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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
"In their perception we are addicts": social vulnerabilities and sources of support for men released from drug treatment centers in Vietnam.
Int. J. Drug Policy
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Amid the global transition to treat opioid addiction as an illness, many people who inject drugs (PWID) face heterogeneous legal environments that include both punitive and harm reduction measures. In Vietnam, many PWID, who have a high burden of HIV, are sent to drug treatment centers, or "06 centers", for compulsory detoxification, vocational training, and labor for up to four years. This study investigates the challenges and facilitators of reentry into community and family life among men who are released from "06 centers" and provides insights and recommendations for developing policies and interventions that address special needs of this vulnerable population.
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Community-level income inequality and HIV prevalence among persons who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Socioeconomic status has a robust positive relationship with several health outcomes at the individual and population levels, but in the case of HIV prevalence, income inequality may be a better predictor than absolute level of income. Most studies showing a relationship between income inequality and HIV have used entire countries as the unit of analysis. In this study, we examine the association between income inequality at the community level and HIV prevalence in a sample of persons who inject drugs (PWID) in a concentrated epidemic setting. We recruited PWID and non-PWID community participants in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, and administered a cross-sectional questionnaire; PWID were tested for HIV. We used ecologic regression to model HIV burden in our PWID study population on GINI indices of inequality calculated from total reported incomes of non-PWID community members in each commune. We also modeled HIV burden on interaction terms between GINI index and median commune income, and finally used a multi-level model to control for community level inequality and individual level income. HIV burden among PWID was significantly correlated with the commune GINI coefficient (r = 0.53, p = 0.002). HIV burden was also associated with GINI coefficient (? = 0.082, p = 0.008) and with median commune income (? =?-0.018, p = 0.023) in ecological regression. In the multi-level model, higher GINI coefficient at the community level was associated with higher odds of individual HIV infection in PWID (OR = 1.46 per 0.01, p = 0.003) while higher personal income was associated with reduced odds of infection (OR = 0.98 per $10, p = 0.022). This study demonstrates a context where income inequality is associated with HIV prevalence at the community level in a concentrated epidemic. It further suggests that community level socioeconomic factors, both contextual and compositional, could be indirect determinants of HIV infection in PWID.
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Effects of an HIV peer prevention intervention on sexual and injecting risk behaviors among injecting drug users and their risk partners in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam: a randomized controlled trial.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Globally, 30% of new HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa involve injecting drug users (IDU) and in many countries, including Vietnam, HIV epidemics are concentrated among IDU. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, to evaluate whether a peer oriented behavioral intervention could reduce injecting and sexual HIV risk behaviors among IDU and their network members. 419 HIV-negative index IDU aged 18 years or older and 516 injecting and sexual network members were enrolled. Each index participant was randomly assigned to receive a series of six small group peer educator-training sessions and three booster sessions in addition to HIV testing and counseling (HTC) (intervention; n = 210) or HTC only (control; n = 209). Follow-up, including HTC, was conducted at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-intervention. The proportion of unprotected sex dropped significantly from 49% to 27% (SE (difference) = 3%, p < 0.01) between baseline and the 3-month visit among all index-network member pairs. However, at 12 months, post-intervention, intervention participants had a 14% greater decline in unprotected sex relative to control participants (Wald test = 10.8, df = 4, p = 0.03). This intervention effect is explained by trial participants assigned to the control arm who missed at least one standardized HTC session during follow-up and subsequently reported increased unprotected sex. The proportion of observed needle/syringe sharing dropped significantly between baseline and the 3-month visit (14% vs. 3%, SE (difference) = 2%, p < 0.01) and persisted until 12 months, but there was no difference across trial arms (Wald test = 3.74, df = 3, p = 0.44).
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Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individuals absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV.
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Decreased injecting is associated with increased alcohol consumption among injecting drug users in northern Vietnam.
Int. J. Drug Policy
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Reducing injecting frequency may reduce the risk of HIV infection and improve health outcomes among injection drug users (IDUs). However, the reduction of one risk behavior may be associated with an increase in other risk behaviors, including the use of other risk-associated substances. Our objective was to determine if an association exists between a reduction in injecting and level of alcohol use among IDU.
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Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM) transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated.
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Mortality and HIV transmission among male Vietnamese injection drug users.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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To estimate all-cause mortality rate and to assess predictors of all-cause mortality among injection drug users (IDUs) in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam between 2005 and 2007.
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Influence of Perceived Secondary Stigma and Family on the Response to HIV Infection Among Injection Drug Users in Vietnam.
AIDS Educ Prev
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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The full impact of secondary stigma (stigma directed at family) on an HIV-positive individual is unknown. This qualitative research explores perceptions of secondary stigma in the Vietnamese context and its influence on the ways in which an injection drug user (IDU) copes with HIV infection. Data on experiences learning ones HIV status, disclosure decisions, family reactions, and stigma from family and community were collected through in-depth interviews with 25 HIV-positive IDUs recruited through a health center in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. Participants felt despair when learning they were HIV-positive and expressed concerns focused on the emotional burden and the consequences of HIV stigma that extended to family. Many participants engaged in self-isolating behaviors to prevent transmission and minimize secondary stigma. Data illustrated the strong value given to family in Vietnam and underscored the importance of secondary stigma in the coping process including gaining social support and engaging in risk reduction.
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Characteristics of high-risk HIV-positive IDUs in Vietnam: implications for future interventions.
Subst Use Misuse
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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The HIV epidemic in Vietnam is concentrated primarily among injecting drug users (IDUs). To prevent HIV-1 superinfection and to develop effective HIV prevention programs, data are needed to understand the characteristics of high-risk HIV-positive IDUs. In 2003 , we conducted a community-based cross-sectional study among predominately male, out-of-treatment IDUs, aged 18?45, in the Bac Ninh Province, Vietnam. Among 299 male participants, 42.8% were HIV-positive, and among those, 96.9% did not know their status prior to the study. Furthermore, 32% were HIV-positive and had high HIV behavioral risk (having unprotected sex or having shared injecting equipment in the past 6 months). Injecting for ?3 years, younger age, and pooling money to buy drugs were independently associated with being at high risk for transmitting HIV. IDUs who purchased more than one syringe at a time were less likely to have high HIV behavioral risk. Structural interventions that increase syringe accessibility may be effective in reducing HIV risk behavior among HIV-positive IDUs. Study limitations are noted in the article.
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Mortality among injection drug users in northern Thailand: a prospective cohort study.
J Addict Med
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2010
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: To measure mortality rates and assess predictors of all-cause mortality in a cohort of Thai injection drug users (IDUs) who were enrolled and followed up from 2004 through 2006.
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Social injecting and other correlates of high-risk sexual activity among injecting drug users in northern Vietnam.
Int. J. Drug Policy
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Sexual risk and STDs are relatively high among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Vietnam. We sought to determine characteristics of sexually active IDUs and correlates of high-risk sexual practices among IDUs in Bac Ninh province in northern Vietnam.
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The efficacy of a network intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Chiang Mai, Thailand and Philadelphia, USA.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
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This HIV Prevention Trials Network study assessed the efficacy of a network-oriented peer education intervention promoting HIV risk reduction among injection drug users and their drug and sexual network members in Chiang Mai, Thailand and Philadelphia, USA. The study was designed to test impact on HIV infection, but the infection rate was low and the study was terminated early. This paper reports efficacy on outcomes of self-reported HIV risk behaviors. We enrolled 414 networks with 1123 participants. The experimental intervention consisted of six small group peer educator training sessions and two booster sessions delivered to the network index only. All participants in both arms received individual HIV counseling and testing. Follow-up visits occurred every six months for up to 30 months. There were 10 HIV seroconversions, 5 in each arm. The number of participants reporting injection risk behaviors dropped dramatically between baseline and follow-up in both arms at both sites. Index members in the intervention arm engaged in more conversations about HIV risk following the intervention compared to control indexes. There was no evidence of change in sexual risk as a result of the intervention. Reductions in injection risk behaviors were observed: 37%, 20%, and 26% reduction in odds of sharing cottons, rinse water and cookers, respectively, and 24% reduction in using a syringe after someone else. Analysis of the individual sites suggested a pattern of reductions in injection risk behaviors in the Philadelphia site. In both sites, the intervention resulted in index injection drug users engaging in the community role of discussing reduction in HIV injection risk behaviors. The intervention did not result in overall reductions in self-reported sexual risk behaviors, and although reductions in injection risk behaviors were observed, the overall efficacy in reducing risk was not established.
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Risks for HIV, HBV, and HCV infections among male injection drug users in northern Vietnam: a case-control study.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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Injection drug use (IDU) and HIV infection are important public health problems in Vietnam. The IDU population increased 70% from 2000 to 2004 and is disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS -- the countrys second leading cause of death. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share transmission routes with HIV and cause serious medical consequences. This study aimed to determine risk factors for acquisition of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections among IDUs in a northern province. We conducted a matched case-control study among active IDUs aged 18-45 who participated in a community-based survey (30-minute interview and serologic testing). Each HIV-infected IDU (case) was matched with one HIV-uninfected IDU (control) by age, sex (males only), and study site (128 pairs). Similar procedures were used for HBV infection (50 pairs) and HCV infection (65 pairs). Conditional logistic regression models were fit to identify risk factors for each infection. Among 309 surveyed IDUs, the HIV, HBV, and HCV prevalence was 42.4%, 80.9%, and 74.1%, respectively. Only 11.0% reported having been vaccinated against hepatitis B. While 13.3% of the IDUs reported sharing needles (past six months), 63.8% engaged in indirect sharing practices (past six months), including sharing drug solutions, containers, rinse water, and frontloading drugs. In multivariable models, sharing drugs through frontloading was significantly associated with HIV infection (odds ratio [OR]=2.8), HBV infection (OR=3.8), and HCV infection (OR=4.6). We report an unrecognized association between sharing drugs through frontloading and higher rates of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among male IDUs in Vietnam. This finding may have important implications for bloodborne viral prevention for IDUs in Vietnam.
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Incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections and risk factors for acquisition among young methamphetamine users in northern Thailand.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Southeast Asia is experiencing an epidemic of methamphetamine use, a drug associated with risky sexual behaviors, putting a large segment of the population at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV and in need of prevention efforts. Incidence estimates of STIs are rare in Southeast Asia, especially among newer risk groups.
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Aortoenteric fistulas: CT features and potential mimics.
Radiographics
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Prompt diagnosis of aortoenteric fistulas is imperative for patient survival. The clinical signs of aortoenteric fistula include hematemesis, melena, sepsis, and abdominal pain, but the condition also may be clinically occult. Because clinical signs may not be present or may not be sufficiently specific, imaging is most often necessary to achieve an accurate diagnosis. Although no single imaging modality demonstrates the condition with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, computed tomography (CT), owing to its widespread availability and high efficiency, has become the imaging modality of choice for evaluations in the emergency setting. CT has widely variable sensitivity (40%-90%) and specificity (33%-100%) for the diagnosis of aortoenteric fistulas. To use this modality effectively for the initial diagnostic examination, radiologists must be familiar with the spectrum of CT appearances. Mimics of aortoenteric fistulas include retroperitoneal fibrosis, infected aortic aneurysm, infectious aortitis, and perigraft infection without fistulization. Differentiation is aided by the observation of ectopic gas, loss of the normal fat plane, extravasation of aortic contrast material into the enteric lumen, or leakage of enteric contrast material into the paraprosthetic space; these features are highly suggestive of aortoenteric fistula in a patient with bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.
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The fluoroscopic swinging heart: a rare sight for the modern interventionalist.
Can J Cardiol
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Herein, we present the case of a 49-year-old woman who presented to a peripheral hospital with a 4-day history of progressive shortness of breath. Following a clinical diagnosis of heart failure and slightly elevated cardiac troponins on initial blood work, the patient was referred for same-day diagnostic coronary angiography, which revealed normal coronary arteries but the surprising finding of a fluoroscopic swinging heart due to a massive pericardial effusion. The patient promptly improved after emergent pericardiocentesis. Fluoroscopic clues to the diagnosis of pericardial effusion are reviewed, with accompanying illustrative video and hemodynamic tracings.
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Towards combination HIV prevention for injection drug users: addressing addictophobia, apathy and inattention.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS
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Recent breakthroughs in HIV-prevention science led us to evaluate the current state of combination HIV prevention for injection drug users (IDUs). We review the recent literature focusing on possible reasons why coverage of prevention interventions for HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and tuberculosis among IDUs remains dismal. We make recommendations for future HIV research and policy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.