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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Comparative evaluation of serum C-reactive protein levels in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients and association with periodontal disease severity.
Contemp Clin Dent
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant and has been proved to be a significant predictor of future cardiovascular events. Recent studies have demonstrated a correlation between periodontitis and elevated CRP levels. However, most of the studies have focused on chronic periodontitis and very few studies are done in patients with aggressive periodontitis. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the relative levels of serum CRP in aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients.
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Chemoenzymatic synthesis of C-4'-spiro-oxetanoribonucleosides.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Novozyme-435-mediated diastereoselective deacylation of one of the two diastereotopic acyloxymethyl groups in 5-O-acyl-4-C-acyloxymethyl-3-O-benzyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-?-D-ribofuranose has been achieved in quantitative yield. The exclusive selectivity of the lipase for the 5-O-acyl over the 4-C-acyloxymethyl group in the substrate was confirmed by chemical transformation of enzymatically monodeacetylated compound to 1,2-O-isopropylidene-C-4-spiro-oxetanoribofuranose. Further, the selective biocatalytic deacylation methodology has been utilized for the efficient synthesis of C-4'-spiro-oxetanoribonucleosides of uracil (U) and thymine (T) in 37 and 45% overall yields, respectively.
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A structural and functional perspective on the evolution of the heme-copper oxidases.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The heme-copper oxidases (HCOs) catalyze the reduction of O2 to water, and couple the free energy to proton pumping across the membrane. HCOs are divided into three sub-classes, A, B and C, whose order of emergence in evolution has been controversial. Here we have analyzed recent structural and functional data on HCOs and their homologues, the nitric oxide reductases (NORs). We suggest that the C-type oxidases are ancient enzymes that emerged from the NORs. In contrast, the A-type oxidases are the most advanced from both structural and functional viewpoints, which we interpret as evidence for having evolved later.
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Common features of chromatin in aging and cancer: cause or coincidence?
Trends Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Age is a major risk factor for cancer. Alterations in DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin structure, and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are prominent hallmarks of both the aging process and cancer. Intriguingly - or possibly coincidentally - several chromatin features are common between aging and cancer. Here we ask whether, and if so how, aging-associated chromatin modifications contribute to tumor susceptibility and tumorigenesis.
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Can pelvic tilting be ignored in total hip arthroplasty?
Int J Surg Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The orientation of acetabular component is influenced by pelvic tilt, body position and individual variation in pelvic parameters. Most post-operative adverse events may be attributed to malposition of the component in the functional position. There is evidence that orientation of the pelvis changes from the supine to standing position. Authors report a case of recurrent dislocation after total hip arthroplasty due to excessive pelvic tilting. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 69-year old female with coxarthrosis had undergone total hip replacement with recurrent dislocation of the hip on bearing weight in spite of using constrained acetabular component.
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Chemoenzymatic convergent synthesis of 2'-O,4'-C-methyleneribonucleosides.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Novozyme-435-catalyzed efficient regioselective acetylation of one of the two diastereotopic hydroxymethyl functions in 3-O-benzyl-4-C-hydroxymethyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-?-d-ribofuranose has been achieved. The enzymatic methodology has been successfully utilized for convergent synthesis of bicyclic nucleosides (LNA monomers) T, U, A, and C. Further, it has been demonstrated that Novozyme-435 can be used for 10 cycles of the acylation reaction without losing selectivity and efficiency.
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Impact of acute bleeding on daily activities of patients with congenital hemophilia with inhibitors and their caregivers and families: observations from the Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia (DOSE).
Value Health
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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There is limited understanding of the effects of bleeding episodes on the daily lives of patients with congenital hemophilia with inhibitors and their caregivers. This analysis of the Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia examined the impact of acute bleeding episodes on work, school, and family activities.
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Spontaneous rupture of spleen masquerading as acute pancreatitis.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Splenic rupture most commonly follows blunt abdominal trauma. Nontraumatic rupture of the spleen is rare. Nontraumatic rupture of the spleen has been described in a variety of pathologic conditions, which include neoplastic, infectious, and hematologic diseases affecting the spleen. Spontaneous rupture of nondiseased spleen is extremely rare. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of spleen in a chronic alcoholic clinically simulating acute pancreatitis.
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CBCT diagnosis and endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with unusual anatomy of two palatal canals: A case report.
J Conserv Dent
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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It is crucial for any clinician to have a thorough knowledge about the normal anatomy of tooth and always be vigilant for any variations to ensure endodontic success. An anatomic variant like additional canals in the palatal root of maxillary molar is not commonly reported. This clinical case report presents the application of cone beam computed tomography as a useful imaging technique in endodontics for the management of teeth with aberrant anatomy. Here, maxillary first molar having two canals in the palatal root, two canals in mesiobuccal root and one canal in distobuccal root was managed successfully using cone beam computed tomography scan as a diagnostic aid.
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Effect of slow and fast pranayama training on handgrip strength and endurance in healthy volunteers.
J Clin Diagn Res
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Pranayama has been assigned very important role in yogic system of exercises and is said to be much more important than yogasanas for keeping sound health. Also different pranayamas produce divergent physiological effects.
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Effect of fast and slow pranayama practice on cognitive functions in healthy volunteers.
J Clin Diagn Res
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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To compare the cumulative effect of commonly practised slow and fast pranayama on cognitive functions in healthy volunteers.
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Endodontic and esthetic management of a dilacerated maxillary central incisor having two root canals using cone beam computed tomography as a diagnostic aid.
Case Rep Dent
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition are quite common. When primary teeth are subjected to trauma, force transmission and/or invasion of the underlying tooth germs lying in close proximity can result in a variety of disturbances in the permanent successors. Few of these disturbances include hypoplasia, dilaceration, or alteration in the eruption sequence and pattern. Dilaceration is defined as an angulation or sharp bend or curve in the linear relationship of the crown of a tooth to its root. A rare case of maxillary left central incisor having crown dilaceration and Vertucci's type II canal configuration with symptomatic periapical periodontitis is reported. Cone beam computed tomography was used for better understanding of the anomaly and complicated root canal morphology. The tooth was successfully managed by nonsurgical root canal therapy and restoration with resin composite to restore esthetics.
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Plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in the diagnosis of new onset acute kidney injury in critically ill patients.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been demonstrated to be a useful early diagnostic biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI) where the timing of the insult is certain. However, NGAL is not well validated in adult critical care practice because of indeterminate timing of injury. Therefore, we sought to establish the predictive ability of both urine and plasma NGAL to detect AKI in ICU patients.
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A combination of bortezomib and rituximab yields a dramatic response in a woman with highly refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura: a case report.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Chronic refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura can be a challenging condition to treat. By definition, the standard first and second line treatments have failed in these patients and modalities such as thrombopoiesis-stimulating agents and more intensive immunosuppressive drugs are therefore used. However, there still remains a subset of patients who continue to be refractory to treatment.
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Antioxidant supplementation reduces genomic aberrations in human induced pluripotent stem cells.
Stem Cell Reports
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using oncogenic transcription factors. However, this method leads to genetic aberrations in iPSCs via unknown mechanisms, which may limit their clinical use. Here, we demonstrate that the supplementation of growth media with antioxidants reduces the genome instability of cells transduced with the reprogramming factors. Antioxidant supplementation did not affect transgene expression level or silencing kinetics. Importantly, iPSCs made with antioxidants had significantly fewer de novo copy number variations, but not fewer coding point mutations, than iPSCs made without antioxidants. Our results suggest that the quality and safety of human iPSCs might be enhanced by using antioxidants in the growth media during the generation and maintenance of iPSCs.
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Biomaterials in tooth tissue engineering: a review.
J Clin Diagn Res
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Biomaterials play a crucial role in the field of tissue engineering. They are utilized for fabricating frameworks known as scaffolds, matrices or constructs which are interconnected porous structures that establish a cellular microenvironment required for optimal tissue regeneration. Several natural and synthetic biomaterials have been utilized for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. Amongst different biomaterials, polymers are the most extensively experimented and employed materials. They can be tailored to provide good interconnected porosity, large surface area, adequate mechanical strengths, varying surface characterization and different geometries required for tissue regeneration. A single type of material may however not meet all the requirements. Selection of two or more biomaterials, optimization of their physical, chemical and mechanical properties and advanced fabrication techniques are required to obtain scaffold designs intended for their final application. Current focus is aimed at designing biomaterials such that they will replicate the local extra cellular environment of the native organ and enable cell-cell and cell-scaffold interactions at micro level required for functional tissue regeneration. This article provides an insight into the different biomaterials available and the emerging use of nano engineering principles for the construction of bioactive scaffolds in tooth regeneration.
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Flax and flaxseed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food.
J Food Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Flaxseed is emerging as an important functional food ingredient because of its rich contents of ?-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3 fatty acid), lignans, and fiber. Flaxseed oil, fibers and flax lignans have potential health benefits such as in reduction of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, autoimmune and neurological disorders. Flax protein helps in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and in supporting the immune system. As a functional food ingredient, flax or flaxseed oil has been incorporated into baked foods, juices, milk and dairy products, muffins, dry pasta products, macaroni and meat products. The present review focuses on the evidences of the potential health benefits of flaxseed through human and animals' recent studies and commercial use in various food products.
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Aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming during induced pluripotent stem cell generation is dependent on the choice of reprogramming factors.
Cell Regen (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The conversion of somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells via overexpression of reprogramming factors involves epigenetic remodeling. DNA methylation at a significant proportion of CpG sites in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) differs from that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Whether different sets of reprogramming factors influence the type and extent of aberrant DNA methylation in iPSCs differently remains unknown. In order to help resolve this critical question, we generated human iPSCs from a common fibroblast cell source using either the Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and cMYC) or the Thomson factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG and LIN28), and determined their genome-wide DNA methylation profiles. In addition to shared DNA methylation aberrations present in all our iPSCs, we identified Yamanaka-iPSC (Y-iPSC)-specific and Thomson-iPSC (T-iPSC)-specific recurrent aberrations. Strikingly, not only were the genomic locations of the aberrations different but also their types: reprogramming with Yamanaka factors mainly resulted in failure to demethylate CpGs, whereas reprogramming with Thomson factors mainly resulted in failure to methylate CpGs. Differences in the level of transcripts encoding DNMT3b and TET3 between Y-iPSCs and T-iPSCs may contribute partially to the distinct types of aberrations. Finally, de novo aberrantly methylated genes in Y-iPSCs were enriched for NANOG targets that are also aberrantly methylated in some cancers. Our study thus reveals that the choice of reprogramming factors influences the amount, location, and class of DNA methylation aberrations in iPSCs. These findings may provide clues into how to produce human iPSCs with fewer DNA methylation abnormalities.
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A single amino acid residue controls ROS production in the respiratory Complex I from Escherichia coli.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by respiratory Complex I from Escherichia coli was studied in bacterial membrane fragments and in the isolated and purified enzyme, either solubilized or incorporated in proteoliposomes. We found that the replacement of a single amino acid residue in close proximity to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-binding catalytic site (E95 in the NuoF subunit) dramatically increases the reactivity of Complex I towards dioxygen (O2 ). In the E95Q variant short-chain ubiquinones exhibit strong artificial one-electron reduction at the catalytic site, also leading to a stronger increase in ROS production. Two mechanisms can contribute to the observed kinetic effects: (a) a change in the reactivity of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) towards dioxygen at the catalytic site, and (b) a change in the population of the ROS-generating state. We propose the existence of two (closed and open) states of the NAD(+) -bound enzyme as one feature of the substrate-binding site of Complex I. The analysis of the kinetic model of ROS production allowed us to propose that the population of Complex I with reduced FMN is always low in the wild-type enzyme even at low ambient redox potentials, minimizing the rate of reaction with O2 in contrast to E95Q variant.
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Computational study of the activated O(H) state in the catalytic mechanism of cytochrome c oxidase.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Complex IV in the respiratory chain of mitochondria and bacteria catalyzes reduction of molecular oxygen to water, and conserves much of the liberated free energy as an electrochemical proton gradient, which is used for the synthesis of ATP. Photochemical electron injection experiments have shown that reduction of the ferric/cupric state of the enzymes binuclear heme a3/CuB center is coupled to proton pumping across the membrane, but only if oxidation of the reduced enzyme by O2 immediately precedes electron injection. In contrast, reduction of the binuclear center in the "as-isolated" ferric/cupric enzyme is sluggish and without linkage to proton translocation. During turnover, the binuclear center apparently shuttles via a metastable but activated ferric/cupric state (O(H)), which may decay into a more stable catalytically incompetent form (O) in the absence of electron donors. The structural basis for the difference between these two states has remained elusive, and is addressed here using computational methodology. The results support the notion that CuB[II] is either three-coordinated in the O(H) state or shares an OH(-) ligand with heme a3 in a strained ?-hydroxo structure. Relaxation to state O is initiated by hydration of the binuclear site. The redox potential of CuB is expected, and found by density functional theory calculations, to be substantially higher in the O(H) state than in state O. Our calculations also suggest that the neutral radical form of the cross-linked tyrosine in the binuclear site may be more significant in the catalytic cycle than suspected so far.
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Effect of fast and slow pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular parameters in young health-care students.
Int J Yoga
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Perceived stress is higher for students in various healthcare courses. Previous studies have shown that pranayama practice is beneficial for combating stress and improve cardiovascular functions but both fast and slow pranayama practice produce different physiological responses.
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Effect of yoga on autonomic functions and psychological status during both phases of menstrual cycle in young healthy females.
J Clin Diagn Res
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Context: Premenstrual stress affects 75% of women of childbearing age and yoga has been found to be beneficial in many psycho-somatic disorders. Aims: To investigate the effect of integrated yoga on autonomic parameters and psychological well-being during both pre and post phases of menstrual cycle in healthy young female subjects. Settings and Design: Present study is a randomized control trial and was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India. Material and Methods: Fifty apparently healthy females in the age group of 18-20 years were randomized into two groups: Group I (n=25) consisted of subjects who practiced yoga 35-40 minutes per day, six times per week for the duration of three menstrual cycles. Training was given by qualified yoga instructor. Group II (n=25) subjects acted as controls. Following parameters were recorded at the beginning and after completion of three menstrual cycles in all the subjects: Height, weight (BW), Resting Heart Rate (HR), Resting Systolic (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), parasympathetic reactivity tests including Expiration-Inspiration Ratio (E: I ratio) and 30:15 ratio, sympathetic reactivity tests including BP changes due to Isometric Hand Grip (IHG) exercise, and Cold Pressor Test (CPT). Assessment of psychological status was done by administering DIPAS (Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences) inventories of Anger self report scale, Trait Anxiety, Sense of well-being and Depression scale. Statistical Analysis: Intra-group comparison of physiological parameters was done by using paired t test, whereas intra-group comparison of non-parameteric data such as scores of anxiety, depression, anger and sense of well-being was done by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Inter-group comparison of parameters was done by Students t test for parametric tests and Mann-Whitney U test for non-parameteric tests. Results: There was significantly higher BW, resting SBP, DBP, sympathetic activity and blunting of parasympathetic reactivity and also, significantly higher scores of anger, depression, anxiety and decreased score of well-being in premenstrual phase as compared to postmenstrual phase in both the groups in initial cycle. There was significantly higher percentage decrease in BW, HR, SBP & DBP in yoga group as compared to control group in both the phases from initial to second and onwards between second and third menstrual cycle. Also, decrease in anger, depression and anxiety and increase in well-being score was significant in yoga group as compared to control group from initial to second and third cycle in premenstrual phase while the change was significant only in depression score in postmenstrual phase. Conclusion: Our study shows that there was significant alteration of autonomic functions and psychological status in premenstrual phase when compared with postmenstrual phase in young healthy females. Also, regular practice of yoga has beneficial effects on both phases of menstrual cycle by bringing parasympathodominance and psychological well-being probably by balancing neuro-endocrinal axis.
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Comparison of effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on body composition and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents.
J Clin Diagn Res
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Background: Childhood obesity and hypertension are global problems that are on the rise in India. Improving physical activity is an accepted main line of strategy for overcoming poor body composition, hypertension and reduced cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) all of which are considered as independent risk factors for the development of future cardiovascular complications. Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on anthropometric measures, body composition, blood pressure and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents. Settings and Design: This is a collaborative study between the Department of physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research and Residential school, Jawahar Navodhya Vidyalaya, Puducherry, India. Method and Material: Student volunteers in the age group of 12-17 years were classified into athletes (group 1) and physically active non-athletes (group 2). Parameters measured and calculated were weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage (BF%), fat free mass (FFM), Systolic (SBP) & Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP), Rate pressure product (RPP) and Predicted VO2 max. Statistical Analysis used: Mean difference between the groups was analysed using unpaired Students t-test. All statistical analysis was carried out for two-tailed significance at the 5 % level using SPSS version 19 (SPSSInc, USA). Results: Anthropometric measures, body composition measures and blood pressure values of both the group students were within the normal limits. There was no significant difference in anthropometric and body composition parameters between the group 1 and group 2 students. DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly lower in group 1 students when compared to group 2 students. VO2 max values were more in group 1 girls as compared to group 2 girls while the values of boys were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Regular unstructured physical activity for 60 minutes daily for the duration of one year can help the students to maintain their anthropometric parameters, body composition measures and CRF at par with the athletes of the same age and gender. However, athletic level training further reduces the cardiovascular load of the adolescent students.
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Design and synthesis of LNA-based mercaptoacetamido-linked nucleoside dimers.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Three LNA-based mercaptoacetamido-linked nonionic nucleoside dimers TL-S-T, T-S-TL, and TL-S-TL have been synthesized by HOBT and HBTU catalyzed condensation of silyl-protected 2-S-(thymidin-5?-yl)mercaptoacetic acid or 2-S-(2?-O,4?-C-methylenethymidin-5?-yl)mercaptoacetic acid with 3?-amino-3?-deoxy-5?-O-DMT-2?-O,4?-C-methylenethymidine or with 3?-amino-3?-deoxy-5?-O-DMT-?-thymidine followed by desilylation of the protected dimers. The 3?-O-phosphoramidite derivative of one of the nucleoside dimers was successfully prepared by condensation with [P(-Cl)(-OCH2CH2CN)-N(iPr)2}] in DCM in the presence of N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA), which is a building block for the preparation of mercaptoacetamido-linked oligonucleotides of therapeutic applications.
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Non-coding RNAs in DNA damage and repair.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as central players in diverse biological processes. Upon DNA damage, the DNA damage response (DDR) elicits a complex signaling cascade, which includes the induction of multiple ncRNA species. Recent studies indicate that DNA-damage induced ncRNAs contribute to regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair, and thus play a key role in maintaining genome stability. This review summarizes the emerging role of ncRNAs in DNA damage and repair.
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The impact of incinerators on human health and environment.
Rev Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Of the total wastes generated by health-care organizations, 10%-25% are biomedical wastes, which are hazardous to humans and the environment and requires specific treatment and management. For decades, incineration was the method of choice for the treatment of such infectious wastes. Incinerator releases a wide variety of pollutants depending on the composition of the waste, which leads to health deterioration and environmental degradation. The significant pollutants emitted are particulate matter, metals, acid gases, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfur, aside from the release of innumerable substances of unknown toxicity. This process of waste incineration poses a significant threat to public health and the environment. The major impact on health is the higher incidence of cancer and respiratory symptoms; other potential effects are congenital abnormalities, hormonal defects, and increase in sex ratio. The effect on the environmental is in the form of global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone or smog formation, eutrophication, and human and animal toxicity. Thus, there is a need to skip to newer, widely accepted, economical, and environment-friendly technologies. The use of hydroclaves and plasma pyrolysis for the incineration of biomedical wastes leads to lesser environmental degradation, negligible health impacts, safe handling of treated wastes, lesser running and maintenance costs, more effective reduction of microorganisms, and safer disposal.
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Determination of levels of nitric oxide in smoker and nonsmoker patients with chronic periodontitis.
J Periodontal Implant Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in periodontal diseases. The pathogenesis of periodontal diseases may be affected by alterations of the inflammatory response by smoke. Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous, colorless, highly reactive, short-lived free radical with a pivotal role in the regulation of various physiological and pathological mechanisms in the body. It is important in host defense and homeostasis, on the one hand, whereas, on the other hand, it modulates the inflammatory response in periodontitis, leading to harmful effects. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of NO in both the serum and saliva of smokers and nonsmokers having chronic periodontitis and to compare them with periodontally healthy controls.
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Surgery in hydrocephalus of tubercular origin: challenges and management.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Hydrocephalus of tubercular origin is one of the most dreaded and difficult to manage complications of brain tuberculosis. Traditionally, the management has been ventriculoperitoneal shunting, but in recent years emerging interest is in endoscopic ventriculostomy. In this article, we discuss the management protocol of hydrocephalus in various stages of disease.
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Guggulsterone sensitizes glioblastoma cells to Sonic hedgehog inhibitor SANT-1 induced apoptosis in a Ras/NF?B dependent manner.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Since Shh pathway effector, Gli1, is overexpressed in gliomas, we investigated the effect of novel Shh inhibitor SANT-1 on glioma cell viability. Though SANT-1 failed to induce apoptosis, it reduced proliferation of glioma stem-like cells. Apart from canonical Shh cascade, Gli1 is also induced by non-canonical pathways including NF?B. Therefore, a combinatorial strategy with Ras/NF?B inhibitor, Guggulsterone, was employed to enhance effectiveness of SANT-1. Guggulsterone inhibited Ras and NF?B activity and sensitized cells to SANT-1 induced apoptosis via intrinsic apoptotic mechanism. Inhibition of either Ras or NF?B activity was sufficient to sensitize cells to SANT-1. Guggulsterone induced ERK activation also contributed to Caspase-9 activation. Since SANT-1 and Guggulsterone differentially target stem-like and non-stem glioma cells respectively, this combination warrants investigation as an effective anti-glioma therapy.
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The normal variant (18)F FDG uptake in the lower thoracic spinal cord segments in cancer patients without CNS malignancy.
Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Focal increased lower thoracic spinal cord (18)F FDG uptake is not infrequently observed as a normal physiological finding and may be confused for spinal cord metastases. This study was conducted to evaluate a possible correlation between the lower thoracic (T11-T12) spinal uptake and lower limb movements/ambulatory status of the patients as a surrogate. The primary endpoint was to identify the possible cause(s) of the normal variant focal increased thoracic spinal cord (T11-T12) (18)F FDG activity and correlate it with the lower limb movements/ambulatory status of the patients. This was a retrospective analysis of PET-CT scans of 200 patients with solid and hematological malignancies. The focal relatively increased (18)F FDG activity in the lower thoracic spinal cord correlated strongly with the (18)F FDG intensity of the liver, bowel, C3-C5 cervical cord activity, weight of the patient and injected dose of (18)F FDG. With regard to the primary endpoint, no significant correlation was found between the ambulatory status of patients in any of the groups and thoracic spine SUVmax. This could be further assessed by performing dual studies in the same patient with and without moderate to excessive leg motion. Identifying this variant focal increased (18)F FDG activity can minimize errors of misdiagnosis and unnecessary further investigation.
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Curcumin heals indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration by stimulation of angiogenesis and restitution of collagen fibers via VEGF and MMP-2 mediated signaling.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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We examined the molecular mechanism of curcumin in a preventive and therapeutic model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration with regard to angiogenic processes.
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Shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin after application of cavity disinfectants - SEM study.
Contemp Clin Dent
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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The aim was to evaluate the effect of different cavity disinfectants on dentin bond strengths of composite resin applied with two different adhesive systems.
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Scissors in brain: an unusual presentation of tribal culture in India.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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To observe the neurological complications arising from various tribal practices and their management. Penetrating head injuries comprise only a small number of total head injuries. A penetrating head injury by deliberate attempt to treat an ailment is almost unheard of. MATERIAL and
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Biocatalytic deacylation studies on tetra-O-acyl-?-D-xylofuranosyl nucleosides: synthesis of xylo-LNA monomers.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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A Novozyme-435 catalytic methodology has been developed for selective deacylation of one of the acyloxy functions involving a primary -OH group over the other acyloxy functions involving primary and secondary -OH groups in 4-C-acyloxymethyl-2,3,5-tri-O-acyl-?-D-xylofuranosyl nucleosides. Optimization of the biocatalytic reaction revealed that tetra-O-butanoyl-?-D-xylofuranosyl nucleosides are the best substrates for the enzyme. The possibility of acyl migration during enzymatic deacylation reactions has been ruled out by carrying out biocatalytic deacylation reactions on mixed esters of 4-C-hydroxymethyl-2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-?-D-xylofuranosyl nucleosides. The developed methodology has been used for the efficient synthesis of xylo-LNA monomers T, U, A, and C in good yields.
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Spinal arachnoid cyst.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2011
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Preoperative, operative and postoperative radiological examinations and operative notes of 31 patients with spinal arachnoid cyst operated on during 2002-2009 at the Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, were evaluated. Sixteen patients were male and 15 were female. All patients were managed surgically: extradural arachnoid cysts were managed by excision and intradural arachnoid cysts were managed by marsupialization. There was no recurrence in the 4 years of follow up.
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Dynamic water networks in cytochrome cbb3 oxidase.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Heme-copper oxidases (HCOs) are terminal electron acceptors in aerobic respiration. They catalyze the reduction of molecular oxygen to water with concurrent pumping of protons across the mitochondrial and bacterial membranes. Protons required for oxygen reduction chemistry and pumping are transferred through proton uptake channels. Recently, the crystal structure of the first C-type member of the HCO superfamily was resolved [Buschmann et al. Science 329 (2010) 327-330], but crystallographic water molecules could not be identified. Here we have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, continuum electrostatic approaches, and quantum chemical cluster calculations to identify proton transfer pathways in cytochrome cbb(3). In MD simulations we observe formation of stable water chains that connect the highly conserved Glu323 residue on the proximal side of heme b(3) both with the N- and the P-sides of the membrane. We propose that such pathways could be utilized for redox-coupled proton pumping in the C-type oxidases. Electrostatics and quantum chemical calculations suggest an increased proton affinity of Glu323 upon reduction of high-spin heme b(3). Protonation of Glu323 provides a mechanism to tune the redox potential of heme b(3) with possible implications for proton pumping.
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IGF-1 induced HIF-1?-TLR9 cross talk regulates inflammatory responses in glioma.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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The insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) induces hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1?) regulated genes in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). As HIF-1? links inflammatory and oncogenic pathways in GBM, we investigated whether IGF-1 affects HIF-1?? to regulate inflammatory response in glioma cells under normoxia. IGF-1 induced Ras and Calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) regulated HIF-1? transcriptional activity in glioma cells. Increase in HIF-1? was concurrent with decreased Toll-like receptor (TLR9) and CXCR4 expression and elevated suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) levels. Interestingly, while synthetic CpG containing oligodeoxynucleotide TLR9 agonist (CpG DNA) decreased IGF-1 mediated increase in HIF-1? activity, siRNA mediated knockdown of HIF-1? decreased TLR9 levels. This suggested that IGF-1 induced HIF-1?-TLR9 axis is regulated by both positive and negative feedback loops. Importantly, TLR9 agonist reversed the effect of IGF-1 on CXCR4 and SOCS3 expression. While knockdown of HIF-1? abrogated IGF-1 mediated increase in SOCS3 it elevated IGF-1 induced decrease in CXCR4 levels. Thus HIF-1? positively and negatively regulates SOCS3 and CXCR4 expression respectively, in glioma cells. Though TLR9 agonist had no additive effect on IGF-1 mediated increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8, treatment with TLR9 agonist alone elevated expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our studies indicate that a complex HIF-1?-TLR9 cross-talk sustains a self-regulating cycle of inflammatory response through intrinsic negative and positive feedback mechanisms.
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COX-2 regulates the proliferation of glioma stem like cells.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) possessing features of neural precursor cells (NPC) influence initiation, recurrence and chemoresistance of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). As inflammation is crucial for glioblastoma progression we investigated the effect of chronic IL-1? treatment on CSCs derived from glioblastoma cell line U87MG. Exposure to IL-1? for 10 days increased (i) accumulation of 8-OHdG - a key biomarker of oxidative DNA damage; (ii) DNA damage response (DDR) indicators ?H2AX, ATM and DNA-PK; (iii) nuclear and cytoplasmic p53 and COX-2 levels and (iv) interaction between COX-2 and p53. Despite upregulating p53 expression IL-1? had no effect on cell cycle progression, apoptosis or self renewal capacity of CSCs. COX-2 inhibitor Celecoxib reduced self renewal capacity and increased apoptosis of both control and IL-1? treated CSCs. Therefore the ability of COX-2 to regulate proliferation of CSCs irrespective of exposure to IL-1?, warrants further investigation of COX-2 as a potential anti-glioma target.
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Evaluation of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. for anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities.
Indian J Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Linn.) Sw. for anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities.
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Assessment of stability of binary sweetener blend (aspartame x acesulfame-K) during storage in whey lemon beverage.
J Food Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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In the present study, artificial sweeteners-aspartame, acesulfame-K and binary sweetener blend of aspartame x acesulfame-K were assessed for stability during storage in whey lemon beverage. A solid phase extraction method using C18 cartridges was standardized for the isolation of aspartame, acesulfame-K and their degradation products in whey lemon beverage. HPLC analytical conditions were standardized over C18 column for simultaneous separation of multiple sweeteners and their degradation products in sample isolates. Storage studies revealed that increase in acidity and viscosity and decrease in pH and ascorbic acid content of artificially sweetened whey lemon beverage samples were similar to the changes occurring in control samples during storage. Analysis using HPLC showed that aspartame (added either singly or in a blend) and acesulfame-K (added in a blend) were stable in whey lemon beverage under refrigerated condition for 15 days.
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Purification and characterization of an extracellular 24 kDa chitobiosidase from the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma saturnisporum.
J. Basic Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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A Trichoderma saturnisporum Hamill isolate GITX-Panog (C) exhibiting strong chitinolytic and antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, the causal agent of vascular wilt in carnation was used to purify extracellular chitobiosidase using Czapek-Dox broth amended with the fungal mycelium as the carbon source. The protein was purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate, followed by DEAE-Cellulose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-200 high resolution gel filtration chromatography. The purity of the enzyme was determined by SDS-PAGE, with an estimated molecular mass of 24 kDa. In native gel assay with 4-methylumbelliferyl -N,N diacetyl-?-D-chitobioside (4-Mu-(GluNAc)(2) , the purified chitobiosidase was visualized as single fluorescent band. Enzyme activity towards short oligomeric natural substrates indicated that the enzyme has properties that are characteristic to exochitinases. The enzyme was active up to 60 °C and at pH 4.0, and displayed maximum stability at 50 °C. Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) stimulated the enzyme activity by 63% and 41%, respectively. The K(m) and V(max) values of the purified enzyme for 4-Mu-(GluNAc)(2) were 338.9 ?M ml(-1) and 0.119 ?M ml(-1) min(-1) , respectively. This appears to be the first report of characterization of a chitobiosidase from antagonistic Trichoderma saturnisporum.
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Upregulation of collagenase-1 and -3 in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in diabetic rats: role of melatonin.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Collagenases are key proteases involved in inflammation and injury. We addressed whether collagenases have an association with the susceptibility of gastric injury under diabetes as well as the effect of melatonin on collagenases in ulcerated gastric tissues. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) followed by gastric ulceration using indomethacin, and melatonins action was studied by its application prior to indomethacin exposure. Ulcer indices and damage were elevated significantly in gastric tissues of diabetic compared with nondiabetic rats. Melatonin reversed the effect of indomethacin during protection of gastric ulcers in diabetic rats. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 (i.e., collagenase-3) was upregulated in diabetic gastric mucosa and enhanced further upon ulceration while melatonin ameliorated their activity. In addition, gastric tissues showed enhanced expression of both MMP-1 (i.e., collagenases-1) and -13 significantly in diabetic rats compared with nondiabetic animals and more so during ulceration while tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) showed an opposite trend. MMP-2 activities exhibited a ?50% downregulation during gastric ulceration which were rescued by melatonin. Moreover, increased expression of both MMP-1 and -13 was mediated by activator protein-1 activation via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 which were parallel to upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and heat shock protein-70 during ulceration. Melatonin arrested collagenase expression by downregulation of these signaling molecules thereby halting the progression of the disease. We conclude that diabetic gastric tissues are susceptible to ulceration and associated with MMP-1 and -13 upregulation in indomethacin-induced injury. Additionally, melatonin protects the gastric damage under diabetes via regulation of both MMP-1 and -13.
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Stabilization of the peroxy intermediate in the oxygen splitting reaction of cytochrome cbb(3).
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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The proton-pumping cbb(3)-type cytochrome c oxidases catalyze cell respiration in many pathogenic bacteria. For reasons not yet understood, the apparent dioxygen (O(2)) affinity in these enzymes is very high relative to other members of the heme-copper oxidase (HCO) superfamily. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations on intermediates of the oxygen scission reaction in active-site models of cbb(3)- and aa(3)-type oxidases, we find that a transient peroxy intermediate (I(P), Fe[III]-OOH(-)) is ~6kcal/mol more stable in the former case, resulting in more efficient kinetic trapping of dioxygen and hence in a higher apparent oxygen affinity. The major molecular basis for this stabilization is a glutamate residue, polarizing the proximal histidine ligand of heme b(3) in the active site.
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Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Various Anti-Microbials in Patients of Acute Rhinosinusitis at Tertiary-Care Hospital in Uttarakhand (UK).
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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To compare the efficacy of gatifloxacin, azithromycin with amoxicillin as positive control for the treatment of Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). To monitor adverse drug reaction profile of amoxicillin, azithromycin and gatifloxacin in patient of ARS. An open randomized trial of comparative efficacy and safety of amoxicillin, azithromycin and gatifloxacin in patients with ARS. Patients were randomized into three groups as under: group 1: patients on oral amoxicillin 500 mg TDS for 10 days; group 2: patients on oral azithromycin 500 mg OD for 5 days; group 3: patients on oral gatifloxacin 400 mg OD for 10 days. Patients were evaluated for signs and symptoms at day 1, day 7 (for group 2), on day 12 (for group 1, 3) as primary end points and 28 days after post therapy as secondary end point. All the three antimicrobial drugs i.e., amoxicillin, azithromycin and gatifloxacin were effective in reducing symptoms of acute sinusitis on visual analogue scale scoring. Azithromycin showed significant improvement radiographically on day 7 (P < 0.01) and on day 35 (P < 0.01). Gatifloxacin elicited very highly significant improvement radiographically on day 40 (P < 0.001) and significant improvement on day 12 (P < 0.01) when compared with amoxicillin. Azithromycin, the ketolide was associated with lesser adverse effects as compared to amoxicillin. All the three antimicrobial drugs i.e., amoxicillin, azithromycin and gatifloxacin were effective in reducing symptoms of acute sinusitis on visual analogue scale scoring. Gatifloxacin was found to be most effective drug both in terms of improvement in signs and symptoms on visual analogue scale and radiographic scoring and was associated with least adverse events in comparison to rest of two drugs under study.
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A regimen of taxol, Ifosfamide, and platinum for recurrent advanced squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
Chemother Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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The typically recommended chemotherapy options in metastatic anal cancer generally yield partial remissions with limited benefit for the majority of patients. TIP is a regimen containing paclitaxel (Taxol), ifosfamide, and cisplatin that is known to have significant activity in patients with squamous cell cancers of the head and neck as well as in cervical cancer, both of which are malignancies strongly associated with oncogenic strains of human papilloma virus (HPV). Interestingly, squamous cell cancer of the anal canal shares an almost identical pathophysiology including causal association with HPV. Due to this, we chose to use the TIP regimen to treat patients with advanced anal cancer at our institution and report our findings on three such consecutive patients. All the patients tolerated the regimen well with manageable side effects and had excellent responses with complete resolution of PET activity after treatment. Our observations suggest that TIP is highly active for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal and warrants further study in the treatment of this disease.
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Squash preparation: A reliable diagnostic tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system tumors.
J Cytol
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2010
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Intraoperative cytology is an important diagnostic modality improving on the accuracy of the frozen sections. It has shown to play an important role especially in the intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system tumors.
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Biocatalytic separation of N-7/N-9 guanine nucleosides.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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Vorbrüggen coupling of trimethylsilylated 2-N-isobutanoylguanine with peracetylated pentofuranose derivatives generally gives inseparable N-7/N-9 glycosyl mixtures. We have shown that the two isomers can be separated biocatalytically by Novozyme-435-mediated selective deacetylation of the 5-O-acetyl group of peracetylated N-9 guanine nucleosides.
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Primary lumbosacral intradural hydatid cyst in a child.
J Neurosci Rural Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Primary spinal hydatid cyst is very rare lesion affecting less than 1% of the total cases of the hydatid disease. In this study, we report a case of spinal hydatid in a 5-year old boy presented with a history of backache, leg pain, difficulty in walking, and bowel and bladder incontinence for 4 months. An intradural nonenhancing cystic lesion was detected using magnetic resonance imaging from L4 to sacral region, and histopathological findings were suggestive of hydatid cyst.
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The identity of the transient proton loading site of the proton-pumping mechanism of cytochrome c oxidase.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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Cellular respiration is driven by cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), which reduces oxygen to water and couples the released energy to proton pumping across the mitochondrial or bacterial membrane. Proton pumping in CcO involves proton transfer from the negatively charged side of the membrane to a transient proton-loading or pump site (PLS), before it is ejected to the opposite side. Although many details of the reaction mechanism are known, the exact location of the PLS has remained elusive. We report here results from combined classical molecular dynamics simulations and continuum electrostatic calculations, which show that the hydrogen-bonded system around the A-propionate of heme a? dissociates reversibly upon reduction of heme a. The dissociation increases the pK(a) value of the propionate to a value above ~9, making it accessible for redox-state dependent protonation. The redox state of heme a is of key importance in controlling proton leaks by polarizing the PLS both statically and dynamically. These findings suggest that the propionate region of heme a? fulfills the criteria of the pump site in the proton translocation mechanism of CcO.
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Coexisting cranial and multiple spinal meningioma in a child-report of a case.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Von Ricklinghausens disease is commonly associated with simultaneous cranial and spinal meningioma but these are not true meningiomas. Craniospinal meningiomas without Von Ricklinghausens disease are very rare. We report a 13-year-old girl who presented with two episodes of right focal seizure with secondary generalisation of three years duration, weakness of both lower limbs for 6 months, and retention of urine of three months duration. MRI brain showed enhancing lesion in the left fronto-parietal region. MRI spine revealed enhancing intradural extramedullary lesion at D(4-5), D(9-10), and L(1-2). The tumours were excised completely in a single stage, first by craniotomy then by multi level laminectomy. On histology the spinal meningioma had predominant meningothiliomatous. We followed up for 6 months and the patient recovered with power grade 4/5 both lower limb.
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Ras regulates interleukin-1?-induced HIF-1? transcriptional activity in glioblastoma.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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We observed elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1? in glioblastoma multiforme tumor samples. Since hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) plays a crucial role in linking inflammatory and oncogenic pathways, we investigated the effect of IL-1? on HIF-1? expression in glioma cells under normoxia. IL-1?-mediated elevation of HIF-1? transcriptional activity was dependent on Ras-induced NF-?B activation, as IL-1? failed to induce NF-?B and HIF-1? activity in cells transfected with dominant negative RasN17. Increased Ras expression was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of Ras effectors AKT, ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK. While inhibition of these effectors individually failed to block the IL-1?-mediated increase in HIF-1? induction, co-inhibition of both AKT and ERK resulted in a significant decrease in IL-1?-induced HIF-1? activation. Interestingly, IL-1? elevated Wnt-1 expression in a Ras-dependent manner, and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of Wnt-1 decreased HIF-1? activity. Although Wnt-1-mediated HIF-1? was independent of the canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, it regulated HIF-1? through NF-?B. siRNA-mediated HIF-1? knockdown attenuated elevated IL-1? mRNA levels induced upon IL-1? treatment. This was accompanied by increased interaction of HIF-1? with HIF responsive element on the IL-1? promoter upon IL-1? treatment, under normoxia. Our studies highlights for first time that (1) Ras is a key mediator of IL-1?-induced NF-?B and HIF-1? activation, under normoxia; (2) Wnt-1 regulates IL-1?-mediated HIF-1? induction via NF-?B; (3) Ras and Wnt-1 are intermediaries in the canonical IL-1?-NF-?B signaling pathway downstream of MyD88; and (4) IL-1?-induced HIF-1? drives a HIF-1?-IL-1? autocrine loop to maintain persistently elevated IL-1? level.
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Melatonin promotes angiogenesis during protection and healing of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer: role of matrix metaloproteinase-2.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 is considered as a crucial regulator of angiogenesis, a process of new blood vessel formation. We reported previously that melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine), an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, prevents indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. Herein, we investigated the effect of melatonin on MMP-2-mediated angiogenesis during gastroprotection. Angiogenic properties of melatonin were tested in both rat corneal micropocket assay and in mouse model of indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. Melatonin augmented angiogenesis that was associated with amelioration of MMP-2 expression and activity and, upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat cornea. Melatonin prevented gastric lesions by promoting angiogenesis via upregulation of VEGF followed by over-expression of MMP-2. Similarly, healing of gastric lesions was associated with early expression of VEGF followed by MMP-2. In addition, upregulation of MMP-2 was parallel to MMP-14 and inverse to tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease (TIMP)-2 expression during gastroprotection. Our data demonstrated that melatonin exerts angiogenesis through MMP-2 and VEGF over-expression during protection and healing of gastric ulcers. This study highlights for the first time a phase-associated regulation of MMP-2 activity in gastric mucosa and an angiogenic action of melatonin to rescue indomethacin-induced gastropathy.
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Lot quality assurance sampling for monitoring coverage and quality of a targeted condom social marketing programme in traditional and non-traditional outlets in India.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2010
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This study reports on the results of a large-scale targeted condom social marketing campaign in and around areas where female sex workers are present. The paper also describes the method that was used for the routine monitoring of condom availability in these sites.
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Redox-coupled proton transfer in the active site of cytochrome cbb3.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Cytochrome cbb3 is a distinct member of the superfamily of respiratory heme-copper oxidases, and is responsible for driving the respiratory chain in many pathogenic bacteria. Like the canonical heme-copper oxidases, cytochrome cbb3 reduces oxygen to water and couples the released energy to pump protons across the bacterial membrane. Homology modeling and recent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on wild type and a mutant cbb3 enzyme [V. Rauhamäki et al. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 11301-11308] have led us to perform high-level quantum chemical calculations on the active site. These calculations bring molecular insight into the unique hydrogen bonding between the proximal histidine ligand of heme b3 and a conserved glutamate, and indicate that the catalytic mechanism involves redox-coupled proton transfer between these residues. The calculated spin densities give insight in the difference in EPR spectra for the wild type and a recently studied E383Q-mutant cbb3-enzyme. Furthermore, we show that the redox-coupled proton movement in the proximal cavity of cbb3-enzymes contributes to the low redox potential of heme b3, and suggest its potential implications for the high apparent oxygen affinity of these enzymes.
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Bicyclic triterpenoid Iripallidal induces apoptosis and inhibits Akt/mTOR pathway in glioma cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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The highly resistant nature of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) to chemotherapy prompted us to evaluate the efficacy of bicyclic triterpenoid Iripallidal against GBM in vitro.
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Kidney after nonrenal transplantation-the impact of alemtuzumab induction.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2009
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Calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity in nonrenal allograft recipients can lead to end-stage renal disease and the need for kidney transplantation. We sought to evaluate the role of alemtuzumab induction in this population.
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Structural origin of circularly polarized iridescence in jeweled beetles.
Science
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
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The iridescent metallic green beetle, Chrysina gloriosa, which selectively reflects left circularly polarized light, possesses an exoskeleton decorated by hexagonal cells (approximately 10 microm) that coexist with pentagons and heptagons. The fraction of hexagons decreases with an increase in curvature. In bright field microscopy, each cell contains a bright yellow core, placed in a greenish cell with yellowish border, but the core disappears in dark field. With use of confocal microscopy, we observe that these cells consist of nearly concentric nested arcs that lie on the surface of a shallow cone. We infer that the patterns are structurally and optically analogous to the focal conic domains formed spontaneously on the free surface of a cholesteric liquid crystal. These textures provide the basis for the morphogenesis as well as key insights for emulating the intricate optical response of the exoskeleton of scarab beetles.
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Assessing HIV risk in workplaces for prioritizing HIV preventive interventions in Karnataka State, India.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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To develop a model for prioritizing economic sectors for HIV preventive intervention programs in the workplace.
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Amelioration of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress by vinpocetine -- a PDE1 inhibitor.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2009
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Enhancing cyclic nucleotides signaling by inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is known to be beneficial in disorders associated with cognitive decline. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of vinpocetine (PDE1 inhibitor) on intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) streptozotocin induced experimental sporadic dementia of Alzheimers type. Infusion of streptozotocin impaired learning and memory, increased oxidative-nitritive stress and induced cholinergic hypofunction in rats. Chronic treatment with vinpocetine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg i.p.) for 21 days following first i.c.v. streptozotocin infusion significantly improved learning and memory in Morris water maze and passive avoidance paradigms. Further, vinpocetine significantly reduced the oxidative-nitritive stress, as evidenced by decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels, and restored the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity and lactate dehydrogenase levels was observed in the present model indicating cholinergic hypofunction and increase in neuronal cell damage. Chronic treatment with vinpocetine also reduced significantly the increase in acetylcholinesterase activity and lactate dehydrogenase levels indicating restorative capacity of vinpocetine with respect to cholinergic functions and preventing the neuronal damage. The observed beneficial effects of vinpocetine on spatial memory may be due to its ability to favorably modulate cholinergic functions, prevent neuronal cell damage and possibly through its antioxidant mechanism also.
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Outcomes after excision of pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee.
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
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Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) has a high but variable recurrence rate. Prior studies do not compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) for various surgical approaches or salvage surgery for relapse. We therefore determined: (1) RFS after excision; (2) RFS after salvage surgery for relapse; (3) factors associated with relapse. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 49 patients with previously untreated PVNS of the knee (12 localized, 37 diffuse) who were treated with synovectomy from 1991 to 2008; there were 22 males and 27 females, with mean age of 35.2 years (range, 10-73). Minimum followup was 1 year (mean, 6.2 years; range, 1-13). Twenty-one patients had a relapse. The RFS for index surgery was 75% and 53%; and for salvage surgery was 71% and 52% at 2 and 5 years respectively. The RFS was 95% for open versus 62% for arthroscopic synovectomy at 2 years, 71% and 41% at 5 years. The RFS was 91% for localized and 70% for diffuse PVNS at 2 years, 73% and 48% at 5 years. Diffuse disease (RR = 4.49) and arthroscopic synovectomy (RR = 3.30) were associated with relapse. Recurrence was frequent after synovectomy. Reexcision can salvage relapses as successfully as excision for primary disease; however, morbidity was associated with additional surgeries.
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Ebselen abrogates TNFalpha induced pro-inflammatory response in glioblastoma.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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We investigated the pro-inflammatory response mediated by TNFalpha in glioblastoma and whether treatment with organoselenium Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3[2H]one) can affect TNFalpha induced inflammatory response. Exposure to TNFalpha increased the expression of pro-inflammatory mediator interleukin IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Treatment with Ebselen abrogated TNFalpha induced increase in pro-inflammatory mediators. Ebselen not only abrogated TNFalpha induced enhanced invasiveness of glioma cells by down-regulating matrix metallo proteinase (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen (uPa) activity, but also inhibited glioma cell migration. Treatment with Ebselen also down-regulated the enhanced ROS production of TNFalpha treated glioma cells. In addition, Ebselen induced DNA damage repair signaling response in glioma cells both in the presence and absence of TNFalpha. These studies indicate that together with its known ability to sensitize glioma cell to TNFalpha induced apoptosis, Ebselen can overcome TNFalpha induced pro-inflammatory mediators to prevent a build up of a deleterious pro-inflammatory tumor microenvironment.
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Manumycin inhibits STAT3, telomerase activity, and growth of glioma cells by elevating intracellular reactive oxygen species generation.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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The poor prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme and lack of effective therapy have necessitated the identification of new treatment strategies. We have previously reported that elevation of oxidative stress induces apoptosis of glioma cells. Because the farnesyltransferase inhibitor manumycin is known to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, we evaluated the effects of manumycin on glioma cells. Manumycin induced glioma cell apoptosis by elevating ROS generation. Treatment with the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine blocked manumycin-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, and PARP expression, indicating the involvement of increased ROS in the proapoptotic activity of manumycin. This heightened ROS level was accompanied by a concurrent decrease in antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) and thioredoxin (TRX-1). SOD-1 overexpression protects glioma cells from manumycin-induced apoptosis. In addition, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SOD-1 and TRX-1 expression also increased ROS generation and sensitivity of glioma cells to manumycin-induced cell death. Interestingly, suppressing ROS generation prevented manumycin-induced Ras inhibition. This study reports for the first time that Ras inhibition by manumycin is due to heightened ROS levels. We also report for the first time that manumycin inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and telomerase activity in a ROS-dependent manner, which plays a crucial role in glioma resistance to apoptosis. In addition manumycin (i) induced the DNA-damage repair response, (ii) affected cell-cycle-regulatory molecules, and (iii) impaired the colony-forming ability of glioma cells in a ROS-dependent manner.
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Effect of resistant starch on hydrolysis and fermentation of corn starch for ethanol.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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Starch samples with 0% or 30% amylose were subjected to four different liquefaction enzyme treatments (at various temperature and pH conditions) followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Resistant starch (RS) measurements were conducted for the initial starch sample, after liquefaction and after SSF. Initial RS was higher for 30% amylose starch samples (16.53 g/100 g sample) compared with 0% amylose (0.76 g/100 g sample). Higher initial RS resulted in lower conversion of starch into sugars and lower final ethanol yields. The four enzymes hydrolyzed RS, but in varying amounts. Higher temperature liquefaction hydrolyzed a larger portion of RS, resulting in higher ethanol concentrations and lower final residual solids (non-fermentables), whereas lower temperature liquefaction hydrolyzed a smaller portion of RS and resulted in lower ethanol concentrations and higher final residual solids. Decreases in resistant starch after high temperature liquefaction were 55% to 74%, whereas low temperature liquefaction decreases were 11% to 43%. For all enzyme treatments, RS content of starch samples decreased further after SSF.
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Five years experience at a single centre of craniocerebral injury from winnowing fan blades.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2009
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India, an agriculture-based country, relies heavily on indigenous farm machinery. In our study we present 31 patients with winnowing fan blade head injury, operated on at our centre between 2004 and 2008. The mechanism and nature of the injuries, operative methods, outcome and methods of prevention are discussed with special reference to the occurrence of this type of injury in the pediatric population.
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C1 and C2 nerve sheath tumors: analysis of 32 cases.
Neurol India
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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C1 and C2 nerve sheath tumors are to be considered as a separate clinical entity because of their unique clinical presentation, relation to the adjacent structures and surgical approaches when compared to their counterparts in other regions. Aim: To present the clinical characteristics, radiological findings, operative approaches, and outcomes. Setting and Design: Of the 32 patients, the study was retrospective in 22 patients and in 10 it was prospective.
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Shape separation of gold nanorods using centrifugation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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We demonstrate the use of centrifugation for efficient separation of colloidal gold nanorods from a mixture of nanorods and nanospheres. We elucidate the hydrodynamic behavior of nanoparticles of various shapes and illustrate that the shape-dependent drag causes particles to have shape-dependent sedimentation behavior. During centrifugation, nanoparticles undergo Brownian motion under an external field and move with different sedimentation velocities dictated by their Svedberg coefficients. This effects a separation of particles of different shape and size. Our theoretical analysis and experiments demonstrate the viability of using centrifugation to shape-separate a mixture of colloidal particles.
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Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modelling studies of novel quinoline derivatives against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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We herein describe the synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of a series of 27 different derivatives of 3-benzyl-6-bromo-2-methoxy-quinolines and amides of 2-[(6-bromo-2-methoxy-quinolin-3-yl)-phenyl-methyl]-malonic acid monomethyl ester. The antimycobacterial activity of these compounds was evaluated in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv for nine consecutive days upon a fixed concentration (6.25 microg/mL) at day one in Bactec assay and compared to untreated TB cell culture as well as one with isoniazide treated counterpart, under identical experimental conditions. The compounds 3, 8, 17 and 18 have shown 92-100% growth inhibition of mycobacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 6.25 microg/mL. Based on our molecular modelling and docking studies on well-known diarylquinoline antitubercular drug R207910, the presence of phenyl, naphthyl and halogen moieties seem critical. Comparison of docking studies on different stereoisomers of R207910 as well as compounds from our data set, suggests importance of electrostatic interactions. Further structural analysis of docking studies on our compounds suggests attractive starting point to find new lead compounds with potential improvements.
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Comparison of fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth using different coronal restorative materials: An in vitro study.
J Conserv Dent
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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To evaluate the in vitro effect of bonded restorations on the fracture resistance of root canal-treated teeth.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel triazole, urea and thiourea derivatives of quinoline against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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A new series of 20 quinoline derivatives possessing triazolo, ureido and thioureido substituents have been synthesized and their antimycobacterial properties have been evaluated. Compounds 10, 22 and 24 inhibited Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv up to 96%, 98% and 94% respectively, at a fixed concentration of 6.25 microg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 3.125 microg/mL was obtained for compound 10 and 24, while for compound 22 it was 6.25 microg/mL. Molecular docking calculations suggest critical hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between polar functional groups (such as quinoline-nitrogen, urea-carbonyl and hydroxyl) of anti-mycobacterial (anti-TB) compounds and amino acids (Arg186 and Glu61) of ATP-synthase of M. tuberculosis, could be the probable reason for observed anti-mycobacterial action.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.