoral PWV showed a significant correlation with age, weight, waist circumference, height, clinic systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h pulse pressure, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP variability, daytime systolic and diastolic BP, daytime pulse pressure, daytime systolic and diastolic BP variability, nighttime systolic BP, nighttime pulse pressure and nighttime systolic BP variability. In multivariate regression analysis, age (B=0.95, P<0.001) and 24 h systolic BP variability (B=0.28, P<0.001) were independent determinanats of arterial stiffness. In conclusions, increased 24 h systolic BP variability is associated with arterial stiffness in young healthy volunteers. Pulse wave velocity in a young healthy population is useful to identify determinants of premature arterial stiffness, thus further elucidating the aspects of early vascular ageing.
In this Leading opinion we summarise the observational evidence endorsing current guidelines that advocate effective blood pressure control before and during an rtPA infusion and indicate that a more active blood pressure-lowering approach immediately after intravenous thrombolysis appears to be a promising therapeutic option that should be formerly evaluated in a randomised clinical trial setting. Acute ischaemic stroke is a highly treatable neuroemergency and the efficacy of the available treatment is not only related to the speed by which it is administered but also by the effective control of modifiable adverse outcome predictors including elevated blood pressure levels.
Hypothyroidism has been recognized as a cause of secondary hypertension. Previous studies on the prevalence of hypertension in subjects with hypothyroidism have demonstrated elevated blood pressure values. Increased peripheral vascular resistance and low cardiac output has been suggested to be the possible link between hypothyroidism and diastolic hypertension. The hypothyroid population is characterized by significant volume changes, initiating a volume-dependent, low plasma renin activity mechanism of blood pressure elevation. This article summarizes previous studies on the impact of hypothyroidism on blood pressure and early atherosclerotic process.
We prospectively examined 1359 adult patients undergoing isolated coronary revascularization with the Pi-circuit technique, consisting of beating heart, aorta no-touch, use of composite grafts, and off-pump arterial revascularization. Patients were divided into two groups based on body weight; Group A consisting of 295 (21.7%) obese patients [body mass index (BMI) > or =30 kg/m(2)] and Group B of 1064 (79.3%) non-obese patients (BMI <30 kg/m(2)). Advanced age and emergency surgery favored the non-obese group [63.0+/-10.4 vs. 65.3+/-9.6 years (P<0.0005) and 10.2% vs. 17.1% (P=0.004), with an increase in the number of octogenarians among them (1.7% Group A vs. 5.4% in Group B, P=0.11)]. The use of double internal mammary arteries (90.5% in Group A vs. 86.9% in Group B, P=0.109), the mean number of distal anastomoses (2.8+/-0.9 in Group A vs. 2.7+/-0.9 in Group B, P=0.5) and the number of sequential anastomoses performed (28.1% in Group A vs. 31% in Group B, P=0.3) were similar. No difference in morbidity rates was detected. All cause in-hospital mortality was comparable. Survival was similar in both groups also. Obesity is not a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in this group of patients.
The relationship between obesity and hypertension is well established both in children and adults. The mechanisms through which obesity directly causes hypertension are still an area of research. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system has been considered to have an important function in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. The arterial-pressure control mechanism of diuresis and natriuresis, according to the principle of infinite feedback gain, seems to be shifted toward higher blood-pressure levels in obese individuals. During the early phases of obesity, primary sodium retention exists as a result of increase in renal tubular reabsorption. Extracellular-fluid volume is expanded and the kidney-fluid apparatus is resetted to a hypertensive level, consistent with a model of hypertension because of volume overload. Plasma renin activity, angiotensinogen, angiotensin II and aldosterone values display significant increase during obesity. Insulin resistance and inflammation may promote an altered profile of vascular function and consequently hypertension. Leptin and other neuropeptides are possible links between obesity and the development of hypertension. Obesity should be considered as a chronic medical condition, which is likely to require long-term treatment. Understanding of the mechanisms associated with obesity-related hypertension is essential for successful treatment strategies.
To investigate predictors of left ventricular mass corrected for height2.7 (LVMI) and left ventricular hypertrophy in patients who were found to be normotensive with both office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements.
Approximately 18% of octogenarians have ischemic heart disease. Increasingly, they are being referred for coronary artery revascularization by surgical and/or percutaneous procedures. These strategies have been questioned, however, because of reports of poor outcomes in the elderly. In this study, we aimed to determine the impact of age on morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) with the pi-circuit procedure during 5 years of follow-up.
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in children and adolescents classified as normotensives, prehypertensives and hypertensives by ambulatory blood pressure (BP) levels. A total of 124 consecutive children and adolescents aged 5 to 18 years were analysed. Patients underwent 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and echocardiography. Hypertensive and prehypertensive subjects had significantly higher LVMI than normotensives (36.8 +/- 8.4 g/m(2.7) and 34.1 +/- 3.4 g/m(2.7) vs. 29.5 +/- 8.3 g/m(2.7), P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). In multivariate analysis predictors for LVMI were body mass index (BMI) z score and hypertension (R-squared = 0.31). LVMI values in hypertensive subjects were significantly higher than those of normotensives even after adjustment for age, sex and BMI z score. The prevalence of LVH was significantly higher in the prehypertensive compared to normotensive subjects, and was equal to that of the hypertensive subjects. Hypertension and prehypertension in children and adolescents were associated with pathologically elevated LVMI values. If confirmed in a larger group prehypertensive children may be at risk for target organ damage similar to the condition of established hypertension.
No novel antimicrobial agents against multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have been available to daily clinical practice during the last 5 years. On the other hand, resistance rates and mechanisms of those pathogens are increasing worldwide. Pan-resistant (against which none of the currently available antibiotics is effective) strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been described. Encouraging is the fact that several novel compounds (some of them with mechanisms of action different to those of the antibiotics commercially available) are through the development stages. We summarize the main such compounds that show potential for offering solution to the treatment of Gram-negative multi-resistant bacteria along with the discussion of some patents associated with the topic.
The measurement of carotid artery intima-media thickness in children and adolescents has attracted a great deal of research and clinical interest in recent years, because it can provide evidence that early arterial lesions are already present in asymptomatic subjects who have risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible correlations between parameters of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and carotid artery intima-media thickness in obese and nonobese children and adolescents.
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