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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Endoscopic management of CSF rhinorrhea.
Neurol India
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Transnasal endoscopic repair has become the treatment of choice for most anterior cranial and all sphenoid sinus breaches. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the results of endoscopic management of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea in a tertiary care center in South India.
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Outcome of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with spongioplasty alone as additional tissue cover: A prospective study.
Indian J Urol
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Additional cover after neourethra formation to decrease the fistula rate, has been described using the dartos, tunica, denuded skin and corpus spongiosum. The use of corpus spongiosum alone to cover the neourethra is infrequent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of spongioplasty alone as an intervening layer in the prevention of urethral fistula following tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIPU).
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Chronic administration of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces intestinal anti-inflammatory microRNA expression during acute SIV infection of rhesus macaques.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Recreational and medical use of cannabis among HIV-infected individuals has increased in recent years. In SIV-infected macaques, chronic administration of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC), inhibited viral replication, intestinal inflammation and slowed disease progression. Persistent gastrointestinal disease/inflammation has been proposed to facilitate microbial translocation, systemic immune activation and promote disease progression. Cannabinoids including ?(9)-THC attenuated intestinal inflammation in mouse colitis models and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. To determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of ?(9)-THC involved differential microRNA (miRNA) modulation, we profiled miRNA expression at 14, 30 and 60 days post-infection (DPI) in the intestine of uninfected macaques receiving ?(9)-THC (n=3) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV; n=4) or THC (THC/SIV; n=4). Chronic ?(9)-THC administration to uninfected macaques significantly and positively modulated intestinal miRNA expression by increasing the total number of differentially expressed miRNAs from 14 to 60DPI. At 60DPI, ?28% of miRNAs showed decreased expression in VEH/SIV compared to none in the THC/SIV group. Furthermore, compared to the VEH/SIV group, THC selectively upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-24, miR-99b, miR-145, miR-149 and miR-187 previously been shown to target proinflammatory molecules. NOX4, a potent reactive oxygen species generator was confirmed as a direct miR-99b target. A significant increase in NOX4(+) crypt epithelial cells was detected in VEH/SIV compared to the THC/SIV group. We speculate that miR-99b-mediated NOX4 downregulation may protect the intestinal epithelium from oxidative stress-induced damage. These results support a role for differential miRNA induction in THC-mediated suppression of intestinal inflammation. Whether similar miRNA modulation occurs in other tissues requires further investigation.
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The CRISPR-Cas system for plant genome editing: advances and opportunities.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Genome editing is an approach in which a specific target DNA sequence of the genome is altered by adding, removing, or replacing DNA bases. Artificially engineered hybrid enzymes, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated protein) system are being used for genome editing in various organisms including plants. The CRISPR-Cas system has been developed most recently and seems to be more efficient and less time-consuming compared with ZFNs or TALENs. This system employs an RNA-guided nuclease, Cas9, to induce double-strand breaks. The Cas9-mediated breaks are repaired by cellular DNA repair mechanisms and mediate gene/genome modifications. Here, we provide a detailed overview of the CRISPR-Cas system and its adoption in different organisms, especially plants, for various applications. Important considerations and future opportunities for deployment of the CRISPR-Cas system in plants for numerous applications are also discussed. Recent investigations have revealed the implications of the CRISPR-Cas system as a promising tool for targeted genetic modifications in plants. This technology is likely to be more commonly adopted in plant functional genomics studies and crop improvement in the near future.
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Study of the effects of vocal tract constriction on glottal vibration.
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Characteristics of glottal vibration are affected by the obstruction to the flow of air through the vocal tract system. The obstruction to the airflow is determined by the nature, location, and extent of constriction in the vocal tract during production of voiced sounds. The effects of constriction on glottal vibration are examined for six different categories of speech sounds having varying degree of constriction. The effects are examined in terms of source and system features derived from the speech and electroglottograph signals. It is observed that a high degree of constriction causing obstruction to the flow of air results in large changes in these features, relative to the adjacent steady vowel regions, as in the case of apical trill and alveolar fricative sounds. These changes are insignificant when the obstruction to the airflow is less, as in the case of velar fricative and lateral approximant sounds. There are no changes in the excitation features when there is a free flow of air along the auxiliary tract, despite constriction in the vocal tract, as in the case of nasals. These studies show that effects of constriction can indeed be observed in the features of glottal vibration as well as vocal tract resonances.
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Anterior tibial plateau fracture: An often missed injury.
Indian J Orthop
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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In most classifications of tibial plateau fractures, including one used most widely-Schatzker classification, fractures are described as a combination of medial and lateral condyle, primarily in the sagittal plane. Coronal component of these fractures, affecting the posterior tibial condyle is now well recognized. What is not described is anterior coronal component of the fracture, what we are calling "anterior tibial condyle fracture". These fractures are often missed on routine antero-posterior and lateral knee X-rays due to an overlap between the fracture and the normal bone.
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In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of different Gutta-percha points and calcium hydroxide pastes.
J Int Soc Prev Community Dent
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different compositions of Gutta-percha points and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) pastes, used in endodontic therapy.
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Tryptophan to Glycine mutation in the position 116 leads to protein aggregation and decreases the stability of the LITAF protein.
J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Mutations in the gene-encoding vesicle lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (LITAF) protein cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1C (CMT1C) disease, a neurological disorder. The LITAF gene is mapped to chromosome number 16 and can be found at cytogenetic location 16p13 of the chromosome. CMT1C-linked small integral membrane protein of lysosome/late endosome mutants are loss-of-function mutants that act in a dominant negative manner to impair endosomal trafficking, leading to prolonged extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 signaling downstream of ErbB activation. Mutation W116G in the LITAF decreases the stability of the protein and also interrupts the functioning of gene. We have analyzed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) results of 28 nsSNPs obtained from dbSNP. We also carried out multiple molecular dynamics simulations of 200 ns and obtained results of root-mean-square deviation, root-mean-square fluctuation, radius of gyration, solvent-accessible surface area, H-bond, and principal component analysis to check and prove the stability of both the wild type and the mutant. The protein was then checked for its aggregation and the results showed loss of helix. The loss of helix leads to the instability of the protein.
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Chilaiditi's syndrome.
Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Chilaidit's syndrome is a rare condition characterised by the interposition of the colon between the liver and the right hemidiaphragm. We present a case of 20-year-old male who reported with breathlessness and epigastric pain, and he was diagnosed radiologically to have Chilaiditi's syndrome.
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To Study the Prevalence of Premalignancies in Teenagers having Betel, Gutkha, Khaini, Tobacco Chewing, Beedi and Ganja Smoking Habit and Their Association with Social Class and Education Status.
Int J Clin Pediatr Dent
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Premalignant oral lesions are usually associated with noxious oral addiction habits. These habits are common in both, high as well as low socioeconomic status but education status of parent and patients significantly affects the development of noxious oral addictions. A total of 872 patients (cases and controls) were included in the study. Social class was determined as per modified Prasad's classification (1970) with price index correction of 2004. Prevalence of lichen planus, to be only 0.4 and 2.6% present in groups III and IV of cases, and submucous fibrosis (SMF) - stromal one lanocytic foci - was 2.4% in male (group III) whereas it was not found in female cases (group IV). Teenagers having higher frequency and longer duration of noxious habits were more prone for development of premalignant lesions. 0.6% of leukoplakia, 0.3% erythroplakia, 0.7% lichen planus and 0.7% submucous fibrosis were present in 872 observed patients of control and cases. How to cite this article: Srivastava VK. To Study the Prevalence of Premalignancies in Teenagers having Betel, Gutkha, Khaini, Tobacco Chewing, Beedi and Ganja Smoking Habit and Their Association with Social Class and Education Status. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):86-92.
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Diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging in thoracic outlet syndrome.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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PURPOSE. To evaluate the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). METHODS. Medical records of 30 women and 10 men aged 18 to 68 (mean, 38) years who presented with unilateral (n=35) and bilateral (n=5) TOS and underwent 42 surgical decompressions of the right (n=23) and left (n=19) sides were reviewed. MRI findings were compared with intra-operative findings to evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI. RESULTS. MRI findings correlated poorly with intra-operative findings. Of the 42 cases, MRI and intra-operative findings were matched in 17 and not matched in 25. MRI appeared normal but intra-operative findings were in fact positive for TOS in 23 of 24 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in diagnosing TOS were 41% and 33%, respectively, whereas its positive and negative predictive values were 89% and 4%, respectively. CONCLUSION. Sensitivity and specificity of MRI in diagnosing TOS are low. Diagnosis should be based on a holistic approach including history, clinical examination, and radiological findings.
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Insights into transcriptional regulation of ?-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase, an N-glycan-processing enzyme involved in ripening-associated fruit softening.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzyme, ?-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (?-Hex), plays an important role in the ripening-associated fruit-softening process. However, the regulation of fruit ripening-specific expression of ?-Hex is not well understood. We have identified and functionally characterized the fruit ripening-specific promoter of ?-Hex and provided insights into its transcriptional regulation during fruit ripening. Our results demonstrate that RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a global fruit ripening regulator, and ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING 1 (SlASR1), a poorly characterized ripening-related protein, are the transcriptional regulators of ?-Hex. Both RIN and SlASR1 directly bound to the ?-Hex promoter fragments containing CArG and C2-3(C/G)A cis-acting elements, the binding sites for RIN and SlASR1, respectively. Moreover, ?-Hex expression/promoter activity in tomato fruits was downregulated once expression of either RIN or SlASR1 was suppressed; indicating that RIN and SlASR1 positively regulate the transcription of ?-Hex during fruit ripening. Interestingly, RIN could also bind to the SlASR1 promoter, which contains several CArG cis-acting elements, and SlASR1 expression was suppressed in rin mutant fruits, indicating that RIN also acts as a positive regulator of SlASR1 expression during fruit ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that RIN, both directly and indirectly, through SlASR1, regulates the transcription of ?-Hex during fruit ripening. The fruit ripening-specific promoter of ?-Hex could be a useful tool in regulating gene expression during fruit ripening.
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Computational Analysis Reveals the Association of Threonine 118 Methionine Mutation in PMP22 Resulting in CMT-1A.
Adv Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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The T118M mutation in PMP22 gene is associated with Charcot Marie Tooth, type 1A (CMT1A). CMT1A is a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, the most common inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system. Mutations in CMT related disorder are seen to increase the stability of the protein resulting in the diseased state. We performed SNP analysis for all the nsSNPs of PMP22 protein and carried out molecular dynamics simulation for T118M mutation to compare the stability difference between the wild type protein structure and the mutant protein structure. The mutation T118M resulted in the overall increase in the stability of the mutant protein. The superimposed structure shows marked structural variation between the wild type and the mutant protein structures.
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Unilateral molariform macrodont mandibular second premolar: an unusual case report in a nonsyndromic patient.
J Clin Diagn Res
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth appears larger than normal. It can be generalized or isolated macrodontia. Isolated macrodontia involving premolar is very rare. This case report presents an unusual unilateral molarifrom macrodontia of mandibular second premolar.
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Retrospective Clinical Study of Marginal Bone Level Changes with Two Different Screw-Implant Types: Comparison Between Tissue Level (TE) and Bone Level (BL) Implant.
J Maxillofac Oral Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to compare the amount of marginal bone loss (MBL) in a bone-level and a soft-tissue-level implant system, both of which have similar intra-bony shape and surface composition. A subgroup analysis was done to compare the amount of MBL of each implant type in relation to the different vertical placement within the respective groups of implants.
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Acute methotrexate toxicity: a fatal condition in two cases of psoriasis.
Case Rep Dermatol Med
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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We describe two fatal cases of low dose methotrexate (MTX) toxicity in patients with psoriasis, emphasizing the factors that exacerbate MTX toxicity. The first patient was a 50-year-old male of psoriasis on intermittent treatment with MTX. After a treatment-free period of six months, he had self-medication of MTX along with analgesic for joint pain for one week which followed ulceration of the lesions, bone marrow suppression, and eventually death. The second patient was a 37-year-old male of psoriasis, who has taken MTX one week earlier without prior investigations. He had painful ulcerated skin lesions and bone marrow suppression. On investigations, he showed high creatinine level and atrophied, nonfunctioning right kidney on ultrasonography. In spite of dialysis, he succumbed to death. MTX is safe and effective if monitored properly, but inadvertent use may lead to even death also. Prior workup and proper counseling regarding the drug interactions as well as self-medication should be enforced.
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An oligomeric complex of BinA/BinB is not formed in-situ in mosquito-larvicidal Lysinibacillus sphaericus ISPC-8.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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Binary toxin of Lysinibacillus sphaericus is composed of two polypeptides; receptor binding BinB and toxic BinA. Both the polypeptides are required for maximal toxicity. It has been suggested that binary toxin exerts toxicity as a heterotetramer constituted by two copies of each of the component polypeptides. It has also been observed that oligomers consisting of two copies of BinA and BinB are pre-formed in L. sphaericus spore-crystals. However, recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli expression system elute individually as monomers. We purified the likely oligomeric complex from the spore-crystals of highly toxic L. sphaericus ISPC-8 strain and probed it with proteomic tools. The analysis showed that the high molecular mass complex in the toxic spore-crystals is composed of only surface layer protein (SlpC). The purified SlpC from the local isolate exists as a dimer and also showed poor mosquito-larvicidal activity.
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Innate lymphoid cells facilitate NK cell development through a lymphotoxin-mediated stromal microenvironment.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Natural killer (NK) cell development relies on signals provided from the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. It is thought that lymphotoxin (LT) ?1?2 expressed by the NK cell lineage interacts with BM stromal cells to promote NK cell development. However, we now report that a small number of ROR?t(+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), and not CD3(-)NK1.1(+) cells, express LT to drive NK development. Similar to LT(-/-) or ROR?t(-/-) mice, the mice conditionally lacking LT?1?2 on ROR?t(+) ILCs experience a developmental arrest at the immature NK stages, between stages of NK development to the mature NK cell stage. This developmental block results in a functional deficiency in the clearance of NK-sensitive tumor cells. Reconstitution of Thy1(+) ILCs from BM or purified ROR?t(+) ILCs from lamina propria lymphocytes into LT-deficient ROR?t(+) BM cultures rescues NK cell development. These data highlight a previously undiscovered role of ROR?t(+) ILCs for NK cell development and define LT from ILCs as an essential molecule for the stromal microenvironment supporting NK cell development.
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In vitro evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of calcium hydroxide in different vehicles.
J Int Soc Prev Community Dent
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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This study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide (CH) in different vehicles in an in vitro model.
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Left circumflex to right atrial coronary arterio-venous fistula - role of multimodality imaging for diagnosis.
Indian Heart J
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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We report an interesting case presenting with progressive dyspnea and palpitations. The patient underwent multimodal imaging procedures consisting of two dimensional echocardiography, MRI, cardiac catheterization and also a three dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic reconstruction. All the investigations taken together helped us in finally arriving at accurate anatomical diagnosis of a coronary AV fistula from the left circumflex artery to the right atrium. The patient finally underwent a successful non-surgical closure using an Amplatzer device. The role of three-dimensional echocardiographic evaluation in defining the anatomy for planning the treatment is emphasized.
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Development of protocol for the management of cervical cancer symptoms in resource-constrained developing countries.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy of women in economically emerging countries. Patients have distressing symptoms from presentation through follow-up or end of life. Cervical cancer imposes significant burden on health care system due to distressing symptoms and associated loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Multitude of drugs and surgical measures in various combinations can relieve these distressing symptoms and various clinical conditions. The protocols and guidelines for alleviation or relief of symptoms by general pharmacological and surgical measures form an important policy subject in planning cervical cancer management program. These protocol and guidelines are based on the mechanism of action of drugs, extrapolation from management of similar symptoms, and clinical situations arising out of other non-cancerous conditions and experience of health care professionals. Therefore, rigorous evaluation of effectiveness of supportive health care services in developing countries is the need of hour. However, evaluation of such protocol and guidelines are not feasible in emerging economies due to resource constraint. Industrialized affluent nations are also not able to implement and further support care guidelines despite its recognition as an integral part of multidisciplinary management of cancer. Aforementioned factors have created blind spot zone of management purview of cervical cancer. Hence, we attempt to develop protocol for management of adverse events of cervical cancer. Symptoms' and medical conditions' management guidelines evolved on the basis of empirical clinical practice in community and premier oncology centers in resource-constrained developing countries has been presented in this short report. This report should not be an end in itself but has to attract attention of policy-makers, academicians, researchers, and practitioners toward advancing supportive care needs of cancer patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).
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API5 confers tumoral immune escape through FGF2-dependent cell survival pathway.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Identifying immune escape mechanisms used by tumors may define strategies to sensitize them to immunotherapies to which they are otherwise resistant. In this study, we show that the antiapoptotic gene API5 acts as an immune escape gene in tumors by rendering them resistant to apoptosis triggered by tumor antigen-specific T cells. Its RNAi-mediated silencing in tumor cells expressing high levels of API5 restored antigen-specific immune sensitivity. Conversely, introducing API5 into API5(low) cells conferred immune resistance. Mechanistic investigations revealed that API5 mediated resistance by upregulating FGF2 signaling through a FGFR1/PKC?/ERK effector pathway that triggered degradation of the proapoptotic molecule BIM. Blockade of FGF2, PKC?, or ERK phenocopied the effect of API5 silencing in tumor cells expressing high levels of API5 to either murine or human antigen-specific T cells. Our results identify a novel mechanism of immune escape that can be inhibited to potentiate the efficacy of targeted active immunotherapies.
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Comparative evaluation of thickness of jaw-closing muscles in patients with long-standing bilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis: a retrospective case-controlled study.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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The aim of the study was to compare the thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) of masseter and medial pterygoid muscles in young patients with long-standing bilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis (bTMJA) in relation to controls.
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Mutation profiling in gallbladder cancer in Indian population.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Gallbladder cancer is an aggressive malignancy usually diagnosed at late stage. The molecular genetics of this cancer is heterogeneous and not well established. Mutation profiling of gallbladder cancer was performed through massarray technology with an aim to identify molecular markers involved in the tumor pathogenesis that can be helpful as markers for early diagnosis and targets for therapy.
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Mutational analysis of FUS gene and its structural and functional role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 6.
J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 6 (ALS6) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by heterozygous mutation in the Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) gene. ALS6 is a neurodegenerative disorder, which affects the upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in fatal paralysis. ALS6 is caused by the genetic mutation in the proline/tyrosine-nuclear localization signals of the Fused in sarcoma Protein (FUS). FUS gene also known as TLS (Translocated in liposarcoma), which encodes a protein called RNA-binding protein-Fus (FUS), has a molecular weight of 75?kDa. In this analysis, we applied computational approach to filter the most deleterious and neurodegenerative disease of ALS6-associated mutation on FUS protein. We found H517Q as most deleterious and disease associated using PolyPhen 2.0, I-Mutant 3.0, SIFT, SNPs&GO, PhD-SNP, Pmut, and Mutpred tools. Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) approach was conducted to investigate conformational changes in the mutant protein structure with respect to its native conformation. MDS results showed the flexibility loss in mutant (H517Q) FUS protein. Due to mutation, FUS protein became more rigid in nature and might alter the structural and functional behavior of protein and play a major role in inducing ALS6. The results obtained from this investigation would help in the field of pharmacogenomics to develop a potent drug target against FUS-associated neurodegenerative diseases.
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Investigation of amino acid conjugates of (S)-1-[1-(4-aminobenzoyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-6-sulfonyl]-4-phenyl-imidazolidin-2-one (DW2282) as water soluble anticancer prodrugs.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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The amino acid-conjugates (1a-k) with eleven amino acids attached to primary amine of (S)-1-[1-(4-aminobenzoyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-6-sulfonyl]-4-phenyl-imidazolidin-2-one (DW2282, 1) were prepared and studied for their prodrug characteristics and anti-cancer activity against SW620 cell line. All the amino acid derivatives showed not only improved water solubility but also displayed potent anti-cancer activity in vitro. Among these amino acid-conjugates the compounds, DW2282-L-Ala (1b), DW2282-L-Phe (1e), DW2282-L-Leu (1g) and DW2282-L-Met (1h) showed good reconversion within 8 h (104.76%, 84.03%, 95.02% and 78.34%, respectively) to the parent drug in human plasma. In addition, the compounds 1e, 1g and 1j also showed good bioavailability profile along with potent in vivo anticancer activity.
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One-pot cascade trifluoromethylation/cyclization of imides: synthesis of ?-trifluoromethylated amine derivatives.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Tryptamine- and phenethylamine-derived imides were selectively monotrifluoromethylated using CF3TMS. Subsequent methanesulfonic acid mediated cyclization of the intermediate hemiaminals afforded the ?-trifluoromethylated amine derivatives via the formation of trifluoromethylated acyliminium ions, in one pot. The strategy was applicable to the both inter- and intramolecular versions. Furthermore, the utility of the present method was demonstrated through the synthesis of trifluoromethylated analogues of harmicine and crispine A.
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Enhancement in hydrogen production by thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge--optimization of treatment conditions.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Batch dry-thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and sewage sludge (SS) for hydrogen production was studied under several sludge combinations (primary sludge, PS; waste activated sludge, WAS; and mixed sludge, MS), TS concentrations (10-25%) and mixing ratios of OFMSW and SS (1:1, 2.5:1, 5:1, 10:1). The co-digestion of OFMSW and SS showed a 70% improvement in hydrogen production rate over the OFMSW fermentation only. The co-digestion of OFMSW with MS showed 47% and 115% higher hydrogen production potential as compared with OFMSW+PS and OFMSW+WAS, respectively. The maximum hydrogen yield of 51 mL H2/g VS consumed was observed at TS concentration of 20% and OFMSW to MS mixing ratio of 5:1, respectively. The acetic and butyric acids were the main acids in VFAs evolution; however, the higher butyric acid evolution indicated that the H2 fermentation was butyrate type fermentation.
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Cypermethrin induces astrocyte damage: role of aberrant Ca(2+), ROS, JNK, P38, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and migration related reelin protein.
Pestic Biochem Physiol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Cypermethrin is a synthetic type II pyrethroid, derived from a natural pyrethrin of the chrysanthemum plant. Cypermethrin-mediated neurotoxicity is well studied; however, relatively less is known of its effect on astrocyte development and migration. Astrocytes are the major components of blood brain barrier (BBB), and astrocyte damage along with BBB dysfunction impair the tight junction (TJ) proteins resulting in altered cell migration and neurodegeneration. Here, we studied the mechanism of cypermethin mediated rat astrocyte damage and BBB disruption, and determined any change in expression of proteins associated with cell migration. Through MTT assay we found that cypermethrin reduced viability of cultured rat astrocytes. Immunolabelling with astrocyte marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, revealed alteration in astrocyte morphology. The astrocytes demonstrated an enhanced release of intracellular Ca(++) and ROS, and up-regulation in p-JNK and p-P38 levels in a time-dependent manner. Cypermethrin disrupted the BBB (in vivo) in developing rats and attenuated the expression of the extracellular matrix molecule (ECM) and claudin-5 in cultured astrocytes. We further observed an augmentation in the levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), known to modulate cellular migration and disrupt the developmental ECM and BBB. We observed an increase in the levels of reelin, involved in cell migration, in cultured rat astrocytes. The reelin receptor, ?3?1integrin, and a mammalian cytosolic protein Disabled1 (Dab1) were also up-regulated. Overall, our study demonstrates that cypermethrin induces astrocyte injury via modulation in Ca(++), ROS, JNK and P38 pathways, which may alter MMP expression and reelin dependent astrocyte migration during brain development.
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Hairy Root Induction in Helicteres isora L. and Production of Diosgenin in Hairy Roots.
Nat Prod Bioprospect
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Mature seeds of Helicteres isora L. were collected from seven geographical locations of Maharashtra and Goa (India) and evaluated for diosgenin (a bioactive steroidal sapogenin of prime importance) extraction and quantification. Chemotypic variations were evidenced with diosgenin quantity ranging from 33 ?g g(-1) seeds (Osmanabad forests) to 138 ?g g(-1) (Khopoli region). Nodal and leaf explants from in vitro-raised seedlings were used for callus and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, respectively. Compact, hard, whitish-green callus (2.65 g explant(-1)) was obtained on MS + 13.32 ?M BAP + 2.32 ?M Kin after 30 days of inoculation. Various parameters including types of explant and Agrobacterium strain, culture density, duration of infection and various medium compositions were optimized for hairy root production. A. rhizogenes strain ATCC-15834 successfully induced hairy roots from leaf explants (1 cm(2)) with 42 % efficiency. Transgenic status of the roots was confirmed by PCR using rolB and VirD specific primers. Hairy roots showed an ability to synthesize diosgenin. Diosgenin yield was increased ~8 times in hairy roots and ~5 times in callus than the seeds of wild plants. Enhanced diosgenin content was associated with proline accumulation in hairy roots. This is the first report on induction of hairy roots in H. isora.
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Genetic analysis in Bartter syndrome from India.
Indian J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Bartter syndrome is a group of inherited, salt-losing tubulopathies presenting as hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with normotensive hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronism. Around 150 cases have been reported in literature till now. Mutations leading to salt losing tubulopathies are not routinely tested in Indian population. The authors have done the genetic analysis for the first time in the Bartter syndrome on two cases from India. First case was antenatal Bartter syndrome presenting with massive polyuria and hyperkalemia. Mutational analysis revealed compound heterozygous mutations in KCNJ1(ROMK) gene [p(Leu220Phe), p(Thr191Pro)]. Second case had a phenotypic presentation of classical Bartter syndrome however, genetic analysis revealed only heterozygous novel mutation in SLC12A gene p(Ala232Thr). Bartter syndrome is a clinical diagnosis and genetic analysis is recommended for prognostication and genetic counseling.
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Immunolocalization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in ovarian follicles of the catfish, Clarias batrachus and its relation with ovarian activity.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Nitric oxide, a gaseous molecule, is produced during the conversion of arginine to citrulline by the action of NOS isoforms (eNOS, iNOS or nNOS). Role of NO in regulation of mammalian reproduction is well established; however, practically no report is available on fishes. Hence, in the present study, expression of all three isoforms of NOS was worked out in the ovary of Clarias batrachus immunohistochemically during different phases of its reproductive cycle and its relation with ovarian activities. No immunoreactivity of eNOS was observed in the ovary of C. batrachus during the late-quiescence and early-recrudescence phases. While during the recrudescence phase (April and May) it expressed intensely in thecal and granulosa cells of the oocyte-II and III, but immune-intensity decreased in the late-recrudescence and spawning phases (June and July). Similar pattern of immunoprecipitation was also observed in case of iNOS. However, the immunoreactivity pattern of nNOS was quite varied, it expressed moderately only in the nucleus and cytoplasm of perinuclear and oocyte-I stages during late-quiescence phase. While during the early recrudescence phase, the expression of nNOS disappeared completely from the nucleus and cytoplasm, rather it expressed intensely in the thecal and granulosa cells, which declined in the late-recrudescence and spawning phases. Moderate immunoreactivity of iNOS could also be localized in the zona radiata of ovulated oocyte. The intense NOS immunoreactivity in the thecal and granulosa cells coincided with increased levels of ovarian NO and 17?-estradiol content. They exhibited statistically significant positive correlation amongst themselves, suggesting the involvement of ovarian NOS/NO system in oogenesis and steroidogenesis in the catfish.
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Importance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for hard tissues (bone, teeth) and other calcified tissue materials.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a sensitive optical technique capable of fast multielemental analysis proved to be a versatile tool in different applications. It became visible in the analytical atomic spectroscopy scene in the late 1980s and since then, its applications having been developed continuously in different field of science and technology including biomedical science. Here, we review the use and importance of LIBS for trace element determination in different calcified tissue materials. In this article, we have also reported a comprehensive review of the recent progress of biomedical applications of LIBS.
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Chemically coupled microwave and ultrasonic pre-hydrolysis of pulp and paper mill waste-activated sludge: effect on sludge solubilisation and anaerobic digestion.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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The effects of alkali-enhanced microwave (MW; 50-175 °C) and ultrasonic (US) (0.75 W/mL, 15-60 min) pretreatments, on solubilisation and subsequent anaerobic digestion efficiency of pulp and paper mill waste-activated sludge, were investigated. Improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilisation were limited to 33 and 39 % in MW pretreatment only (175 °C). It reached 78 and 66 % in combined MW-alkali pretreatment (pH 12?+?175 °C), respectively. Similarly, chemical oxygen demand and VSS solubilisation were 58 and 37 % in US pretreatment alone (60 min) and it improved by 66 and 49 % after US-alkali pretreatment (pH 12?+?60 min), respectively. The biogas yield for US 60 min-alkali (pH 12)-pretreated sludge was significantly improved by 47 and 20 % over the control and US 60 reactors, respectively. The biogas generation for MW (150 °C)-alkali (pH 12)-pretreated sludge was only 6.3 % higher than control; however, it was 8.3 % lower than the MW (150 °C) reactor, which was due to the inhibition of anaerobic activity under harsh thermal-alkali treatment condition.
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NKG2D ligation relieves 2B4-mediated NK-cell self-tolerance in mice.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Along with MHC class I (MHCI), 2B4 provides nonredundant NK-cell inhibition in mice. The immunoregulatory role of 2B4 has been increasingly appreciated in models of tumor and viral infection, however, the interactions among 2B4, MHCI, and other activating NK-cell receptors remain uncertain. Here, we dissect the influence of two distinct inhibitory pathways in modulating NK-cell-mediated control of tumors expressing strong activating ligands, including RAE-1?. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo peritoneal clearance assays using MHCI(+) CD48(+) (RMA-neo), MHCI(+) CD48(+) RAE-1? (RMA-RAE-1?), MHCI(-) CD48(+) (RMA-S-neo), and MHCI(-) CD48(+) RAE-1? (RMA-S-RAE-1?) tumor lines demonstrated that NKG2D activation supersedes the inhibitory effect of both 2B4- and MHCI-mediated immune-tolerance systems. Furthermore, 2B4KO mice subcutaneously challenged with RMA-neo and RMA-S-neo exhibited reduced tumor growth and significantly prolonged survival compared with WT mice, implying that 2B4 is constitutively engaged in the NK-cell tolerance mechanism in vivo. Nevertheless, the inhibitory effect of 2B4 is significantly attenuated when NK cells encountered highly stressed tumor cells expressing RAE-1?, resulting in an immune response shift toward NK-cell activation and tumor regression. Therefore, our data highlight the importance of the 2B4-mediated inhibitory system as an alternate self-tolerance mechanism, whose role can be modulated by the strength of activating receptor signaling within the tumor microenvironment.
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Rhodovulum salis sp. nov. and Rhodovulum viride sp. nov., phototrophic Alphaproteobacteria isolated from marine habitats.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Two strains (JA746(T) and JA756(T)) having yellowish brown-to-green pigment were isolated from a solar saltern and a pink pond, respectively. While both strains were non-motile and shared the presence of bacteriochlorophyll-a, major cellular fatty acids (C18?:?1?7c, C16?:?0, C18?:?0), quinone (Q-10), polar lipids and hopanoids, they differed from each other in their carotenoid composition. The G+C content of genomic DNA of strains JA746(T) and 756(T) was 62.4 and 63.3 mol%, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene-based EzTaxon-e blast search analysis of strains JA746(T) and 756(T) indicated highest sequence similarity with members of the genus Rhodovulum in the family Rhodobacteraceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria. Strain JA746(T) has high sequence similarities with Rhodovulum visakhapatnamense JA181(T) (97.3?%), Rhodovulum steppense A-20s(T) (97.3?%), Rhodovulum phaeolacus JA580(T) (97?%), Rhodovulum strictum MB-G2(T) (97?%) and other members of the genus Rhodovulum (<97?%). Strain JA756(T) has high sequence similarities with Rhodovulum visakhapatnamense JA181(T) (99.8?%), Rhodovulum sulfidophilum Hansen W4(T) (99.1?%), Rhodovulum kholense JA297(T) (97.9?%) and other members of the genus Rhodovulum (<97?%). The sequence similarity between strains JA746(T) and JA756(T) was 97.5?%. However, these strains are not closely related to each other or to their phylogenetic neighbours since the DNA-DNA reassociation values were less than 56?%. The genomic information was also supported by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic results, leading us to classify strains JA746(T) (?=?NBRC 108898(T)?=?KCTC 15180(T)) and JA756(T) (?=?NBRC 109122(T)?=?KCTC 15223(T)) as the type strains of two novel species of the genus Rhodovulum, for which the names Rhodovulum salis sp. nov. and Rhodovulum viride sp. nov. are proposed, respectively.
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In Silico Assay Development for Screening of Tetracyclic Triterpenoids as Anticancer Agents against Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF7.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Experimental activity of a compound on cancer cell line/target is mostly analyzed in the form of percentage inhibition at different concentration gradient and time of incubation. In this study a statistical model has been developed referred as in silico assay using support vector regression model, which can act with change in concentration gradient and time of incubation. This model is a function of concentration gradient, treatment hour and independent components; which calculate the percentage inhibition in combination of above three components. This model is designed to screen tetracyclic triterpenoids active against human breast cancer cell line MCF7. The model has been statistically validated, checked for applicability domain and predicted results were reconfirmed by MTT assay, for example Oenotheranstrol derivatives, OenA & B. Computational SAR, target and docking studies were performed to understand the cytotoxic mechanism of action of Oenotheranstrol compounds. The proposed in silico assay model will work for specific chemical family for which it will be optimized. This model can be used to analyze growth kinetics pattern on different human cancer cell lines for designed compounds.
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A novel approach for detail-enhanced exposure fusion using guided filter.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this paper we propose a novel detail-enhancing exposure fusion approach using nonlinear translation-variant filter (NTF). With the captured Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) images under different exposure settings, first the fine details are extracted based on guided filter. Next, the base layers (i.e., images obtained from NTF) across all input images are fused using multiresolution pyramid. Exposure, contrast, and saturation measures are considered to generate a mask that guides the fusion process of the base layers. Finally, the fused base layer is combined with the extracted fine details to obtain detail-enhanced fused image. The goal is to preserve details in both very dark and extremely bright regions without High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) representation and tone mapping step. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the proposed method is also suitable for the multifocus image fusion without introducing artifacts.
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Open surgical approach to a maxillary impacted canine: a case report.
Int J Orthod Milwaukee
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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Palatally impacted permanent maxillary canines are a relatively common dental anomaly mandating surgical exposure before moving them orthodontically into correct alignment. The open technique for exposing these palatal canines involves their orthodontic movement into its correct position above the palatal mucosa in contrast to the closed approach in which canine is moved beneath the palatal mucosa. This case report describes the orthodontic eruption of a palatally impacted canine in a 22-year-old female using open surgical approach.
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High-Performance Nanothermite Composites Based on Aloe-Vera-Directed CuO Nanorods.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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In this work, we demonstrate the development of high-performance nanothermite composites derived from super-reactive CuO nanorods oxidizers fabricated by simple biogenic routes using Aloe vera plant extracts. Nanorods of various length scales have been realized via simple sonoemulsion and solid-state biosynthesis routes using Aloe vera gel as a green surfactant promoting the directional growth of CuO nanorods in both solid and emulsion phase. The biosynthesized CuO nanorods (oxidizers)/fuel (nanoaluminum) composites ignited vigorously with abundant gas generation, developing high heat of reaction of 1.66 kJ g(-1) and very high pressurization rate of around 1.09 MPa ?s(-1) and peak pressure of 65.4 MPa when blasted inside a constant volume pressure cell with a charge density of 0.2 g cm(-3). The pressurization rates so obtained are four times higher with twice the peak pressure in comparison to such nanothermites formulated via other available state of the art wet-chemical techniques, which reflects the catalytic role of Aloe vera surface functional groups (A. vera-sfg) enhancing the reactivity of CuO oxidizers with excess gas release rate during exothermic reaction with nanoaluminum. Through this work, Aloe vera gel has for the first time been identified as a novel biotemplate for green synthesis of nanorod structures of metal oxides, and we have also studied the utility of A. vera-sfg in the creation of super-reactive CuO oxidizers producing excellent heat of reaction and dynamic pressure characteristics as demanded in propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics.
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Cost-effectiveness analysis of cochlear dose reduction by proton beam therapy for medulloblastoma in childhood.
J. Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of proton beam therapy with cochlear dose reduction compared with conventional X-ray radiotherapy for medulloblastoma in childhood. Methods: We developed a Markov model to describe health states of 6-year-old children with medulloblastoma after treatment with proton or X-ray radiotherapy. The risks of hearing loss were calculated on cochlear dose for each treatment. Three types of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of EQ-5D, HUI3 and SF-6D were used for estimation of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for proton beam therapy compared with X-ray radiotherapy was calculated for each HRQOL. Sensitivity analyses were performed to model uncertainty in these parameters. Results: The ICER for EQ-5D, HUI3 and SF-6D were $21 716/QALY, $11 773/QALY, and $20 150/QALY, respectively. One-way sensitivity analyses found that the results were sensitive to discount rate, the risk of hearing loss after proton therapy, and costs of proton irradiation. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis revealed a 99% probability of proton therapy being cost effective at a societal willingness-to-pay value. Conclusions: Proton beam therapy with cochlear dose reduction improves health outcomes at a cost that is within the acceptable cost-effectiveness range from the payers standpoint.
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Congenital cheek teratoma with temporo-mandibular joint ankylosis managed with ultra-thin silicone sheet interpositional arthroplasty.
Natl J Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Primary cheek teratomas are rare with < 5 reported cases. None had associated temporo mandibular joint ankylosis (TMJA). The fundamental aim in the treatment of TMJA is the successful surgical resection of ankylotic bone, prevention of recurrence, and aesthetic improvement by ensuring functional occlusion. Early treatment is necessary to promote proper growth and function of mandible and to facilitate the positive psychological development of child. Inter-positional arthroplasty with ultra-thin silicone sheet was performed. Advantages include short operative time, less foreign material in the joint space leading to negligible foreign body reactions and least chances of implant extrusion. Instead of excising a large bony segment, a thin silicone sheet was interposed and then sutured ensuring preservation of mandibular height. Aggressive post-operative physiotherapy with custom made dynamic jaw exerciser was used to prevent recurrence.
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Differences in the expression and sensitivity of cultured rat brain neuronal and glial cells toward the monocrotophos.
Toxicol Int
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Inducible expressions cytochrome P450s (CYPs) against environmental chemicals in brain tissues of experimental animals is well-documented. However, the precise role of specific brain cell type in the metabolism of different class of xenobiotics has not been explored adequately. We study the expression of selected CYPs (1A1/1A2, 2B1/2B2, 2E1) in primary cultures of rat brain neuronal and glial cell exposed to an organophosphate pesticide-monocrotophos (MCP), a known neurotoxicant. The cultured neurons and glial cells express significant expression of CYP1A1, 2B2 and 2E1 isoenzymes, where the levels were comparatively higher in neuronal cells. Neuronal cells exhibited greater induction of CYP2E1 against MCP exposure, while glial cells were having more vulnerability for CYP1A and 2B isoenzymes. Similarly, cells were showing substrate specific responses against the specific inducers of CYPs, that is, ethanol (2E1), cyclophosphamide (2B1/2B2), 3-methylcholanthrene (1A1/1A2). The altered expression and activity of selected CYPs in cultured neuronal and glial cells could be helpful in explaining the association between MCP-induced neurotoxicity/metabolism and synthesis or transport of the neurotransmitters. The induction of CYPs in glial cells may also have significance as these cells are thought to be involved in protecting the neurons from environmental insults and safeguard them from toxicity. The differential expression pattern of CYPs in neuronal and glial cells exposed to MCP also indicate the selective sensitivity of these cells against the xenobiotics, hence suggested their suitability as tool to screen neurotoxicity potential of variety of xenobiotics.
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Cloning, in silico characterization and prediction of three dimensional structure of SbDof1, SbDof19, SbDof23 and SbDof24 proteins from Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].
Mol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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In the present study, four full-length Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) genes from Sorghum bicolor namely SbDof1, SbDof19, SbDof23, and SbDof24 were PCR amplified, gel eluted, cloned, and sequenced (accession number HQ540084, HQ540085, HQ540086, and HQ540087, respectively). These sequences were further characterized in silico by subjecting them to homology search, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction, and protein functional analysis, revealing their identity to Dof like proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned SbDof genes along with other reported Dof proteins revealed existence of two major groups A and B, while group A was further bifurcated into two sub-groups (viz., I and II). Motif scan analysis of SbDof proteins revealed the presence of glycine- and alanine-rich profiles in SbDof1, while proline-rich profile was observed in SbDof23. Asparagines, methionine, and serine-rich profiles were common in case of both SbDof19 and SbDof24 proteins. The three dimensional structures of SbDof proteins were predicted by I-TASSER server based on multiple threading method. The modeled structures were refined by energy minimization and their stereo chemical qualities were validated by PROCHECK and QMEAN server indicating the acceptability of the predicted models. The final models were submitted to PMDB database with assigned PMDB IDs, i.e., PM0077395, PM0077396, PM0077397, PM0077398, and PM0076448 for SbDof1, SbDof19, SbDof23, SbDof24, and Dof domain, respectively. Based on gene ontology (GO) terms in I-TASSER server putative functions of modeled SbDof proteins were also predicted.
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In vitro phytotherapy of vector snails by binary combinations of larvicidal active components in effective control of fascioliasis.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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A food-borne trematode infection fascioliasis is one among common public health problems worldwide. It caused a great economic loss for the human race. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. The life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria inside of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. In vitro toxicity of different binary combinations (1:1 ratio) of plant-derived larvicidal active components such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin and allicin against Fasciola redia and cercaria were tested. The mortality of larvae was observed at 2h, 4h, 6h and 8h of treatment. In in vitro condition azadirachtin + allicin (1:1 ratio) was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8h LC50 0.006 and 0.005 mg/L). Toxicity of citral + ferulic acid was lowest against redia and cercaria larvae.
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Potential opportunities to reduce cervical cancer by addressing risk factors other than HPV.
J Gynecol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in developing world and 80% of global burden is reported from these nations. Human papillomavirus along with poverty, illiteracy/lower education level and standards, multi-parity, tobacco, malnutrition and poor genital hygiene may act synergistically to cause cervical cancer. Risk factor of cervical cancer may in itself be the reason for non-viability of cervical cancer vaccine program in this part of the world. Interventions to address these risk factors in addition to vaccination of girls before their sexual debut may hold promises of reducing the morbidity and mortality of female genital cancers.
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Influence of human lactoferrin expression on iron homeostasis, flavonoids, and antioxidants in transgenic tobacco.
Mol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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This study was aimed at to check the influence of human lactoferrin (hLF) expression on iron homeostasis, flavonoids, and antioxidants in transgenic tobacco. Transgenic tobacco expressing hLF cDNA under the control of a CaMV 35S promoter was produced. The iron content as well as chlorophyll content of transgenic tobacco was lower compared to mock and untransformed wild plants. Interestingly, hLF transgenic tobacco showed higher level of transcript expression for genes related to iron content regulation like iron transporter and metal transporter. While expression of genes related to iron storage such as ferritin 1 and ferritin 2 was downregulated. The transcript expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase was downregulated in hLF transgenic tobacco compared to controls. Further, the transcript expression of two important genes encoding dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase regulatory enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was analyzed. The expression of DFR was found to be downregulated, while PAL expression was upregulated in hLF transgenic tobacco compared to mock and untransformed wild plant. Total phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins contents were found to be higher in hLF transgenic tobacco than the mock and untransformed wild plant. Results suggest that hLF expression in transgenic tobacco leads to iron deficiency, downregulation of antioxidant enzymes, and increase in total flavonoids.
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Molecularly imprinted polymer coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and injector port silylation: A novel approach for the determination of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in complex biological samples using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectromet
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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A novel analytical approach based on molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), and injector port silylation (IPS) has been developed for the selective preconcentration, derivatization and analysis of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in complex biological samples such as rat blood and liver. Factors affecting the synthesis of MIP were evaluated and the best monomer and cross-linker were selected based on binding affinity studies. Various parameters of MISPE, DLLME and IPS were optimized for the selective preconcentration and derivatization of 3-PBA. The developed method offers a good linearity over the calibration range of 0.02-2.5ngmg(-1) and 7.5-2000ngmL(-1) for liver and blood respectively. Under optimized conditions, the recovery of 3-PBA in liver and blood samples were found to be in the range of 83-91%. The detection limit was found to be 0.0045ngmg(-1) and 1.82ngmL(-1) in liver and blood respectively. SRM transition of 271?227 and 271?197 has been selected as quantifier and qualifier transition for 3-PBA derivative. Intra and inter-day precision for five replicates in a day and for five, successive days was found to be less than 8%. The method developed was successfully applied to real samples, i.e. rat blood and tissue for quantitative evaluation of 3-PBA. The analytical approach developed is rapid, economic, simple, eco-friendly and possess immense utility for the analysis of analytes with polar functional groups in complex biological samples by GC-MS/MS.
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Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick for rapid and simple detection of classical swine fever virus in the field.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease and may cause heavy economic loss to farmers. The rapid, simple and accurate diagnosis of the disease at the frontline, for example on the farms of concern is crucial for disease control. This study describes the development and evaluation of a new loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay coupled with lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for the detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). This RT-LAMP-LFD assay combines the efficient one-step isothermal amplification of CSF viral RNA and the simplicity of the LFD to read the results within two to five minutes. Seven genotypes (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 and 3.1), but not genotype 3.4, were successfully detected by the RT-LAMP-LFD assay, indicating that the method has a broad range of detection and can be applied in different geographical areas where CSFV strains belonging to these genotypes are present. The performance of this RT-LAMP-LFD assay was similar to that of the real-time RT-PCR. The analytical sensitivity was about 100copies per reaction when testing two genotypes (1.1 and 2.3). No cross-reactivity to non-CSFV pestiviruses was observed. This RT-LAMP-LFD assay can be a useful novel tool for the rapid, simple and economic diagnosis of classical swine fever in the field.
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Predictors of mortality of extremely low birthweight babies in a tertiary care centre of a developing country.
Postgrad Med J
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Perinatal care has changed dramatically over last decade contributing to improved survival of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) babies.
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Proteomic Identification of Syzygium cumini Seed Extracts by MALDI-TOF/MS.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Syzygium cumini is traditionally used medicinal plant. The different part of the plant such as bark, leaves, seed and fruits are widely used as an alternative medicine in various diseases. Although the scientific community has a strong interest on S. cumini seed biochemistry focusing on metabolite composition, proteins have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we have applied a proteomic approach to study the proteome of the S. cumini seed using phenol extraction method for protein isolation, which were never analysed before. Fifteen brightly silver stained protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry after resolving on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These proteins have been found to involve in various functions such as antifungal, sulphur metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, fruit ripening and softening, dormancy breaking and seed germination, hormone signalling, secondary metabolite transport, defence and stress response, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis and stabilization. Amongst the identified protein, lactoferrin was a mammalian origin protein with high nutritious and pharmaceutical value, which was purified by different types of chromatographic techniques and confirmed by western blotting. The antibacterial activity of lactoferrin was assessed by disc diffusion assay. We suggest that the protein constituents of S. cumini may have role in various functions required for plant physiology and its dietary values.
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5-[(4-Benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)meth-yl]-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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In the title compound, C24H20N4, the azepine ring adopts a boat conformation and the dihedral angle between the benzene rings fused to it is 57.95?(8)°. The bond-angle sum at the azepine N atom is 346.6°, indicating a significant deviation from planarity. The triazole ring subtends a dihedral angle of 71.45?(10)° with the terminal phenyl group. A weak intra-molecular C-H?Na (a = azepine) inter-action occurs, which closes an S(6) ring.
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Effect of hydrogen peroxide mouthwash as an adjunct to chlorhexidine on stains and plaque.
J Indian Soc Periodontol
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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To investigate whether the use of an oxidizing mouth rinse as an adjunct to chlorhexidine is efficacious in reducing stains and plaque.
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Comparative proteomics reveals association of early accumulated proteins in conferring butachlor tolerance in three N2-fixing Anabaena spp.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Butachlor an extensively used rice field herbicide negatively affects the cyanobacterial proliferation, yet the molecular mechanism underlying its toxicity in diazotrophic cyanobacteria is largely unknown. The present study focuses on the comparative proteomics to decode the molecular basis of butachlor toxicity/tolerance in three Anabaena species e.g. Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Anabaena doliolum and Anabaena L31. 75 differentially expressed proteins from each Anabaena sp. included those involved in photosynthesis, C, N and protein metabolism, redox homeostasis, and signal transduction. While early accumulated proteins related to photosynthesis (atpA, atpB), carbon metabolism (glpx, fba and prk), protein folding (groEL, PPIase), regulation (orrA) and other function (OR, akr) appeared crucial for tolerance of Anabaena L31, the late accumulated proteins in Anabaena 7120 presumably offer acclimation during prolonged exposure to butachlor. Contrary to the above, a multitude of down-accumulated proteins vis-a-vis metabolisms augment sensitivity of A. doliolum to butachlor. A cluster of high abundant proteins (atpA, groEL, OR, AGTase, Alr0803, Alr0806, Alr3090, Alr3199, All4050 and All4051) common across the three species may be taken as markers for butachlor tolerance and deserve exploitation for stress management and transgenic development.
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Agonist Leukadherin-1 Increases CD11b/CD18-Dependent Adhesion Via Membrane Tethers.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Integrin CD11b/CD18 is a key adhesion receptor that mediates leukocyte migration and immune functions. Leukadherin-1 (LA1) is a small molecule agonist that enhances CD11b/CD18-dependent cell adhesion to its ligand ICAM-1. Here, we used single-molecule force spectroscopy to investigate the biophysical mechanism by which LA1-activated CD11b/CD18 mediates leukocyte adhesion. Between the two distinct populations of CD11b/CD18:ICAM-1 complex that participate in cell adhesion, the cytoskeleton(CSK)-anchored elastic elements and the membrane tethers, we found that LA1 enhanced binding of CD11b/CD18 on K562 cells to ICAM-1 via the formation of long membrane tethers, whereas Mn(2+) additionally increased ICAM-1 binding via CSK-anchored bonds. LA1 activated wild-type and LFA1(-/-) neutrophils also showed longer detachment distances and time from ICAM-1-coated atomic force microscopy tips, but significantly lower detachment force, as compared to the Mn(2+)-activated cells, confirming that LA1 primarily increased membrane-tether bonds to enhance CD11b/CD18:ICAM-1 binding, whereas Mn(2+) induced additional CSK-anchored bond formation. The results suggest that the two types of agonists differentially activate integrins and couple them to the cellular machinery, providing what we feel are new insights into signal mechanotransduction by such agents.
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Variations in biliary ductal and hepatic vascular anatomy and their relevance to the surgical management of choledochal cysts.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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An aberrant biliary ductal and vascular anatomy presents a technical challenge for choledochal cyst (CDC) surgery. Mismanagement may have unfavourable implications. This study highlights the spectrum, approach to their identification and management.
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Overexpression of CsANR increased flavan-3-ols and decreased anthocyanins in transgenic tobacco.
Mol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols are distributed widely in plants and synthesized by a common biosynthetic pathway. Anthocyanin reductase (ANR) represents branching-point enzyme of this pathway converting anthocyanidins to flavan-3-ols. Since tea contains highest amount of flavonoids, a cDNA encoding anthocyanin reductase from tea (CsANR) was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco to check the influence on anthocyanin and flavan-3-ols. The transgenic tobacco was confirmed by genomic PCR and expression of transgene was analyzed through semiquantitative PCR. Interestingly flowers of transgenic tobacco were light pink/white in color instead of dark pink in wild tobacco, documenting the decrease in anthocyanins content. Upon measurement, flower anthocyanin content was found to be lesser. While flavan-3-ols (epicatechin and epigallocatechin) contents were increased in leaf tissue of transgenic lines. The expressions of other endogenous flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes in different floral parts (sepal, petal, stamen, and carpel) of CsANR overexpressing tobacco as well as wild tobacco were analyzed. The transcript levels of PAL and CHI genes were downregulated, while transcript levels of F3H, FLS, CHS, ANR1, and ANR2 genes were upregulated in all floral parts of CsANR transgenic plants compared to wild tobacco. The expressions of DFR and ANS genes were also spatially modulated in different floral parts due to overexpression of CsANR. Thus, CsANR overexpression increased flavan-3-ols and decreased anthocyanin content by modulating the expressions of various flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes in flower of tobacco. These changes might be responsible for the observed pollen tube in the pollens of CsANR overexpressing transgenic tobacco when they were still in the anther before pollination.
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Multidisciplinary approach to the rehabilitation in management of child with early childhood caries: a case report.
J Clin Diagn Res
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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The aesthetic requirement of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in case of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) has been a challenge to paediatric dentists. ECC involves the upper anterior teeth early in life and by the time the dentist sees the child, most of the coronal structure is lost. This article presents the clinical sequence of rehabilitation of maxillary anterior primary teeth, and the mandibular posterior teeth.
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Anticancer activity of essential oils: a review.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
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Natural essential oil constituents play an important role in cancer prevention and treatment. Essential oil constituents from aromatic herbs and dietary plants include monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes and phenolics among others. Various mechanisms such antioxidant, antimutagenic and antiproliferative, enhancement of immune function and surveillance, enzyme induction and enhancing detoxification, modulation of multidrug resistance and synergistic mechanism of volatile constituents are responsible for their chemopreventive properties. This review covers the most recent literature to summarize structural categories and molecular anticancer mechanisms of constituents from aromatic herbs and dietary plants. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
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Vascular endothelial growth factor single-nucleotide polymorphism in gall bladder cancer.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Angiogenesis plays a key role in growth, progression, and metastasis of various cancers. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphism has been associated with several cancers. Role of VEGF has not been reported in gallbladder cancer (GBC). Present study was designed to investigate the role of VEGF polymorphism in GBC and in other (benign) gallbladder diseases, that is chronic cholecystitis (CC) and xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC).
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Metal based photosensitizers of tetradentate Schiff base: promising role in anti-tumor activity through singlet oxygen generation mechanism.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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In the present investigation, a Schiff base N(1),N(3)-bis[(Z)-(2-hydroxynapthyl)methylidene]benzene-1,3-dicarbodihydrazide (L1) and its Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized as novel photosensitizing agents for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The interaction of these complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) has been explored using absorption, thermal denaturation and viscometric studies. The experimental results revealed that Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes on binding to CT DNA imply a covalent mode, most possibly involving guanine N7 nitrogen of DNA, with an intrinsic binding constant Kb of 4.5×10(4)M(-1) and 4.2×10(4)M(-1), respectively. However, interestingly, the Cu(II) complex is involved in the surface binding to minor groove via phosphate backbone of DNA double helix with an intrinsic binding constant Kb of 5.7×10(4)M(-1). The Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes are active in cleaving supercoiled (SC) pUC19 DNA on photoexposure to UV-visible light of 365nm, through (1)O2 generation with quantum yields of 0.28, 0.25 and 0.30, respectively. Further, these complexes are cytotoxic in A549 lung cancer cells, showing an enhancement of cytotoxicity upon light irradiation.
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Risk factors for development of biliary stricture in patients presenting with bile leak after cholecystectomy.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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This study was aimed at determining the factors associated with the development of benign biliary stricture (BBS) in patients who had sustained a bile duct injury (BDI) at cholecystectomy and developed bile leaks.
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Probing p300/CBP Associated Factor (PCAF)-Dependent Pathways with a Small Molecule Inhibitor.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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PCAF (KAT2B) belongs to the GNAT family of lysine acetyltransferases (KAT) and specifically acetylates the histone H3K9 residue and several nonhistone proteins. PCAF is also a transcriptional coactivator. Due to the lack of a PCAF KAT-specific small molecule inhibitor, the exclusive role of the acetyltransferase activity of PCAF is not well understood. Here, we report that a natural compound of the hydroxybenzoquinone class, embelin, specifically inhibits H3Lys9 acetylation in mice and inhibits recombinant PCAF-mediated acetylation with near complete specificity in vitro. Furthermore, using embelin, we have identified the gene networks that are regulated by PCAF during muscle differentiation, further highlighting the broader regulatory functions of PCAF in muscle differentiation in addition to the regulation via MyoD acetylation.
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Computational identification and analysis of arsenate reductase protein in Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 suggests potential microorganism for reducing arsenate.
J. Struct. Funct. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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This study focuses a bioinformatics-based prediction of arsC gene product arsenate reductase (ArsC) protein in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 strain. A protein structure-based study encloses three-dimensional structural modeling of target ArsC protein, was carried out by homology modeling method. Ultimately, the detection of active binding regions was carried out for characterization of functional sites in protein. The ten probable ligand binding sites were predicted for target protein structure and highlighted the common binding residues between target and template protein. It has been first time identified that modeled ArsC protein structure in C. sakazakii was structurally and functionally similar to well-characterized ArsC protein of Escherichia coli because of having same structural motifs and fold with similar protein topology and function. Investigation revealed that ArsC from C. sakazakii can play significant role during arsenic resistance and potential microorganism for bioremediation of arsenic toxicity.
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Large mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the maxilla in a pediatric patient.
J Dent Child (Chic)
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Mucoepidermoid carcinoma generally arises from salivary glands, representing 5 to 10% of all salivary tumors. It is rarely seen in the jaws. The purpose of this paper was to report the case of a large mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in the maxilla of a 15-year-old.
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The concomitant consumption of cod liver oil causes a reduction in the daily diclofenac sodium usage in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot study.
J Clin Diagn Res
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Objective: To evaluate whether the concomitant consumption of Cod liver oil can reduce the daily dose of Diclofenac Sodium and probably the risk of the side effects which are associated with it in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients. Material and Methods: This longitudinal, prospective, open label study was conducted from April to September 2012 at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. 30 Rheumatoid Arthritis patients who were aged between 19 to 60 years, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were enrolled. Each patient was given five Cod liver oil capsules twice a day, for a period of 24 weeks. Each capsule which contained 300 mg of Cod liver oil had Eicosapentaenoic acid-20 mg and Docosahexaenoic acid-30 mg. The patients who took different Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs daily were switched over to Diclofenac Sodium 50 mg as a single dose, up to a maximum dose of 200 mg per day. The dose of Diclofenac Sodium which was consumed per day and the average daily requirement at different visits were recorded in each patient and they were compared. The patients were assessed for their pain scores by using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at different weeks. In addition, the Subjective Response to the pain was evaluated in each patient at the respective visits. The Students "t"-test was applied for the analysis of the VAS pain score and for the evaluation of the reduction in the mean daily dose of the Diclofenac Sodium consumption. A probability value of less than 0.05 (p< 0.05) was considered to be statistically significant. Moreover, the results of the Subjective Response to the pain were expressed as percentage. Results: A significant decrease (p< 0.05) in the mean VAS pain score from 80.38 ± 6.4 at week 0 to 67.30 ± 5.3 at week 24 was noted in the patients. There was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in mean dose of Diclofenac Sodium consumed from 115.04 ± 24.56 at week 4 to 98.83 ± 22.32 at week 24. Moreover, the percentage of the patients who experienced a Better Subjective Response increased from 15.38% at week 4 to 61.53% at week 24 of the treatment follow up. Conclusion: This study revealed that the concurrent use of Cod liver oil which contained n-3 Essential Fatty Acid in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients reduced the mean daily dose of Diclofenac Sodium consumed and probably the incidence of the side effects which were associated with it.
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Ex vivo expansion of highly cytotoxic human NK cells by cocultivation with irradiated tumor cells for adoptive immunotherapy.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell therapy may offer an effective treatment regimen for cancer patients whose disease is refractory to conventional therapy. NK cells can kill a wide range of tumor cells by patterned recognition of target ligands. We hypothesized that tumor targets sensitive to NK lysis would drive vigorous expansion of NK cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Here, we provide the basis for developing a novel ex vivo expansion process. By screening class I-negative or -mismatched tumor cell lines we identified a Jurkat T-lymphoblast subline termed KL-1, which was highly effective in specifically expanding NK cells. KL-1 addition to PBMC cultures achieved approximately 100-fold expansion of NK cells with nearly 90% purity, accompanied by reciprocal inhibition of T-cell growth. Marked elevations in expression of activation receptors, natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp30, NKp44), and adhesion molecules (CD11a, ICAM-1) were associated with high tumor-lytic capacity, in both in vitro and in vivo models. KL-1-mediated expansion of NK cells was contact dependent and required interactions with CD16, the Fc? receptor on NK cells, with ligands that are expressed on B cells. Indeed, B-cell depletion during culture abrogated selective NK cell expansion, while addition of EBV-transformed B cells further augmented NK expansion to approximately 740-fold. Together, our studies define a novel method for efficient activation of human NK cells that employs KL-1-lysed tumor cells and cocultured B cells, which drive a robust expansion of potent antitumor effector cells that will be useful for clinical evaluation.
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Three dimensional transesophageal echocardiography guided transcatheter closure of mitral paraprosthesis regurgitation - A case report.
Indian Heart J
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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The last two decades have witnessed vast advances in the field of cardiac intervention, particularly with regard to nonsurgical closure of structural heart diseases including para prosthetic valvular leaks. The use of imaging techniques to guide even well-established procedures enhances the efficiency and safety of these procedures. The present case report aims to highlight the role of three dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in pre, intra and post operative management of patients with mitral para prosthetic valvular regurgitation.
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4-[5-(4-Benzoyl-oxyphen-yl)-1,2,4-oxa-diazol-3-yl]phenyl benzoate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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In the title compound, C28H18N2O5, the dihedral angle between the terminal benzoate rings is 20.67?(12)°. The central oxadiazole ring is almost coplanar with its two benzene ring substituents, making dihedral angles of 4.80?(16) and 5.82?(16)°. In the crystal, pairs of C-H?O hydrogen bonds form inversion dimers with R 2 (2)(40) ring motifs. The structure also features C-H?O, C-H?? and ?-? inter-actions [centroid-centroid separation = 3.695?(4)?Å].
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.