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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dust, Endotoxin, Fungi, and Bacteria Exposure as Determined by Work Task, Season, and Type of Plant in a Flower Greenhouse.
Ann Occup Hyg
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Greenhouse workers are exposed to dust, endotoxin, fungi, and bacteria potentially causing airway inflammation as well as systemic symptoms. Knowledge about determinants of exposure is a prerequisite for efficient prevention through knowledge-based reduction in exposure. The objective of this study was to assess the occupational exposure in a flower greenhouse and to investigate the impact of work tasks on the intensity and variability in exposure.
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[Occupational asthma caused by maleic anhydride.]
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Organic acid anhydrides (OAA) are widely used in the chemical industry. They are irritants and can cause sensitization and asthma. We describe the first documented case of occupational asthma caused by the OAA maleic anhydride (MA) in the production of insecticides. A 60-year-old man developed work-related respiratory symptoms after eight years of intermittent exposure to MA. Peak expiratory flow measurements showed greater variance on work days than on days off. Both a basophilic activation test and determination of the MA-specific IgE level in serum showed sensitization to MA.
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Change in airway inflammatory markers in Danish energy plant workers during a working week.
Ann Agric Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Introduction. It is well known that exposure to organic dust can cause adverse respiratory effect. The pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) in the organic dust, such as endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria cell wall and fungal components, can trigger the release of cytokine (e.g. Interleukin 1? (IL-1?)) and chemokine (e.g. Interleukin 8 (IL-8)) from the immune cells in the airways. Objective. To evaluate the potential inflammatory effects of organic dust exposure in energy plants in Denmark. Materials and methods. Nasal lavage (NAL) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were sampled at Monday morning (referred to as before work) and again at Thursday afternoon (referred to as after work). NAL IL-8, EBC pH, IL-1? concentration were measured. Personal exposure to endotoxin and dust was calculated from time spent on different tasks and measured average work area exposures. Results. Before work, workers from biofuel plants had a higher IL-1? and IL-8 concentration compared to conventional fuel plants (control group). Specifically, the IL-1? level of moderately and most exposed group, and IL-8 level of the least exposed group were higher compared to the control group. The changes of IL-1?, pH and IL-8 during a work week were not significant. Workers with rhinitis had a lower percentage change of IL-8 compared to healthy workers. Conclusions. An increased level of EBC IL-1? in biofuel energy plant workers before work indicated a chronic or sub-chronic inflammation. The percentage change of IL-8 was lower in workers with rhinitis compared to healthy workers.
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Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes? A cross-sectional study.
J Agromedicine
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Pyrethroids are a class of insecticides used widely for vector control programs. Acute pyrethroid poisoning is rare, but well documented, whereas effects of cumulative exposure are insufficiently described, including possible negative effect on glucose regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate an association between exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation (prediabetes or diabetes). A cross-sectional study was performed among 116 pesticide sprayers from public vector control programs in Bolivia and 92 nonexposed controls. Pesticide exposure (duration, intensity, cumulative exposure) was assessed from questionnaire data. Participants were asked about symptoms of diabetes. Blood samples were analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a measure of glucose regulation. No association was found between pyrethroid exposure and diabetes symptoms. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation (defined as HbA1c ? 5.6%) was 61.1% among sprayers and 7.9% among nonexposed controls, corresponding to an adjusted odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]) for all sprayers of 11.8 [4.2-33.2] and 18.5 [5.5-62.5] for pyrethroid-exposed only. Among sprayers who had only used pyrethroids, a significant positive trend was observed between cumulative pesticide exposure (total number of hours sprayed) and adjusted OR of abnormal glucose regulation, with OR 14.7 [0.9-235] in the third exposure quintile. The study found a severely increased prevalence of prediabetes among Bolivian pesticide sprayers compared with a control group, but the relevance of the control group is critical. Within the spraying group, an association between cumulative exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation was seen. Further studies are needed to confirm this association.
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Exposure to psychosocial job strain during pregnancy and odds of asthma and atopic dermatitis among 7-year old children - a prospective cohort study.
Scand J Work Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Few epidemiological studies have studied maternal stress exposure during pregnancy and odds of asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) among offspring, and none have extended the focus to psychosocial job strain. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal job strain during pregnancy and asthma as well as AD among 7-year-old children.
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0191?Are indoor concentrations of airborne mould spores in non-industrial environments sufficiently high to cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis?
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Antigen exposure is the only diagnostic criteria specific for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) compared with other interstitial lung diseases. Indoor mould exposure in non-industrial environments has been claimed to cause HP, but little is known about exposure levels. Our objective was to compare indoor concentrations of airborne mould spores for patients diagnosed with indoor HP with background levels and levels measured for patients diagnosed with farmers' lung and suberosis.
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0173?Grouping strategies for exposure assessment of the psychosocial work environment.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Individual response style, mood, expectations, and health status may affect reporting of the psychosocial work environment, and bias associations with outcomes. Reporting bias may be avoided by aggregating individual responses, ideally preserving exposure contrast. In this study, we examined the degree of exposure contrast yielded by different grouping strategies.
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Place of upbringing in early childhood as related to inflammatory bowel diseases in adulthood: a population-based cohort study in Northern Europe.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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The two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, has increased rapidly during the twentieth century, but the aetiology is still poorly understood. Impaired immunological competence due to decreasing biodiversity and altered microbial stimulation is a suggested explanation.
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Exposure-affecting factors of dairy farmers' exposure to inhalable dust and endotoxin.
Ann Occup Hyg
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Studies on determinants of dairy farmers' exposure to dust and endotoxin have been sparse and so far none has addressed the combined effect of tasks and farm characteristics.
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Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies - patterns and implications.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Selection bias is a systematic error in epidemiologic studies that may seriously distort true measures of associations between exposure and disease. Observational studies are highly susceptible to selection bias, and researchers should therefore always examine to what extent selection bias may be present in their material and what characterizes the bias in their material. In the present study we examined long-term participation and consequences of loss to follow-up in the studies Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE), Italian centers of European Community Respiratory Health Survey (I-ECRHS), and the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA).
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Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic literature review.
Scand J Work Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures.
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Occupational exposures and uncontrolled adult-onset asthma in the ECRHS II.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Occupational exposure is a well-recognized modifiable risk factor for asthma but the relationship between occupational exposure and asthma control has not been studied. We aimed to study this association among working-age adults from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS).Data were available for 7077 participants (in average 43 years, 45% never smokers; 5867 without asthma, 1210 with current asthma). Associations between occupational exposure to specific asthmagens and asthma control status (33% with uncontrolled asthma, based on the GINA guidelines) were evaluated using logistic and multinomial regressions, adjusted for age, gender and smoking status, with study areas included as a random effect.Statistically significant positive associations were observed between uncontrolled adult-onset asthma and both past 12-month and 10-year exposure to any occupational asthmagens (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval]: 1.6[1.0-2.4], 1.7[1.2-2.5], respectively), high (1.7[1.0-2.8], 1.9[1.3-2.9]) and low (1.6[1.0-2.7], 1.8[1.2-2.7]) molecular weight agents, and cleaning agents (2.0[1.1-3.6], 2.3[1.4-3.6]), with stronger associations for long-term exposures. These associations were mainly explained by the exacerbation domain of asthma control and no associations were observed between asthmagens and partly-controlled asthma.These findings suggest that occupational exposure to asthmagens is associated with uncontrolled adult-onset asthma. Occupational risk factors should be quickly identified to prevent uncontrolled asthma.
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Systematic review of respiratory health among dairy workers.
J Agromedicine
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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The dairy industry is changing on a global scale with larger, more efficient operations. The impact of this change on worker health and safety, specifically, associations between occupational lung disease and inhalation exposures, has yet to be reported in a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. Therefore, a three-tier process was used to identify information using a keyword search of online databases of scientific literature. Of the 147 citations reviewed, 52 met initial screening criteria, and 30 were included in this review. Dairy workers experience lung conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, chronic bronchitis, and cancer. Recent pulmonary function studies have identified obstructive lung changes among dairy farm workers. The increased scale of dairy production with significant changes in technology and work practices has altered inhalation exposure patterns among dairy workers. The inhalation exposure in the dairy work environment may elicit differing inflammatory responses in relation to timing of initial exposure as well as to repeated exposures. Few studies have measured inhalation exposure while simultaneously assessing the impact of the exposure on lung function of dairy farm workers. Even fewer studies have been implemented to assess the impact of aerosol control technology to reduce inhalation exposure. Future research should evaluate worker exposure to aerosols through a task-based approach while utilizing novel methods to assess inhalation exposure and associated inflammatory responses. Finally, potential solutions should be developed and tested to reduce inhalation exposure to inflammatory agents and respiratory diseases in the dairy farm work environment.
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A comprehensive review of levels and determinants of personal exposure to dust and endotoxin in livestock farming.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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The respiratory health effects of livestock farming have been on debate for more than three decades. Endotoxin-contaminated organic dusts are considered as the most important respiratory hazards within livestock environments. A comprehensive review of the knowledge from studies assessing the exposure status of livestock farmers is still to be published. The present study reviews research published within the last 30 years on personal exposure of livestock farmers to organic dust and endotoxin, focusing on studies on pig, poultry and cattle farmers. Applied measurement methods and reported levels of personal exposure for the total, inhalable and respirable fractions are summarized and discussed, with emphasis on the intensity of exposure and the size and distribution of the reported exposure variability. In addition, available evidence on potential determinants of personal exposure to dust and endotoxin among these farmers are documented and discussed, taking results from exposure determinant studies using stationary sampling approaches into consideration. Research needs are addressed from an epidemiological and industrial hygiene perspective. Published studies have been heterogeneous in design, and applied methodologies and results were frequently inadequately reported. Despite these limitations and the presence of an enormous variability in personal exposure to dust and endotoxin, no clear downward trends in exposure with time were observed, suggesting that working environments within stables remains largely uncontrolled. Exposure control and prevention strategies for livestock farmers are urgently required. These should focus on the development of novel and improved methods of controlling dust and endotoxin exposure within stables based on the currently available knowledge on determinants of exposure.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 27 November 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.83.
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Exposure to inhalable dust and endotoxin among Danish pig farmers affected by work tasks and stable characteristics.
Ann Occup Hyg
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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To identify working tasks and stable characteristics that determine intensity and variability of personal exposure to dust and endotoxin among pig farmers.
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[Occupational exposure for dust and gases is an important risk factor for developing COPD].
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are never-smokers, which suggests that there must be other important risk factors. This paper describes the evidence for an association between occupational exposure and COPD. In several studies a consistent and predominantly significant association between occupational exposures and COPD is found, even though the studies vary in design, enrolled populations and in measures of exposure and outcome. Strong evidence supports a causal association between multiple categories of occupational exposure and COPD, both within and across industry groups.
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Diagnostic approach in cases with suspected work-related asthma.
J Occup Med Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Work-related asthma (WRA) is a major cause of respiratory disease in modern societies. The diagnosis and consequently an opportunity for prevention are often missed in practice.
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Maternal occupational exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy and risk of asthma in 7-year-old children: a cohort study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal exposure to asthmogens during pregnancy is associated with the development of asthma in 7-year-old Danish children, taking atopic status and sex into consideration.
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Exposure to inhalable dust and endotoxin among Danish livestock farmers: results from the SUS cohort study.
J Environ Monit
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2011
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Studies on personal dust and endotoxin concentrations among animal farmers have been either small or limited to a few sectors in their investigations. The present study aimed to provide comparable information on the levels and variability of exposure to personal dust and endotoxin in different types of animal farmers. 507 personal inhalable dust samples were collected from 327 farmers employed in 54 pig, 26 dairy, 3 poultry, and 3 mink farms in Denmark. Measurements in pig and dairy farmers were full-shift and performed during summer and winter, while poultry and mink farmers were monitored during 4 well-defined production stages. The collected samples were measured for dust gravimetrically and analyzed for endotoxin by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Simple statistics and random-effect analysis were used to describe the levels and the variability in measured dust and endotoxin exposure concentrations. Measured inhalable dust levels had an overall geometric mean of 2.5 mg m(-3) (range
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Sensitisation to common allergens and respiratory symptoms in endotoxin exposed workers: a pooled analysis.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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To test the hypotheses that current endotoxin exposure is inversely associated with allergic sensitisation and positively associated with non-allergic respiratory diseases in four occupationally exposed populations using a standardised analytical approach.
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Predictors of monoterpene exposure in the Danish furniture industry.
Ann Occup Hyg
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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Individuals who work with pine in the furniture industry may be exposed to monoterpenes, the most abundant of which are ?-pinene, ?-pinene, and ?(3)-carene. Monoterpenes are suspected to cause dermatitis and to harm the respiratory system. An understanding of the predictors of monoterpene exposure is therefore important in preventing these adverse effects. These predictors may include general characteristics of the work environment and specific work operations. We sought to assess the extent to which workers are exposed to monoterpenes and to identify possible predictors of monoterpene exposure in the pine furniture industry in Denmark.
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[It is uncertain if caesarean section is a risk factor to the development of asthma].
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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In Denmark the prevalence of both asthma and caesarean section has increased during the last 20 years. This review investigates the coherence between caesarean section and the development of asthma. Twelve epidemiological articles about children over three years were included. Eight of 12 studies discovered no association between caesarean section and asthma. There is no difference in the quality of the studies. We can conclude that it is uncertain if caesarean section is a risk factor to the development of asthma, but it cannot be eliminated that asthma is one of many consequences of caesarean section.
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Does the use of biofuels affect respiratory health among male Danish energy plant workers?
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2010
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To study asthma, respiratory symptoms and lung function among energy plant employees working with woodchip, straw or conventional fuel.
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Immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust in relation to wood dust exposure levels and respiratory symptoms in the furniture industry.
Scand J Work Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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Wood dust exposure may cause Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases. Our objectives were to estimate pine and beech dust sensitization rates among woodworkers and a reference group, explore the association between exposure and sensitization and between sensitization and respiratory symptoms, and finally investigate the impact of proteinogenic specific IgE (sIgE) epitopes on respiratory symptoms.
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Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part II. Dry wood industry.
Ann Agric Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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This paper reviews the literature on associations between dry wood dust exposure and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between dry wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. Papers took into consideration smoking and when dealing with lung function age. A total of 37 papers forms the basis of this review. The results support an association between dry wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis is seen across the studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent has consistently been disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected to be a major cause of wood dust induced asthma.
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Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry.
Ann Agric Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
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This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry.
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The cohort of young Danish farmers - A longitudinal study of the health effects of farming exposure.
Clin Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2010
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Working in agriculture poses a serious risk for development of respiratory diseases, especially when working in animal housing. Animal workers are exposed to a mixture of organic and inorganic dust together with fumes and gases, including allergens and microbial-associated molecular patterns with a potentially major impact on respiratory health and the immune system. Exposure to microbial agents in animal housing is associated with an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms, including bronchial hyperresponsiveness, accelerated lung function decline, and neutrophil-mediated inflammation. These clinical findings are often seen without IgE-mediated sensitization. In fact it has been found in recent studies that the prevalence of atopic sensitization and atopic asthma is low among farmers compared with other populations. The SUS study was designed to identify the type and occurrence of respiratory symptoms and disease, and to investigate risk factors for respiratory disorders and changes in lung function among young farming students. The cohort of young Danish farmers was established in 1992/1994 and followed up in 2007/2008 with a participation rate of 51.7%. The cohort consists of 1734 male farming students, 230 female farming students, and 407 army recruits as controls.
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Airborne fungal and bacterial components in PM1 dust from biofuel plants.
Ann Occup Hyg
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2009
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Fungi grown in pure cultures produce DNA- or RNA-containing particles smaller than spore size (<1.5 microm). High exposures to fungi and bacteria are observed at biofuel plants. Airborne cultivable bacteria are often described to be present in clusters or associated with larger particles with an aerodynamic diameter (d(ae)) of 2-8 microm. In this study, we investigate whether airborne fungal components smaller than spore size are present in bioaerosols in working areas at biofuel plants. Furthermore, we measure the exposure to bacteria and fungal components in airborne particulate matter (PM) with a D(50) of 1 microm (called PM(1) dust). PM(1) was sampled using Triplex cyclones at a working area at 14 Danish biofuel plants. Millipore cassettes were used to sample total dust. The PM(1) particles (29 samples) were analysed for content of 11 different components and the total dust was analysed for cultivable fungi, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucans. In the 29 PM(1) samples, cultivable fungi were found in six samples and with a median concentration below detection level. Using microscopy, fungal spores were identified in 22 samples. The components NAGase and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucans, which are mainly associated with fungi, were present in all PM(1) samples. Thermophilic actinomycetes were present in 23 of the 29 PM(1) samples [average = 739 colony-forming units (CFU) m(-3)]. Cultivable and total bacteria were found in average concentrations of, respectively, 249 CFU m(-3) and 1.8 x 10(5) m(-3). DNA- and RNA-containing particles of different lengths were counted by microscopy and revealed a high concentration of particles with a length of 0.5-1.5 microm and only few particles >1.5 microm. The number of cultivable fungi and beta-glucan in the total dust correlated significantly with the number of DNA/RNA-containing particles with lengths of between 1.0 and 1.5 microm, with DNA/RNA-containing particles >1.5 microm, and with other fungal components in PM(1) dust. Airborne beta-glucan and NAGase were found in PM(1) samples where no cultivable fungi were present, and beta-glucan and NAGase were found in higher concentrations per fungal spore in PM(1) dust than in total dust. This indicates that fungal particles smaller than fungal spore size are present in the air at the plants. Furthermore, many bacteria, including actinomycetes, were present in PM(1) dust. Only 0.2% of the bacteria in PM(1) dust were cultivable.
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[Screening for asbestos-related conditions].
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs in asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation.
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Retrospective exposure assessment for carcinogenic agents in bitumen waterproofing industry in Finland and denmark.
Ann Occup Hyg
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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The purpose of the study was (i) to identify the carcinogenic agents that may cause confounding when studying the exposure-response relationship between bitumen fume exposure and cancer among roofing membrane-manufacturing workers and roofers and (ii) to assess exposures to the identified carcinogens and bitumen fume in roofing membrane manufacturing and roofing in Finland and Denmark from 1950 to 2005.
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Notification of occupational disease and the risk of work disability: a two-year follow-up study.
Scand J Work Environ Health
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The aim of this study was to analyze if notification of an occupational disease increases the risk of work disability.
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Occupational exposure and new-onset asthma in a population-based study in Northern Europe (RHINE).
Ann Occup Hyg
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In a large population-based study among adults in northern Europe the relation between occupational exposure and new-onset asthma was studied.
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Menstrual cycle and respiratory symptoms in a general Nordic-Baltic population.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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There is little knowledge of variations in respiratory symptoms during the menstrual cycle in a general population, and potential modifying factors are not investigated.
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Cross-shift and longitudinal changes in FEV1 among wood dust exposed workers.
Occup Environ Med
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Acute lung function (LF) changes might predict an accelerated decline in LF. In this study, we investigated the association between cross-shift and longitudinal changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) among woodworkers in a 6-year follow-up study.
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Factors influencing quality of life in asthmatics--a case-control study.
Clin Respir J
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The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors.
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The management of work-related asthma guidelines: a broader perspective.
Eur Respir Rev
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The aim of the European Respiratory Society work-related asthma guidelines is to present the management and prevention options of work-related asthma and their effectiveness. Work-related asthma accounts for 5-25% of all adult asthma cases and is responsible for a significant socioeconomic burden. Several hundred occupational agents, mainly allergens but also irritants and substances with unknown pathological mechanisms, have been identified as causing work-related asthma. The essential message of these guidelines is that the management of work-related asthma can be considerably optimised based on the present knowledge of causes, risk factors, pathomechanisms, and realistic and effective interventions. To reach this goal we urgently require greatly intensified primary preventive measures and improved case management. There is now a substantial body of evidence supporting the implementation of comprehensive medical surveillance programmes for workers at risk. Those workers who fail surveillance programmes need to be referred to a clinician who can confirm or exclude an occupational cause. Once work-related asthma is confirmed, a revised risk assessment in the workplace is needed to prevent further cases. These new guidelines confirm and extend already existing statements and recommendations. We hope that these guidelines will initiate the much-needed research that is required to fill the gaps in our knowledge and to initiate substantial improvements in preventative measures.
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Contribution of host factors and workplace exposure to the outcome of occupational asthma.
Eur Respir Rev
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The outcome of occupational asthma after diagnosis is often poor. The identification of factors associated with a worse outcome may help in the management of the disease, determining its prognosis and assessing the permanent impairment attributable to occupational exposure. The aim of this systematic review was to provide the available evidence from the medical literature to answer the question: "What is the contribution of host factors and workplace exposure to the risk of a bad outcome of occupational asthma?" A systematic literature search was conducted in March 2010. We retrieved 177 abstracts. Of these, 67 were assessed as potentially relevant. After full text evaluation, 35 articles that were actually relevant for the question were included in the analysis. The information obtained was sufficient to establish that older age, high-molecular-weight agents, impaired lung function and longer duration of exposure to the offending agent at the time of diagnosis had a negative role on the outcome of occupational asthma. Atopy and smoking at diagnosis did not seem to influence the outcome of occupational asthma. A limited number of studies considered sex and the pattern of asthmatic reaction on specific inhalation challenge and their findings were contradictory.
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Occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of hay fever in 7-year-old children.
Clin Respir J
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OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of allergic diseases including hay fever has increased in the last decades, especially in Westernised countries. The aim of this study was to analyse whether occupational exposure during pregnancy is associated with development of hay fever in 7-year-old Danish children. METHODS: A total of 42?696 women and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Information on hay fever in the child was obtained by an internet questionnaire at follow-up at 7 years of age. RESULTS: Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed no significant association between maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and hay fever among the 7-year-old children. Stratifying for atopic status in the children did not change the results. The prevalence of hay fever was 10.0% in the atopic children compared with 3.6% in the non-atopic children. Maternal atopic disposition increased the risk of hay fever in the offspring, odds ratio (OR) 2.49 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.26; 2.74]. Rural residence during pregnancy decreased the risk for hay fever [OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.59; 0.92)] as did parity, OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.66; 0.80) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.48; 1.00) for 2nd and 3rd child, respectively, compared with the firstborn child. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that occupational exposure among pregnant women in Denmark is not a risk factor for hay fever among young children. Please cite this paper as: Christensen BH, Thulstrup AM, Hougaard KS, Skadhauge LR, Hansen KS, Schlünssen V. Occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of hay fever in 7-year-old children. Clin Respir J 2012; ••: ••-••. DOI:10.1111/j.1752-699X.2012.00300.x.
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Organic dust toxic syndrome at a grass seed plant caused by exposure to high concentrations of bioaerosols.
Ann Occup Hyg
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We describe an outbreak of sudden health problems in workers at a Danish grass seed plant after exposure to a particularly dusty lot of grass seeds. The seeds are called problematic seeds. The association between development of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) and the handling of grass seeds causing exposure was assessed in a four-step model: (i) identification of exposure source, (ii) characterization of the emission of bioaerosols from the problematic and reference seeds, (iii) personal and stationary exposure measurement at the plant and (iv) repeated health examinations. The grass seeds were identified as the exposure source; the emissions of some bioaerosol components were up to 10(7) times higher from the problematic seeds than from reference seeds. Cleaning of the seeds was not enough to sufficiently reduce the high emission from the problematic seeds. Emission in terms of dust was 3.4 times as high from the problematic cleaned seeds as from cleaned reference seeds. The personal exposure reached 3 × 10(5) endotoxin units m(-3), 1 × 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) of thermophilic actinomycetes m(-3), 8 × 10(5) cfu of Aspergillus fumigatus m(-3) and 9 × 10(6) hyphal fragments m(-3). Several workers working with the problematic seeds had symptoms consistent with ODTS. The most severe symptoms were found for the workers performing the tasks causing highest exposure. Respiratory airway protection proved efficient to avoid development of ODTS. Work with reference seeds did not cause workers to develop ODTS. Exposure was during work with the problematic seeds higher than suggested occupational exposure limits but lower than in studies where researchers for some minutes have repeated a single task expected to cause ODTS. In this study, many different bioaerosol components were measured during a whole working day. We cannot know, whether it is the combination of different bioaerosol components or a single component which is responsible for the development of ODTS. In conclusion, workers developed specific health symptoms due to the high bioaerosol exposure and were diagnosed with ODTS. Exposure to high concentrations of endotoxin, actinomycetes, fungi, hyphal fragments, ?-glucan, and A. fumigatus occurred when working with a dusty lot of grass seed. Suspicion should be elicited by seeds stored without being properly dried and by seeds producing more dust than usually.
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Effects of wood smoke particles from wood-burning stoves on the respiratory health of atopic humans.
Part Fibre Toxicol
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There is growing evidence that particulate air pollution derived from wood stoves causes acute inflammation in the respiratory system, increases the incidence of asthma and other allergic diseases, and increases respiratory morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate acute respiratory effects from short-term wood smoke exposure in humans. Twenty non-smoking atopic volunteers with normal lung function and without bronchial responsiveness were monitored during three different experimental exposure sessions, aiming at particle concentrations of about 200 ?g/m(3), 400 ?g/m(3), and clean air as control exposure. A balanced cross-over design was used and participants were randomly allocated to exposure orders. Particles were generated in a wood-burning facility and added to a full-scale climate chamber where the participants were exposed for 3 hours under controlled environmental conditions. Health effects were evaluated in relation to: peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC). Furthermore, the effects were assessed in relation to changes in nasal patency and from markers of airway inflammation: fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and nasal lavage (NAL) samples were collected before, and at various intervals after exposure.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.