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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Is there a polysomnographic signature of augmentation in restless legs syndrome?
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Augmentation of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a potentially severe side-effect of dopaminergic treatment. Data on objective motor characteristics in augmentation are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate in detail different variables of leg movements (LM) in untreated, treated, and augmented RLS patients.
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Delayed diagnosis, range of severity, and multiple sleep comorbidities: a clinical and polysomnographic analysis of 100 patients of the innsbruck narcolepsy cohort.
J Clin Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Narcolepsy is reported to affect 26-56/100,000 in the general population. We aimed to describe clinical and polysomnographic features of a large narcolepsy cohort in order to comprehensively characterize the narcoleptic spectrum.
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Is a diagnosis of ancillary restless legs syndrome reproducible over time? Experience with the Wayne Hening telephone diagnostic interview.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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The Hening telephone diagnostic interview (HTDI) is a validated structured diagnostic instrument for restless legs syndrome (RLS). A diagnosis of ancillary RLS is defined as RLS with non bothering or only sporadic occurrence of RLS symptoms. The aim of our study was to test the reproducibility of a previously received diagnosis of ancillary RLS with the HTDI in a telephone follow-up examination.
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Investigation of autonomic function in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) has been suggested as an early "pre-motor" stage of Parkinsons disease (PD) in a significant proportion of cases. We investigated autonomic function in 15 consecutive iRBD patients and compared these findings to PD patients and healthy controls. All participants underwent cardiovascular autonomic function testing, and were rated on the COMPASS scale. Symptomatic orthostatic hypotension was present in two iRBD patients, two PD patients and none of the healthy controls. In the tilt table examination, blood pressure changes were similar between iRBD patients and healthy controls. In the PD group, blood pressure drops were more pronounced. In the orthostatic standing test, iRBD patients had higher blood pressure changes than healthy controls. Highest drops were found in PD. Valsalva ratio was lower in iRBD and PD compared to healthy controls. Total COMPASS score was higher in iRBD compared to healthy controls. Highest scores were found in PD. These results support the presence of autonomic dysfunction in iRBD. On several measures, dysfunction was intermediate between healthy controls and PD consistent with the concept that iRBD can be manifestation of synuclein-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Follow-up studies are needed to determine whether iRBD patients with dysfunction on several autonomic domains are at particular risk for developing one of these diseases.
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Can observers link dream content to behaviours in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder? A cross-sectional experimental pilot study.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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Motor activity in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) has been linked to dream content. Systematic and controlled sleep laboratory studies directly assessing the relation between RBD behaviours and experienced dream content are, however, largely lacking. We aimed to investigate whether a link can be established between RBD behaviours and dream content when both are systematically sampled in a controlled setting. We investigated six patients with Parkinson syndrome and RBD who underwent 2-3 nights of video-polysomnographic recording during which they were awakened from REM sleep (10?min after the onset of the second and successive REM periods). Spontaneous free-worded dream reports and a structured dream questionnaire were obtained. Video recordings of motor manifestations were each combined with four dream reports, and seven judges had to match the video clip with the correctly reported dream content from a choice of four possibilities. Of the 35 REM sleep awakenings performed, a total of 17 (48.6%) motor-behavioural episodes with recalled dream content were obtained. The mean of correctly identified video-dream pairs was 39.5% (range 0-100%). Our data showed that reported dream content can be linked to motor behaviours above chance level. Matching accuracy was affected mainly by the clarity of dream reports and the specific nature of movements manifest in video recordings.
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Genome-wide association study identifies novel restless legs syndrome susceptibility loci on 2p14 and 16q12.1.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder with an age-dependent prevalence of up to 10% in the general population above 65 years of age. Affected individuals suffer from uncomfortable sensations and an urge to move in the lower limbs that occurs mainly in resting situations during the evening or at night. Moving the legs or walking leads to an improvement of symptoms. Concomitantly, patients report sleep disturbances with consequences such as reduced daytime functioning. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWA) for RLS in 922 cases and 1,526 controls (using 301,406 SNPs) followed by a replication of 76 candidate SNPs in 3,935 cases and 5,754 controls, all of European ancestry. Herein, we identified six RLS susceptibility loci of genome-wide significance, two of them novel: an intergenic region on chromosome 2p14 (rs6747972, P?=?9.03 × 10(-11), OR?=?1.23) and a locus on 16q12.1 (rs3104767, P?=?9.4 × 10(-19), OR?=?1.35) in a linkage disequilibrium block of 140 kb containing the 5-end of TOX3 and the adjacent non-coding RNA BC034767.
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Executive functions, information sampling, and decision making in narcolepsy with cataplexy.
Neuropsychology
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) affects neurotransmitter systems regulating emotions and cognitive functions. This study aimed to assess executive functions, information sampling, reward processing, and decision making in NC.
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Usefulness of the SINBAR electromyographic montage to detect the motor and vocal manifestations occurring in REM sleep behavior disorder.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2011
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In a previous study we showed that simultaneous electromyographic (EMG) recording of the mentalis, flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor digitorum brevis (SINBAR EMG montage) detected the highest rates of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phasic EMG activity in subjects with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). As a next step, in the present study we evaluated the usefulness of the SINBAR EMG montage to detect the movements and vocalizations occurring in RBD.
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Motor disturbances during non-REM and REM sleep in narcolepsy-cataplexy: a video-polysomnographic analysis.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Motor events during sleep can be frequently observed in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. We hypothesized that increased motor events and related arousals contribute to sleep fragmentation in this disease. We aimed to perform a detailed whole-night video-polysomnographic analysis of all motor events during non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep in a group of narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and matched controls, and to assess the association with arousals. Video-polysomnographic registrations of six narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and six sex- and age-matched controls were analysed. Each motor event in the video was classified according to topography, number of involved body parts, duration and its association with arousals. The mean motor activity index was 59.9 ± 23.0 h(-1) in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy compared with 15.4 ± 9.2 h(-1) in controls (P = 0.004). Distribution of motor events was similar in non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep in the patient group (P = 0.219). In narcolepsy-cataplexy, motor events involved significantly more body parts (? 2 body regions: 38.2 ± 15.6 versus 14.9 ± 10.0; P = 0.011). In addition, the proportion of motor events lasting longer than 1 s was higher in patients than controls (88% versus 44.4%; P < 0.001). Both total and motor activity-related arousal indices were increased in narcolepsy-cataplexy (total arousal index: 21.6 ± 9.0 versus 8.7 ± 3.5; P = 0.004; motor activity-related arousal index: 17.6 ± 9.8 versus 5.9 ± 2.3; P = 0.002). Motor activity and motor activity-related arousal indices are increased in both non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep in narcolepsy-cataplexy compared with controls. This supports the concept of a general sleep motor dysregulation in narcolepsy-cataplexy, which potentially contributes to or even underlies sleep fragmentation in this disease.
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Restless legs syndrome in Friedreich ataxia: a polysomnographic study.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2010
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Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common type of hereditary ataxia. Frataxin deficiency due to a GAA expansion in the first intron of chromosome 9 results in intramitochondrial iron accumulation. On the basis of the patients complaints about sleep disturbance and pathophysiological considerations, we systematically assessed sleep history and polysomnography in FA. We included 16 consecutive FA patients (11 men, 5 women; mean age, 35.4 ± 11.1 years) with a mean disease duration of 16.5 ± 7.0 years. All patients underwent a standardized protocol including a detailed sleep history and polysomnographic recordings. Eight out of 16 patients were diagnosed with restless legs syndrome (RLS). In seven patients, RLS onset was after the onset of FA. Interestingly, FA patients with RLS had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than FA patients without RLS (76.3 ± 56.0 ?g/L vs. 176.3 ± 100.7 ?g/L; P = 0.043 after correction for sex and age). Moreover, periodic leg movements in wakefulness (PLMW) indices were significantly higher in FA patients with RLS than FA patients without RLS (FA with RLS, 118.1 ± 50.7; FA without RLS, 65.6 ± 44.2; P = 0.028). There was an inverse correlation between serum ferritin levels and PLMW indices obtained in all FA patients (rho -0.538, P = 0.039). RLS is common in FA. Its frequency in this primarily spinal ataxia appears consistent with the concept of dysfunctional spinal sensorimotor integration in the pathophysiology of RLS. The finding that RLS is more frequent in the context of lower serum ferritin levels in FA is interesting, but requires further investigation in larger patient samples.
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A descriptive analysis of neck myoclonus during routine polysomnography.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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Although episodes of neck myoclonus (head jerks) in REM sleep have a characteristic appearance, they have so far not been described systematically in video-polysomnography. This study assesses the occurrence, frequency, and characteristics of neck myoclonus in REM sleep in a prospective sleep disorder cohort, and investigates clinical correlates and associations with medication.
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White and gray matter abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a diffusion-tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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We applied diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, as well as voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD).
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The relation between abnormal behaviors and REM sleep microstructure in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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To investigate the temporal relation between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep microstructure (REMs, EMG activity) and motor events in REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).
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Progressive development of augmentation during long-term treatment with levodopa in restless legs syndrome: results of a prospective multi-center study.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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The European Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) Study Group performed the first multi-center, long-term study systematically evaluating RLS augmentation under levodopa treatment. This prospective, open-label 6-month study was conducted in six European countries and included 65 patients (85% treatment naive) with idiopathic RLS. Levodopa was flexibly up-titrated to a maximum dose of 600 mg/day. Presence of augmentation was diagnosed independently by two international experts using established criteria. In addition to the augmentation severity rating scale (ASRS), changes in RLS severity (International RLS severity rating scale (IRLS), clinical global impression (CGI)) were analyzed. Sixty patients provided evaluable data, 35 completed the trial and 25 dropped out. Augmentation occurred in 60% (36/60) of patients, causing 11.7% (7/60) to drop out. Median time to occurrence of augmentation was 71 days. The mean maximum dose of levodopa was 311 mg/day (SD: 105). Patients with augmentation compared to those without were significantly more likely to be on higher doses of levodopa (> or =300 mg, 83 vs. 54%, P = 0.03) and to show less improvement of symptom severity (IRLS, P = 0.039). Augmentation was common with levodopa, but could be tolerated by most patients during this 6-month trial. Patients should be followed over longer periods to determine if dropout rates increase with time.
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Midbrain hyperechogenicity in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2009
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Recent studies have reported an increased risk to develop Parkinsons disease (PD) in patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD). Midbrain hyperechogenicity is a common transcranial sonography (TCS) finding in PD and has been suggested as a PD risk-marker in nonparkinsonian subjects. The objective of this study is to assess midbrain echogenicity by TCS in patients with iRBD and compare the findings with the healthy controls. TCS was performed in 55 iRBD patients and in 165 age and sex-matched controls. The area of echogenicity in the SN region in the iRBD group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.001). About 19 (37.3%) of patients with iRBD were found to have SN hyperechogenicity when compared with 16 (10.7%) of the controls (P < 0.001). This is the first case-control study assessing midbrain echogenicity in a large iRBD cohort compared to age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. The finding of an increased prevalence of hyperechogenicity in a subgroup of individuals with a priori increased risk for PD supports the potential role of hyperechogenicity as a risk marker for PD. The prospective follow-up of this iRBD cohort is needed to establish if those with midbrain hyperechogenicity will go on to develop clinically defined PD or not.
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PLM detection by actigraphy compared to polysomnography: a validation and comparison of two actigraphs.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
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To compare periodic leg movement (PLM) counts obtained with polysomnography (PSG) to those obtained from actigraphy with two devices (Actiwatch and PAM-RL).
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Periodic leg movements during sleep and periodic limb movement disorder in patients presenting with unexplained insomnia.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the presence and the characteristics of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) in a group of consecutive patients presenting with daytime impairment related to insomnia of unknown etiology and whose polysomnographic features differ from those of healthy individuals only for a significantly increased arousal index in NREM sleep.
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The severity range of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and augmentation in a prospective patient cohort: association with ferritin levels.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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The aim of the study was to prospectively examine all patients with a diagnosis of RLS consulting a sleep disorders clinic and to assess RLS severity and augmentation and their associations, including ferritin levels.
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Cerebral vasoreactivity decreases overnight in severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a study of cerebral hemodynamics.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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OSAS has been associated with surrogate markers of atherosclerosis and is a known risk factor for stroke. However, there is limited data on the effects of recurring apneas in severe OSAS on cerebral circulation and their consequences on cerebrovascular reactivity and compliance.
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Mode of vagus nerve stimulation differentially affects sleep related breathing in patients with epilepsy.
Seizure
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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We describe the influence of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with standard mode and rapid cycling mode on sleep related breathing in two patients with epilepsy.
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Normative EMG values during REM sleep for the diagnosis of REM sleep behavior disorder.
Sleep
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Correct diagnosis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is important because it can be the first manifestation of a neurodegenerative disease, it may lead to serious injury, and it is a well-treatable disorder. We evaluated the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the Sleep Innsbruck Barcelona (SINBAR) montage (mentalis, flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor digitorum brevis) and other muscles to obtain normative values for the correct diagnosis of RBD for clinical practice.
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Decision making and executive functions in REM sleep behavior disorder.
Sleep
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This study was designed to assess decision making and executive functions in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). IRBD is often seen as an early sign of later evolving neurodegenerative disease, most importantly Parkinson disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia (DLB). It has been proposed that iRBD patients show a cognitive profile similar to patients with PD.
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Narcolepsy-cataplexy: deficient prepulse inhibition of blink reflex suggests pedunculopontine involvement.
J Sleep Res
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Hypocretin (orexin) deficiency plays a major role in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy-cataplexy. In animal models, hypocretinergic projections to the pedunculopontine nucleus are directly involved in muscle tone regulation mediating muscle atonia - a hallmark of cataplexy. We hypothesized that pedunculopontine nucleus function, tested with prepulse inhibition of the blink reflex, is altered in human narcolepsy-cataplexy. Twenty patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy and 20 healthy controls underwent a neurophysiological study of pedunculopontine nucleus function. Blink reflex, prepulse inhibition of the blink reflex and blink reflex excitability recovery were measured. Blink reflex characteristics (R1 latency and amplitude, and R2 and R2c latency and area under the curve) did not differ between patients and controls (P > 0.05). Prepulse stimulation significantly increased R2 and R2c latencies and reduced R2 and R2c areas in patients and controls. However, the R2 and R2c area suppression was significantly less in patients than in controls (to 69.8 ± 14.4 and 74.9 ± 12.6%, respectively, versus 34.5 ± 28.6 and 43.3 ± 29.5%, respectively; each P < 0.001). Blink reflex excitability recovery, as measured by paired-pulse stimulation, which is not mediated via the pedunculopontine nucleus, did not differ between patients and controls (P > 0.05). Our data showed that prepulse inhibition is reduced in narcolepsy-cataplexy, whereas unconditioned blink reflex and its excitability recovery are normal. Because the pedunculopontine nucleus is important for prepulse inhibition, these results suggest its functional involvement in narcolepsy-cataplexy.
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White and gray matter abnormalities in narcolepsy with cataplexy.
Sleep
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The authors applied diffusion-tensor imaging including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), which is a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), which is a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, and voxel-based morphometry, which is a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.