A new series of sulfonamide derivatives of pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine has been synthesized and characterized. Their anticancer activity was tested in vitro against multiple human cancer cell lines and were found to have dose-dependent antiproliferative effects. Furthermore, some of the new compounds inhibited the Abl protein kinase with low micromolar IC50 values and exhibited selective activity against the Bcr-Abl positive K562 and BV173 cell lines, providing starting points for the further development of this new kinase inhibitor scaffold.
Inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases 9 have been developed as potential anticancer drugs for the treatment of multiple myeloma. We have previously prepared a library of arylazo-3,5-diaminopyrazole inhibitors of CDKs. Here, we describe a novel member, AAP1742 (CDK9 inhibition with IC(50) = 0.28 ?m), that reduces the viability of multiple myeloma cell lines in low micromolar concentrations. Consistent with inhibition of CDK9, AAP1742 decreases the phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and inhibits mRNA synthesis of anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2, and XIAP, followed by apoptosis in the RPMI-8226 cell line in a dose- and a time-dependent manner. These results are consistent with the biochemical profile of AAP1742 and further suggest cellular inhibition of CDK9 as a possible target for anticancer drugs.
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulators of the cell cycle and RNA polymerase II mediated transcription. Several pharmacological CDK inhibitors are currently in clinical trials as potential cancer therapeutics and some of them also exhibit antiviral effects. Olomoucine II and roscovitine, purine-based inhibitors of CDKs, were described as effective antiviral agents that inhibit replication of a broad range of wild type human viruses. Olomoucine II and roscovitine show high selectivity for CDK7 and CDK9, with important functions in the regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription. RNA polymerase II is necessary for viral transcription and following replication in cells. We analyzed the effect of inhibition of CDKs by olomoucine II on gene expression from viral promoters and compared its effect to widely-used roscovitine. We found that both roscovitine and olomoucine II blocked the phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain. However the repression of genes regulated by viral promoters was strongly dependent on gene localization. Both roscovitine and olomoucine II inhibited expression only when the viral promoter was not integrated into chromosomal DNA. In contrast, treatment of cells with genome-integrated viral promoters increased their expression even though there was decreased phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. To define the mechanism responsible for decreased gene expression after pharmacological CDK inhibitor treatment, the level of mRNA transcription from extrachromosomal DNA was determined. Interestingly, our results showed that inhibition of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphorylation increased the number of transcribed mRNAs. However, some of these mRNAs were truncated and lacked polyadenylation, which resulted in decreased translation. These results suggest that phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain is critical for linking transcription and posttrancriptional processing of mRNA expressed from extrachromosomal DNA.
Treatment options for hepatocellular carcinoma using chemotherapeutics at intermediate and advanced stages of disease are limited as patients most rapidly escape from therapy and succumb to disease progression. Mechanisms of the hepatic xenobiotic metabolism are mostly involved in providing chemoresistance to therapeutic compounds. Given the fact that the aberrant activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) is frequently observed in hepatocellular carcinomas, we focused on the efficacy of the novel compounds BA-12 and BP-14 that antagonize CDK1/2/5/7 and CDK9. Inhibition of those CDKs in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines reduced the clonogenicity by arresting cells in S-G2 and G2-M phase of the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. In contrast, primary human hepatocytes failed to show cytotoxicity and apoptosis. No loss of chemosensitivity was observed in hepatocellular carcinoma cells after long-term exposure to inhibitors. In vivo, treatment of xenografted human hepatocellular carcinomas with BA-12 or BP-14 effectively repressed tumor formation. Moreover, BA-12 or BP-14 significantly diminished diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatoma development in mice. These data show that BA-12 or BP-14 exhibit strong antitumorigenic effects in the absence of chemoresistance, resulting in a superior efficacy compared with currently used chemotherapeutics in hepatocellular carcinomas.
The inhibition of overactive CDKs during cancer remains an important strategy in cancer drug development. We synthesized and screened a novel series of 2-substituted-6-biarylmethylamino-9-cyclopentylpurine derivatives for improved CDK inhibitory activity and antiproliferative effects. One of the most potent compounds, 6b, exhibited strong cytotoxicity in the human melanoma cell line G361 that correlated with robust CDK1 and CDK2 inhibition and caspase activation. In silico modeling of 6b in the active site of CDK2 revealed a high interaction energy, which we believe is due to the 6-heterobiarylmethylamino substitution of the purine moiety.
Variously substituted 2-hydroxy-N-(arylalkyl)benzamides were prepared and screened for antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity in cancer cell lines in vitro. Five compounds, out of 33 showed single-digit micromolar IC50 values against several human cancer cell lines. One of the most potent compounds N-((R)-1-(4-chlorophenylcarbamoyl)-2-phenylethyl)-5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzamide (6k) reduced proliferation and induced apoptosis in the melanoma cell line G361 in a dose-dependent manner, as shown by decrease in 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation and increase in several apoptotic markers, including subdiploid population increase, activation of caspases and site-specific poly-(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage.
Current inhibitors of angiogenesis comprise either therapeutic antibodies (e.g. bevacicumab binding to VEGF-A) or small molecular inhibitors of receptor tyrosin kinases like e.g. sunitinib, which inhibits PDGFR and VEGFR. We have recently identified cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) as novel alternative and pharmacologically accessible target in the context of angiogenesis. In the present work we demonstrate that trisubstituted pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidines constitute a novel class of compounds which potently inhibit angiogenesis. All seven tested compounds inhibited endothelial cell proliferation with IC(50) values between 1 and 18 µM. Interestingly, this seems not to be due to cytotoxicity, since none of them showed acute cytotoxic effects on endothelial cells at a concentration of 10 µM,. The three most potent compounds (LGR1404, LGR1406 and LGR1407) also inhibited cell migration (by 27, 51 and 31%, resp.), chemotaxis (by 50, 70 and 60% in accumulative distance, resp.), and tube formation (by 25, 60 and 30% of total tube length, resp.) at the non-toxic concentration of 10 µM. Furthermore, angiogenesis was reduced in vivo in the CAM assay by these three compounds. A kinase selectivity profiling revealed that the compounds prevalently inhibit Cdk2, Cdk5 and Cdk9. The phenotype of the migrating cells (reduced formation of lamellipodia, loss of Rac-1 translocation to the membrane) resembles the previously described effects of silencing of Cdk5 in endothelial cells. We conclude that especially LGR1406 and LGR1407 are highly attractive anti-angiogenic compounds, whose effects seem to largely depend on their Cdk5 inhibiting properties.
A series of 2,9-substituted 6-guanidinopurines, structurally related to the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors olomoucine and roscovitine, has been synthesized and characterized. A new copper-catalyzed method for the synthesis of 2-substituted 6-guanidino-9-isopropylpurines under mild reaction conditions has been developed. All prepared compounds were screened for their CDK1 and CDK2 inhibitory activities, cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects in the breast cancer-derived cell line MCF7. The most active derivative 16g possessed an identical side chain in the C2 position to roscovitine; this compound displayed approximately five fold higher inhibitory activity towards CDK2/cyclin E and more than ten fold increase in cytotoxicity in MCF7 cells. Interestingly and in contrast to previously described findings, (S)-6-guanidinopurine derivatives were generally more active than their (R)-counterparts. Kinase selectivity profiling of (R)- and (S)-enantiomers 16e and 16g, respectively, revealed that introduction of a guanidino group at the C6 position of the purine moiety decreased selectivity towards protein kinases compared to roscovitine. Nevertheless, increased inhibitory activity and decreased selectivity offer a good starting point for further development of new protein kinase inhibitors.
Small molecule inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) have been developed as anticancer drugs with cytostatic and cytotoxic properties, but some of them have also been shown to limit angiogenesis. Here, we report that the 3,5-diaminopyrazole CAN508 inhibits endothelial cell migration and tube formation. In addition, it reduces phosphorylation of the C-terminus of RNA polymerase II and inhibits mRNA synthesis in endothelial cells, in accordance with previous observations that it has high selectivity towards the positive transcriptional regulator P-TEFb. Moreover, CAN508 reduces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by several human cancer cell lines. The findings suggest that P-TEFb may be an attractive target for anti-angiogenic therapy.
Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) with small molecules has been suggested as a strategy for treatment of cancer, based on deregulation of CDKs commonly found in many types of human tumors. Here, a new potent CDK2 inhibitor with pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine scaffold has been synthesized, characterized, and evaluated in cellular and biochemical assays. 7-Benzylamino-5(R)-[2-(hydroxymethyl)propyl]amino-3-isopropyl-1(2)H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine, compound 7, was prepared as a bioisostere of the well-known CDK inhibitor roscovitine. An X-ray crystal structure of compound 7 bound to CDK2 has been determined, revealing a binding mode similar to that of roscovitine. Protein kinase selectivity profile of compound 7 and its biological effects (cell cycle arrest, dephosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein, accumulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of homologous recombination) are consistent with CDK inhibition as a primary mode of action. Importantly, as the anticancer activities of the pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine 7 exceed those of its bioisostere roscovitine, compound 7 reported here may be preferable for cancer therapy.
Small molecular inhibitors of Cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks) are currently being developed as anticancer therapeutics due to their antiproliferative properties. The purine Cdk specific inhibitor (R)-roscovitine (seliciclib, CYC202) represents one of the most promising of these compounds. It is currently evaluated in clinical trials concerning cancer therapy. Recently, we have shown that roscovitine exerts potent antiangiogenic effects and elucidated Cdk5 as a new player in angiogenesis. These findings introduce Cdk5 as novel target for antiangiogenic therapy, and Cdk5 inhibitors as an attractive therapeutic approach. Here, we present the antiangiogenic profile of 15 derivatives of roscovitine in vitro and in vivo and provide structure activity relationships of the roscovitine analogs. The (S)-isomer LGR561 and the respective (R)- and (S)-isomers LGR848 and LGR849 strongly inhibited proliferation and cell cycle progression, induced cell death, and reduced migration of endothelial cells in vitro. In comparison to roscovitine, these compounds showed an increased potency to inhibit Cdk2, Cdk5, Cdk7, and Cdk9. By analyzing the effects of LGR561, LGR848, and LGR849 on endothelial cell tube formation, mouse aortic ring sprouting, angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane, and neovessel formation in the mouse cornea, we elucidate the two (S)-isomers LGR561 and LGR849 as highly potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. This study provides first information on how to modify roscovitine to develop Cdk inhibitors with increased antiangiogenic activity and suggests the application of existing and the development of new Cdk inhibitors to inhibit both, cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
We report here results of screening directed to finding new anti-leishmanial drugs among 2,6-disubstituted purines and corresponding 3,7-disubstituted pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidines. These compounds have previously been shown to moderately inhibit human cyclin-dependent kinases. Since some compounds reduced viability of axenic amastigotes of Leishmania donovani, we screened them for interaction with recombinant leishmanial cdc-2 related protein kinase (CRK3/CYC6), an important cell cycle regulator of the parasitic protozoan. Eighteen pairs of corresponding isomers were tested for viability of amastigotes and for inhibition of CRK3/CYC6 kinase activity. Some compounds (9A, 12A and 13A) show activity against amastigotes with EC(50) in a range 1.5-12.4?M. Structure-activity relationships for the tested compounds are discussed and related to the lipophilicity of the compounds.
Poor therapeutic outcomes and serious side effects, together with acquired resistance to multiple drugs, are common problems of current cancer therapies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new cancer-targeted drugs, which has led (inter alia) to the development of molecules that can specifically inhibit cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). In addition to their cell cycle regulatory functions, CDKs, especially CDK7 and CDK9, play important roles in the regulation of RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription. Here, we report on progress in the preclinical development of CDK inhibitors and their anticancer activities. Special attention is paid to the action mechanisms of the pan-specific CDK inhibitors flavopiridol and roscovitine, which have already entered phase II clinical trials as treatments for various tumours. The links between their ability to inhibit transcription and sensitisation of some types of cancer to apoptosis, mechanisms leading to p53 activation, and their synergistic cooperation with common DNA damaging drugs are also discussed. It has been demonstrated that drug-resistant cancer cells can arise during therapeutic application of small molecule protein kinase inhibitors. Clinical resistance to CDK inhibitors has not yet been described, but by comparing CDKs to other kinases, and CDK inhibitors to other clinically used protein kinase inhibitors, we also discuss possible mechanisms that could lead to resistance to CDK inhibitors.
Cytokinin ribosides (N(6)-substituted adenosine derivatives) have been shown to have anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. This study presents the first systematic analysis of the relationship between the chemical structure of cytokinins and their cytotoxic effects against a panel of human cancer cell lines with diverse histopathological origins. The results confirm the cytotoxic activity of N(6)-isopentenyladenosine, kinetin riboside, and N(6)-benzyladenosine and show that the spectrum of cell lines that are sensitive to these compounds and their tissues of origin are wider than previously reported. The first evidence that the hydroxylated aromatic cytokinins (ortho-, meta-, para-topolin riboside) and the isoprenoid cytokinin cis-zeatin riboside have cytotoxic activities is presented. Most cell lines in the panel showed greatest sensitivity to ortho-topolin riboside (IC(50)=0.5-11.6 microM). Cytokinin nucleotides, some synthesized for the first time in this study, were usually active in a similar concentration range to the corresponding ribosides. However, cytokinin free bases, 2-methylthio derivatives and both O- and N-glucosides showed little or no toxicity. Overall the study shows that structural requirements for cytotoxic activity of cytokinins against human cancer cell lines differ from the requirements for their activity in plant bioassays. The potent anticancer activity of ortho-topolin riboside (GI(50)=0.07-84.60 microM, 1st quartile=0.33 microM, median=0.65 microM, 3rd quartile=1.94 microM) was confirmed using NCI(60), a standard panel of 59 cell lines, originating from nine different tissues. Further, the activity pattern of oTR was distinctly different from those of standard anticancer drugs, suggesting that it has a unique mechanism of activity. In comparison with standard drugs, oTR showed exceptional cytotoxic activity against NCI(60) cell lines with a mutated p53 tumour suppressor gene. oTR also exhibited significant anticancer activity against several tumour models in in vivo hollow fibre assays.
Olomoucine II, the most recent derivative of roscovitine, is an exceptionally potent pharmacological inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase activities. Here, we report that olomoucine II is also an effective antiviral agent.
Progression of the cell cycle is controlled by various activating and inhibiting cellular factors. The subtle balance between these counteracting regulators in normal cells ensures proper cell cycle progression and facilitates cellular responses to a variety of stress stimuli. Key activators include cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and, consequently, loss or inactivation of CDK inhibitors contributes to the escape of cancer cells from cell cycle control and hyperactivation of CDKs occurs in various neurodegenerative disorders. However, these adverse effects may be compensated by pharmacological counterparts. Inhibitors of CDKs representing various classes of compounds with diverse CDK inhibitory patterns have been developed, but inhibitors that have high selectivity and offer highly targeted activity against both cell cycle and transcriptional CDKs are of particular interest. This review focuses on pharmacological CDK inhibitors that have entered clinical trials and some compounds that have been evaluated preclinically. Recent discoveries in cell cycle regulation have provided rationales for clinical applications of CDK inhibitors in both monotherapeutic and combined therapeutic regimens.
Progression of the cell cycle is controlled by activating and inhibiting cellular factors. The delicate balance between these positive- and negative-acting regulators warrants proper cell cycle progression in normal cells and facilitates cellular response to a variety of stress stimuli. The increased activity of the positive regulators of the cell cycle in cancer cells is frequently accompanied by the loss or inactivation of the inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The supplementation of the cellular CDK inhibitors by the pharmacological counterparts is a very promising therapeutic option. The generated pharmacological inhibitors of CDKs belong to different classes of compounds and display various CDK inhibitory features. In this article the action and specificity of CDK inhibitor roscovitine, belonging to the group of purine analogues, is reviewed and the rationale for dissecting the inhibitory action on cell cycle and transcriptional CDKs is discussed.
The first Fe(III) complexes 1-6 with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors of the type [Fe(L(n))Cl(3)].nH(2)O (n=0 for 1, 1 for 2, 2 for 3-6; L(1)-L(6)=C2- and phenyl-substituted CDK inhibitors derived from 6-benzylamino-9-isopropylpurine), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (57)Fe Mössbauer, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and ES+ mass spectroscopies, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The study revealed that the compounds are mononuclear, tetrahedral high-spin (S=5/2) Fe(III) complexes with an admixture of an S=3/2 spin state originating probably from five-coordinated Fe(III) ions either connecting with a bidentate coordination mode of the CDK inhibitor ligand or relating to the possibility that one crystal water molecule enters the coordination sphere of the central atom in a portion of molecules of the appropriate complex. Nearly spin-only value of the effective magnetic moment (5.82micro(eff)/micro(B)) was determined for compound 1 due to absence of crystal water molecule(s) in the structure of the complex. Based on NMR data and DFT calculations, we assume that the appropriate organic ligand is coordinated to the Fe(III) ion through the N7 atom of a purine moiety. The cytotoxicity of the complexes was tested in vitro against selected human cancer cell lines (G-361, HOS, K-562 and MCF-7) along with the ability to inhibit the CDK2/cyclinE kinase. The best cytotoxicity (IC(50): 4-23muM) and inhibition activity (IC(50): 0.02-0.09microM) results have been achieved in the case of complexes 2-4, and complexes 3, 4 and 6, respectively. In addition, the X-ray structure of 2-chloro-6-benzylamino-9-isopropylpurine, i.e. a precursor for the preparation of L(1), L(4) and L(5), is also described.
The antifungal activity of the silver nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by the modified Tollens process was evaluated for pathogenic Candida spp. by means of the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and the time-dependency of yeasts growth inhibition. Simultaneously the cytotoxicity of the silver NPs to human fibroblasts was determined. The silver NPs exhibited inhibitory effect against the tested yeasts at the concentration as low as 0.21 mg/L of Ag. The inhibitory effect of silver NPs was enhanced through their stabilization and the lowest MIC equal to 0.05 mg/L was determined for silver NPs stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate against Candida albicans II. The obtained MICs of the silver NPs and especially of the stabilized silver NPs were comparable and in some cases even better than MICs of the conventional antifungal agents determined by E-test. The silver NPs effectively inhibited the growth of the tested yeasts at the concentrations below their cytotoxic limit against the tested human fibroblasts determined at a concentration equal to 30 mg/L of Ag. In contrast, ionic silver inhibited the growth of the tested yeasts at the concentrations comparable to the cytotoxic level (approx. 1mg/L) of ionic silver against the tested human fibroblasts.
Inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) undergoing clinical trials as anticancer agents usually target several CDKs in cells. Some of them are also able to increase cellular levels of p53 protein and to activate p53-regulated transcription. To define the role of p53 in the anticancer effect of selective CDK inhibitors, two related compounds roscovitine and olomoucine II were studied. Roscovitine differs functionally from its congener olomoucine II only in the selectivity towards transcriptional CDK9. Action of both compounds on proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and apoptosis was examined in RPMI-8226 cells expressing the temperature-sensitive mutant of p53 and in MCF-7 cells with wild-type p53. Both compounds blocked proliferation, decreased phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II, downregulated antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, and also activated p53 in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, we showed that the anticancer efficiency of CDK inhibitors was enhanced by active p53 in RPMI-8226 cells kept at permissive temperature, where downregulation of Mcl-1, fragmentation of PARP-1, and increased caspase-3 activity was detected with lower doses of the compounds. The results confirm that functional p53 protein may enhance the anticancer activity of roscovitine that could be beneficial for anticancer therapy.
Exposure of asynchronously growing human HeLa cervical carcinoma cells to roscovitine (ROSC), a selective cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) inhibitor, arrests their progression at the transition between G(2)/M and/or induces apoptosis. The outcome depends on the ROSC concentration. At higher dose ROSC represses HPV-encoded E7 oncoprotein and initiates caspase-dependent apoptosis. Inhibition of the site-specific phosphorylation of survivin and Bad, occurring at high-dose ROSC treatment, precedes the onset of apoptosis and seems to be a prerequisite for cell death. Considering the fact that in HeLa cells the G(1)/S restriction checkpoint is abolished by E7, we addressed the question whether the inhibition of CDKs by pharmacological inhibitors in synchronized cells would be able to block the cell-cycle in G(1) phase. For this purpose, we attempted to synchronize cells by serum withdrawal or by blocking of the mitotic apparatus using nocodazole. Unlike human MCF-7 cells, HeLa cells do not undergo G(1) block after serum starvation, but respond with a slight increase of the ratio of G(1) population. Exposure of G(1)-enriched HeLa cells to ROSC after re-feeding does not block their cell-cycle progression at G(1)-phase, but increases the ratio of S- and G(2)-phase, thereby mimicking the effect on asynchronously growing cells. A quite different impact is observed after treatment of HeLa cells released from mitotic block. ROSC prevents their cell cycle progression and cells transiently accumulate in G(1)-phase. These results show that inhibition of CDKs by ROSC in cells lacking the G(1)/S restriction checkpoint has different outcomes depending on the cell-cycle status prior to the onset of treatment.
In an attempt to improve specific biological functions of cytokinins routinely used in plant micropropagation, 33 6-benzylamino-9-tetrahydropyran-2-ylpurine (THPP) and 9-tetrahydrofuran-2-ylpurine (THFP) derivatives, with variously positioned hydroxy and methoxy functional groups on the benzyl ring, were prepared. The new derivatives were prepared by condensation of 6-chloropurine with 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran or 2,3-dihydrofuran and then by the condensation of these intermediates with the corresponding benzylamines. The prepared compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, TLC, HPLC, melting point determinations, CI+ MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The cytokinin activity of all the prepared derivatives was assessed in three classical cytokinin bioassays (tobacco callus, wheat leaf senescence and Amaranthus bioassay). The derivatives 6-(3-hydroxybenzylamino)-9-tetrahydropyran-2-ylpurine (3) and 6-(3-hydroxybenzylamino)-9-tetrahydrofuran-2-ylpurine (23) were selected, because of the high affinity of their parent compound meta-topolin (mT, 6-(3-hydroxybenzylamino)purine) to cytokinin receptors, as model compounds for studying their perception by the receptors CRE1/AHK4 and AHK3 in a bacterial assay. Both receptors perceived these two derivatives less well than they perceived the parent compound. Subsequently, the susceptibility of several new derivatives to enzyme degradation by cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase was studied. Substitution of tetrahydropyran-2-yl (THP) at the N(9) position decreased the turnover rates of all new derivatives to some extent. To provide a practical perspective, the cytotoxicity of the prepared compounds against human diploid fibroblasts (BJ) and the human cancer cell lines K-562 and MCF-7 was also assayed in vitro. The prepared compounds showed none or marginal cytotoxicity compared to the corresponding N(9)-ribosides. Finally, the pH stability of the two model compounds was assessed in acidic and neutral water solutions (pH 3-7) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Antiangiogenic activity of the brassinosteroid plant hormones (BRs) and their derivative cholestanon was investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). 24-Epibrassinolide and 28-homocastasterone from group of 21 tested natural BRs inhibited migration of HUVEC cells. Seven tested BRs decreased the number of tubes significantly. Synthetic analogue cholestanon inhibited angiogenesis in vitro more effectively than natural BRs. Because of the similarity of BRs to human steroids, we have also studied interactions of BRs with human steroid receptors. Synthetic BRs cholestanon showed agonistic effects on estrogen-receptor-?, estrogen-receptor-? and androgen receptor. Of the natural BRs, 24-epibrassinolide was found to be a weak antagonist of estrogen-receptor-? (ER?). Our results provide the first evidence that large group of BRs can inhibit in vitro angiogenesis of primary endothelial cells. BRs constitute a novel group of human steroid receptor activators or inhibitors with capacity to inhibit angiogenesis.
Several inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), including the 2,6,9-trisubstituted purine derivative roscovitine, are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as potential anticancer drugs. Here, we describe a new series of roscovitine derivatives that show increased potency in vitro. The series was tested for cytotoxicity against six cancer cell lines and for inhibition of CDKs. For series bearing 2-(hydroxyalkylamino) moiety, cytotoxic potency strongly correlated with anti-CDK2 activity. Importantly, structural changes that increase biochemical and anticancer activities of these compounds also increase elimination half-life. The most potent compounds were investigated further to assess their ability to influence cell cycle progression, p53-regulated transcription and apoptosis. All the observed biological effects were consistent with inhibition of CDKs involved in the regulation of cell cycle and transcription.
Flavone eupatorin is one of the constituents of Orthosiphon stamineus, a medicinal herb used in folk medicine in South East Asia for treatment of various disorders. In our study, we investigated the antiproliferative properties of a chloroform extract of the leaves of O. stamineus and of pure eupatorin. The compound was able to reduce the number of viable cancer cells to the same extent as the extract, with IC(50) values in micromolar range. Moreover, both the eupatorin standard and the extract caused cells to arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. This clearly demonstrates that eupatorin contributes significantly to the overall extract activity. Induction of mitotic catastrophe, accompanied by key molecular events defining apoptosis, is the mechanism of eupatorin-induced cell death. Importantly, eupatorin (at the doses cytotoxic to cancer cells) did not kill normal cells; it only limited migration of HUVEC endothelial cells and their ability to create tubes. The ability of eupatorin to nonspecifically inhibit many protein kinases was proven and is the probable cause of its cellular effects. In summary, eupatorin emerges as a promising agent in anticancer research.
Roscovitine is a synthetic inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases that is currently undergoing clinical trials as a candidate drug for some oncological indications. Its discovery prompted many research teams to further optimize its structure or to initiate their own related but independent studies. This article reviews known roscovitine bioisosteres that have been prepared as CDK inhibitors using different core heterocycles. The individual bioisostere types have been described and explored to a different extent, which complicates direct comparisons of their biochemical activity - only six direct analogs containing different purine bioisosteres have been prepared and evaluated side by side with roscovitine. Only four types of bioisosteres have demonstrated improved biological properties, namely pyrazolo[ 1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazines, pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines, pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridines and pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidines.
Deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) has been associated with many cancer types and has evoked an interest in chemical inhibitors with possible therapeutic benefit. While most known inhibitors display broad selectivity towards multiple CDKs, recent work highlights CDK9 as the critical target responsible for the anticancer activity of clinically evaluated drugs. In this review, we discuss recent findings provided by structural biologists that may allow further development of highly specific inhibitors of CDK9 towards applications in cancer therapy. We also highlight the role of CDK9 in inflammatory processes and diseases.
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte and play a central role in the immune defense against rapidly dividing bacteria. However, they are also the shortest lived cell in the blood with a lifespan in the circulation of 5.4 days. The mechanisms underlying their short lifespan and spontaneous entry into apoptosis are poorly understood. Recently, the broad range cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor R-roscovitine was shown to increase neutrophil apoptosis, implicating CDKs in the regulation of neutrophil lifespan. To determine which CDKs were involved in regulating neutrophil lifespan we first examined CDK expression in human neutrophils and found that only three CDKs: CDK5, CDK7 and CDK9 were expressed in these cells. The use of CDK inhibitors with differing selectivity towards the various CDKs suggested that CDK9 activity regulates neutrophil lifespan. Furthermore CDK9 activity and the expression of its activating partner cyclin T1 both declined as neutrophils aged and entered apoptosis spontaneously. CDK9 is a component of the P-TEFb complex involved in transcriptional regulation and its inhibition will preferentially affect proteins with short half-lives. Treatment of neutrophils with flavopiridol, a potent CDK9 inhibitor, increased apoptosis and caused a rapid decline in the level of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1, whilst Bcl2A was unaffected. We propose that CDK9 activity is a key regulator of neutrophil lifespan, preventing apoptosis by maintaining levels of short lived anti-apoptotic proteins such as Mcl-1. Furthermore, as inappropriate inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis contributes to chronic inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, CDK9 represents a novel therapeutic target in such diseases.
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