Results of clinical trials have demonstrated that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are frequently detected in patients with urothelial tumours. The monitoring of CTCs has the potential to improve therapeutic management at an early stage and also to identify patients with increased risk of tumour progression or recurrence before the onset of clinically detected metastasis. In this study, we report a new effectively simplified methodology for a separation and in vitro culturing of viable CTCs from peripheral blood.
In the present study, we demonstrate an animal model and recently introduced size-based exclusion method for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolation. The methodology enables subsequent in vitro CTC-culture and characterization. Human lung cancer cell line H460, expressing red fluorescent protein (H460-RFP), was orthotopically implanted in nude mice. CTCs were isolated by a size-based filtration method and successfully cultured in vitro on the separating membrane (MetaCell®), analyzed by means of time-lapse imaging. The cultured CTCs were heterogeneous in size and morphology even though they originated from a single tumor. The outer CTC-membranes were blebbing in general. Abnormal mitosis resulting in three daughter cells was frequently observed. The expression of RFP ensured that the CTCs originated from lung tumor. These readily isolatable, identifiable and cultivable CTCs can be used to characterize individual patient cancers and for screening of more effective treatment.
The most promising near-term application of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) monitoring relates to the development of targeted cancer therapies, and the need to tailor such treatments to individual tumor characteristics. A high number of new innovative technologies to improve methods for detecting CTCs, with extraordinarily high sensitivity, have recently been presented. The identification and characterization of CTCs require extremely sensitive and specific methods that are able to isolate CTCs with the possibility of cultivation and downstream analysis of in vitro culture of separated CTCs. In this original research paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to isolate human CTCs from a patient with prostate cancer, with subsequent cultivation and proliferation in vitro. We show that the use of a filtration device implemented by MetaCell® can fulfil all the requirements mentioned above. Fifty-five patients with localized prostate cancer have so far been enrolled into the study. CTCs were detected in the blood samples of 28 (52%) out of the 55 patients. We report successful isolation of CTCs from patients with prostate cancer, capturing cells with a proliferative capacity in 18 (64.3%) out of the 28 CTC-positive patients. Direct correlation with Gleason score and T stage was not proven. The cells, captured by a size-based filtration approach, remain in a good state, unaffected by any antibodies or lysing solutions. During the filtration process, no interactions occurred between antibodies and antigens on the surface of CTCs. This biological interaction is specific for immunomagnetic methods. The MetaCell device provides the possibility of reaching virgin CTCs suitable for subsequent cultivation or single-cell analysis. This aspect will have an important impact on the future design of clinical trials testing new drugs against targets expressed on metastatic cancer cells. In addition to measurement of CTC counts, future trials with targeted therapies should also include the assessment of the specific therapeutic target on CTCs.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are an independent prognostic factor for patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, the role of CTCs in early breast cancer management is not yet clearly defined. The aim of this study was to assess the CTC-positivity rate in patients undergoing chemotherapy depending on breast cancer stage in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting. We evaluated the ability to confirm therapy response by CTC analysis.
Untreated chronic haemophiliac synovitis leads to the development of haemophilic arthropathy (HA) by affecting the metabolism of chondrocytes. Symptoms are progressive and often surgical intervention is required to prevent total loss of joint function. The focus of our study was to influence the chronic haemophiliac synovitis by means of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection. Six patients with hemophilia (PWH), aged between 9 and 45 and manifesting chronic synovitis of the ankle joint on one or on both sides (8 joints in total) were included into the PRP-study. The patients were classified depending on their joint status using the Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) prior to and again two months after treatment. Three to five ml of PRP was injected into the joint cavity within 30 seconds. In all of the tested PWH pain relief has been reported subjectively by means of the HJHS and VAS scoring systems, comparing the pain intensity before PRP injection and two months after. The difference of pain perception has been found statistically significant for the VAS-scores. Considering the objective synovitis signs shown on MRI before and after PRP injection we recorded a decrease in the volume of free synovial fluid after PRP. All of the tested patients reported benefit of the PRP therapy.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease with very poor prognosis which tends to affect older patients. Progress in the management of this group of patients has been limited by the rarity of the disease and hence, difficulty in conducting randomized trials. The vast majority of cancer deaths occur due to metastasis of the primary tumor to distant sites via circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the circulation. CTCs are extremely rare and limits in technology used to capture these cells hamper our complete understanding over the metastatic process. In the present study we present a new method for detection and cultivation of CTCs isolated from peripheral blood of MPM patients.
The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with metastatic carcinoma is generally associated with poor clinical outcome. There have been many investigations showing a possible use of CTCs as minimally invasive predictive and prognostic biomarker in cancer medicine. In this report a size-based method (MetaCell®) for quick and easy enrichment and cultivation of CTCs is presented to enable possible CTCs use in esophageal cancer (EC) management. In total, 43 patients with diagnosed EC, 20 with adenocarcinoma (AdenoCa) and 23 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), were enrolled into the adaptive prospective-like study .All the patients were candidates for surgery. The CTCs were detected in 27 patients (62.8%), with a higher rate in adenocarcinoma (75%) than SCC (52%). Finally, there were 26 patients with resectable tumors exhibiting CTCs-positivity in 69.2% and 17 patients with non-resectable tumors with 41.7% CTCs-positivity. Interestingly, in the patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy, the CTCs were detected at time of surgery in 55.5% (10/18). The overall size-based filtration approach enabled to isolate viable CTCs and evaluate to their cytomorphological features by means of vital fluorescent staining. The CTCs were cultured in vitro for further downstream applications including immunohistochemical analysis. This is the first report of the successful culturing of esophageal cancer CTCs. The detection of CTCs presence could help in the future to guide timing of surgical treatment in EC patients.
Approximately one third of patients diagnosed with muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer (UBC) have undetected metastases at the time of treatment of the primary tumor. Currently there are no reliable specific serum markers for monitoring and evaluating risk profiles of urothelial cancers. Several studies suggest that detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may correlate with the disease status and prognosis at baseline and early in the treatment of cancers. In this study a new way of isolation and in vitro cultivation of CTCs of urinary bladder cancer was introduced.
Malignant pleural effusions (MPE) are a common clinical problem in patients with neoplastic disease. Pleural fluid cytology is the simplest definitive method for obtaining a diagnosis of MPE. We describe a method that may increase the cancer cell detection rate using immunomagnetic separation in MPE. In comparison to standard MPE cytodiagnostic methods, we report a more streamlined method of isolation living cells that are able to proliferate. These captured cells can then be used for additional downstream analysis e.g. chemosensitivity testing. Several case studies of MPE diagnostics using immunomagnetic separation are presented in the following report. The immunomagnetic separation of cancer cells from MPE could be used for more accurate staging of patients with routine effusions.
The major cause of death due to cancer is its metastatic deposit in numerous tissues and organs. The metastatic process requires the migration of malignant cells from primary sites to distant environments. Even for tumors initially spreading through lymphatic vessels, hematogenous transport is the most common metastatic pathway. The detachment of cancer cells from a primary tumor into the blood stream is called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). As these cells circulate further in the bloodstream they are known as circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The CTC population is highly resilient, enabling the cells to colonize a foreign microenvironment. Alternatively, cancer stem cells (CSCs) may arise from differentiated cancer cells through EMT and an embryonic transdifferentiation process. The presence of CTCs/CSCs in blood seems to be a determining factor of metastasis. This paper reviews various methods of clinical cancer detection as well as the biology and molecular characterization of CTCs/CSCs. Our goal was to summarize clinical studies which used CTC/CSCs for prognosis in patients with breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, ovarian, and bladder cancer.
Chronic synovitis often occurs in people with haemophilia. Untreated chronic haemophilic synovitis affects the metabolism of chondrocytes, thus leading to haemophilic arthropathy. A recently introduced therapeutic protocol includes radiation synovectomy (RS), a safe and cost-effective therapeutic method, which has given satisfactory results in 75% of haemophiliacs with chronic hypertrophic synovitis. Because of its efficacy, we will discuss additional recommendations on the use of RS as a method of choice. The focus of this review is haemophilic arthropathy treatment, including its aetiopathogenesis, reasons for RS indication and its mechanism of action, and use of radioisotopes and other agents for treatment.
Repeated bleeding in the joint cavities is the most annoying symptom and often has disabling effects in patients with hemophilia (PWH). Our aim was to study the effect of radiosynovectomy (RSO) with beta particle-emitting radiocolloids in the treatment of hemorhagic arthropathy. We have treated 22 joints from 18 patients with hemophilia A, from April 2008 to February 2012, 5 knees, 11 elbows and 6 ankles. Joints were divided into two Groups, those treated with yttrium-90-citrate ((90)Y-C) (5 knees, 2 of them twice)-Group I and those with rhenium-186-sulfide ((186)Re-S) (11 elbows, 1 of them treated twice and 6 ankles)-Group II. A total of 25 treatments. Follow-up period was 3 months, 1 year and 3 years. Results showed a favourable subjective and a better objective result in all 5 joints of Group I and in 15/17 joints of Group II, respectively. Follow-up after 3 months showed significant improvement in Hemophilia Join Health Score (HJHS) after 20 treatments and steady score after 5 treatments. After 1 year, 19 treated joints had improved for the first time, 3 remained steady and 3 were not examined. After 3 years, 9 treated joints were HJHS steady, while 16 were not examined. One year after treatment, 13/14 joints of patients, aged 6-23 years showed better HJHS score, while 9/11 joints of patients aged 26-51 years, showed better HJHS. Synovial membrane thickness as measured by MRI in 8 joints, before and 3 months after treatment was not related to prognosis. In conclusion, in a small group of hemophilic patients with hemorrhagic arthropathy treated with (90)Y-C and with (186)Re-S, our study showed good results irrespective of age in 22/25 treatments after 3 months or 1 year. The thickness of synovial membrane in the 8 joints studied was not related to prognosis.
Empyema is a severe complication of different diseases and traumas. Management of this complication is difficult and should comprise general and local procedures. The general procedure is mainly based on administering wide-spectrum antibiotics. Local management depends on patient general condition, but in all cases the essential procedure is to insert a drain into the pleural cavity and to evacuate the pus. Sometimes pus is very thick and its evacuation and following re-expansion of the lung is rather impossible. In these patients surgical intervention is needed. The use of intrapleural enzymes to support the drainage was first described in 1949 by Tillett and Sherry using a mixture of streptokinase and streptococcal deoxyribonuclease. Nowadays, purified streptokinase has come into widespread use, but recent studies reported no streptokinase effect on pus viscosity. On the other side, deoxyribonuclease reduces pus viscosity and may be more useful in treatment. We report two cases of intrapleural administration of Pulmozyme (alfa dornase - deoxyribonuclease (HOFFMANN-LA ROCHE AG) in dosage 2×2.5mg with a significant improvement caused by changes in pus viscosity.
Studies over the past decade have clearly shown that s.c. implant of primary and cultured tumor cells rarely leads to the occurrence of metastatic disease. Orthotopic transplantation of cell suspensions, surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) of cancer tissue fragments resulted in metastases in many cancer types reaching 100% successful rate. We compared two metastatic models - heterotopic model of Lewis lung cancer and orthotopic B16 mouse melanoma. Both models were syngeneic with high metastatic ratio in C57BL/6 mice after transplantation of cancer cells, by injection into subcutaneous region of mice tail and without surgical intervention. The conclusion is that the localisation of cancer cell injection is a crucial condition for metastatic potential. The site with 100% haematogenous and lymph metastasis rate, after simple injection of cancer cells only, has been defined in mice, without dependence on the genetically predisposition and tumor cell line.
The focus of this study was to compare the role of nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the regeneration of experimental skin and cartilage trauma. The role of VEGF in this process is known since decade; the NGF participation on this process has been first discussed within the spinal cord injury repair. We hypothesized that both VEGF and NGF induce angiogenesis and take part on the repair process. The angiogenesis response and the cartilage regeneration after phVEGF(165) plasmid and rat pcNGF plasmid administration were investigated using BALB/c mice. PhVEGF(165) and pcNFG were injected into the right mice ear and plain vector injection into the left ear the day before trauma. The next day, all mice were ear-punched, resulting in 2-mm diameter puncture through the center of both pinnae. In BALB/c mouse strain, a significantly faster cartilage repair was observed after phVEGF(165) and pcNGF injection into punched ear area in comparison to the control group. It has been shown that the healing process is after VEGF and NGF injection driven differentially. In case of VEGF is the cartilage wound repaired by induction of new chondrocytes differentiation. In the case of NGF, the regeneration is supported by immature leukocytes attracted into the punched area. The leukocytes induct angiogenesis so far indirectly by inflammation. The NGF-induced inflammation environment may be a part of mosaic creating the complete picture of regeneration.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are of great importance for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. It is necessary to improve the ability to image and analyze them for their biological properties which determine their behavior in the patient. In the present study, using immunomagnetic beads, CTCs were rapidly isolated from the circulation of mice orthotopically implanted with human PC-3 prostate cancer cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). The PC-3-GFP CTCs were then expanded in culture in parallel with the parental PC-3-GFP cell line. Both cell types were then inoculated onto the chorioallentoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryos. Eight days later, embryos were harvested and the brains were processed for frozen sections. The IV-100 intravital laser scanning microscope enabled rapid identification of fluorescent metastatic foci within the chick embryonic brain. Inoculation of embryos with PC-3-GFP CTCs resulted in a 3 to 10-fold increase in brain metastasis when compared to those with the parental PC-3-GFP cells (p<0.05 in all animals). Thus, PC-3-GFP CTCs have increased metastatic potential compared to their parental counterparts. Furthermore, the chick embryo represents a rapid, sensitive, imageable assay of metastatic potential for CTCs. The chick embryo assay has future clinical application for individualizing patient therapy based on the metastatic profile of their CTCs.
Many studies have demonstrated the importance of spontaneous metastases in cancer research. Until now, we still had only a few spontaneous metastatic models with high occurrence rate of metastasis in distant lymph and visceral tissues. We report a syngeneic heterotopic metastatic model using the Lewis lung cancer cell line with high metastatic ratio in C57BL/6 mice after transplantation by injection of cancer cells and without surgical intervention. Metastatic process was declared for each mouse in two groups ?sacrificed 3 or 5 weeks after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of the tumor cells into the dorsal side of the tail. The total number of metastases was counted as the sum of observed macrometastases. Our model produced produced a 100% rate of spontaneous lymphatic and visceral metastases after a simple injection transplantation into the heterotopic site. In mice with large primary tumors which are non-lethal, visceral and lymph macrometastases were observed. Tumor volume correlated linearly not only with the tumor growth time, but also with the number of metastases in lymph nodes and organs. This new metastatic model could be useful for studying the metastasis mechanism and for developing therapy for lymph and visceral metastases.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are potential precursors of metastasis. They are also of use in diagnosing malignancy and for prognostic purposes. Our laboratory has previously isolated CTCs from orthotopic nude mouse models of human prostate cancer cells where the PC-3 cancer cells express green fluorescent protein (GFP). It was found that orthotopic tumors produced CTCs and not subcutaneous tumors, which may explain why orthotopic tumors metastasize and subcutaneous tumors do not. However, in this previous study, CTCs were observed only after culture. In the present study, using the GFP-expressing PC-3 orthotopic model and immunomagnetic beads coated with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), GFP-expressing CTC were isolated within 15 minutes and were readily visualized by GFP fluorescence. It was possible to immediately place the immunomagnetic-bead-captured GFP-expressing PC-3 CTCs in 3-dimensional sponge cell culture, where they proliferated. The combination of GFP expression and the use of immunomagnetic beads is a very powerful method to obtain CTCs for either immediate analysis or for biological characterization in vivo or in 3-dimensional culture.
Cimetidine, H(2) receptor antagonists, is commonly prescribed for gastric and duodenal ulcer disease. Additionally, cimetidine has been shown to have anticancer effects. This review describes the mechanism of antitumor action of cimetidine including its ability to interfere with tumor cell adhesion, angiogenesis and proliferation; its effect on the immune system; as well as inhibition of postoperative immunosuppression. Its anticancer effect is also compared to that of the other H(2) receptor antagonists as well as outcomes of cimetidine in clinical studies in cancer patients.
The identification of growth factors and cytokines with angiogenic activity has enabled new therapeutic treatments for a variety of diseases; this concept is called therapeutic angiogenesis. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most critical regulator of vascular formation. In the present study, we were interested in the therapeutic angiogenesis effect using plasmid transfer of human complementary DNA VEGF(165) (phVEGF(165)) in experimental skin and cartilage trauma.
We report a syngeneic model of spontaneous metastatic B16-F10 mouse melanoma in C57/BL6 mice with a very high metastatic frequency that mimics clinical metastatic melanoma. The B16 melanoma cells were injected between the skin and cartilage on the dorsal side of the ear. The model generated lymphatic and visceral metastases in all of the tested animals. In mice with large primary tumors, tumor weight correlated with the tumor growth time and also with the number of metastases in lymph nodes and organs. The dorsal ear space between the skin and cartilage enables both lymphatic and hematogenous metastatic spread. The model should be useful to study the mechanism of melanoma metastasis and to develop therapy for this currently untreatable disease.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is not only a potent angiogenic factor but it also promotes axonal outgrowth and proliferation of Schwann cells. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively assess reinnervation of musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) stumps using motor and primary sensory neurons after plasmid phVEGF transfection and end-to-end (ETE) or end-to-side (ETS) neurorrhaphy. The distal stump of rat transected MCN, was transfected with plasmid phVEGF, plasmid alone or treated with vehiculum and reinnervated following ETE or ETS neurorrhaphy for 2 months. The number of motor and dorsal root ganglia neurons reinnervating the MCN stump was estimated following their retrograde labeling with Fluoro-Ruby and Fluoro-Emerald. Reinnervation of the MCN stumps was assessed based on density, diameter and myelin sheath thickness of regenerated axons, grooming test and the wet weight index of the biceps brachii muscles.
We have previously demonstrated the increased metastatic potential of human prostate cancer circulating tumor cells (CTC), compared to their parental cells, in both orthotopic mouse models and the chick embryo model. In the current study, we asked whether an extracellular matrix (ECM), produced by human foreskin fibroblasts in culture, could inhibit PC-3 human prostate cancer CTC metastasis in the chick embryo model. The chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of 18 chicken embryos were inoculated with either PC-3 human prostate cancer cells or PC-3 CTCs, both stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Embryos were divided into six groups: PC-3 parental-cell control; PC-3 plus soluble ECM; PC-3 parental cells plus semi-solid ECM; PC-3 CTC control; PC-3 CTC plus soluble ECM, and PC-3 CTC plus semi-solid ECM. Twelve hours following inoculation of the cells, a single dose of 100 ?l of either soluble or semi-solid ECM was added to the appropriate group. Embryo brains were removed on day 8 post-inoculation, and were processed for cryosectioning. Imaging was performed on the cryosections using a scanning laser microscope in order to count metastatic foci. PC-3 controls had an average of 11.1 metastatic foci compared to 2.55 in the PC-3 plus soluble ECM group and 2.76 (p<0.0001) in the PC-3 plus semi-solid ECM group (p<0.0001). ECM treatment had even greater efficacy on the CTC cells, with an average of 30.9 metastatic foci in the CTC controls compared to 4.38 in the CTC plus soluble ECM group (p<0.0001) and 4.18 in the CTC plus semi-solid ECM group (p<0.0001). The results demonstrate that reduction of CTC metastatic potential is possible, in this case with an ECM produced by human foreskin fibroblasts in culture.
Comparison of DNA ploidy status of different tumour tissue samples (fresh/frozen vs. paraffin-embedded; curettage vs. hysterectomy samples) obtained during diagnosis and treatment of patients with endometrial carcinoma.
Circulating tumor cells (CTC) may reach multiple organ sites. However, CTC seeding and growth in distant organs is not random. Each metastatic site may contain a specific subpopulation of the original metastatic tumor capable of growing at that site. The fluorescent orthotopic prostate cancer model (PC-3-GFP) model was used for immunomagnetic capture of CTC. The captured CTC were efficiently cultivated in vitro. PC-3-GFP cells were also isolated from various metastatic sites, grown in vitro and examined under fluorescence microscopy. The differential morphology was compared of primary tumor cells, CTC and disseminated (DTC) from multiple metastatic sites, from nude mice with orthotopic PC-3-GFP. The cultured captured CTC and DTC from various organs have distinctive morphologies. Distinct cancer cell morphologies were observed at different metastatic sites as well as among CTC. The distinct morphologies were maintained during in vitro culture. The results demonstrate extensive tumor heterogeneity that could account for the widely different behavior of cancer cells in a single tumor. Further hetereogeneity testing would be a big promise for personalizing the cancer treatment in the future.
The effect of anticoagulant adjuvant anti-tumor therapy depends on the cancer type and stage and on the type of the used anticoagulant drug. A striking response rate was described in experiments involving human patients with lung cancer. The aim of this study is to review anticoagulant and fibrinolytic drugs as antitumor agents with focus on their clinical use. The first part of the review evaluates the results of clinical studies. The results of early clinical research are promising and observations suggest novel approaches to the experimental therapy of lung cancer. The second part of the review shortly describes the problem of thrombosis in patients with lung cancer (incidence of thromboembolic disease and its pathogenesis). The third part briefly describes the antimetastatic and antitumor attributes of anticoagulants and fibrinolytics.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.