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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in bilateral and recurrent optic neuritis.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2014
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We examined a cohort of adults with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-negative neuromyelitis optica/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO/NMOSD) for antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG).
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Antibodies to Surface Dopamine-2 Receptor and N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor in the First Episode of Acute Psychosis in Children.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The dopamine and glutamate hypotheses are well known in psychosis. Recently, the detection of autoantibodies against proteins expressed on the surface of cells in the central nervous system has raised the possibility that specific immune-mediated mechanisms may define a biological subgroup within psychosis, although no cohort of a first episode of psychosis in children has been investigated.
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Antibodies to MOG have a demyelination phenotype and affect oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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To examine the clinical features of pediatric CNS demyelination associated with positive myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and to examine the functional effects of MOG antibody on oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton.
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High-throughput Flow Cytometry Cell-based Assay to Detect Antibodies to N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor or Dopamine-2 Receptor in Human Serum.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Over the recent years, antibodies against surface and conformational proteins involved in neurotransmission have been detected in autoimmune CNS diseases in children and adults. These antibodies have been used to guide diagnosis and treatment. Cell-based assays have improved the detection of antibodies in patient serum. They are based on the surface expression of brain antigens on eukaryotic cells, which are then incubated with diluted patient sera followed by fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibodies. After washing, secondary antibody binding is then analyzed by flow cytometry. Our group has developed a high-throughput flow cytometry live cell-based assay to reliably detect antibodies against specific neurotransmitter receptors. This flow cytometry method is straight forward, quantitative, efficient, and the use of a high-throughput sampler system allows for large patient cohorts to be easily assayed in a short space of time. Additionally, this cell-based assay can be easily adapted to detect antibodies to many different antigenic targets, both from the central nervous system and periphery. Discovering additional novel antibody biomarkers will enable prompt and accurate diagnosis and improve treatment of immune-mediated disorders.
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Herpes simplex encephalitis relapse with chorea is associated with autoantibodies to N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor or dopamine-2 receptor.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Movement disorder relapses after herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) encephalitis have been hypothesized to be secondary to postviral autoimmunity. Recently, a proportion of patients with HSV1 encephalitis (HSE) were shown to produce autoantibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).
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Cerebrospinal fluid B-cell expansion in longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis associated with neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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A first episode of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination may represent heterogeneous entities such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, clinically isolated syndrome, neuromyelitis optica (NMO), or multiple sclerosis. As new immune therapies become available, it is increasingly important to make an early diagnosis. Autoantibodies such as NMO immunoglobulin G (IgG) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG are increasingly being employed to define subgroups of CNS demyelination or guide treatment. Similarly, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping can demonstrate B-lymphocyte subpopulation expansion, which has been used to guide therapy in other autoimmune CNS disorders. We present a report on a 15-year-old male with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis with magnetic resonance imaging findings of oedema, cavitation, and gadolinium enhancement. NMO-IgG and aquaporin 4 IgG were positive; thus, we diagnosed a limited form of NMO. Acute CSF immunophenotyping revealed a 3.6% expansion of CD19 B-cell populations, whereas a comparison group of five children (4 males, age range 2-15y; mean age 7y) with other neurological disorders showed only a 0.51% expansion (SD 0.25%). In view of the diagnosis of a limited form of neuromyelitis optica, we therefore elected to treat him aggressively from the outset with a prolonged steroid regimen and mycophenylate mofetil. This case demonstrates a correlation between autoantibody production and CSF B lymphocyte expansion in an individual with CNS demyelination. These approaches could be used in individuals with a first episode of CNS demyelination to help delineate immunological subgroups and guide treatment.
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Antibody binding to neuronal surface in movement disorders associated with lupus and antiphospholipid antibodies.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder associated with autoantibodies of complex diversity. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), which are commonly associated with lupus, create a pro-thrombotic tendency, but are also associated with non-thrombotic neurological features. Movement disorders are rare neuropsychiatric complications of lupus and antiphospholipid syndrome, and autoimmune and thromboembolic disease mechanisms have been proposed.
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Antibodies to surface dopamine-2 receptor in autoimmune movement and psychiatric disorders.
Brain
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Recent reports of autoantibodies that bind to neuronal surface receptors or synaptic proteins have defined treatable forms of autoimmune encephalitis. Despite these developments, many cases of encephalitis remain unexplained. We have previously described a basal ganglia encephalitis with dominant movement and psychiatric disease, and proposed an autoimmune aetiology. Given the role of dopamine and dopamine receptors in the control of movement and behaviour, we hypothesized that patients with basal ganglia encephalitis and other putative autoimmune basal ganglia disorders harboured serum autoantibodies against important dopamine surface proteins. Basal ganglia encephalitis sera immunolabelled live surface cultured neurons that have high expression of dopamine surface proteins. To detect autoantibodies, we performed flow cytometry cell-based assays using human embryonic kidney cells to express surface antigens. Twelve of 17 children (aged 0.4-15 years, nine males) with basal ganglia encephalitis had elevated immunoglobulin G to extracellular dopamine-2 receptor, compared with 0/67 controls. Immunofluorescence on wild-type mouse brain showed that basal ganglia encephalitis sera immunolabelled microtubule-associated protein 2-positive neurons in striatum and also in cultured striatal neurons, whereas the immunolabelling was significantly decreased in dopamine-2 receptor knock-out brains. Immunocytochemistry confirmed that immunoreactivity localized to the surface of dopamine-2 receptor-transfected cells. Immunoabsorption of basal ganglia encephalitis sera on dopamine-2 receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney cells decreased immunolabelling of dopamine-2 receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney cells, neurons and wild-type mouse brain. Using a similar flow cytometry cell-based assay, we found no elevated immunoglobulin G binding to dopamine 1, 3 or 5 receptor, dopamine transporter or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. The 12 dopamine-2 receptor antibody-positive patients with encephalitis had movement disorders characterized by parkinsonism, dystonia and chorea. In addition, the patients had psychiatric disturbance with emotional lability, attention deficit and psychosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed lesions localized to the basal ganglia in 50% of the patients. Elevated dopamine-2 receptor immunoglobulin G was also found in 10/30 patients with Sydenhams chorea, 0/22 patients with paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection and 4/44 patients with Tourettes syndrome. No dopamine-1 receptor immunoglobulin G was detected in any disease or control groups. We conclude that assessment of dopamine-2 receptor antibodies can help define autoimmune movement and psychiatric disorders.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.