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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sepsis-induced lung inflammation is modulated by insulin.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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We have previously shown that diabetic rats are more susceptible to sepsis, but that the Acute lung injury (ALI) secondary to sepsis is less intense than in non-diabetics. In the present study, we further investigated the ALI-secondary to sepsis in diabetic rats and the effect of insulin treatment.
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Prevalence of Thyroiditis and Immunohistochemistry Study Searching for a Morphologic Consensus in Morphology of Autoimmune Thyroiditis in a 4613 Autopsies Series.
Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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We sought to verify the prevalence of lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in autopsy materials. Cases examined between 2003 and 2007 at the Department of Pathology of Faculty of Medicine of São Paulo University were studied. Immunohistochemical analyses were conducted in selected cases to characterize the type of infiltrating mononuclear cells; in addition, we evaluated the frequency of apoptosis by TUNEL assay technique and caspase-3 immunostaining. Significant increase in overall thyroiditis frequency was observed in the present series when compared with the previous report (2.2978% vs. 0.0392%). Thyroiditis was more prevalent among older people. Selected cases of LT and HT (5 cases each) had their infiltrating lymphocytes characterized by immunohistochemical analyses. Both LT and HT showed similar immunostaining patterns for CD4, CD8, CD68, thus supporting a common pathophysiology mechanism and indicating that LT and HT should be considered different presentations of a same condition, that is, autoimmune thyroiditis. Moreover, apoptosis markers strongly evidenced that apoptosis was present in all studied cases. Our results demonstrated an impressive increase in the prevalence of thyroiditis during recent years and our data support that the terminology of autoimmune thyroiditis should be used to designate both LT and HT. This classification would facilitate comparison of prevalence data from different series and studies.
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The Th17 pathway in the peripheral lung microenvironment interacts with expression of collagen V in the late state of experimental pulmonary fibrosis.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Myofibroblasts derived from fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis causes excessive and disordered deposition of matrix proteins, including collagen V, which can cause a Th17-mediated immune response and lead to apoptosis. However, whether the intrinsic ability of lung FBs to produce the matrix depends on their site-specific variations is not known.
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Effects of sigh during pressure control and pressure support ventilation in pulmonary and extrapulmonary mild acute lung injury.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Sigh improves oxygenation and lung mechanics during pressure control ventilation (PCV) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, so far, no study has evaluated the biological impact of sigh during PCV or PSV on the lung and distal organs in experimental pulmonary (p) and extrapulmonary (exp) mild acute lung injury (ALI).
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Effects of different mesenchymal stromal cell sources and delivery routes in experimental emphysema.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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We sought to assess whether the effects of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on lung inflammation and remodeling in experimental emphysema would differ according to MSC source and administration route. Emphysema was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intratracheal (IT) administration of porcine pancreatic elastase (0.1 UI) weekly for 1 month. After the last elastase instillation, saline or MSCs (1×105), isolated from either mouse bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AD) or lung tissue (L), were administered intravenously (IV) or IT. After 1 week, mice were euthanized. Regardless of administration route, MSCs from each source yielded: 1) decreased mean linear intercept, neutrophil infiltration, and cell apoptosis; 2) increased elastic fiber content; 3) reduced alveolar epithelial and endothelial cell damage; and 4) decreased keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC, a mouse analog of interleukin-8) and transforming growth factor-? levels in lung tissue. In contrast with IV, IT MSC administration further reduced alveolar hyperinflation (BM-MSC) and collagen fiber content (BM-MSC and L-MSC). Intravenous administration of BM- and AD-MSCs reduced the number of M1 macrophages and pulmonary hypertension on echocardiography, while increasing vascular endothelial growth factor. Only BM-MSCs (IV?>?IT) increased the number of M2 macrophages. In conclusion, different MSC sources and administration routes variably reduced elastase-induced lung damage, but IV administration of BM-MSCs resulted in better cardiovascular function and change of the macrophage phenotype from M1 to M2.
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The biological effects of higher and lower positive end-expiratory pressure in pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute lung injury with intra-abdominal hypertension.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Mechanical ventilation with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been used in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), but the role of PEEP in minimizing lung injury remains controversial. We hypothesized that in the presence of acute lung injury (ALI) with IAH: 1) higher PEEP levels improve pulmonary morphofunction and minimize lung injury; and 2) the biological effects of higher PEEP are more effective in extrapulmonary (exp) than pulmonary (p) ALI.
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Effects of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells from healthy or acute respiratory distress syndrome donors on recipient lung-injured mice.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The advantage of using autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells to treat acute respiratory distress syndrome patients is to prevent immunological rejection. However, bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells may be altered by different acute respiratory distress syndrome etiologies, resulting in questionable efficacy and thus limited clinical application. We aimed to investigate the effects of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells obtained from healthy and acute respiratory distress syndrome donors on pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome.
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Effects of early and late pneumothorax drainage on the development of pulmonary oedema.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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We analyzed the effects of pneumothorax duration and early or late drainage on lung histology and biological markers associated with inflammation, alveolar fluid clearance, and pulmonary oedema formation. Pneumothorax was induced by injecting air into the thorax of anaesthetized rats, which were randomized according to duration of pneumothorax [5 (PTX5) or 30 (PTX30)min] and further divided to be drained (D) or not (ND). ND rats were euthanized at 5 and 30min. In D groups, pneumothorax was drained and rats breathed spontaneously for 30min. PTX30-ND, compared to PTX5-ND, showed higher alveolar collapse and oedema, type III procollagen, caspase-3, epithelial sodium channel-?, and aquaporin (AQP)-1 mRNA expression, and epithelial and endothelial damage, with reduced cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and AQP-3 expression. PTX5-D, compared to PTX30-D, showed less alveolar hyperinflation, oedema, and alveolar-capillary damage, with reduced interleukin-6, caspase-3, AQP-5, and Na,K-ATPase-? and -? expression, and increased CFTR expression. In conclusion, longer duration pneumothorax exacerbated lung damage, oedema, and inflammation.
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DNA nanoparticle-mediated thymulin gene therapy prevents airway remodeling in experimental allergic asthma.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Thymulin has been shown to present anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties in experimental lung diseases. We hypothesized that a biologically active thymulin analog gene, methionine serum thymus factor, delivered by highly compacted DNA nanoparticles may prevent lung inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The DNA nanoparticles are composed of a single molecule of plasmid DNA compacted with block copolymers of poly-L-lysine and polyethylene glycol (CK30PEG), which have been found safe in a human phase I/II clinical trial. Thymulin plasmids were detected in the lungs of ovalbumin-challenged asthmatic mice up to 27days after administration of DNA nanoparticles carrying thymulin plasmids. A single dose of DNA nanoparticles carrying thymulin plasmids prevented lung inflammation, collagen deposition and smooth muscle hypertrophy in the lungs of a murine model of ovalbumin-challenged allergic asthma, leading to improved lung mechanics. In the present model of chronic allergic asthma, highly compacted DNA nanoparticles using thymulin analog gene modulated the inflammatory and remodeling processes improving lung mechanics.
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Usual interstitial pneumonia and smoking-related interstitial fibrosis display epithelial to mesenchymal transition in fibroblastic foci.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Fibroblastic foci (FF) are a major histological feature of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and collagen vascular diseases (non-IPF). In addition, FF are occasionally associated with smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF). Recent studies have suggested a role for epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pulmonary fibrogenesis.
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Angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors and lymphatic vessels modulate lung remodeling and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To validate the importance of the angiotensin II receptor isotypes and the lymphatic vessels in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
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Intravenous glutamine administration reduces lung and distal organ injury in malnourished rats with sepsis.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Malnutrition is a risk factor for infection, compromising immune response. Glutamine (Gln) protects the lungs and distal organs in well-nourished septic and nonseptic conditions; however, no study to date has analyzed the effects of Gln in the presence of sepsis and malnutrition. In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that early therapy with intravenous Gln prevents lung and distal organ damage in septic malnourished rats. Protein-energy malnutrition was induced in male Wistar rats for 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks, malnourished animals were assigned to a sepsis-inducing cecal ligation and puncture group or a sham surgery group. One hour after surgery, animals were given saline (Sal) or L-alanyl-L-glutamine (Gln) intravenously. In addition, a control group (C) was set up with rats fed ad libitum, not submitted to surgery or treatment. Forty-eight hours after surgery, in malnutrition-sham rats, Gln therapy lessened neutrophil lung infiltration and apoptosis in lung and liver. In malnutrition-cecal ligation and puncture rats, Gln therapy yielded (a) reduced static lung elastance, alveolar collapse, inflammation (neutrophil infiltration, interleukin 6), and collagen deposition; (b) repair of types I and II epithelial cells; (c) no significant changes in heat shock protein 70 expression or heat shock factor 1 phosphorylation; (d) a greater number of M1 and M2 macrophages in lung tissue; and (e) less apoptosis in the lung, kidney, small intestine, and liver. In conclusion, early therapy with intravenous Gln reduced inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis, minimizing lung and distal organ injury, in septic malnourished rats. These beneficial effects may be associated with macrophage activation in the lung.
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Morphometric Analysis of Thoracic Ganglion Neurons in Subjects with and without Primary Palmar Hyperhidrosis.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Hyperhidrosis (HH) is a disease whose physiopathology remains poorly understood and that adverserly affects quality of life. There are no morphological studies that include an adequate control group that allows for comparison of the ganglion of HH to those of normal individuals .The purpose of study was analyze morphological and morphometric characteristics of the ganglion from patients with hyperhidrosis and normal individuals (organ donators).
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Recruitment maneuvers modulate epithelial and endothelial cell response according to acute lung injury etiology.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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To investigate the effects of the rate of increase in airway pressure and duration of lung recruitment maneuvers in experimental pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute lung injury.
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Oleanolic acid improves pulmonary morphofunctional parameters in experimental sepsis by modulating oxidative and apoptotic processes.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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We compared the effects of oleanolic acid (OA) vs. dexamethasone on lung mechanics and histology, inflammation, and apoptosis in lung and distal organs in experimental sepsis. Seventy-eight BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture, while the control group underwent sham surgery. 1h after surgery, all animals were further randomized to receive saline (SAL), OA and dexamethasone (DEXA) intraperitoneally. Both OA and DEXA improved lung mechanics and histology, which were associated with fewer lung neutrophils and less cell apoptosis in lung, liver, and kidney than SAL. However, only animals in the DEXA group had lower levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and KC (murine analog of IL-8) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid than SAL animals. Conversely, OA was associated with lower inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and higher superoxide dismutase than DEXA. In the experimental sepsis model employed herein, OA and DEXA reduced lung damage and distal organ apoptosis through distinct anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
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Effects of intravascular volume replacement on lung and kidney function and damage in nonseptic experimental lung injury.
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Intravascular volume replacement is often required in the presence of increased pulmonary capillary leakage, for example in patients with volutrauma with major hemorrhage. In the present study, the effects of Ringers acetate (RA), gelatin-polysuccinate (GEL), and a modern hydroxyethyl starch (HES, 6% 130/0.42) on lung and kidney function and damage were compared in a two-hit model of acute lung injury. The authors hypothesized that GEL and HES, compared to RA: (1) reduced lung histological damage, (2) impaired kidney morphology and function.
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Impact of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Moreau vaccine on lung remodeling in experimental asthma.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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We analyzed the effects of different administration routes and application times of the BCG-Moreau strain on airway and lung inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of allergic asthma. BALB/c mice (n=168) were divided into two groups. The first group received BCG-Moreau strain while the second group received saline using the same protocol. BCG or saline were intradermally or intranasally injected one or two months before the induction of asthma. Mice were further sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin or received saline. Twenty-four hours after the last challenge, BCG prevented the triggering of pro-inflammatory cytokines, probably by increasing Foxp3 and interleukin (IL)-10, modulating eosinophil infiltration and collagen fiber deposition, thus reducing airway hyperresponsiveness. In conclusion, BCG-Moreau prevented lung remodeling in the present model of allergic asthma, regardless of administration route and time of vaccination. These beneficial effects may be related to the increase in regulatory T cells and to IL-10 production in tandem with decreased Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13).
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Biphasic positive airway pressure minimizes biological impact on lung tissue in mild acute lung injury independent of etiology.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Biphasic positive airway pressure (BIVENT) is a partial support mode that employs pressure-controlled, time-cycled ventilation set at two levels of continuous positive airway pressure with unrestricted spontaneous breathing. BIVENT can modulate inspiratory effort by modifying the frequency of controlled breaths. Nevertheless, the optimal amount of inspiratory effort to improve respiratory function while minimizing ventilator-associated lung injury during partial ventilatory assistance has not been determined. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the effects of partial ventilatory support depend on acute lung injury (ALI) etiology. This study aimed to investigate the impact of spontaneous and time-cycled control breaths during BIVENT on the lung and diaphragm in experimental pulmonary (p) and extrapulmonary (exp) ALI.
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Apoptosis through Bcl-2/Bax and cleaved caspase up-regulation in melanoma treated by boron neutron capture therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment involving selective accumulation of boron carriers in a tumor followed by irradiation with a thermal or epithermal neutron beam. The neutron capture reaction with a boron-10 nucleus yields high linear energy transfer (LET) particles, alpha and (7)Li, with a range of 5 to 9 µm. These particles can only travel very short distances and release their damaging energy directly into the cells containing the boron compound. We aimed to evaluate proliferation, apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) modifications of B16F10 melanoma and normal human melanocytes after BNCT. The amounts of soluble collagen and Hsp47, indicating collagen synthesis in the ECM, as well as the cellular markers of apoptosis, were investigated. BNCT decreased proliferation, altered the ECM by decreasing collagen synthesis and induced apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2/Bax in melanoma. Additionally, BNCT also increased the levels of TNF receptor and the cleaved caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9 in melanoma. These results suggest that multiple pathways related to cell death and cell cycle arrest are involved in the treatment of melanoma by BNCT.
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Early and late acute lung injury and their association with distal organ damage in murine malaria.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Severe malaria is characterised by cerebral oedema, acute lung injury (ALI) and multiple organ dysfunctions, however, the mechanisms of lung and distal organ damage need to be better clarified. Ninety-six C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5×10(6)Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected erythrocytes or saline. At day 1, Plasmodium berghei infected mice presented greater number of areas with alveolar collapse, neutrophil infiltration and interstitial oedema associated with lung mechanics impairment, which was more severe at day 1 than day 5. Lung tumour necrosis factor-? and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 levels were higher at day 5 compared to day 1. Lung damage occurred in parallel with distal organ injury at day 1; nevertheless, lung inflammation and the presence of malarial pigment in distal organs were more evident at day 5. In conclusion, ALI develops prior to the onset of cerebral malaria symptoms. Later during the course of infection, the established systemic inflammatory response increases distal organ damage.
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Causes of pulmonary granulomas: a retrospective study of 500 cases from seven countries.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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The frequencies of various causes of pulmonary granulomas in pathological material are unknown, as is the influence of geographical location on aetiology. The aim of this study was to identify the causes of pulmonary granulomas in pathological specimens, to define their frequencies, and to determine whether these causes vary by geographical location.
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Insulin modulates inflammatory and repair responses to elastase-induced emphysema in diabetic rats.
Int J Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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As pulmonary emphysema and diabetes mellitus are common diseases, concomitance of both is correspondingly expected to occur frequently. To examine whether insulin influences the development of inflammation in the alveolar septa, diabetic male Wistar rats (alloxan, 42 mg/kg, i.v., n = 37) and matching controls (n = 31) were used. Ten days after alloxan injection, diabetic and control rats were instilled with physiologic saline solution containing porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE, 0.25 IU/0.2 ml, right lung) or saline only (left lung). The following analyses were performed: (i) number of leucocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of the animals, 6 h after PPE/saline instillation (early time point); and (ii) mean alveolar diameter (?m) and quantification of elastic and collagen fibres (%) 50 days after PPE/saline instillation (late time point). Relative to controls, alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed a 42% reduction in the number of neutrophils in BAL fluid, a 20% increase in the mean alveolar diameter and a 33% decrease in elastic fibre density in the alveolar septa. Treatment of diabetic rats with 4 IU neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, 2 h before elastase instillation, restored the number of neutrophils in the BAL fluid. The mean alveolar diameter and elastic fibre content in alveolar septa matched the values observed in control rats if diabetic rats were treated with 4 IU NPH insulin 2 h before instillation followed by 2 IU/day for the next 50 days. Density of collagen fibres did not differ between the various groups. Thus, the data presented suggest that insulin modulates the inflammatory and repair responses in elastase-induced emphysema, and assures normal repair and tissue remodelling.
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Early and late effects of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell therapy on lung and distal organs in experimental sepsis.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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We tested the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDMCs) at an early phase of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis may have lasting effects on: (1) lung mechanics and histology, (2) the structural remodelling of lung parenchyma, (3) lung, kidney, and liver cell apoptosis, and (4) pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. At day 1, BMDMC significantly reduced mortality, as well as caspase-3, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1?, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and transforming growth factor-?, but increased IL-10 mRNA expression in lung tissue in septic mice contributing to endothelium and epithelium alveolar repair and improvement of lung mechanics. BMDMC also prevented the increase of apoptotic cells in lung, liver, and kidney. At day 7, these early functional and morphological effects were preserved or further improved. In conclusion, in the present model of sepsis, the beneficial effects of early administration of BMDMCs on lung and distal organs were preserved, possibly by paracrine mechanisms.
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Effects of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition in bronchial vascular remodeling-induced by chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation.
Exp. Lung Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Vascular remodeling is an important feature in asthma pathophysiology. Although investigations suggested that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in lung remodeling, little evidence established the role of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) isoform in bronchial vascular remodeling. The authors investigated if iNOS contribute to bronchial vascular remodeling induced by chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation. Guinea pigs were submitted to ovalbumin exposures with increasing doses (1?5 mg/mL) for 4 weeks. Animals received 1400W (iNOS-specific inhibitor) treatment for 4 days beginning at 7th inhalation. Seventy-two hours after the 7th inhalation, animals were anesthetized, mechanical ventilated, exhaled NO was collected, and lungs were removed and submitted to picrosirius and resorcin-fuchsin stains and to immunohistochemistry for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). Collagen and elastic fiber deposition as well as MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TGF-? expression were increase in bronchial vascular wall in ovalbumin-exposed animals. The iNOS inhibition reduced all parameters studied. In this model, iNOS inhibition reduced the bronchial vascular extracellular remodeling, particularly controlling the collagen and elastic fibers deposition in pulmonary vessels. This effect can be associated to a reduction on TGF-? and on metalloproteinase-9/TIMP-1 vascular expression. It reveals new therapeutic strategies and some possible mechanism related to specific iNOS inhibition to control vascular remodeling.
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Hyaluronidase splice variants are associated with histology and outcome in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Heterogeneity of hyaluronidase (HYAL) expression has been identified in tumors and shows promise as an indicator of disease progression. The expression profile of alternatively spliced forms of HYAL was evaluated in tumors and normal lung tissue from 69 resected tumors of patients with adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. HYAL1-wild-type (wt) and variants 1 to 5, HYAL2-wt, and HYAL3-wt, and variants 1 to 3 were identified by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Different proportions of the 3 HYAL-wt and variants were expressed in tumor and normal lung tissues. HYAL1-wt was associated with a poorer prognosis and HYAL3-v1 with a better prognosis. HYAL splice variants are associated with histology and outcome, suggesting that strategies aimed at modulating their levels may be effective for lung cancer treatment.
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Bronchoalveolar lavage improves diagnostic accuracy in patients with diffuse lung disease.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is an established diagnostic tool in diffuse parenchyma lung disease. The objective of the present study was designed to investigate whether immunophenotyping affects BAL results and improves diagnostic accuracy. BAL from 61 patients was included in the study. The patients were also submitted to transbronchial biopsy, with a final diagnosis of granulomatous disease [tuberculosis (TB), n = 20; sarcoidosis (SARC), n = 3; and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), n = 4]; idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) [idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), n = 9; organizing pneumonia (OP), n = 17]; and lung cancer (LC), n = 8. Immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry were used to identify and quantify type 1 and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, CD3+T-cells, CD4+T-cells, CD8+T-cells, and CD20+B-cells in BAL. These markers were correlated with a database and pulmonary function tests. The cellular, inflammatory, and immune components of BAL varied among the diagnostic groups and were negatively correlated with age and smoking history. An increased quantity of lymphocyte surface markers CD3 (P < 0.05) and CD20 (P = 0.01) was seen in IIPs. Patients with a pattern of OP had a higher proportion of type 2 alveolar epithelial cells; patients with SARC had a higher density of CD20+B-cells and CD4+T-helper cells; and patients with HP had a higher proportion of CD8+T-cytotoxic cells. A positive association was found between the density of type I alveolar epithelial cells and forced vital capacity. The immunophenotyping affects the cellular, inflammatory, or immune constituents of BAL and improved the diagnostic accuracy in diffuse parenchymal lung disease.
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Demographic, etiological, and histological pulmonary analysis of patients with acute respiratory failure: a study of 19 years of autopsies.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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Acute respiratory failure has been one of the most important causes of death in intensive care units, and certain aspects of its pulmonary pathology are currently unknown.
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Evaluation of the use of transbronchial biopsy in patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease.
J Bras Pneumol
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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To study the clinical, radiological, and histopathological patterns of transbronchial biopsy (TBB) used in order to confirm the diagnosis in patients with clinical suspicion of interstitial lung disease (ILD) treated at a tertiary-care university hospital.
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Impact of pressure profile and duration of recruitment maneuvers on morphofunctional and biochemical variables in experimental lung injury.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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To investigate the effects of the rate of airway pressure increase and duration of recruitment maneuvers on lung function and activation of inflammation, fibrogenesis, and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury.
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Impact of obesity on airway and lung parenchyma remodeling in experimental chronic allergic asthma.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2011
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The impact of obesity on the inflammatory process has been described in asthma, however little is known about the influence of diet-induced obesity on lung remodeling. For this purpose, 56 recently weaned A/J mice were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the C group, mice were fed a standard chow diet, while OB animals received isocaloric high-fat diet to reach 1.5 of the mean body weight of C. After 12 weeks, each group was further randomized to be sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or saline. Twenty-four hours after the last challenge, collagen fiber content in airways and lung parenchyma, the volume proportion of smooth muscle-specific actin in alveolar ducts and terminal bronchiole, and the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were higher in OB-OVA than C-OVA. In conclusion, diet-induced obesity enhanced lung remodeling resulting in higher airway responsiveness in the present experimental chronic allergic asthma.
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Developing a new experimental model of abdominal compartment syndrome.
Rev Col Bras Cir
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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To describe an experimental, unprecedented model that mimics the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).
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Cell therapy for fibrotic interstitial pulmonary disease: experimental study.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Parte superior do formulário Digite um texto ou endereço de um site ou traduza um documento. The aim of this study is to evaluate the histological changes in lung parenchyma of pigs affected by interstitial lung disease induced after the infusion of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs). Ten female swines were submitted to pulmonary fibrosis induced by a single dose of intratracheal bleomicine sulfate. Animals were arranged into two groups: Group 1: induced-disease control and Group 2: cell therapy using BMMCs. Both groups were clinically evaluated for 180 days. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed at 90 and 180 days. BMMC sampling was performed in cell therapy group at 90 days. Euthanasia was performed, and samples were collected for histology and immunohistochemistry. The 90-days HRCT demonstrated typical interstitial lesions in pulmonary parenchyma similarly to human disease. The 180-days HRCT in Group 1 demonstrated advanced stages of the disease when compared with Group 2. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests the presence of pre-existent vessels and neoformed vessels as well as predominant young cells in the injured parenchyma of Group 2. Immunohistochemistry analysis suggests that cell therapy would promote a reconstructive response. Histology and HRCT analysis suggest a positive application of swine as a model for a bleomicine inducing of fibrotic interstitial pulmonary disease.
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Effects of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells on airway and lung parenchyma remodeling in a murine model of chronic allergic inflammation.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDMC) would attenuate the remodeling process in a chronic allergic inflammation model. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to two groups. In OVA, mice were sensitized and repeatedly challenged with ovalbumin. Control mice (C) received saline under the same protocol. C and OVA were further randomized to receive BMDMC (2 × 10?) or saline intravenously 24 h before the first challenge. BMDMC therapy reduced eosinophil infiltration, smooth muscle-specific actin expression, subepithelial fibrosis, and myocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, thus causing a decrease in airway hyperresponsiveness and lung mechanical parameters. BMDMC from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice transplanted into GFP-negative mice yielded lower engraftment in OVA. BMDMC increased insulin-like growth factor expression, but reduced interleukin-5, transforming growth factor-?, platelet-derived growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression. In conclusion, in the present chronic allergic inflammation model, BMDMC therapy was an effective pre-treatment protocol that potentiated airway epithelial cell repair and prevented inflammatory and remodeling processes.
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Recruitment maneuver in experimental acute lung injury: the role of alveolar collapse and edema.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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In acute lung injury, recruitment maneuvers have been used to open collapsed lungs and set positive end-expiratory pressure, but their effectiveness may depend on the degree of lung injury. This study uses a single experimental model with different degrees of lung injury and tests the hypothesis that recruitment maneuvers may have beneficial or deleterious effects depending on the severity of acute lung injury. We speculated that recruitment maneuvers may worsen lung mechanical stress in the presence of alveolar edema.
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Sex-specific lung remodeling and inflammation changes in experimental allergic asthma.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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There is evidence that sex and sex hormones influence the severity of asthma. Airway and lung parenchyma remodeling and the relationship of ultrastructural changes to airway responsiveness and inflammation in male, female, and oophorectomized mice (OVX) were analyzed in experimental chronic allergic asthma. Seventy-two BALB/c mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=24/each): male, female, and OVX mice, whose ovaries were removed 7 days before the start of sensitization. Each group was further randomized to be sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or saline. Twenty-four hours after the last challenge, collagen fiber content in airways and lung parenchyma, the volume proportion of smooth muscle-specific actin in alveolar ducts and terminal bronchiole, the amount of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and the number of eosinophils and interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were higher in female than male OVA mice. The response of OVX mice was similar to that of males, except that IL-5 remained higher. Nevertheless, after OVA provocation, airway responsiveness to methacholine was higher in males compared with females and OVX mice. In conclusion, sex influenced the remodeling process, but the mechanisms responsible for airway hyperresponsiveness seemed to differ from those related to remodeling.
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Pathological and ultrastructural analysis of surgical lung biopsies in patients with swine-origin influenza type A/H1N1 and acute respiratory failure.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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Cases of H1N1 and other pulmonary infections evolve to acute respiratory failure and death when co-infections or lung injury predominate over the immune response, thus requiring early diagnosis to improve treatment.
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Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell therapy in experimental pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute lung injury.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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To hypothesize that bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMDMC) therapy might act differently on lung and distal organs in models of pulmonary or extrapulmonary acute lung injury with similar mechanical compromises. The pathophysiology of acute lung injury differs according to the type of primary insult.
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[Pre-operative sera levels of CEA and CA19-9 and tissular distribution of tumor marker CA19-9 in colorectal carcinoma: correlation with morphological features of neoplasia].
Rev Col Bras Cir
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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To compare sera levels of CEA and CA19-9 and tissular expression of the CA19-9 and to correlate these with morphological features of the colorectal carcinoma.
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Thrombosis in small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries in Wegeners granulomatosis: a confocal laser scanning microscopy study.
J Bras Pneumol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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Wegeners granulomatosis (WG) can cause endothelial cell damage and thromboembolic events. Nevertheless, there have been few studies on the pulmonary microcirculation--small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries (SMSPA)--in patients with WG. The objective of this study was to quantify fibrin thrombi in the SMSPA of patients with WG.
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Degree of endothelium injury promotes fibroelastogenesis in experimental acute lung injury.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2010
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We tested the hypothesis that at the early phase of acute lung injury (ALI) the degree of endothelium injury may predict lung parenchyma remodelling. For this purpose, two models of extrapulmonary ALI induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ALI-LPS) or cecal ligation and puncture (ALI-CLP) were developed in mice. At day 1, these models had similar degrees of lung mechanical compromise, epithelial damage, and intraperitoneal inflammation, but endothelial lesion was greater in ALI-CLP. A time course analysis revealed, at day 7: ALI-CLP had higher degrees of epithelial lesion, denudation of basement membrane, endothelial damage, elastic and collagen fibre content, neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), peritoneal fluid and blood, levels of interleukin-6, KC (murine analogue of IL-8), and transforming growth factor-? in BALF. Conversely, the number of lung apoptotic cells was similar in both groups. In conclusion, the intensity of fibroelastogenesis was affected by endothelium injury in addition to the maintenance of epithelial damage and intraperitoneal inflammation.
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A long-term prospective randomized controlled study of non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) treatment in scleroderma.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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The association of cyclophosphamide (CYC) and prednisone (PRED) for the treatment of lung fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) was only evaluated in uncontrolled studies, although in idiopathic interstitial lung disease (ILD) this association seems to be beneficial in patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Objectives: To treat SSc-ILD in a prospective open-label controlled study based on lung pattern during 12 months of treatment. Methods: A 3-year analysis was also performed. Twenty-four consecutive patients with SSc and ILD were submitted to an open lung biopsy. Eighteen patients (NSIP) were randomized in two groups: CYC versus CYC?+?PRED during 12 months. Lung function tests (diffusion lung capacity of monoxide carbone corrected for hemoglobin concentration (DLCO-Hb), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity) and Modified Rodnan Skin Score (MRSS) were performed before, after one of treatment and after 3 years from the end of the treatment. Results: Pulmonary function tests were similar in both groups on baseline. After 1 year of treatment, FVC% was comparable between CYC groups (p?=?0.72) and in CYC?+?PRED (p?=?0.40). Three years after the end of treatment, FVC% values (p?=?0.39 in group CYC and p?=?0.61 in CYC?+?PRED and p?=?0.22 in CYC?+?PRED) and DLCO-Hb (p?=?0.54 in CYC and p?=?0.28 in CYC?+?PRED) were similar compared to 1 year of treatment. We observed a reduction of the MRSS in the CYC?+?PRED group after 1 year of treatment (p?=?0.02); although after 3 years, MRSS values remained stable in both groups. Conclusions: CYC was effective to stabilize lung function parameters in NSIP lung pattern of SSc disease for 3 years after the end of a 1-year therapy.
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Association between decreases in type V collagen and apoptosis in mouse lung chemical carcinogenesis: a preliminary model to study cancer cell behavior.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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The importance of type V collagen and its relationships with other types of collagen and with vascular and epithelial apoptosis were studied in a model of chemical carcinogenesis in the mouse lung.
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Bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy led to alveolar-capillary membrane repair, improving lung mechanics in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMDMC) therapy led an improvement in lung mechanics and histology in endotoxin-induced lung injury. Twenty-four C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 each). In the acute lung injury (ALI) group, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was instilled intratracheally (40 ?g, IT), and control (C) mice received saline (0.05 ml, IT). One hour after the administration of saline or LPS, BMDMC (2 × 10(7) cells) was intravenously injected. At day 28, animals were anesthetized and lung mechanics [static elastance (E(st)), resistive (?P(1)), and viscoelastic (?P(2)) pressures] and histology (light and electron microscopy) were analyzed. Immunogold electron microscopy was used to evaluate if multinucleate cells were type II epithelial cells. BMDMC therapy prevented endotoxin-induced lung inflammation, alveolar collapse, and interstitial edema. In addition, BMDMC administration led to epithelial and endothelial repair with multinucleated type II pneumocytes. These histological changes yielded a reduction in lung E(st), ?P(1), and ?P(2) compared to ALI. In the present experimental ALI model, the administration of BMDMC yielded a reduction in the inflammatory process and a repair of epithelium and endothelium, reducing the amount of alveolar collapse, thus leading to an improvement in lung mechanics.
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Assisted ventilation modes reduce the expression of lung inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators in a model of mild acute lung injury.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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The goal of the study was to compare the effects of different assisted ventilation modes with pressure controlled ventilation (PCV) on lung histology, arterial blood gases, inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators in experimental acute lung injury (ALI).
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Gastroesophageal reflux incites interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis: clinical, radiologic, histopathologic, and treatment evidence.
Semin. Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is currently the main cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and has an unknown pathogenesis. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been strongly implicated as a cause of ILD in several lung diseases, including SSc-ILD. This review summarizes clinical, radiologic, histopathologic, and treatment aspects of GER in SSc-ILD.
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Hypervolemia induces and potentiates lung damage after recruitment maneuver in a model of sepsis-induced acute lung injury.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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Recruitment maneuvers (RMs) seem to be more effective in extrapulmonary acute lung injury (ALI), caused mainly by sepsis, than in pulmonary ALI. Nevertheless, the maintenance of adequate volemic status is particularly challenging in sepsis. Since the interaction between volemic status and RMs is not well established, we investigated the effects of RMs on lung and distal organs in the presence of hypovolemia, normovolemia, and hypervolemia in a model of extrapulmonary lung injury induced by sepsis.
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Collagen V-induced nasal tolerance downregulates pulmonary collagen mRNA gene and TGF-beta expression in experimental systemic sclerosis.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate collagen deposition, mRNA collagen synthesis and TGF-beta expression in the lung tissue in an experimental model of scleroderma after collagen V-induced nasal tolerance.
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Predictive models for diagnosis of pleural effusions secondary to tuberculosis or cancer.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2009
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Tuberculosis (TB) and cancer are two of the main causes of pleural effusions which frequently share similar clinical features and pleural fluid profiles. This study aimed to identify diagnostic models based on clinical and laboratory variables to differentiate tuberculous from malignant pleural effusions.
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Centrilobular fibrosis: an underrecognized pattern in systemic sclerosis.
Respiration
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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The impressive association of lung involvement and gastroesophageal reflux in scleroderma raises the possibility of a cause-effect relationship.
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Systemic sclerosis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: histomorphometric differences in lung biopsies.
J Bras Pneumol
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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The aim of this study was to examine the parenchymal and extracellular matrix remodeling process in two histologic patterns-nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)-in cases of idiopathic and sclerosis/systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated interstitial pneumonia.
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Abnormal expression of telomerase/apoptosis limits type II alveolar epithelial cell replication in the early remodeling of usual interstitial pneumonia/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a distinctive, usually fatal, type of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause that increases in prevalence with advanced age, characterized by failure of alveolar re-epithelization and progressive scar formation. Recently, limitation of the replicative capacity of tissues determined by telomerase/apoptosis balance has been implicated in pathogenesis of age-related diseases. In this study, we validated the importance of the expression of type 2 alveolar epithelial cells telomerase protein and studied the relationships between telomerase and apoptosis in early remodeling of usual interstitial pneumonia. We determined type 2 alveolar epithelial cells density, telomerase expression, and apoptosis in surgical lung biopsies from 24 patients with usual interstitial pneumonia, and in normal lung tissues from 18 subjects. We used immunohistochemistry, deoxynucleotidyl transferase method of end labeling, electron microscopy, and histomorphometry to evaluate the amount of type 2 alveolar epithelial cells staining for surfactant-A, telomerase, and in situ detection of apoptotic cells. Unaffected areas of usual interstitial pneumonia and normal lung tissue had similar densities of type 2 alveolar epithelial cells, but a significant minor subpopulation of type 2 alveolar epithelial cells was telomerase positive and a large population was telomerase negative. A significant inverse association was found between low type 2 alveolar epithelial cell telomerase expression and high apoptosis in unaffected areas of usual interstitial pneumonia. Although type 2 alveolar epithelial cell telomerase expression was higher than apoptosis in NLT group, no significant association was found between them. Electron microscopy confirmed epithelial apoptosis, alveolar collapse, and initial fibroplasia. We conclude that abnormal type 2 alveolar epithelial cells telomerase/apoptosis balance may reduce alveolar epithelial regenerative capacity, thus contributing to the early remodeling response in usual interstitial pneumonia.
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Experimental selective sympathicotomy (ramicotomy) and sympathetic regeneration.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
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Ramicotomy is a surgical procedure, with less adverse effects than conventional sympathectomy, however, it was abandoned due to the high recurrence rate. Twenty-eight pigs underwent bilateral videothoracoscopic ramicotomy and were divided into five groups. The animals were sacrificed at 15th, 45th, 90th, 135th and 180th postoperative days (POD). The segments were removed and evaluated for macroscopic regeneration and histological analysis. The data were compared to the control group of 10 intact segments of the sympathetic. There was no macroscopic regeneration on the 15th POD, and present on 41.6% on the 180th POD (P<0.05). The Schwann cells presented a similar evolution in both rami beginning at the 45th POD, with a smaller count in the gray rami. The collagen and reticular fibers presented a negative correlation (r=-0.414; P<0.01). The deposition of the collagen fibers was greater in the gray rami with a peak deposition on the 135th POD and a diminishing rate in the 180th POD (P<0.05). Ramicotomy allows complete section of all rami communicantes of the sympathetic ganglia. The histological regeneration might be greater than the recurrence rates of clinical symptoms seen in a human being due to non-functional regenerations.
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Biopsy-proven pulmonary determinants of heart disease.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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Heart disease (HD) can stress the alveolar blood-gas barrier, resulting in parenchymal inflammation and remodeling. Patients with HD may therefore display any of the symptoms commonly attributed to primary pulmonary disease, although tissue documentation of corresponding changes through surgical lung biopsy (SLB) is rarely done. Intent on exploring the basis of HD-related alveolar-capillary barrier dysfunction, a retrospective analysis of SLB histopathology was conducted in patients with clinically diagnosed HD, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and no evidence of primary pulmonary disease. Patients eligible for the study had a clinical diagnosis of heart disease, acute or chronic, and presented with diffuse infiltrates on chest X-ray. All qualified subjects (N = 23) who underwent diagnostic SLB between January 1982 and December 2005 were subsequently examined. Specific biopsy parameters investigated included demonstrable edema, siderophage influx, hemorrhage, venous and lymphatic ectasia, vascular sclerosis, capillary congestion, and fibroblast proliferation. Based on observed alveolar-capillary barrier (ACB) alterations, three main morphologic groups emerged: one group (6 patients) with alveolar edema; a second group (11 patients) characterized by pulmonary congestion; and a final group (6 patients) showing microscopic foci of acute ACB lung injury. Alveolar-capillary stress due to acute high-pressure or volume overload often manifests as diffuse pulmonary infiltrates with variable but generally predictable histopathology. In patients with biopsy-proven alveolar edema, pulmonary congestion, or acute microscopic lung injury, the clinician must be alert for the possibility of primary heart disease, particularly if the patient is elderly or when a history of myocardial, valvular, or coronary vascular disease exists.
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Refractory remodeling of the microenvironment by abnormal type V collagen, apoptosis, and immune response in non-small cell lung cancer.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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Collagen V shows promise as an inducer of the death response via caspases. Remodeling of the microenvironment by collagen V, tumoral/vascular apoptosis, and the immune response were evaluated, based on the prognosis of 65 patients with surgically excised non-small cell lung cancer. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, morphometry, tridimensional reconstruction, and a real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate the amount, structure, and molecular chains of collagen V, tumoral and vascular apoptosis, immune cells, and microvessel density. The impact of these markers was tested on follow-up until death from recurrent lung cancer occurred. A decreased and abnormal synthesis of collagen V was found to lead to increased angiogenesis due to a low endothelial death rate and a low immune response. A Cox model analysis, controlled for the lymph node stage, demonstrated that only collagen V and vascular apoptosis variables were significantly associated with survival time. A point at the median for collagen V and vascular apoptosis divided patients into 2 groups, each with a distinctive prognosis. Those with a collagen V higher than 9.40% and vascular apoptosis higher than 1.09% had a low risk of death (0.27 and 0.41, respectively) compared to those with a collagen V lower than 9.40% and vascular apoptosis lower than 1.09%. Collagen V and vascular apoptosis in resected non-small cell lung cancer was strongly related to the prognosis, suggesting that strategies aimed at preventing low collagen V synthesis, or local responses to low vascular apoptosis may have a greater impact in lung cancer treatment.
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Role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of lung cancer.
J Bras Pneumol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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The role of immunohistochemistry is to recognize antigens and, consequently, to identify and classify specific cells within a cell population whose morphology is heterogenous or apparently homogenous. The visualization of the antigen-antibody complex is made possible through the addition of either a fluorochrome conjugate or an enzyme to the antibody, which is then viewed under microscopy. Immunohistochemistry can be used in the routine diagnosis of lung cancer, in order to identify biological markers (diagnostic and prognostic). The essential immunohistochemistry panels will be discussed in this review.
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Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: relationship between clinicopathological data and p53, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 immunoexpressions.
Arq Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma has an aggressive behavior, and TNM (UICC) staging is not always accurate enough to categorize patients outcome.
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Prognostic relevance of TTF-1 and MMP-9 expression in advanced lung adenocarcinoma.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2009
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The thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a tissue-specific transcription factor that could play an important role in cell differentiation and morphogenesis of lung tumors. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a protease commonly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer, conferring angiogenic and metastatic potential.
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Prolonged recruitment manoeuvre improves lung function with less ultrastructural damage in experimental mild acute lung injury.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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The effects of prolonged recruitment manoeuvre (PRM) were compared with sustained inflation (SI) in paraquat-induced mild acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. Twenty-four hours after ALI induction, rats were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated with VT=6 ml/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)=5 cmH(2)O for 1h. SI was performed with an instantaneous pressure increase of 40 cmH(2)O that was sustained for 40s, while PRM was done by a step-wise increase in positive inspiratory pressure (PIP) of 15-20-25 cmH(2)O above a PEEP of 15 cm H(2)O (maximal PIP=40 cmH(2)O), with interposed periods of PIP=10 cmH(2)O above a PEEP=15 cmH(2)O. Lung static elastance and the amount of alveolar collapse were more reduced with PRM than SI, yielding improved oxygenation. Additionally, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, and type III procollagen mRNA expressions in lung tissue and lung epithelial cell apoptosis decreased more in PRM. In conclusion, PRM improved lung function, with less damage to alveolar epithelium, resulting in reduced pulmonary injury.
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Collagen V and vascular injury promote lung architectural changes in systemic sclerosis.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem disorder characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and vascular damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interactions between basement membrane disruption, endothelial injury and collagen V deposition on the vascular wall, as well as their association with pulmonary function tests in patients with SSc.
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Prone position prevents regional alveolar hyperinflation and mechanical stress and strain in mild experimental acute lung injury.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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Prone position may delay the development of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), but the mechanisms require better elucidation. In experimental mild acute lung injury (ALI), arterial oxygen partial pressure (Pa O2), lung mechanics and histology, inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 beta], and type III procollagen (PCIII) mRNA expressions were analysed in supine and prone position. Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups. In controls, saline was intraperitoneally injected while ALI was induced by paraquat. After 24-h, the animals were mechanically ventilated for 1-h in supine or prone positions. In ALI, prone position led to a better blood flow/tissue ratio both in ventral and dorsal regions and was associated with a more homogeneous distribution of alveolar aeration/tissue ratio reducing lung static elastance and viscoelastic pressure, and increasing end-expiratory lung volume and Pa O2. PCIII expression was higher in the ventral than dorsal region in supine position, with no regional changes in inflammatory markers. In conclusion, prone position may protect the lungs against VILI, thus reducing pulmonary stress and strain.
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Intravenous glutamine decreases lung and distal organ injury in an experimental model of abdominal sepsis.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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The protective effect of glutamine, as a pharmacological agent against lung injury, has been reported in experimental sepsis; however, its efficacy at improving oxygenation and lung mechanics, attenuating diaphragm and distal organ injury has to be better elucidated. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a single early intravenous dose of glutamine was associated not only with the improvement of lung morpho-function, but also the reduction of the inflammatory process and epithelial cell apoptosis in kidney, liver, and intestine villi.
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Histomorphometric analysis of cutaneous remodeling in the early stage of the scleroderma model.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2009
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Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a rheumatic disease characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis of the skin and several internal organs. In the present study, our aim was to assess the skin alterations in animals with scleroderma during the first stages of disease induction.
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Pulmonary lesion induced by low and high positive end-expiratory pressure levels during protective ventilation in experimental acute lung injury.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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To investigate the effects of low and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), without recruitment maneuvers, during lung protective ventilation in an experimental model of acute lung injury (ALI).
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Effects of frequency and inspiratory plateau pressure during recruitment manoeuvres on lung and distal organs in acute lung injury.
Intensive Care Med
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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To evaluate the effects of frequency and inspiratory plateau pressure (Pplat) during recruitment manoeuvres (RMs) on lung and distal organs in acute lung injury (ALI).
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Different strains of mice present distinct lung tissue mechanics and extracellular matrix composition in a model of chronic allergic asthma.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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The impact of genetic factors on asthma is well recognized but poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that different mouse strains present different lung tissue strip mechanics in a model of chronic allergic asthma and that these mechanical differences may be potentially related to changes of extracellular matrix composition and/or contractile elements in lung parenchyma. Oscillatory mechanics were analysed before and after acetylcholine (ACh) in C57BL/10, BALB/c, and A/J mice, subjected or not to ovalbumin sensitization and challenge. In controls, tissue elastance (E) and resistance (R), collagen and elastic fibres content, and alpha-actin were higher in A/J compared to BALB/c mice, which, in turn, were more elevated than in C57BL/10. A similar response pattern was observed in ovalbumin-challenged animals irrespective of mouse strain. E and R augmented more in ovalbumin-challenged A/J [E: 22%, R: 18%] than C57BL/10 mice [E: 9.4%, R: 11%] after ACh In conclusion, lung parenchyma remodelled differently yielding distinct in vitro mechanics according to mouse strain.
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Expression of acetylcholine and its receptor in human sympathetic ganglia in primary hyperhidrosis.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
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The pathophysiologic characteristics of primary hyperhidrosis are not well understood and seem to be related to a sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The resection of thoracic sympathetic chain ganglia is the most effective treatment for hyperhidrosis; however sympathetic ganglia function in normal individuals and in patients with hyperhidrosis is unknown.
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Bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy in experimental allergic asthma: intratracheal versus intravenous administration.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
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We hypothesized that the route of administration would impact the beneficial effects of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMDMC) therapy on the remodelling process of asthma. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to two main groups. In the OVA group, mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin, while the control group received saline using the same protocol. Twenty-four hours before the first challenge, control and OVA animals were further randomized into three subgroups to receive saline (SAL), BMDMCs intravenously (2×10(6)), or BMDMCs intratracheally (2×10(6)). The following changes were induced by BMDMC therapy in OVA mice regardless of administration route: reduction in resistive and viscoelastic pressures, static elastance, eosinophil infiltration, collagen fibre content in airways and lung parenchyma; and reduction in the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, transforming growth factor-? and vascular endothelial growth factor. In conclusion, BMDMC modulated inflammatory and remodelling processes regardless of administration route in this experimental model of allergic asthma.
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Lung morphology and growth of rats exposed to tobacco smoke and alcohol.
Acta Cir Bras
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Investigate the morphological effects of chronic exposure to tobacco smoke inhalation and alcohol consumption on the lungs and on the growth of rats.
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