Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss (HL) is becoming a global phenomenon at an alarming rate. Nearly 600 million people have been estimated to have significant HL in at least one ear. There are several different causes of sensorineural HL included in this review of new investigational drugs for HL. They are noise-induced, drug-induced, sudden sensorineural HL, presbycusis and HL due to cytomegalovirus infections. Areas covered: This review presents trends in research for new investigational drugs encompassing a variety of causes of HL. The studies presented here are the latest developments either in the research laboratories or in preclinical, Phase 0, Phase I or Phase II clinical trials for drugs targeting HL. Expert opinion: While it is important that prophylactic measures are developed, it is extremely crucial that rescue strategies for unexpected or unavoidable cochlear insult be established. To achieve this goal for the development of drugs for HL, innovative strategies and extensive testing are required for progress from the bench to bedside. However, although a great deal of research needs to be done to achieve the ultimate goal of protecting the ear against acquired sensorineural HL, we are likely to see exciting breakthroughs in the near future.
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel present on sensory neurons which is activated by heat, protons, capsaicin and a variety of endogenous lipids termed endovanilloids. As such, TRPV1 serves as a multimodal sensor of noxious stimuli which could trigger counteractive measures to avoid pain and injury. Activation of TRPV1 has been linked to chronic inflammatory pain conditions and peripheral neuropathy, as observed in diabetes. Expression of TRPV1 is also observed in non-neuronal sites such as the epithelium of bladder and lungs and in hair cells of the cochlea. At these sites, activation of TRPV1 has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diseases such as cystitis, asthma and hearing loss. Therefore, drugs which could modulate TRPV1 channel activity could be useful for the treatment of conditions ranging from chronic pain to hearing loss. This review describes the roles of TRPV1 in the normal physiology and pathophysiology of selected organs of the body and highlights how drugs targeting this channel could be important clinically.
Adenosine receptors (ARs) comprise a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) which mediate the physiological actions of adenosine. To date, four AR subtypes have been cloned and identified in different tissues. These receptors have distinct localization, signal transduction pathways and different means of regulation upon exposure to agonists. This review will describe the biochemical characteristics and signaling cascade associated with each receptor and provide insight into how these receptors are regulated in response to agonists. A key property of some of these receptors is their ability to serve as sensors of cellular oxidative stress, which is transmitted by transcription factors, such as nuclear factor (NF)-?B, to regulate the expression of ARs. Recent observations of oligomerization of these receptors into homo- and heterodimers will be discussed. In addition, the importance of these receptors in the regulation of normal and pathological processes such as sleep, the development of cancers and in protection against hearing loss will be examined.
Abstract Aims: Oncogenic microRNAs (miRs) promote tumor growth and invasiveness. One of these, miR-21, contributes to carcinogenesis in prostate and other cancers. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate the expression and function of miR-21 and its target proteins, maspin and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), in prostate cancer cells. Results: The highly aggressive androgen receptor negative PC-3M-MM2 prostate cancer cells demonstrated high expression of miR-21 and p47(phox) (an essential subunit of NADPH oxidase). Using loss-of-function strategy, we showed that transfection of PC-3M-MM2 cells with anti-miR-21- and p47(phox) siRNA (si-p47(phox)) led to reduced expression of miR-21 with concurrent increase in maspin and PDCD4, and decreased the invasiveness of the cells. Tail-vein injections of anti-miR-21- and si-p47(phox)-transfected PC-3M-MM2 cells in severe combined immunodeficient mice reduced lung metastases. Clinical samples from patients with advanced prostate cancer expressed high levels of miR-21 and p47(phox), and low expression of maspin and PDCD4. Finally, ROS activated Akt in these cells, the inhibition of which reduced miR-21 expression. Innovation: The levels of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS are high in prostate cancer cells, which have been shown to be involved in their growth and migration. This study demonstrates that ROS produced by this pathway is essential for the expression and function of an onco-miR, miR-21, in androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer cells. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that miR-21 is an important target of ROS, which contributes to the highly invasive and metastatic phenotype of prostate cancer cells. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1863-1876.
Adenosine is produced primarily by the metabolism of ATP and mediates its physiological actions by interacting primarily with adenosine receptors (ARs) on the plasma membranes of different cell types in the body. Activation of these G protein-coupled receptors promotes activation of diverse cellular signaling pathways that define their tissue-specific functions. One of the major actions of adenosine is cytoprotection, mediated primarily via two ARs - A(1) (A(1)AR) and A(3) (A(3)AR). These ARs protect cells exposed to oxidative stress and are also regulated by oxidative stress. Stress-mediated regulation of ARs involves two prominent transcription factors - activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor (NF)-?B - that mediate the induction of genes important in cell survival. Mice that are genetically deficient in the p50 subunit of NF-?B (i.e., p50 knock-out mice) exhibit altered expression of A(1)AR and A(2A)AR and demonstrate distinct behavioral phenotypes under normal conditions or after drug challenges. These effects suggest an important role for NF-?B in dictating the level of expression of ARs in vivo, in regulating the cellular responses to stress, and in modifying behavior.
Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss affects a high percentage of the population. Ototoxicity is a serious and pervasive problem in patients treated with cisplatin. Strategies to ameliorate ototoxicity without compromising on antitumor activity of treatments are urgently needed. Similar problems occur with aminoglycoside antibiotic therapy for infections. Noise-induced hearing loss affects a large number of people. The use of ear protection is not always possible or effective. The prevention of hearing loss with drug therapy would have a huge impact in reducing the number of people with hearing loss from these major causes. Areas covered: This review discusses significant research findings dealing with the use of protective agents against hearing loss caused by cisplatin, aminoglycoside antibiotics and noise trauma. The efficacy in animal studies and the application of these protective agents in clinical trials that are ongoing are presented. Expert opinion: The reader will gain new insights into current and projected future strategies to prevent sensorineural hearing loss from cisplatin chemotherapy, aminoglycoside antibiotic therapy and noise exposure. The future appears to offer numerous agents to prevent hearing loss caused by cisplatin, aminoglycoside antibiotics and noise. Novel delivery systems will provide ways to guide these protective agents to the desired target areas in the inner ear and circumvent problems with therapeutic interference of antitumor and antibiotics agents as well as minimize undesired side effects.
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is implicated in cisplatin ototoxicity. Activation of this channel by cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species generation, which contribute to loss of outer hair cells in the cochlea. Knockdown of TRPV1 by short interfering RNA protected against cisplatin ototoxicity. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying TRPV1-mediated ototoxicity using cultured organ of Corti transformed cells (UB/OC-1) and rats. Trans-tympanic injections of capsaicin produced transient hearing loss within 24?h, which recovered by 72?h. In UB/OC-1 cells, capsaicin increased NOX3 NADPH oxidase activity and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Intratympanic administration of capsaicin transiently increased STAT1 activity and expression of downstream proinflammatory molecules. Capsaicin produced a transient increase in CD14-positive inflammatory cells into the cochlea, which mimicked the temporal course of STAT1 activation but did not alter the expression of apoptotic genes or damage to outer hair cells. In addition, trans-tympanic administration of STAT1 short interfering RNA protected against capsaicin-induced hearing loss. These data suggest that activation of TRPV1 mediates temporary hearing loss by initiating an inflammatory process in the cochlea via activation of NOX3 and STAT1. Thus, these proteins represent reasonable targets for ameliorating hearing loss.
The nucleotide substitution C797T in the Chrm2 gene causes substitution of leucine for proline at position 266 (P266L) of the CHRM2 protein. Because Chrm2 codes for the type 2 muscarinic receptor, this mutation could influence physiologic and behavioral phenotypes of mice. Chrm2 mRNA was not differentially expressed in 2 brain regions with high cholinergic innervation in a mouse strain that does (BALB/cByJ) or does not (C57BL/6J) have the mutation. In addition, strains of mice with and without the C797T point mutation in Chrm2 did not differ significantly in muscarinic binding properties. Variation across strains was detected in terms of acoustic startle, prepulse inhibition, and the physiologic effects of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine. However, interstrain differences in these measures did not correlate with the presence of the mutation. Although we were unable to associate a measurable phenotype with the Chrm2 mutation, assessment of the mutation on other genetic backgrounds or in the context of other traits might reveal differential effects. Therefore, despite our negative findings, evaluation of characteristics that involve muscarinic function should be undertaken with caution when comparing mice with different alleles of the Chrm2 gene.
Cisplatin produces hearing loss in cancer patients. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cochlea leads to lipid peroxidation, death of outer hair cells (OHCs), and hearing loss. The cochlea expresses a unique isoform of NADPH oxidase, NOX3, which serves as the primary source of ROS generation in the cochlea. Inhibition of NOX3 could offer a unique protective target against cisplatin ototoxicity. Here, we document that knockdown of NOX3 using short interfering (si) RNA abrogated cisplatin ototoxicity, as evidenced by protection of OHCs from damage and reduced threshold shifts in auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Transtympanic NOX3 siRNA reduced the expression of NOX3 in OHCs, spiral ganglion (SG) cells, and stria vascularis (SV) in the rat. NOX3 siRNA also reduced the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), biomarkers of cochlear damage. Also, transtympanic NOX3 siRNA reduced the expression of Bax, abolished the decrease in expression of Bcl2, and reduced apoptosis induced by cisplatin in the cochlea. These data suggest that NOX3 regulates stress-related genes in the cochlea, such as TRPV1 and KIM-1, and initiates apoptosis in the cochlea. This appears to be the first study of the efficacy of transtympanic delivery of siRNA attenuating cisplatin ototoxicity.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used to treat a variety of malignant tumors. Serious dose-limiting side effects like ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity occur with the use of this agent. This review summarizes recent important clinical and experimental investigations of cisplatin ototoxicity. It also discusses the utility of protective agents employed in patients and in experimental animals. The future strategies for limiting cisplatin ototoxicity will need to avoid interference with the therapeutic effect of cisplatin in order to enhance the quality of life of patients receiving this important anti-tumor agent.
Exposure of cells to adenosine receptor (AR) agonists leads to receptor uncoupling from G proteins and downregulation of the A(1)AR. The receptor levels on the cell surface generally recover on withdrawal of the agonist, because of either translocation of the sequestered A(1)AR back to plasma membrane or de novo synthesis of A(1)AR. To examine the mechanism(s) underlying A(1)AR downregulation and recovery, we treated ductus deferens tumor (DDT(1) MF-2) cells with the agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) and showed a decrease in membrane A(1)AR levels by 24 h, which was associated with an unexpected 11-fold increase in A(1)AR mRNA. Acute exposure of these cells to R-PIA resulted in a rapid translocation of beta-arrestin1 to the plasma membrane. Knockdown of beta-arrestin1 by short interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked R-PIA-mediated downregulation of the A(1)AR, suppressed R-PIA-dependent ERK1/2 and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity, and reduced the induction of A(1)AR mRNA. Withdrawal of the agonist after a 24-h exposure resulted in rapid recovery of plasma membrane A(1)AR. This was dependent on the de novo protein synthesis and on the activity of ERK1/2 but independent of beta-arrestin1 and nuclear factor-kappaB. Together, these data suggest that exposure to A(1)AR agonist stimulates ERK1/2 activity via beta-arrestin1, which subserves receptor uncoupling and downregulation, in addition to the induction of A(1)AR expression. We propose that such a pathway ensures both the termination of the agonist signal and recovery by priming the cell for rapid de novo synthesis of A(1)AR once the drug is terminated.
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed and second most lethal malignancy in men, due mainly to a lack of effective treatment for the metastatic disease. A number of recent studies have shown that activation of the purine nucleoside receptor, adenosine A(3) receptor (A(3)AR), attenuates proliferation of melanoma, colon, and prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we determined whether activation of the A(3)AR reduces the ability of prostate cancer cells to migrate in vitro and metastasize in vivo. Using severe combined immunodeficient mice, we show that proliferation and metastasis of AT6.1 rat prostate cancer cells were decreased by the administration of A(3)AR agonist N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl) adenosine-5-N-methyluronamide. In vitro studies show that activation of A(3)AR decreased high basal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity present in these cells, along with the expression of Rac1 and p47(phox) subunits of this enzyme. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity by the dominant-negative RacN17 or short interfering (si)RNA against p47(phox) reduced both the generation of reactive oxygen species and the invasion of these cells on Matrigel. In addition, we show that membrane association of p47(phox) and activation of NADPH oxidase is dependent on the activity of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We also provide evidence that A(3)AR inhibits ERK1/2 activity in prostate cancer cells through inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A. We conclude that activation of the A(3)AR in prostate cancer cells reduces protein kinase A-mediated stimulation of ERK1/2, leading to reduced NADPH oxidase activity and cancer cell invasiveness.
The consumption of foods containing resveratrol produces significant health benefits. Resveratrol inhibits cancer by reducing cell proliferation and metastasis and by inducing apoptosis. These actions could be explained by its ability to inhibit (ERK-1/2), Akt and suppressing the levels of estrogen and insulin growth factor -1 (IGF-1) receptor. How these processes are manifested into the antitumor actions of resveratrol is not clear. Using microarray studies, we show that resveratrol reduced the expression of various prostate-tumor associated microRNAs (miRs) including miR-21 in androgen-receptor negative and highly aggressive human prostate cancer cells, PC-3M-MM2. This effect of resveratrol was associated with reduced cell viability, migration and invasiveness. Additionally, resveratrol increased the expression of tumor suppressors, PDCD4 and maspin, which are negatively regulated by miR-21. Short interfering (si) RNA against PDCD4 attenuated resveratrols effect on prostate cancer cells, and similar effects were observed following over expression of miR-21 with pre-miR-21 oligonucleotides. PC-3M-MM2 cells also exhibited high levels of phospho-Akt (pAkt), which were reduced by both resveratrol and LY294002 (a PI3-kinase inhibitor). MiR-21 expression in these cells appeared to be dependent on Akt, as LY294002 reduced the levels of miR-21 along with a concurrent increase in PDCD4 expression. These in vitro findings were further corroborated in a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer. Oral administration of resveratrol not only inhibited the tumor growth but also decreased the incidence and number of metastatic lung lesions. These tumor- and metastatic-suppressive effects of resveratrol were associated with reduced miR-21 and pAkt, and elevated PDCD4 levels. Similar anti-tumor effects of resveratrol were observed in DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells which were associated with suppression of Akt and PDCD4, but independent of miR-21.These data suggest that resveratrols anti-tumor actions in prostate cancer could be explained, in part, through inhibition of Akt/miR-21 signaling pathway.
Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent that causes significant hearing loss. Previous studies have shown that cisplatin exposure is associated with increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cochlea. The inner ear expresses a unique isoform of NADPH oxidase, NOX3. This enzyme may be the primary source of ROS generation in the cochlea. The knockdown of NOX3 by pretreatment with siRNA prevented cisplatin ototoxicity, as demonstrated by preservation of hearing thresholds and inner ear sensory cells. Trans-tympanic NOX3 siRNA reduced the expression of NOX3 and biomarkers of cochlear damage, including transient receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in cochlear tissues. In addition, siRNA against NOX3 reduced apoptosis as demonstrated by TUNEL staining, and prevented the increased expression of Bax and abrogated the decrease in Bcl2 expression following cisplatin administration. Trans-tympanic administration of siRNA directed against NOX3 may provide a useful method of attenuating cisplatin ototoxicity. In this paper, we review recent publications dealing with the role of NOX3 in ototoxicity and the effects of siRNA against cisplatin-induced hearing loss.
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