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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Interactions Between Cigarette Smoking and Fine Particulate Matter in the Risk of Lung Cancer Mortality in Cancer Prevention Study II.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified outdoor air pollution and airborne particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans. However, there are gaps in the epidemiologic literature, including assessment of possible joint effects of cigarette smoking and fine particulate matter (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter) on lung cancer risk. We present estimates of interaction on the additive scale between these risk factors from Cancer Prevention Study II, a large prospective US cohort study of nearly 1.2 million participants recruited in 1982. Estimates of the relative excess risk of lung cancer mortality due to interaction, the attributable proportion due to interaction, and the synergy index were 2.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.10, 4.83), 0.14 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.25), and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.37), respectively, using the 25th and 75th percentiles as cutpoints for fine particulate matter. This suggests small increases in lung cancer risk among persons with both exposures beyond what would be expected from the sum of the effects of the individual exposures alone. Although reductions in cigarette smoking will achieve the greatest impact on lung cancer rates, these results suggest that attempted reductions in lung cancer risk through both tobacco control and air quality management may exceed expectations based on reducing exposure to either risk factor alone.
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Relationships Between Fine Particulate Air Pollution, Cardiometabolic Disorders and Cardiovascular Mortality.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Rationale: Growing evidence suggests that long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution contributes to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. There is uncertainty regarding who are most susceptible. Individuals with underlying cardiometabolic disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, may be at greater risk. PM2.5 pollution may also contribute to cardiometabolic disorders, augmenting CVD risk. Objective: This analysis evaluates relationships between long-term PM2.5 exposure and cardiometabolic disease on risk of death from CVD and cardiometabolic conditions. Methods and Results: Data on 669,046 participants from the American Cancer Society, Cancer Prevention Study II cohort were linked to modeled PM2.5 concentrations at geocoded home addresses. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazards ratios (HR) for death from CVD and cardiometabolic diseases based on death-certificate information. Effect modification by pre-existing cardiometabolic risk factors on the PM2.5-CVD mortality association was examined. PM2.5 exposure was associated with CVD mortality, with the HR (95% CI) per 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 equal to 1.12 (1.10-1.15). Deaths linked to hypertension and/or diabetes (mentioned on death certificate as either primary or contributing cause of death) were also associated with PM2.5. There was no consistent evidence of effect modification by cardiometabolic disease risk factors on the PM2.5-CVD mortality association. Conclusions: Pollution-induced CVD mortality risk is observed for those with and without existing cardiometabolic disorders. Long-term exposure may also contribute to the development or exacerbation of cardiometabolic disorders, increasing risk of CVD and cardiometabolic disease mortality.
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Artificially and Sugar-Sweetened Carbonated Beverage Consumption Is Not Associated with Risk of Lymphoid Neoplasms in Older Men and Women.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Concern about the carcinogenic potential of aspartame was raised after an increase in lymphomas and leukemia was reported in an animal study at doses similar to human exposure. Two prospective cohort studies published after the report found inconsistent results for estimated aspartame intake, artificially sweetened beverage consumption, and risk of lymphoid neoplasms.
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The 19q12 Bladder Cancer GWAS Signal: Association with Cyclin E Function and Aggressive Disease.
Yi-Ping Fu, Indu Kohaar, Lee E Moore, Petra Lenz, Jonine D Figueroa, Wei Tang, Patricia Porter-Gill, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Alexandra Scott-Johnson, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Brian Muchmore, Dalsu Baris, Ashley Paquin, Kris Ylaya, Molly Schwenn, Andrea B Apolo, Margaret R Karagas, McAnthony Tarway, Alison Johnson, Adam Mumy, Alan Schned, Liliana Guedez, Michael A Jones, Masatoshi Kida, Gm Monawar Hosain, Nuria Malats, Manolis Kogevinas, Adonina Tardón, Consol Serra, Alfredo Carrato, Reina Garcia-Closas, Josep Lloreta, Xifeng Wu, Mark Purdue, Gerald L Andriole, Robert L Grubb, Amanda Black, Maria T Landi, Neil E Caporaso, Paolo Vineis, Afshan Siddiq, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Börje Ljungberg, Gianluca Severi, Elisabete Weiderpass, Vittorio Krogh, Miren Dorronsoro, Ruth C Travis, Anne Tjønneland, Paul Brennan, Jenny Chang-Claude, Elio Riboli, Jennifer Prescott, Constance Chen, Immaculata De Vivo, Edward Govannucci, David Hunter, Peter Kraft, Sara Lindstrom, Susan M Gapstur, Eric J Jacobs, W Ryan Diver, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J Weinstein, Jarmo Virtamo, Charles Kooperberg, Chancellor Hohensee, Rebecca J Rodabough, Victoria K Cortessis, David V Conti, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Mariana C Stern, Malcolm C Pike, David Van Den Berg, Jian-Min Yuan, Christopher A Haiman, Olivier Cussenot, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Morgan Rouprêt, Eva Compérat, Stefano Porru, Angela Carta, Sofia Pavanello, Cecilia Arici, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, H Barton Grossman, Zhaoming Wang, Xiang Deng, Charles C Chung, Amy Hutchinson, Laurie Burdette, William Wheeler, Joseph Fraumeni, Stephen J Chanock, Stephen M Hewitt, Debra T Silverman, Nathaniel Rothman, Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer identified a genetic marker rs8102137 within the 19q12 region as a novel susceptibility variant. This marker is located upstream of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes cyclin E, a cell-cycle protein. We performed genetic fine-mapping analysis of the CCNE1 region using data from two bladder cancer GWAS (5,942 cases and 10,857 controls). We found that the original GWAS marker rs8102137 represents a group of 47 linked SNPs (with r(2) ? 0.7) associated with increased bladder cancer risk. From this group, we selected a functional promoter variant rs7257330, which showed strong allele-specific binding of nuclear proteins in several cell lines. In both GWASs, rs7257330 was associated only with aggressive bladder cancer, with a combined per-allele OR = 1.18 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.27, P = 4.67 × 10(-5)] versus OR = 1.01 (95% CI, 0.93-1.10, P = 0.79) for nonaggressive disease, with P = 0.0015 for case-only analysis. Cyclin E protein expression analyzed in 265 bladder tumors was increased in aggressive tumors (P = 0.013) and, independently, with each rs7257330-A risk allele (Ptrend = 0.024). Overexpression of recombinant cyclin E in cell lines caused significant acceleration of cell cycle. In conclusion, we defined the 19q12 signal as the first GWAS signal specific for aggressive bladder cancer. Molecular mechanisms of this genetic association may be related to cyclin E overexpression and alteration of cell cycle in carriers of CCNE1 risk variants. In combination with established bladder cancer risk factors and other somatic and germline genetic markers, the CCNE1 variants could be useful for inclusion into bladder cancer risk prediction models. Cancer Res; 74(20); 5808-18. ©2014 AACR.
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Additive interactions between susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies and breast cancer risk factors in the breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Additive interactions can have public health and etiological implications but are infrequently reported. We assessed departures from additivity on the absolute risk scale between 9 established breast cancer risk factors and 23 susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from genome-wide association studies among 10,146 non-Hispanic white breast cancer cases and 12,760 controls within the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We estimated the relative excess risk due to interaction and its 95% confidence interval for each pairwise combination of SNPs and nongenetic risk factors using age- and cohort-adjusted logistic regression models. After correction for multiple comparisons, we identified a statistically significant relative excess risk due to interaction (uncorrected P = 4.51 × 10(-5)) between a SNP in the DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 2 gene (RAD51L1; rs10483813) and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). We also compared additive and multiplicative polygenic risk prediction models using per-allele odds ratio estimates from previous studies for breast-cancer susceptibility SNPs and observed that the multiplicative model had a substantially better goodness of fit than the additive model.
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Genome-wide association study identifies five susceptibility loci for follicular lymphoma outside the HLA region.
Christine F Skibola, Sonja I Berndt, Joseph Vijai, Lucia Conde, Zhaoming Wang, Meredith Yeager, Paul I W de Bakker, Brenda M Birmann, Claire M Vajdic, Jia-Nee Foo, Paige M Bracci, Roel C H Vermeulen, Susan L Slager, Silvia de Sanjosé, Sophia S Wang, Martha S Linet, Gilles Salles, Qing Lan, Gianluca Severi, Henrik Hjalgrim, Tracy Lightfoot, Mads Melbye, Jian Gu, Hervé Ghesquières, Brian K Link, Lindsay M Morton, Elizabeth A Holly, Alex Smith, Lesley F Tinker, Lauren R Teras, Anne Kricker, Nikolaus Becker, Mark P Purdue, John J Spinelli, Yawei Zhang, Graham G Giles, Paolo Vineis, Alain Monnereau, Kimberly A Bertrand, Demetrius Albanes, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Attilio Gabbas, Charles C Chung, Laurie Burdett, Amy Hutchinson, Charles Lawrence, Rebecca Montalvan, Liming Liang, Jinyan Huang, Baoshan Ma, Jianjun Liu, Hans-Olov Adami, Bengt Glimelius, Yuanqing Ye, Grzegorz S Nowakowski, Ahmet Dogan, Carrie A Thompson, Thomas M Habermann, Anne J Novak, Mark Liebow, Thomas E Witzig, George J Weiner, Maryjean Schenk, Patricia Hartge, Anneclaire J De Roos, Wendy Cozen, Degui Zhi, Nicholas K Akers, Jacques Riby, Martyn T Smith, Mortimer Lacher, Danylo J Villano, Ann Maria, Eve Roman, Eleanor Kane, Rebecca D Jackson, Kari E North, W Ryan Diver, Jenny Turner, Bruce K Armstrong, Yolanda Benavente, Paolo Boffetta, Paul Brennan, Lenka Foretova, Marc Maynadié, Anthony Staines, James McKay, Angela R Brooks-Wilson, Tongzhang Zheng, Theodore R Holford, Saioa Chamosa, Rudolph Kaaks, Rachel S Kelly, Bodil Ohlsson, Ruth C Travis, Elisabete Weiderpass, Jacqueline Clavel, Edward Giovannucci, Peter Kraft, Jarmo Virtamo, Patrizio Mazza, Pierluigi Cocco, Maria Grazia Ennas, Brian C H Chiu, Joseph F Fraumeni, Alexandra Nieters, Kenneth Offit, Xifeng Wu, James R Cerhan, Karin E Smedby, Stephen J Chanock, Nathaniel Rothman.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European ancestry. Five non-HLA loci were associated with FL risk: 11q23.3 (rs4938573, p = 5.79 × 10(-20)) near CXCR5; 11q24.3 (rs4937362, p = 6.76 × 10(-11)) near ETS1; 3q28 (rs6444305, p = 1.10 × 10(-10)) in LPP; 18q21.33 (rs17749561, p = 8.28 × 10(-10)) near BCL2; and 8q24.21 (rs13254990, p = 1.06 × 10(-8)) near PVT1. In an analysis of the HLA region, we identified four linked HLA-DR?1 multiallelic amino acids at positions 11, 13, 28, and 30 that were associated with FL risk (pomnibus = 4.20 × 10(-67) to 2.67 × 10(-70)). Additional independent signals included rs17203612 in HLA class II (odds ratio [OR(per-allele)] = 1.44; p = 4.59 × 10(-16)) and rs3130437 in HLA class I (OR(per-allele) = 1.23; p = 8.23 × 10(-9)). Our findings further expand the number of loci associated with FL and provide evidence that multiple common variants outside the HLA region make a significant contribution to FL risk.
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Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33.
Zhaoming Wang, Bin Zhu, Mingfeng Zhang, Hemang Parikh, Jinping Jia, Charles C Chung, Joshua N Sampson, Jason W Hoskins, Amy Hutchinson, Laurie Burdette, Abdisamad Ibrahim, Christopher Hautman, Preethi S Raj, Christian C Abnet, Andrew A Adjei, Anders Ahlbom, Demetrius Albanes, Naomi E Allen, Christine B Ambrosone, Melinda Aldrich, Pilar Amiano, Christopher Amos, Ulrika Andersson, Gerald Andriole, Irene L Andrulis, Cecilia Arici, Alan A Arslan, Melissa A Austin, Dalsu Baris, Donald A Barkauskas, Bryan A Bassig, Laura E Beane Freeman, Christine D Berg, Sonja I Berndt, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Richard B Biritwum, Amanda Black, William Blot, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Boffetta, Kelly Bolton, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Paige M Bracci, Paul Brennan, Louise A Brinton, Michelle Brotzman, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Julie E Buring, Mary Ann Butler, Qiuyin Cai, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Federico Canzian, Guangwen Cao, Neil E Caporaso, Alfredo Carrato, Tania Carreon, Angela Carta, Gee-Chen Chang, I-Shou Chang, Jenny Chang-Claude, Xu Che, Chien-Jen Chen, Chih-Yi Chen, Chung-Hsing Chen, Constance Chen, Kuan-Yu Chen, Yuh-Min Chen, Anand P Chokkalingam, Lisa W Chu, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Graham A Colditz, Joanne S Colt, David Conti, Michael B Cook, Victoria K Cortessis, E David Crawford, Olivier Cussenot, Faith G Davis, Immaculata De Vivo, Xiang Deng, Ti Ding, Colin P Dinney, Anna Luisa Di Stefano, W Ryan Diver, Eric J Duell, Joanne W Elena, Jin-Hu Fan, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Maria Feychting, Jonine D Figueroa, Adrienne M Flanagan, Joseph F Fraumeni, Neal D Freedman, Brooke L Fridley, Charles S Fuchs, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Steven Gallinger, Yu-Tang Gao, Susan M Gapstur, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Reina Garcia-Closas, Julie M Gastier-Foster, J Michael Gaziano, Daniela S Gerhard, Carol A Giffen, Graham G Giles, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Edward L Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Nalan Gokgoz, Alisa M Goldstein, Carlos González, Richard Gorlick, Mark H Greene, Myron Gross, H Barton Grossman, Robert Grubb, Jian Gu, Peng Guan, Christopher A Haiman, Göran Hallmans, Susan E Hankinson, Curtis C Harris, Patricia Hartge, Claudia Hattinger, Richard B Hayes, Qincheng He, Lee Helman, Brian E Henderson, Roger Henriksson, Judith Hoffman-Bolton, Chancellor Hohensee, Elizabeth A Holly, Yun-Chul Hong, Robert N Hoover, H Dean Hosgood, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Ann W Hsing, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Nan Hu, Wei Hu, Zhibin Hu, Ming-Shyan Huang, David J Hunter, Peter D Inskip, Hidemi Ito, Eric J Jacobs, Kevin B Jacobs, Mazda Jenab, Bu-Tian Ji, Christoffer Johansen, Mattias Johansson, Alison Johnson, Rudolf Kaaks, Ashish M Kamat, Aruna Kamineni, Margaret Karagas, Chand Khanna, Kay-Tee Khaw, Christopher Kim, In-Sam Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Yeul Hong Kim, Young-Chul Kim, Young Tae Kim, Chang Hyun Kang, Yoo Jin Jung, Cari M Kitahara, Alison P Klein, Robert Klein, Manolis Kogevinas, Woon-Puay Koh, Takashi Kohno, Laurence N Kolonel, Charles Kooperberg, Christian P Kratz, Vittorio Krogh, Hideo Kunitoh, Robert C Kurtz, Nilgun Kurucu, Qing Lan, Mark Lathrop, Ching C Lau, Fernando Lecanda, Kyoung-Mu Lee, Maxwell P Lee, Loic Le Marchand, Seth P Lerner, Donghui Li, Linda M Liao, Wei-Yen Lim, Dongxin Lin, Jie Lin, Sara Lindstrom, Martha S Linet, Jolanta Lissowska, Jianjun Liu, Börje Ljungberg, Josep Lloreta, Daru Lu, Jing Ma, Nuria Malats, Satu Mannisto, Neyssa Marina, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Keitaro Matsuo, Katherine A McGlynn, Roberta Mckean-Cowdin, Lorna H McNeill, Robert R McWilliams, Beatrice S Melin, Paul S Meltzer, James E Mensah, Xiaoping Miao, Dominique S Michaud, Alison M Mondul, Lee E Moore, Kenneth Muir, Shelley Niwa, Sara H Olson, Nick Orr, Salvatore Panico, Jae Yong Park, Alpa V Patel, Ana Patiño-García, Sofia Pavanello, Petra H M Peeters, Beata Peplonska, Ulrike Peters, Gloria M Petersen, Piero Picci, Malcolm C Pike, Stefano Porru, Jennifer Prescott, Xia Pu, Mark P Purdue, You-Lin Qiao, Preetha Rajaraman, Elio Riboli, Harvey A Risch, Rebecca J Rodabough, Nathaniel Rothman, Avima M Ruder, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Marc Sanson, Alan Schned, Fredrick R Schumacher, Ann G Schwartz, Kendra L Schwartz, Molly Schwenn, Katia Scotlandi, Adeline Seow, Consol Serra, Massimo Serra, Howard D Sesso, Gianluca Severi, Hongbing Shen, Min Shen, Sanjay Shete, Kouya Shiraishi, Xiao-Ou Shu, Afshan Siddiq, Luis Sierrasesúmaga, Sabina Sierri, Alan Dart Loon Sihoe, Debra T Silverman, Matthias Simon, Melissa C Southey, Logan Spector, Margaret Spitz, Meir Stampfer, Pär Stattin, Mariana C Stern, Victoria L Stevens, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Daniel O Stram, Sara S Strom, Wu-Chou Su, Malin Sund, Sook Whan Sung, Anthony Swerdlow, Wen Tan, Hideo Tanaka, Wei Tang, Ze-Zhang Tang, Adonina Tardón, Evelyn Tay, Philip R Taylor, Yao Tettey, David M Thomas, Roberto Tirabosco, Anne Tjonneland, Geoffrey S Tobias, Jorge R Toro, Ruth C Travis, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Rebecca Troisi, Ann Truelove, Ying-Huang Tsai, Margaret A Tucker, Rosario Tumino, David Van Den Berg, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Kala Visvanathan, Ulla Vogel, Chaoyu Wang, Chengfeng Wang, Junwen Wang, Sophia S Wang, Elisabete Weiderpass, Stephanie J Weinstein, Nicolas Wentzensen, William Wheeler, Emily White, John K Wiencke, Alicja Wolk, Brian M Wolpin, Maria Pik Wong, Margaret Wrensch, Chen Wu, Tangchun Wu, Xifeng Wu, Yi-Long Wu, Jay S Wunder, Yong-Bing Xiang, Jun Xu, Hannah P Yang, Pan-Chyr Yang, Yasushi Yatabe, Yuanqing Ye, Edward D Yeboah, Zhihua Yin, Chen Ying, Chong-Jen Yu, Kai Yu, Jian-Min Yuan, Krista A Zanetti, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Wei Zheng, Baosen Zhou, Lisa Mirabello, Sharon A Savage, Peter Kraft, Stephen J Chanock, Meredith Yeager, Maria Terese Landi, Jianxin Shi, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Laufey T Amundadottir.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
James R Cerhan, Sonja I Berndt, Joseph Vijai, Hervé Ghesquières, James McKay, Sophia S Wang, Zhaoming Wang, Meredith Yeager, Lucia Conde, Paul I W de Bakker, Alexandra Nieters, David Cox, Laurie Burdett, Alain Monnereau, Christopher R Flowers, Anneclaire J De Roos, Angela R Brooks-Wilson, Qing Lan, Gianluca Severi, Mads Melbye, Jian Gu, Rebecca D Jackson, Eleanor Kane, Lauren R Teras, Mark P Purdue, Claire M Vajdic, John J Spinelli, Graham G Giles, Demetrius Albanes, Rachel S Kelly, Mariagrazia Zucca, Kimberly A Bertrand, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Charles Lawrence, Amy Hutchinson, Degui Zhi, Thomas M Habermann, Brian K Link, Anne J Novak, Ahmet Dogan, Yan W Asmann, Mark Liebow, Carrie A Thompson, Stephen M Ansell, Thomas E Witzig, George J Weiner, Amelie S Veron, Diana Zelenika, Hervé Tilly, Corinne Haioun, Thierry Jo Molina, Henrik Hjalgrim, Bengt Glimelius, Hans-Olov Adami, Paige M Bracci, Jacques Riby, Martyn T Smith, Elizabeth A Holly, Wendy Cozen, Patricia Hartge, Lindsay M Morton, Richard K Severson, Lesley F Tinker, Kari E North, Nikolaus Becker, Yolanda Benavente, Paolo Boffetta, Paul Brennan, Lenka Foretova, Marc Maynadié, Anthony Staines, Tracy Lightfoot, Simon Crouch, Alex Smith, Eve Roman, W Ryan Diver, Kenneth Offit, Andrew Zelenetz, Robert J Klein, Danylo J Villano, Tongzhang Zheng, Yawei Zhang, Theodore R Holford, Anne Kricker, Jenny Turner, Melissa C Southey, Jacqueline Clavel, Jarmo Virtamo, Stephanie Weinstein, Elio Riboli, Paolo Vineis, Rudolph Kaaks, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Roel C H Vermeulen, Heiner Boeing, Anne Tjonneland, Emanuele Angelucci, Simonetta Di Lollo, Marco Rais, Brenda M Birmann, Francine Laden, Edward Giovannucci, Peter Kraft, Jinyan Huang, Baoshan Ma, Yuanqing Ye, Brian C H Chiu, Joshua Sampson, Liming Liang, Ju-Hyun Park, Charles C Chung, Dennis D Weisenburger, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Joseph F Fraumeni, Susan L Slager, Xifeng Wu, Silvia de Sanjosé, Karin E Smedby, Gilles Salles, Christine F Skibola, Nathaniel Rothman, Stephen J Chanock.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype and is clinically aggressive. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for DLBCL, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 new genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 1 previous scan, totaling 3,857 cases and 7,666 controls of European ancestry, with additional genotyping of 9 promising SNPs in 1,359 cases and 4,557 controls. In our multi-stage analysis, five independent SNPs in four loci achieved genome-wide significance marked by rs116446171 at 6p25.3 (EXOC2; P = 2.33 × 10(-21)), rs2523607 at 6p21.33 (HLA-B; P = 2.40 × 10(-10)), rs79480871 at 2p23.3 (NCOA1; P = 4.23 × 10(-8)) and two independent SNPs, rs13255292 and rs4733601, at 8q24.21 (PVT1; P = 9.98 × 10(-13) and 3.63 × 10(-11), respectively). These data provide substantial new evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B cell malignancy and point to pathways involved in immune recognition and immune function in the pathogenesis of DLBCL.
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Generalizability of established prostate cancer risk variants in men of African ancestry.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Genome-wide association studies have identified more than eighty risk variants for prostate cancer, mainly in European or Asian populations. The generalizability of these variants in other racial/ethnic populations needs to be understood before the loci can be utilized widely in risk modeling. In this study, we examined 82 previously reported risk variants in 4,853 prostate cancer cases and 4,678 controls of African ancestry. We performed association testing for each variant using logistic regression adjusted for age, study, and global ancestry. Of the 82 known risk variants, 68 (83%) had effects that were directionally consistent in their association with prostate cancer risk and 30 (37%) were significantly associated with risk at p<0.05, with the most statistically significant variants being rs116041037 (p=3.7×10(-26) ) and rs6983561 (p=1.1×10(-16) ) at 8q24, as well as rs7210100 (p=5.4×10(-8) ) at 17q21. By exploring each locus in search of better markers, the number of variants that captured risk in men of African ancestry (p<0.05) increased from 30 (37%) to 44 (54%). An aggregate score comprised of these 44 markers was strongly associated with prostate cancer risk (per-allele odds ratio (OR)=1.12, p=7.3×10(-98) ). In summary, the consistent directions of effects for the vast majority of variants in men of African ancestry indicate common functional alleles that are shared across populations. Further exploration of these susceptibility loci is needed to identify the underlying biologically relevant variants to improve prostate cancer risk modeling in populations of African ancestry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Post-GWAS gene-environment interplay in breast cancer: results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium and a meta-analysis on 79,000 women.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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We studied the interplay between 39 breast cancer (BC) risk SNPs and established BC risk (body mass index, height, age at menarche, parity, age at menopause, smoking, alcohol and family history of BC) and prognostic factors (TNM stage, tumor grade, tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status and progesterone receptor status) as joint determinants of BC risk. We used a nested case-control design within the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), with 16 285 BC cases and 19 376 controls. We performed stratified analyses for both the risk and prognostic factors, testing for heterogeneity for the risk factors, and case-case comparisons for differential associations of polymorphisms by subgroups of the prognostic factors. We analyzed multiplicative interactions between the SNPs and the risk factors. Finally, we also performed a meta-analysis of the interaction ORs from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. After correction for multiple testing, no significant interaction between the SNPs and the established risk factors in the BPC3 study was found. The meta-analysis showed a suggestive interaction between smoking status and SLC4A7-rs4973768 (Pinteraction = 8.84 × 10(-4)) which, although not significant after considering multiple comparison, has a plausible biological explanation. In conclusion, in this study of up to almost 79 000 women we can conclusively exclude any novel major interactions between genome-wide association studies hits and the epidemiologic risk factors taken into consideration, but we propose a suggestive interaction between smoking status and SLC4A7-rs4973768 that if further replicated could help our understanding in the etiology of BC.
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Genome-wide scan of 29,141 African Americans finds no evidence of directional selection since admixture.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The extent of recent selection in admixed populations is currently an unresolved question. We scanned the genomes of 29,141 African Americans and failed to find any genome-wide-significant deviations in local ancestry, indicating no evidence of selection influencing ancestry after admixture. A recent analysis of data from 1,890 African Americans reported that there was evidence of selection in African Americans after their ancestors left Africa, both before and after admixture. Selection after admixture was reported on the basis of deviations in local ancestry, and selection before admixture was reported on the basis of allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations. The local-ancestry deviations reported by the previous study did not replicate in our very large sample, and we show that such deviations were expected purely by chance, given the number of hypotheses tested. We further show that the previous study's conclusion of selection in African Americans before admixture is also subject to doubt. This is because the FST statistics they used were inflated and because true signals of unusual allele-frequency differences between African Americans and African populations would be best explained by selection that occurred in Africa prior to migration to the Americas.
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A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer.
Ali Amin Al Olama, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Sonja I Berndt, David V Conti, Fredrick Schumacher, Ying Han, Sara Benlloch, Dennis J Hazelett, Zhaoming Wang, Ed Saunders, Daniel Leongamornlert, Sara Lindstrom, Sara Jugurnauth-Little, Tokhir Dadaev, Malgorzata Tymrakiewicz, Daniel O Stram, Kristin Rand, Peggy Wan, Alex Stram, Xin Sheng, Loreall C Pooler, Karen Park, Lucy Xia, Jonathan Tyrer, Laurence N Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand, Robert N Hoover, Mitchell J Machiela, Merideth Yeager, Laurie Burdette, Charles C Chung, Amy Hutchinson, Kai Yu, Chee Goh, Mahbubl Ahmed, Koveela Govindasami, Michelle Guy, Teuvo L J Tammela, Anssi Auvinen, Tiina Wahlfors, Johanna Schleutker, Tapio Visakorpi, Katri A Leinonen, Jianfeng Xu, Markus Aly, Jenny Donovan, Ruth C Travis, Tim J Key, Afshan Siddiq, Federico Canzian, Kay-Tee Khaw, Atsushi Takahashi, Michiaki Kubo, Paul Pharoah, Nora Pashayan, Maren Weischer, Borge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Peter Klarskov, Martin Andreas Røder, Peter Iversen, Stephen N Thibodeau, Shannon K McDonnell, Daniel J Schaid, Janet L Stanford, Suzanne Kolb, Sarah Holt, Beatrice Knudsen, Antonio Hurtado Coll, Susan M Gapstur, W Ryan Diver, Victoria L Stevens, Christiane Maier, Manuel Luedeke, Kathleen Herkommer, Antje E Rinckleb, Sara S Strom, Curtis Pettaway, Edward D Yeboah, Yao Tettey, Richard B Biritwum, Andrew A Adjei, Evelyn Tay, Ann Truelove, Shelley Niwa, Anand P Chokkalingam, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Cezary Cybulski, Dominika Wokołorczyk, Wojciech Kluźniak, Jong Park, Thomas Sellers, Hui-Yi Lin, William B Isaacs, Alan W Partin, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Christa Stegmaier, Constance Chen, Edward L Giovannucci, Jing Ma, Meir Stampfer, Kathryn L Penney, Lorelei Mucci, Esther M John, Sue A Ingles, Rick A Kittles, Adam B Murphy, Hardev Pandha, Agnieszka Michael, Andrzej M Kierzek, William Blot, Lisa B Signorello, Wei Zheng, Demetrius Albanes, Jarmo Virtamo, Stephanie Weinstein, Barbara Nemesure, John Carpten, Cristina Leske, Suh-Yuh Wu, Anselm Hennis, Adam S Kibel, Benjamin A Rybicki, Christine Neslund-Dudas, Ann W Hsing, Lisa Chu, Phyllis J Goodman, Eric A Klein, S Lilly Zheng, Jyotsna Batra, Judith Clements, Amanda Spurdle, Manuel R Teixeira, Paula Paulo, Sofia Maia, Chavdar Slavov, Radka Kaneva, Vanio Mitev, John S Witte, Graham Casey, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Daniella Seminara, Elio Riboli, Freddie C Hamdy, Gerhard A Coetzee, Qiyuan Li, Matthew L Freedman, David J Hunter, Kenneth Muir, Henrik Grönberg, David E Neal, Melissa Southey, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, , Michael B Cook, Hidewaki Nakagawa, Fredrik Wiklund, Peter Kraft, Stephen J Chanock, Brian E Henderson, Douglas F Easton, Rosalind A Eeles, Christopher A Haiman.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease.
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Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in nonsmoking men and women.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Little is known about the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in nonsmokers who are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Previous research on NHL and ETS has not included men or examined doses of ETS exposure during childhood. The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort collected information on smoking habits and exposure to ETS during childhood and adulthood. Among 61,326 never-smoking men and women, 884 incident cases of NHL were identified between 1992 and 2009. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression to identify associations between ETS and NHL risk. Compared with no exposure to ETS as a child or an adult, childhood and/or adult ETS exposure was not associated with NHL overall. There was a positive association between the number of smokers in the house as a child (P for trend = 0.05) and exposure to 6 or more hours per week of ETS as an adult (relative risk = 2.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 5.04) with follicular lymphoma risk. Adult ETS exposure was associated with a lower risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (relative risk = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 0.97). This study suggests that adult and childhood ETS exposure may affect the risk of NHL, and that the associations differ by histological subtype.
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Circadian disruption and fatal ovarian cancer.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The International Agency for Research on Cancer determination that shift work is a "probable" human carcinogen was based primarily on studies of breast cancer but it was also noted that additional aspects of circadian disruption and other cancer sites deserved further research.
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Work schedule, sleep duration, insomnia, and risk of fatal prostate cancer.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Studies of breast cancer in women and laboratory studies provide evidence that shift work involving circadian rhythm disruption is a probable human carcinogen. However, evidence linking shift work and other circadian disruption factors to prostate cancer risk is limited.
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An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking.
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Prostate cancer (PCa) risk variants and risk of fatal PCa in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is hampered by an inability to predict who has the potential to develop fatal disease and who has indolent cancer. Studies have identified multiple genetic risk loci for PCa incidence, but it is unknown whether they could be used as biomarkers for PCa-specific mortality (PCSM).
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A genome-wide "pleiotropy scan" does not identify new susceptibility loci for estrogen receptor negative breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Approximately 15-30% of all breast cancer tumors are estrogen receptor negative (ER-). Compared with ER-positive (ER+) disease they have an earlier age at onset and worse prognosis. Despite the vast number of risk variants identified for numerous cancer types, only seven loci have been unambiguously identified for ER-negative breast cancer. With the aim of identifying new susceptibility SNPs for this disease we performed a pleiotropic genome-wide association study (GWAS). We selected 3079 SNPs associated with a human complex trait or disease at genome-wide significance level (P<5 × 10(-8)) to perform a secondary analysis of an ER-negative GWAS from the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), including 1998 cases and 2305 controls from prospective studies. We then tested the top ten associations (i.e. with the lowest P-values) using three additional populations with a total sample size of 3509 ER+ cases, 2543 ER- cases and 7031 healthy controls. None of the 3079 selected variants in the BPC3 ER-GWAS were significant at the adjusted threshold. 186 variants were associated with ER- breast cancer risk at a conventional threshold of P<0.05, with P-values ranging from 0.049 to 2.3 × 10(-4). None of the variants reached statistical significance in the replication phase. In conclusion, this study did not identify any novel susceptibility loci for ER-breast cancer using a "pleiotropic approach".
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Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with bladder cancer risk.
Jonine D Figueroa, Yuanqing Ye, Afshan Siddiq, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Victoria K Cortessis, Charles Kooperberg, Olivier Cussenot, Simone Benhamou, Jennifer Prescott, Stefano Porru, Colin P Dinney, Nuria Malats, Dalsu Baris, Mark Purdue, Eric J Jacobs, Demetrius Albanes, Zhaoming Wang, Xiang Deng, Charles C Chung, Wei Tang, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Börje Ljungberg, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Elisabete Weiderpass, Vittorio Krogh, Miren Dorronsoro, Ruth Travis, Anne Tjønneland, Paul Brenan, Jenny Chang-Claude, Elio Riboli, David Conti, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Mariana C Stern, Malcolm C Pike, David Van Den Berg, Jian-Min Yuan, Chancellor Hohensee, Rebecca Rodabough, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Morgan Rouprêt, Eva Compérat, Constance Chen, Immaculata De Vivo, Edward Giovannucci, David J Hunter, Peter Kraft, Sara Lindstrom, Angela Carta, Sofia Pavanello, Cecilia Arici, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Ashish M Kamat, Seth P Lerner, H Barton Grossman, Jie Lin, Jian Gu, Xia Pu, Amy Hutchinson, Laurie Burdette, William Wheeler, Manolis Kogevinas, Adonina Tardón, Consol Serra, Alfredo Carrato, Reina Garcia-Closas, Josep Lloreta, Molly Schwenn, Margaret R Karagas, Alison Johnson, Alan Schned, Karla R Armenti, G M Hosain, Gerald Andriole, Robert Grubb, Amanda Black, W Ryan Diver, Susan M Gapstur, Stephanie J Weinstein, Jarmo Virtamo, Chris A Haiman, Maria T Landi, Neil Caporaso, Joseph F Fraumeni, Paolo Vineis, Xifeng Wu, Debra T Silverman, Stephen Chanock, Nathaniel Rothman.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 independent susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer risk. To discover additional risk variants, we conducted a new GWAS of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with two independently published bladder cancer GWAS, resulting in a combined analysis of 6911 cases and 11 814 controls of European descent. TaqMan genotyping of 13 promising single nucleotide polymorphisms with P < 1 × 10(-5) was pursued in a follow-up set of 801 cases and 1307 controls. Two new loci achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs10936599 on 3q26.2 (P = 4.53 × 10(-9)) and rs907611 on 11p15.5 (P = 4.11 × 10(-8)). Two notable loci were also identified that approached genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 on 20p12.2 (P = 7.13 × 10(-7)) and rs4510656 on 6p22.3 (P = 6.98 × 10(-7)); these require further studies for confirmation. In conclusion, our study has identified new susceptibility alleles for bladder cancer risk that require fine-mapping and laboratory investigation, which could further understanding into the biological underpinnings of bladder carcinogenesis.
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Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Sonja I Berndt, Christine F Skibola, Vijai Joseph, Nicola J Camp, Alexandra Nieters, Zhaoming Wang, Wendy Cozen, Alain Monnereau, Sophia S Wang, Rachel S Kelly, Qing Lan, Lauren R Teras, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Charles C Chung, Meredith Yeager, Angela R Brooks-Wilson, Patricia Hartge, Mark P Purdue, Brenda M Birmann, Bruce K Armstrong, Pierluigi Cocco, Yawei Zhang, Gianluca Severi, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Charles Lawrence, Laurie Burdette, Jeffrey Yuenger, Amy Hutchinson, Kevin B Jacobs, Timothy G Call, Tait D Shanafelt, Anne J Novak, Neil E Kay, Mark Liebow, Alice H Wang, Karin E Smedby, Hans-Olov Adami, Mads Melbye, Bengt Glimelius, Ellen T Chang, Martha Glenn, Karen Curtin, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, Brandt Jones, W Ryan Diver, Brian K Link, George J Weiner, Lucia Conde, Paige M Bracci, Jacques Riby, Elizabeth A Holly, Martyn T Smith, Rebecca D Jackson, Lesley F Tinker, Yolanda Benavente, Nikolaus Becker, Paolo Boffetta, Paul Brennan, Lenka Foretova, Marc Maynadié, James McKay, Anthony Staines, Kari G Rabe, Sara J Achenbach, Celine M Vachon, Lynn R Goldin, Sara S Strom, Mark C Lanasa, Logan G Spector, Jose F Leis, Julie M Cunningham, J Brice Weinberg, Vicki A Morrison, Neil E Caporaso, Aaron D Norman, Martha S Linet, Anneclaire J De Roos, Lindsay M Morton, Richard K Severson, Elio Riboli, Paolo Vineis, Rudolph Kaaks, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Giovanna Masala, Elisabete Weiderpass, Maria-Dolores Chirlaque, Roel C H Vermeulen, Ruth C Travis, Graham G Giles, Demetrius Albanes, Jarmo Virtamo, Stephanie Weinstein, Jacqueline Clavel, Tongzhang Zheng, Theodore R Holford, Kenneth Offit, Andrew Zelenetz, Robert J Klein, John J Spinelli, Kimberly A Bertrand, Francine Laden, Edward Giovannucci, Peter Kraft, Anne Kricker, Jenny Turner, Claire M Vajdic, Maria Grazia Ennas, Giovanni M Ferri, Lucia Miligi, Liming Liang, Joshua Sampson, Simon Crouch, Ju-Hyun Park, Kari E North, Angela Cox, John A Snowden, Josh Wright, Angel Carracedo, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Sílvia Beà, Itziar Salaverria, David Martín-Garcia, Elias Campo, Joseph F Fraumeni, Silvia de Sanjosé, Henrik Hjalgrim, James R Cerhan, Stephen J Chanock, Nathaniel Rothman, Susan L Slager.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have previously identified 13 loci associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL). To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted the largest meta-analysis for CLL thus far, including four GWAS with a total of 3,100 individuals with CLL (cases) and 7,667 controls. In the meta-analysis, we identified ten independent associated SNPs in nine new loci at 10q23.31 (ACTA2 or FAS (ACTA2/FAS), P=1.22×10(-14)), 18q21.33 (BCL2, P=7.76×10(-11)), 11p15.5 (C11orf21, P=2.15×10(-10)), 4q25 (LEF1, P=4.24×10(-10)), 2q33.1 (CASP10 or CASP8 (CASP10/CASP8), P=2.50×10(-9)), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B-AS1, P=1.27×10(-8)), 18q21.32 (PMAIP1, P=2.51×10(-8)), 15q15.1 (BMF, P=2.71×10(-10)) and 2p22.2 (QPCT, P=1.68×10(-8)), as well as an independent signal at an established locus (2q13, ACOXL, P=2.08×10(-18)). We also found evidence for two additional promising loci below genome-wide significance at 8q22.3 (ODF1, P=5.40×10(-8)) and 5p15.33 (TERT, P=1.92×10(-7)). Although further studies are required, the proximity of several of these loci to genes involved in apoptosis suggests a plausible underlying biological mechanism.
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Common genetic polymorphisms modify the effect of smoking on absolute risk of bladder cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Bladder cancer results from the combined effects of environmental and genetic factors, smoking being the strongest risk factor. Evaluating absolute risks resulting from the joint effects of smoking and genetic factors is critical to assess the public health relevance of genetic information. Analyses included up to 3,942 cases and 5,680 controls of European background in seven studies. We tested for multiplicative and additive interactions between smoking and 12 susceptibility loci, individually and combined as a polygenic risk score (PRS). Thirty-year absolute risks and risk differences by levels of the PRS were estimated for U.S. males aged 50 years. Six of 12 variants showed significant additive gene-environment interactions, most notably NAT2 (P = 7 × 10(-4)) and UGT1A6 (P = 8 × 10(-4)). The 30-year absolute risk of bladder cancer in U.S. males was 6.2% for all current smokers. This risk ranged from 2.9% for current smokers in the lowest quartile of the PRS to 9.9% for current smokers in the upper quartile. Risk difference estimates indicated that 8,200 cases would be prevented if elimination of smoking occurred in 100,000 men in the upper PRS quartile compared with 2,000 cases prevented by a similar effort in the lowest PRS quartile (P(additive) = 1 × 10(-4)). Thus, the potential impact of eliminating smoking on the number of bladder cancer cases prevented is larger for individuals at higher than lower genetic risk. Our findings could have implications for targeted prevention strategies. However, other smoking-related diseases, as well as practical and ethical considerations, need to be considered before any recommendations could be made.
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Active smoking and breast cancer risk: original cohort data and meta-analysis.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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The relationship between active cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk remains controversial because of unresolved issues of confounding and dose response.
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Insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and blood concentrations, dietary protein and risk of prostate cancer in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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It has been hypothesized that a high intake of dairy protein may increase prostate cancer risk by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been weakly associated with circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), but none of these SNPs was associated with risk of prostate cancer. We examined whether an association between 16 SNPs associated with circulating IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 concentrations and prostate cancer exists within subgroups defined by dietary protein intake in 5,253 cases and 4,963 controls of European ancestry within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The BPC3 includes nested case-control studies within large North-American and European cohorts. Per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for the SNPs were compared across tertiles of protein intake, which was expressed as the percentage of energy derived from total, animal, dairy or plant protein sources, using conditional logistic regression models. Total, animal, dairy and plant protein intakes were significantly positively associated with blood IGF-1 (p??0.10) or with risk of prostate cancer (p?>?0.20). After adjusting for multiple testing, the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by intakes of protein, although two interactions by intake of plant protein were of marginal statistical significance [SSTR5 (somatostatin receptor 5)-rs197056 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.001); SSTR5-rs197057 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.002)]. We found no strong evidence that the associations between 16 IGF pathway SNPs and prostate cancer differed by intakes of dietary protein.
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Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci.
Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Fergus J Couch, Sara Lindstrom, Kyriaki Michailidou, Marjanka K Schmidt, Mark N Brook, Nick Orr, Suhn Kyong Rhie, Elio Riboli, Heather S Feigelson, Loic Le Marchand, Julie E Buring, Diana Eccles, Penelope Miron, Peter A Fasching, Hiltrud Brauch, Jenny Chang-Claude, Jane Carpenter, Andrew K Godwin, Heli Nevanlinna, Graham G Giles, Angela Cox, John L Hopper, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Joe Dennis, Ed Dicks, Will J Howat, Nils Schoof, Stig E Bojesen, Diether Lambrechts, Annegien Broeks, Irene L Andrulis, Pascal Guénel, Barbara Burwinkel, Elinor J Sawyer, Antoinette Hollestelle, Olivia Fletcher, Robert Winqvist, Hermann Brenner, Arto Mannermaa, Ute Hamann, Alfons Meindl, Annika Lindblom, Wei Zheng, Peter Devillee, Mark S Goldberg, Jan Lubiński, Vessela Kristensen, Anthony Swerdlow, Hoda Anton-Culver, Thilo Dörk, Kenneth Muir, Keitaro Matsuo, Anna H Wu, Paolo Radice, Soo Hwang Teo, Xiao-Ou Shu, William Blot, Daehee Kang, Mikael Hartman, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Chen-Yang Shen, Melissa C Southey, Daniel J Park, Fleur Hammet, Jennifer Stone, Laura J Van't Veer, Emiel J Rutgers, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Julian Peto, Michael G Schrauder, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Nichola Johnson, Helen Warren, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Federick Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Thérèse Truong, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Pierre Kerbrat, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Roger L Milne, Jose Ignacio Arias Perez, Primitiva Menéndez, Heiko Muller, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Peter Lichtner, Magdalena Lochmann, Christina Justenhoven, Yon-Dschun Ko, , Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Dario Greco, Tuomas Heikkinen, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Yasushi Yatabe, Natalia N Antonenkova, Sara Margolin, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Rosemary Balleine, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Patrick Neven, Anne-Sophie Dieudonné, Karin Leunen, Anja Rudolph, Stefan Nickels, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernard Peissel, Loris Bernard, Janet E Olson, Xianshu Wang, Kristen Stevens, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Catriona McLean, Gerhard A Coetzee, Ye Feng, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Natalia V Bogdanova, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Cheng Har Yip, Nur Aishah Mohd Taib, Ching-Yu Cheng, Martha Shrubsole, Jirong Long, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Saila Kauppila, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Anna Marie Mulligan, Robertus A E M Tollenaar, Caroline M Seynaeve, Mieke Kriege, Maartje J Hooning, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Carolien H M van Deurzen, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Hui Cai, Sabapathy P Balasubramanian, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Lisa Signorello, Qiuyin Cai, Mitul Shah, Hui Miao, Ching Wan Chan, Kee Seng Chia, Anna Jakubowska, Katarzyna Jaworska, Katarzyna Durda, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Pei-Ei Wu, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Alan Ashworth, Michael Jones, Daniel C Tessier, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Christine B Ambrosone, Elisa V Bandera, Esther M John, Gary K Chen, Jennifer J Hu, Jorge L Rodriguez-Gil, Leslie Bernstein, Michael F Press, Regina G Ziegler, Robert M Millikan, Sandra L Deming-Halverson, Sarah Nyante, Sue A Ingles, Quinten Waisfisz, Helen Tsimiklis, Enes Makalic, Daniel Schmidt, Minh Bui, Lorna Gibson, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Rita K Schmutzler, Rebecca Hein, Norbert Dahmen, Lars Beckmann, Kirsimari Aaltonen, Kamila Czene, Astrid Irwanto, Jianjun Liu, Clare Turnbull, Nazneen Rahman, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, André G Uitterlinden, Fernando Rivadeneira, Curtis Olswold, Susan Slager, Robert Pilarski, Foluso Ademuyiwa, Irene Konstantopoulou, Nicholas G Martin, Grant W Montgomery, Dennis J Slamon, Claudia Rauh, Michael P Lux, Sebastian M Jud, Thomas Brüning, Joellen Weaver, Priyanka Sharma, Harsh Pathak, Will Tapper, Sue Gerty, Lorraine Durcan, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Rosario Tumino, Petra H Peeters, Rudolf Kaaks, Daniele Campa, Federico Canzian, Elisabete Weiderpass, Mattias Johansson, Kay-Tee Khaw, Ruth Travis, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Laurence N Kolonel, Constance Chen, Andy Beck, Susan E Hankinson, Christine D Berg, Robert N Hoover, Jolanta Lissowska, Jonine D Figueroa, Daniel I Chasman, Mia M Gaudet, W Ryan Diver, Walter C Willett, David J Hunter, Jacques Simard, Javier Benitez, Alison M Dunning, Mark E Sherman, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Stephen J Chanock, Per Hall, Paul D P Pharoah, Celine Vachon, Douglas F Easton, Christopher A Haiman, Peter Kraft.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers.
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Identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array.
Rosalind A Eeles, Ali Amin Al Olama, Sara Benlloch, Edward J Saunders, Daniel A Leongamornlert, Malgorzata Tymrakiewicz, Maya Ghoussaini, Craig Luccarini, Joe Dennis, Sarah Jugurnauth-Little, Tokhir Dadaev, David E Neal, Freddie C Hamdy, Jenny L Donovan, Ken Muir, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Fredrik Wiklund, Henrik Grönberg, Christopher A Haiman, Fredrick Schumacher, Brian E Henderson, Loic Le Marchand, Sara Lindstrom, Peter Kraft, David J Hunter, Susan Gapstur, Stephen J Chanock, Sonja I Berndt, Demetrius Albanes, Gerald Andriole, Johanna Schleutker, Maren Weischer, Federico Canzian, Elio Riboli, Tim J Key, Ruth C Travis, Daniele Campa, Sue A Ingles, Esther M John, Richard B Hayes, Paul D P Pharoah, Nora Pashayan, Kay-Tee Khaw, Janet L Stanford, Elaine A Ostrander, Lisa B Signorello, Stephen N Thibodeau, Dan Schaid, Christiane Maier, Walther Vogel, Adam S Kibel, Cezary Cybulski, Jan Lubiński, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Hermann Brenner, Jong Y Park, Radka Kaneva, Jyotsna Batra, Amanda B Spurdle, Judith A Clements, Manuel R Teixeira, Ed Dicks, Andrew Lee, Alison M Dunning, Caroline Baynes, Don Conroy, Melanie J Maranian, Shahana Ahmed, Koveela Govindasami, Michelle Guy, Rosemary A Wilkinson, Emma J Sawyer, Angela Morgan, David P Dearnaley, Alan Horwich, Robert A Huddart, Vincent S Khoo, Christopher C Parker, Nicholas J Van As, Christopher J Woodhouse, Alan Thompson, Tim Dudderidge, Chris Ogden, Colin S Cooper, Artitaya Lophatananon, Angela Cox, Melissa C Southey, John L Hopper, Dallas R English, Markus Aly, Jan Adolfsson, Jiangfeng Xu, Siqun L Zheng, Meredith Yeager, Rudolf Kaaks, W Ryan Diver, Mia M Gaudet, Mariana C Stern, Román Corral, Amit D Joshi, Ahva Shahabi, Tiina Wahlfors, Teuvo L J Tammela, Anssi Auvinen, Jarmo Virtamo, Peter Klarskov, Børge G Nordestgaard, M Andreas Røder, Sune F Nielsen, Stig E Bojesen, Afshan Siddiq, Liesel M Fitzgerald, Suzanne Kolb, Erika M Kwon, Danielle M Karyadi, William J Blot, Wei Zheng, Qiuyin Cai, Shannon K McDonnell, Antje E Rinckleb, Bettina Drake, Graham Colditz, Dominika Wokolorczyk, Robert A Stephenson, Craig Teerlink, Heiko Muller, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Thomas A Sellers, Hui-Yi Lin, Chavdar Slavov, Vanio Mitev, Felicity Lose, Srilakshmi Srinivasan, Sofia Maia, Paula Paulo, Ethan Lange, Kathleen A Cooney, Antonis C Antoniou, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Daniel C Tessier, , Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Douglas F Easton.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Twenty-three new prostate cancer susceptibility loci were identified at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). More than 70 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, explaining ?30% of the familial risk for this disease, have now been identified. On the basis of combined risks conferred by the new and previously known risk loci, the top 1% of the risk distribution has a 4.7-fold higher risk than the average of the population being profiled. These results will facilitate population risk stratification for clinical studies.
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Body mass index, height and risk of lymphoid neoplasms in a large United States cohort.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Results from epidemiologic studies examining associations between body size and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are inconsistent, and etiology may vary by histologic subtype of disease. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for associations of body mass index (BMI) and height with NHL in the prospective American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. From 1992 to 2007, 2074 incident cases of NHL were identified among 152 423 men and women. Obese individuals (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2)) had 23% higher incidence of NHL (95% CI 1.08-1.40) compared to those with normal weight (BMI 18.5-< 25 kg/m(2)). Height was positively associated with NHL (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.10-1.43, sex-specific quintile 5 vs. 1). BMI associations were strongest for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Height was most strongly associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and to a lesser extent with multiple myeloma. These findings provide further evidence that body size may play a role in the etiology of NHL, which is of public health importance given the rapid rise in obesity worldwide.
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Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Few large prospective studies have examined associations between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We examined the association between NSAID use and NHL incidence among 149,570 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition cohort. Aspirin and nonaspirin NSAID use were reported at enrollment in 1992 and updated on periodic follow-up questionnaires. During follow-up through 2007, 1,709 incident NHLs were identified. Time-dependent hazard ratios were calculated using extended Cox regression. Compared to no use, current use of 60+ NSAID pills/month (aspirin and nonaspirin NSAIDs combined) was associated with slightly higher NHL incidence (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.53), but no association with frequency of use was observed when NSAID exposure was lagged by approximately 2 years (HR = 1.08, 95% CI, 0.88-1.32). Long duration regular use (current use of 30+ pills/month for ?5 years) was not associated with NHL incidence (HR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.91-1.33). In subtype analyses, current use of 60+ NSAID pills/month was associated with follicular lymphoma incidence (HR = 1.87, 95% CI, 1.08-3.24). This association persisted when NSAID exposure was lagged (HR = 1.76, 95% CI, 1.04-2.98) and was similar for aspirin and nonaspirin NSAIDs. The association of current, but not lagged, NSAID use with risk of all NHL could be attributable to use of NSAIDs to relieve symptoms of undiagnosed NHL. However, the association with follicular lymphoma persisted in analyses where NSAID use was lagged and should be investigated further. These findings are particularly important for aspirin as the risks and benefits of prophylactic daily use are weighed.
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The chromosome 2p21 region harbors a complex genetic architecture for association with risk for renal cell carcinoma.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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In follow-up of a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) that identified a locus in chromosome 2p21 associated with risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we conducted a fine mapping analysis of a 120 kb region that includes EPAS1. We genotyped 59 tagged common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2278 RCC and 3719 controls of European background and observed a novel signal for rs9679290 [P = 5.75 × 10(-8), per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-1.39]. Imputation of common SNPs surrounding rs9679290 using HapMap 3 and 1000 Genomes data yielded two additional signals, rs4953346 (P = 4.09 × 10(-14)) and rs12617313 (P = 7.48 × 10(-12)), both highly correlated with rs9679290 (r(2) > 0.95), but interestingly not correlated with the two SNPs reported in the GWAS: rs11894252 and rs7579899 (r(2) < 0.1 with rs9679290). Genotype analysis of rs12617313 confirmed an association with RCC risk (P = 1.72 × 10(-9), per-allele OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.39) In conclusion, we report that chromosome 2p21 harbors a complex genetic architecture for common RCC risk variants.
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Replication of five prostate cancer loci identified in an Asian population--results from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of prostate cancer in a Japanese population identified five novel regions not previously discovered in other ethnicities. In this study, we attempt to replicate these five loci in a series of nested prostate cancer case-control studies of European ancestry.
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A genome-wide association study identifies a novel susceptibility locus for renal cell carcinoma on 12p11.23.
Xifeng Wu, Ghislaine Scelo, Mark P Purdue, Nathaniel Rothman, Mattias Johansson, Yuanqing Ye, Zhaoming Wang, Diana Zelenika, Lee E Moore, Christopher G Wood, Egor Prokhortchouk, Valerie Gaborieau, Kevin B Jacobs, Wong-Ho Chow, Jorge R Toro, David Zaridze, Jie Lin, Jan Lubiński, Joanna Trubicka, Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Jolanta Lissowska, Peter Rudnai, Eleonóra Fabiánová, Dana Mates, Viorel Jinga, Vladimír Bencko, Alena Slamova, Ivana Holcatova, Marie Navratilova, Vladimir Janout, Paolo Boffetta, Joanne S Colt, Faith G Davis, Kendra L Schwartz, Rosamonde E Banks, Peter J Selby, Patricia Harnden, Christine D Berg, Ann W Hsing, Robert L Grubb, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Vineis, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Vittorio Krogh, Salvatore Panico, Eric J Duell, José Ramón Quirós, Maria-Jose Sanchez, Carmen Navarro, Eva Ardanaz, Miren Dorronsoro, Kay-Tee Khaw, Naomi E Allen, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H M Peeters, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Jakob Linseisen, Börje Ljungberg, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Isabelle Romieu, Elio Riboli, Victoria L Stevens, Michael J Thun, W Ryan Diver, Susan M Gapstur, Paul D Pharoah, Douglas F Easton, Demetrius Albanes, Jarmo Virtamo, Lars Vatten, Kristian Hveem, Tony Fletcher, Kvetoslava Koppova, Olivier Cussenot, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Simone Benhamou, Michelle A Hildebrandt, Xia Pu, Mario Foglio, Doris Lechner, Amy Hutchinson, Meredith Yeager, Joseph F Fraumeni, Mark Lathrop, Konstantin G Skryabin, James D McKay, Jian Gu, Paul Brennan, Stephen J Chanock.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal urologic cancer. Only two common susceptibility loci for RCC have been confirmed to date. To identify additional RCC common susceptibility loci, we conducted an independent genome-wide association study (GWAS). We analyzed 533 191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with RCC in 894 cases and 1516 controls of European descent recruited from MD Anderson Cancer Center in the primary scan, and validated the top 500 SNPs in silico in 3772 cases and 8505 controls of European descent involved in the only published GWAS of RCC. We identified two common variants in linkage disequilibrium, rs718314 and rs1049380 (r(2) = 0.64, D? = 0.84), in the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, type 2 (ITPR2) gene on 12p11.23 as novel susceptibility loci for RCC (P = 8.89 × 10(-10) and P = 6.07 × 10(-9), respectively, in meta-analysis) with an allelic odds ratio of 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.26] for rs718314 and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12-1.25) for rs1049380. It has been recently identified that rs718314 in ITPR2 is associated with waist-hip ratio (WHR) phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic locus associated with both cancer risk and WHR.
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A genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies a new susceptibility locus within SLC14A1, a urea transporter gene on chromosome 18q12.3.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Genome-wide and candidate-gene association studies of bladder cancer have identified 10 susceptibility loci thus far. We conducted a meta-analysis of two previously published genome-wide scans (4501 cases and 6076 controls of European background) and followed up the most significant association signals [17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 genomic regions] in 1382 cases and 2201 controls from four studies. A combined analysis adjusted for study center, age, sex, and smoking status identified a novel susceptibility locus that mapped to a region of 18q12.3, marked by rs7238033 (P = 8.7 × 10(-9); allelic odds ratio 1.20 with 95% CI: 1.13-1.28) and two highly correlated SNPs, rs10775480/rs10853535 (r(2)= 1.00; P = 8.9 × 10(-9); allelic odds ratio 1.16 with 95% CI: 1.10-1.22). The signal localizes to the solute carrier family 14 member 1 gene, SLC14A1, a urea transporter that regulates cellular osmotic pressure. In the kidney, SLC14A1 regulates urine volume and concentration whereas in erythrocytes it determines the Kidd blood groups. Our findings suggest that genetic variation in SLC14A1 could provide new etiological insights into bladder carcinogenesis.
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Genome-wide association study identifies new prostate cancer susceptibility loci.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most common non-skin cancer diagnosed among males in developed countries and the second leading cause of cancer mortality, yet little is known regarding its etiology and factors that influence clinical outcome. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of PrCa have identified at least 30 distinct loci associated with small differences in risk. We conducted a GWAS in 2782 advanced PrCa cases (Gleason grade ? 8 or tumor stage C/D) and 4458 controls with 571 243 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Based on in silico replication of 4679 SNPs (Stage 1, P < 0.02) in two published GWAS with 7358 PrCa cases and 6732 controls, we identified a new susceptibility locus associated with overall PrCa risk at 2q37.3 (rs2292884, P= 4.3 × 10(-8)). We also confirmed a locus suggested by an earlier GWAS at 12q13 (rs902774, P= 8.6 × 10(-9)). The estimated per-allele odds ratios for these loci (1.14 for rs2292884 and 1.17 for rs902774) did not differ between advanced and non-advanced PrCa (case-only test for heterogeneity P= 0.72 and P= 0.61, respectively). Further studies will be needed to assess whether these or other loci are differentially associated with PrCa subtypes.
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Fine mapping of 14q24.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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In the National Cancer Institute Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) genome-wide association study of breast cancer, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker, rs999737, in the 14q24.1 interval, was associated with breast cancer risk. In order to fine map this region, we imputed a 3.93 MB region flanking rs999737 for Stages 1 and 2 of the CGEMS study (5,692 cases, 5,576 controls) using the combined reference panels of the HapMap 3 and the 1000 Genomes Project. Single-marker association testing and variable-sized sliding-window haplotype analysis were performed, and for both analyses the initial tagging SNP rs999737 retained the strongest association with breast cancer risk. Investigation of contiguous regions did not reveal evidence for an additional independent signal. Therefore, we conclude that rs999737 is an optimal tag SNP for common variants in the 14q24.1 region and thus narrow the candidate variants that should be investigated in follow-up laboratory evaluation.
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Large-scale fine mapping of the HNF1B locus and prostate cancer risk.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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Previous genome-wide association studies have identified two independent variants in HNF1B as susceptibility loci for prostate cancer risk. To fine-map common genetic variation in this region, we genotyped 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 17q12 region harboring HNF1B in 10 272 prostate cancer cases and 9123 controls of European ancestry from 10 case-control studies as part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. Ten SNPs were significantly related to prostate cancer risk at a genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10(-8) with the most significant association with rs4430796 (P = 1.62 × 10(-24)). However, risk within this first locus was not entirely explained by rs4430796. Although modestly correlated (r(2)= 0.64), rs7405696 was also associated with risk (P = 9.35 × 10(-23)) even after adjustment for rs4430769 (P = 0.007). As expected, rs11649743 was related to prostate cancer risk (P = 3.54 × 10(-8)); however, the association within this second locus was stronger for rs4794758 (P = 4.95 × 10(-10)), which explained all of the risk observed with rs11649743 when both SNPs were included in the same model (P = 0.32 for rs11649743; P = 0.002 for rs4794758). Sequential conditional analyses indicated that five SNPs (rs4430796, rs7405696, rs4794758, rs1016990 and rs3094509) together comprise the best model for risk in this region. This study demonstrates a complex relationship between variants in the HNF1B region and prostate cancer risk. Further studies are needed to investigate the biological basis of the association of variants in 17q12 with prostate cancer.
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Fine mapping of a region of chromosome 11q13 reveals multiple independent loci associated with risk of prostate cancer.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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Genome-wide association studies have identified prostate cancer susceptibility alleles on chromosome 11q13. As part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) Initiative, the region flanking the most significant marker, rs10896449, was fine mapped in 10 272 cases and 9123 controls of European origin (10 studies) using 120 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected by a two-staged tagging strategy using HapMap SNPs. Single-locus analysis identified 18 SNPs below genome-wide significance (P< 10(-8)) with rs10896449 the most significant (P= 7.94 × 10(-19)). Multi-locus models that included significant SNPs sequentially identified a second association at rs12793759 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, P= 4.76 × 10(-5), adjusted P= 0.004] that is independent of rs10896449 and remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing within the region. rs10896438, a proxy of previously reported rs12418451 (r(2)= 0.96), independent of both rs10896449 and rs12793759 was detected (OR = 1.07, P= 5.92 × 10(-3), adjusted P= 0.054). Our observation of a recombination hotspot that separates rs10896438 from rs10896449 and rs12793759, and low linkage disequilibrium (rs10896449-rs12793759, r(2)= 0.17; rs10896449-rs10896438, r(2)= 0.10; rs12793759-rs10896438, r(2)= 0.12) corroborate our finding of three independent signals. By analysis of tagged SNPs across ?123 kb using next generation sequencing of 63 controls of European origin, 1000 Genome and HapMap data, we observed multiple surrogates for the three independent signals marked by rs10896449 (n= 31), rs10896438 (n= 24) and rs12793759 (n= 8). Our results indicate that a complex architecture underlying the common variants contributing to prostate cancer risk at 11q13. We estimate that at least 63 common variants should be considered in future studies designed to investigate the biological basis of the multiple association signals.
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Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2) approximately 0.8). More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain approximately10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results for adult height in 20,427 individuals of African ancestry with replication in up to 16,436 African Americans. We found two novel height loci (Xp22-rs12393627, P?=?3.4×10(-12) and 2p14-rs4315565, P?=?1.2×10(-8)). As a group, height associations discovered in European-ancestry samples replicate in individuals of African ancestry (P?=?1.7×10(-4) for overall replication). Fine-mapping of the European height loci in African-ancestry individuals showed an enrichment of SNPs that are associated with expression of nearby genes when compared to the index European height SNPs (P<0.01). Our results highlight the utility of genetic studies in non-European populations to understand the etiology of complex human diseases and traits.
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Characterizing genetic risk at known prostate cancer susceptibility loci in African Americans.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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GWAS of prostate cancer have been remarkably successful in revealing common genetic variants and novel biological pathways that are linked with its etiology. A more complete understanding of inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer in the general population will come from continuing such discovery efforts and from testing known risk alleles in diverse racial and ethnic groups. In this large study of prostate cancer in African American men (3,425 prostate cancer cases and 3,290 controls), we tested 49 risk variants located in 28 genomic regions identified through GWAS in men of European and Asian descent, and we replicated associations (at p?0.05) with roughly half of these markers. Through fine-mapping, we identified nearby markers in many regions that better define associations in African Americans. At 8q24, we found 9 variants (p?6×10(-4)) that best capture risk of prostate cancer in African Americans, many of which are more common in men of African than European descent. The markers found to be associated with risk at each locus improved risk modeling in African Americans (per allele OR?=?1.17) over the alleles reported in the original GWAS (OR?=?1.08). In summary, in this detailed analysis of the prostate cancer risk loci reported from GWAS, we have validated and improved upon markers of risk in some regions that better define the association with prostate cancer in African Americans. Our findings with variants at 8q24 also reinforce the importance of this region as a major risk locus for prostate cancer in men of African ancestry.
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Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study.
Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Ali Amin Al Olama, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Johanna Schleutker, Maren Weischer, Daniele Campa, Elio Riboli, Tim Key, Henrik Grönberg, David J Hunter, Peter Kraft, Michael J Thun, Sue Ingles, Stephen Chanock, Demetrius Albanes, Richard B Hayes, David E Neal, Freddie C Hamdy, Jenny L Donovan, Paul Pharoah, Fredrick Schumacher, Brian E Henderson, Janet L Stanford, Elaine A Ostrander, Karina Dalsgaard Sorensen, Thilo Dörk, Gerald Andriole, Joanne L Dickinson, Cezary Cybulski, Jan Lubiński, Amanda Spurdle, Judith A Clements, Suzanne Chambers, Joanne Aitken, R A Frank Gardiner, Stephen N Thibodeau, Dan Schaid, Esther M John, Christiane Maier, Walther Vogel, Kathleen A Cooney, Jong Y Park, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Hermann Brenner, Tomonori Habuchi, Hong-Wei Zhang, Yong-Jie Lu, Radka Kaneva, Ken Muir, Sara Benlloch, Daniel A Leongamornlert, Edward J Saunders, Malgorzata Tymrakiewicz, Nadiya Mahmud, Michelle Guy, Lynne T O'Brien, Rosemary A Wilkinson, Amanda L Hall, Emma J Sawyer, Tokhir Dadaev, Jonathan Morrison, David P Dearnaley, Alan Horwich, Robert A Huddart, Vincent S Khoo, Christopher C Parker, Nicholas van As, Christopher J Woodhouse, Alan Thompson, Tim Christmas, Chris Ogden, Colin S Cooper, Aritaya Lophatonanon, Melissa C Southey, John L Hopper, Dallas R English, Tiina Wahlfors, Teuvo L J Tammela, Peter Klarskov, Børge G Nordestgaard, M Andreas Røder, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen, Stig E Bojesen, Ruth Travis, Federico Canzian, Rudolf Kaaks, Fredrik Wiklund, Markus Aly, Sara Lindstrom, W Ryan Diver, Susan Gapstur, Mariana C Stern, Román Corral, Jarmo Virtamo, Angela Cox, Christopher A Haiman, Loic Le Marchand, Liesel Fitzgerald, Suzanne Kolb, Erika M Kwon, Danielle M Karyadi, Torben Falck Orntoft, Michael Borre, Andreas Meyer, Jürgen Serth, Meredith Yeager, Sonja I Berndt, James R Marthick, Briony Patterson, Dominika Wokolorczyk, Jyotsna Batra, Felicity Lose, Shannon K McDonnell, Amit D Joshi, Ahva Shahabi, Antje E Rinckleb, Ana Ray, Thomas A Sellers, Hui-Yi Lin, Robert A Stephenson, James Farnham, Heiko Muller, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Shintaro Narita, Guang-Wen Cao, Chavdar Slavov, Vanio Mitev, Douglas F Easton, Rosalind A Eeles, .
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results of stage 3, in which we evaluated 1,536 SNPs in 4,574 individuals with prostate cancer (cases) and 4,164 controls. We followed up ten new association signals through genotyping in 51,311 samples in 30 studies from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. In addition to replicating previously reported loci, we identified seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2p11, 3q23, 3q26, 5p12, 6p21, 12q13 and Xq12 (P = 4.0 × 10(-8) to P = 2.7 × 10(-24)). We also identified a SNP in TERT more strongly associated with PrCa than that previously reported. More than 40 PrCa susceptibility loci, explaining ?25% of the familial risk in this disease, have now been identified.
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Genome-wide association study of prostate cancer in men of African ancestry identifies a susceptibility locus at 17q21.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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In search of common risk alleles for prostate cancer that could contribute to high rates of the disease in men of African ancestry, we conducted a genome-wide association study, with 1,047,986 SNP markers examined in 3,425 African-Americans with prostate cancer (cases) and 3,290 African-American male controls. We followed up the most significant 17 new associations from stage 1 in 1,844 cases and 3,269 controls of African ancestry. We identified a new risk variant on chromosome 17q21 (rs7210100, odds ratio per allele = 1.51, P = 3.4 × 10(-13)). The frequency of the risk allele is ?5% in men of African descent, whereas it is rare in other populations (<1%). Further studies are needed to investigate the biological contribution of this allele to prostate cancer risk. These findings emphasize the importance of conducting genome-wide association studies in diverse populations.
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The landscape of recombination in African Americans.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P?value
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Characterizing associations and SNP-environment interactions for GWAS-identified prostate cancer risk markers--results from BPC3.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer risk. However, whether these associations can be consistently replicated, vary with disease aggressiveness (tumor stage and grade) and/or interact with non-genetic potential risk factors or other SNPs is unknown. We therefore genotyped 39 SNPs from regions identified by several prostate cancer GWAS in 10,501 prostate cancer cases and 10,831 controls from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). We replicated 36 out of 39 SNPs (P-values ranging from 0.01 to 10?²?). Two SNPs located near KLK3 associated with PSA levels showed differential association with Gleason grade (rs2735839, P?=?0.0001 and rs266849, P?=?0.0004; case-only test), where the alleles associated with decreasing PSA levels were inversely associated with low-grade (as defined by Gleason grade < 8) tumors but positively associated with high-grade tumors. No other SNP showed differential associations according to disease stage or grade. We observed no effect modification by SNP for association with age at diagnosis, family history of prostate cancer, diabetes, BMI, height, smoking or alcohol intake. Moreover, we found no evidence of pair-wise SNP-SNP interactions. While these SNPs represent new independent risk factors for prostate cancer, we saw little evidence for effect modification by other SNPs or by the environmental factors examined.
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Weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective cohort of overweight and obese US women.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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Overweight and obesity are associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk; however, it is unclear whether losing excess weight will lower risk. Therefore, we examined the relationship between weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer among 13,055 overweight and obese, cancer-free women who enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort in 1992. During the 15 year follow-up, 816 postmenopausal breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Self-reported weight was collected before diagnosis at baseline and 10 years prior to baseline. The median weight loss was 11 lbs, but only 58% of the women maintained this weight loss through the first 5 year follow-up interval (1992-1997). Using both restricted cubic splines and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, we observed no association between weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio for 30+ pounds of weight loss compared to stable weight was 0.95 (95%: CI 0.47-1.95). An inverse association was, however, suggested among women who maintained ten or more pounds of weight loss through the next interval. There was no evidence of effect modification by postmenopausal hormone use, initial BMI, or other factors examined. In summary, weight loss was not associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in this study. Future studies should focus on sustained weight loss and whether the timing of weight loss is important.
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Fine mapping the KLK3 locus on chromosome 19q13.33 associated with prostate cancer susceptibility and PSA levels.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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Measurements of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) protein levels form the basis for a widely used test to screen men for prostate cancer. Germline variants in the gene that encodes the PSA protein (KLK3) have been shown to be associated with both serum PSA levels and prostate cancer. Based on a resequencing analysis of a 56 kb region on chromosome 19q13.33, centered on the KLK3 gene, we fine mapped this locus by genotyping tag SNPs in 3,522 prostate cancer cases and 3,338 controls from five case-control studies. We did not observe a strong association with the KLK3 variant, reported in previous studies to confer risk for prostate cancer (rs2735839; P = 0.20) but did observe three highly correlated SNPs (rs17632542, rs62113212 and rs62113214) associated with prostate cancer [P = 3.41 × 10(-4), per-allele trend odds ratio (OR) = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.67-0.89]. The signal was apparent only for nonaggressive prostate cancer cases with Gleason score <7 and disease stage 8 or stage ?III (P = 0.31, per-allele trend OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.90-1.40). One of the three highly correlated SNPs, rs17632542, introduces a non-synonymous amino acid change in the KLK3 protein with a predicted benign or neutral functional impact. Baseline PSA levels were 43.7% higher in control subjects with no minor alleles (1.61 ng/ml, 95% CI = 1.49-1.72) than in those with one or more minor alleles at any one of the three SNPs (1.12 ng/ml, 95% CI = 0.96-1.28) (P = 9.70 × 10(-5)). Together our results suggest that germline KLK3 variants could influence the diagnosis of nonaggressive prostate cancer by influencing the likelihood of biopsy.
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Comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in 61 genes related to steroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I metabolism and breast cancer risk in the NCI breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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There is extensive evidence that increases in blood and tissue concentrations of steroid hormones and of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are associated with breast cancer risk. However, studies of common variation in genes involved in steroid hormone and IGF-I metabolism have yet to provide convincing evidence that such variants predict breast cancer risk. The Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) is a collaboration of large US and European cohorts. We genotyped 1416 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 37 steroid hormone metabolism genes and 24 IGF-I pathway genes in 6292 cases of breast cancer and 8135 controls, mostly Caucasian, postmenopausal women from the BPC3. We also imputed 3921 additional SNPs in the regions of interest. None of the SNPs tested was significantly associated with breast cancer risk, after correction for multiple comparisons. The results remained null when cases and controls were stratified by age at diagnosis/recruitment, advanced or nonadvanced disease, body mass index, with or without in situ cases; or restricted to Caucasians. Among 770 estrogen receptor-negative cases, an SNP located 3 of growth hormone receptor (GHR) was marginally associated with increased risk after correction for multiple testing (P(trend) = 1.5 × 10(-4)). We found no significant overall associations between breast cancer and common germline variation in 61 genes involved in steroid hormone and IGF-I metabolism in this large, comprehensive study. Although previous studies have shown that variations in these genes can influence endogenous hormone levels, the magnitude of the effect of single SNPs does not appear to be sufficient to alter breast cancer risk.
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Analysis of cohort studies with multivariate and partially observed disease classification data.
Biometrika
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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Complex diseases like cancers can often be classified into subtypes using various pathological and molecular traits of the disease. In this article, we develop methods for analysis of disease incidence in cohort studies incorporating data on multiple disease traits using a two-stage semiparametric Cox proportional hazards regression model that allows one to examine the heterogeneity in the effect of the covariates by the levels of the different disease traits. For inference in the presence of missing disease traits, we propose a generalization of an estimating equation approach for handling missing cause of failure in competing-risk data. We prove asymptotic unbiasedness of the estimating equation method under a general missing-at-random assumption and propose a novel influence-function-based sandwich variance estimator. The methods are illustrated using simulation studies and a real data application involving the Cancer Prevention Study II nutrition cohort.
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A multi-stage genome-wide association study of bladder cancer identifies multiple susceptibility loci.
Nathaniel Rothman, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Nuria Malats, Xifeng Wu, Jonine D Figueroa, Francisco X Real, David Van Den Berg, Giuseppe Matullo, Dalsu Baris, Michael Thun, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Paolo Vineis, Immaculata De Vivo, Demetrius Albanes, Mark P Purdue, Thorunn Rafnar, Michelle A T Hildebrandt, Anne E Kiltie, Olivier Cussenot, Klaus Golka, Rajiv Kumar, Jack A Taylor, Jose I Mayordomo, Kevin B Jacobs, Manolis Kogevinas, Amy Hutchinson, Zhaoming Wang, Yi-Ping Fu, Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Laurie Burdett, Meredith Yeager, William Wheeler, Adonina Tardón, Consol Serra, Alfredo Carrato, Reina Garcia-Closas, Josep Lloreta, Alison Johnson, Molly Schwenn, Margaret R Karagas, Alan Schned, Gerald Andriole, Robert Grubb, Amanda Black, Eric J Jacobs, W Ryan Diver, Susan M Gapstur, Stephanie J Weinstein, Jarmo Virtamo, Victoria K Cortessis, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Malcolm C Pike, Mariana C Stern, Jian-Min Yuan, David J Hunter, Monica McGrath, Colin P Dinney, Bogdan Czerniak, Meng Chen, Hushan Yang, Sita H Vermeulen, Katja K Aben, J Alfred Witjes, Remco R Makkinje, Patrick Sulem, Soren Besenbacher, Kari Stefansson, Elio Riboli, Paul Brennan, Salvatore Panico, Carmen Navarro, Naomi E Allen, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Neil Caporaso, Maria Teresa Landi, Federico Canzian, Börje Ljungberg, Anne Tjonneland, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, David T Bishop, Mark T W Teo, Margaret A Knowles, Simonetta Guarrera, Silvia Polidoro, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Alessandra Allione, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Silvia Selinski, Jan G Hengstler, Holger Dietrich, Tony Fletcher, Peter Rudnai, Eugen Gurzau, Kvetoslava Koppova, Sophia C E Bolick, Ashley Godfrey, Zongli Xu, José I Sanz-Velez, María D García-Prats, Manuel Sánchez, Gabriel Valdivia, Stefano Porru, Simone Benhamou, Robert N Hoover, Joseph F Fraumeni, Debra T Silverman, Stephen J Chanock.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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We conducted a multi-stage, genome-wide association study of bladder cancer with a primary scan of 591,637 SNPs in 3,532 affected individuals (cases) and 5,120 controls of European descent from five studies followed by a replication strategy, which included 8,382 cases and 48,275 controls from 16 studies. In a combined analysis, we identified three new regions associated with bladder cancer on chromosomes 22q13.1, 19q12 and 2q37.1: rs1014971, (P = 8 × 10?¹²) maps to a non-genic region of chromosome 22q13.1, rs8102137 (P = 2 × 10?¹¹) on 19q12 maps to CCNE1 and rs11892031 (P = 1 × 10??) maps to the UGT1A cluster on 2q37.1. We confirmed four previously identified genome-wide associations on chromosomes 3q28, 4p16.3, 8q24.21 and 8q24.3, validated previous candidate associations for the GSTM1 deletion (P = 4 × 10?¹¹) and a tag SNP for NAT2 acetylation status (P = 4 × 10?¹¹), and found interactions with smoking in both regions. Our findings on common variants associated with bladder cancer risk should provide new insights into the mechanisms of carcinogenesis.
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Genome-wide association study of renal cell carcinoma identifies two susceptibility loci on 2p21 and 11q13.3.
Mark P Purdue, Mattias Johansson, Diana Zelenika, Jorge R Toro, Ghislaine Scelo, Lee E Moore, Egor Prokhortchouk, Xifeng Wu, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Valerie Gaborieau, Kevin B Jacobs, Wong-Ho Chow, David Zaridze, Vsevolod Matveev, Jan Lubiński, Joanna Trubicka, Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Jolanta Lissowska, Peter Rudnai, Eleonóra Fabiánová, Alexandru Bucur, Vladimír Bencko, Lenka Foretova, Vladimir Janout, Paolo Boffetta, Joanne S Colt, Faith G Davis, Kendra L Schwartz, Rosamonde E Banks, Peter J Selby, Patricia Harnden, Christine D Berg, Ann W Hsing, Robert L Grubb, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Vineis, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Vittorio Krogh, Salvatore Panico, Eric J Duell, José Ramón Quirós, Maria-Jose Sanchez, Carmen Navarro, Eva Ardanaz, Miren Dorronsoro, Kay-Tee Khaw, Naomi E Allen, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H M Peeters, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Jakob Linseisen, Börje Ljungberg, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Isabelle Romieu, Elio Riboli, Anush Mukeria, Oxana Shangina, Victoria L Stevens, Michael J Thun, W Ryan Diver, Susan M Gapstur, Paul D Pharoah, Douglas F Easton, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J Weinstein, Jarmo Virtamo, Lars Vatten, Kristian Hveem, Inger Njølstad, Grethe S Tell, Camilla Stoltenberg, Rajiv Kumar, Kvetoslava Koppova, Olivier Cussenot, Simone Benhamou, Egbert Oosterwijk, Sita H Vermeulen, Katja K H Aben, Saskia L van der Marel, Yuanqing Ye, Christopher G Wood, Xia Pu, Alexander M Mazur, Eugenia S Boulygina, Nikolai N Chekanov, Mario Foglio, Doris Lechner, Ivo Gut, Simon Heath, Hélène Blanché, Amy Hutchinson, Gilles Thomas, Zhaoming Wang, Meredith Yeager, Joseph F Fraumeni, Konstantin G Skryabin, James D McKay, Nathaniel Rothman, Stephen J Chanock, Mark Lathrop, Paul Brennan.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 3,772 affected individuals (cases) and 8,505 controls of European background from 11 studies and followed up 6 SNPs in 3 replication studies of 2,198 cases and 4,918 controls. Two loci on the regions of 2p21 and 11q13.3 were associated with RCC susceptibility below genome-wide significance. Two correlated variants (r² = 0.99 in controls), rs11894252 (P = 1.8 × 10??) and rs7579899 (P = 2.3 × 10??), map to EPAS1 on 2p21, which encodes hypoxia-inducible-factor-2 alpha, a transcription factor previously implicated in RCC. The second locus, rs7105934, at 11q13.3, contains no characterized genes (P = 7.8 × 10?¹?). In addition, we observed a promising association on 12q24.31 for rs4765623, which maps to SCARB1, the scavenger receptor class B, member 1 gene (P = 2.6 × 10??). Our study reports previously unidentified genomic regions associated with RCC risk that may lead to new etiological insights.
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Refining the prostate cancer genetic association within the JAZF1 gene on chromosome 7p15.2.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic variants associated with susceptibility to prostate cancer (PrCa). In the two-stage Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility prostate cancer scan, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10486567, located within intron 2 of JAZF1 gene on chromosome 7p15.2, showed a promising association with PrCa overall (P=2.14x10(-6)), with a suggestion of stronger association with aggressive disease (P=1.2x10(-7)).
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Pooled analysis of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway variants and risk of prostate cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway regulates various cellular processes, including cellular proliferation and intracellular trafficking, and may affect prostate carcinogenesis. Thus, we explored the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in PI3K genes and prostate cancer. Pooled data from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium were examined for associations between 89 SNPs in PI3K genes (PIK3C2B, PIK3AP1, PIK3C2A, PIK3CD, and PIK3R3) and prostate cancer risk in 8,309 cases and 9,286 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using logistic regression. SNP rs7556371 in PIK3C2B was significantly associated with prostate cancer risk [OR(per allele), 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.14); P(trend) = 0.0017] after adjustment for multiple testing (P(adj) = 0.024). Simultaneous adjustment of rs7556371 for nearby SNPs strengthened the association [OR(per allele), 1.21 (95% CI, 1.09-1.34); P(trend) = 0.0003]. The adjusted association was stronger for men who were diagnosed before the age of 65 years [OR(per allele), 1.47 (95% CI, 1.20-1.79); P(trend) = 0.0001] or had a family history [OR(per allele) = 1.57 (95% CI, 1.11-2.23); P(trend) = 0.0114], and was strongest in those with both characteristics [OR(per allele) = 2.31 (95% CI, 1.07-5.07), P-interaction = 0.005]. Increased risks were observed among men in the top tertile of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels [OR(per allele) = 1.46 (95% CI, 1.04-2.06); P(trend) = 0.075]. No differences were observed with disease aggressiveness (Gleason grade >or=8 or stage T(3)/T(4) or fatal). In conclusion, we observed a significant association between PIK3C2B and prostate cancer risk, especially for familial, early-onset disease, which may be attributable to IGF-dependent PI3K signaling.
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No association between polymorphisms in LEP, LEPR, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, or ADIPOR2 and postmenopausal breast cancer risk.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2009
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There is evidence that adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin may influence breast tumor development. We conducted a nested case-control study using women in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II to examine the association between postmenopausal breast cancer and variability in the genes encoding leptin, the leptin receptor, adiponectin, adiponectin receptor 1, and adiponectin receptor 2. Using 648 cases and 659 controls, we found no statistically significant (P < 0.05) associations between breast cancer risk and any of the single nucleotide polymorphisms. Individual odds ratios ranged from 0.93 to 1.06. We found no evidence of effect modification by body mass index, adult weight gain, location of weight gain, or physical activity. Although we cannot rule out that these genes are involved in gene-gene or gene-environment interactions, our results suggest that individual single nucleotide polymorphisms in these genes do not substantially affect postmenopausal breast cancer risk.
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A genome-wide association study of lung cancer identifies a region of chromosome 5p15 associated with risk for adenocarcinoma.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2009
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Three genetic loci for lung cancer risk have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but inherited susceptibility to specific histologic types of lung cancer is not well established. We conducted a GWAS of lung cancer and its major histologic types, genotyping 515,922 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5739 lung cancer cases and 5848 controls from one population-based case-control study and three cohort studies. Results were combined with summary data from ten additional studies, for a total of 13,300 cases and 19,666 controls of European descent. Four studies also provided histology data for replication, resulting in 3333 adenocarcinomas (AD), 2589 squamous cell carcinomas (SQ), and 1418 small cell carcinomas (SC). In analyses by histology, rs2736100 (TERT), on chromosome 5p15.33, was associated with risk of adenocarcinoma (odds ratio [OR]=1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.13-1.33, p=3.02x10(-7)), but not with other histologic types (OR=1.01, p=0.84 and OR=1.00, p=0.93 for SQ and SC, respectively). This finding was confirmed in each replication study and overall meta-analysis (OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.17-1.31, p=3.74x10(-14) for AD; OR=0.99, p=0.69 and OR=0.97, p=0.48 for SQ and SC, respectively). Other previously reported association signals on 15q25 and 6p21 were also refined, but no additional loci reached genome-wide significance. In conclusion, a lung cancer GWAS identified a distinct hereditary contribution to adenocarcinoma.
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Quantitative trait loci predicting circulating sex steroid hormones in men from the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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Twin studies suggest a heritable component to circulating sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, 874 SNPs in 37 candidate genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway were examined in relation to circulating levels of SHBG (N = 4720), testosterone (N = 4678), 3 alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide (N = 4767) and 17beta-estradiol (N = 2014) in Caucasian men. rs1799941 in SHBG is highly significantly associated with circulating levels of SHBG (P = 4.52 x 10(-21)), consistent with previous studies, and testosterone (P = 7.54 x 10(-15)), with mean difference of 26.9 and 14.3%, respectively, comparing wild-type to homozygous variant carriers. Further noteworthy novel findings were observed between SNPs in ESR1 with testosterone levels (rs722208, mean difference = 8.8%, P = 7.37 x 10(-6)) and SRD5A2 with 3 alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide (rs2208532, mean difference = 11.8%, P = 1.82 x 10(-6)). Genetic variation in genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway is associated with differences in circulating SHBG and sex steroid hormones.
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Fine mapping and functional analysis of a common variant in MSMB on chromosome 10q11.2 associated with prostate cancer susceptibility.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Two recent genome-wide association studies have independently identified a prostate cancer susceptibility locus on chromosome 10q11.2. The most significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker reported, rs10993994, is 57 bp centromeric of the first exon of the MSMB gene, which encodes beta-microseminoprotein (prostatic secretory protein 94). In this study, a fine-mapping analysis using HapMap SNPs was conducted across a approximately 65-kb region (chr10: 51168330-51234020) flanking rs10993994 with 13 tag SNPs in 6,118 prostate cancer cases and 6,105 controls of European origin from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project. rs10993994 remained the most strongly associated marker with prostate cancer risk [P = 8.8 x 10(-18); heterozygous odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.30; homozygous OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.47-1.86 for the adjusted genotype test with 2 df]. In follow-up functional analyses, the T variant of rs10993994 significantly affected expression of in vitro luciferase reporter constructs. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, the C allele of rs10993994 preferentially binds to the CREB transcription factor. Analysis of tumor cell lines with a CC or CT genotype revealed a high level of MSMB gene expression compared with cell lines with a TT genotype. These findings were specific to the alleles of rs10993994 and were not observed for other SNPs determined by sequence analysis of the proximal promoter. Together, our mapping study and functional analyses implicate regulation of expression of MSMB as a plausible mechanism accounting for the association identified at this locus. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether rs10993994 alone or in combination with additional variants contributes to prostate cancer susceptibility.
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Identification of a new prostate cancer susceptibility locus on chromosome 8q24.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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We report a genome-wide association study in 10,286 cases and 9,135 controls of European ancestry in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. We identify a new association with prostate cancer risk on chromosome 8q24 (rs620861, P = 1.3 x 10(-10), heterozygote OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.24; homozygote OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.45). This defines a new locus associated with prostate cancer susceptibility on 8q24.
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Newly discovered breast cancer susceptibility loci on 3p24 and 17q23.2.
Shahana Ahmed, Gilles Thomas, Maya Ghoussaini, Catherine S Healey, Manjeet K Humphreys, Radka Platte, Jonathan Morrison, Melanie Maranian, Karen A Pooley, Robert Luben, Diana Eccles, D Gareth Evans, Olivia Fletcher, Nichola Johnson, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Julian Peto, Michael R Stratton, Nazneen Rahman, Kevin Jacobs, Ross Prentice, Garnet L Anderson, Aleksandar Rajkovic, J David Curb, Regina G Ziegler, Christine D Berg, Saundra S Buys, Catherine A McCarty, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Eugenia E Calle, Michael J Thun, W Ryan Diver, Stig Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Henrik Flyger, Thilo Dörk, Peter Schürmann, Peter Hillemanns, Johann H Karstens, Natalia V Bogdanova, Natalia N Antonenkova, Iosif V Zalutsky, Marina Bermisheva, Sardana Fedorova, Elza Khusnutdinova, , Daehee Kang, Keun-Young Yoo, Dong Young Noh, Sei-Hyun Ahn, Peter Devilee, Christi J van Asperen, R A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jolanta Lissowska, Louise Brinton, Beata Peplonska, Heli Nevanlinna, Tuomas Heikkinen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Letitia Smith, Amanda B Spurdle, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Richard R van Hien, Sten Cornelissen, Roger L Milne, Gloria Ribas, Anna González-Neira, Javier Benitez, Rita K Schmutzler, Barbara Burwinkel, Claus R Bartram, Alfons Meindl, Hiltrud Brauch, Christina Justenhoven, Ute Hamann, Jenny Chang-Claude, Rebecca Hein, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Arto Mannermaa, Veli-Matti Kosma, Vesa Kataja, Janet E Olson, Xianshu Wang, Zachary Fredericksen, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Dallas R English, Susan E Hankinson, David G Cox, Peter Kraft, Lars J Vatten, Kristian Hveem, Merethe Kumle, Alice Sigurdson, Michele Doody, Parveen Bhatti, Bruce H Alexander, Maartje J Hooning, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Rogier A Oldenburg, Mieke Schutte, Per Hall, Kamila Czene, Jianjun Liu, Yuqing Li, Angela Cox, Graeme Elliott, Ian Brock, Malcolm W R Reed, Chen-Yang Shen, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Giu-Cheng Hsu, Shou-Tung Chen, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Jonathan Beesley, Ellen L Goode, Fergus Couch, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Robert N Hoover, Bruce A J Ponder, David J Hunter, Paul D P Pharoah, Alison M Dunning, Stephen J Chanock, Douglas F Easton.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified seven breast cancer susceptibility loci, but these explain only a small fraction of the familial risk of the disease. Five of these loci were identified through a two-stage GWAS involving 390 familial cases and 364 controls in the first stage, and 3,990 cases and 3,916 controls in the second stage. To identify additional loci, we tested over 800 promising associations from this GWAS in a further two stages involving 37,012 cases and 40,069 controls from 33 studies in the CGEMS collaboration and Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We found strong evidence for additional susceptibility loci on 3p (rs4973768: per-allele OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.08-1.13, P = 4.1 x 10(-23)) and 17q (rs6504950: per-allele OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.92-0.97, P = 1.4 x 10(-8)). Potential causative genes include SLC4A7 and NEK10 on 3p and COX11 on 17q.
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A multistage genome-wide association study in breast cancer identifies two new risk alleles at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1).
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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We conducted a three-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of breast cancer in 9,770 cases and 10,799 controls in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. In stage 1, we genotyped 528,173 SNPs in 1,145 cases of invasive breast cancer and 1,142 controls. In stage 2, we analyzed 24,909 top SNPs in 4,547 cases and 4,434 controls. In stage 3, we investigated 21 loci in 4,078 cases and 5,223 controls. Two new loci achieved genome-wide significance. A pericentromeric SNP on chromosome 1p11.2 (rs11249433; P = 6.74 x 10(-10) adjusted genotype test, 2 degrees of freedom) resides in a large linkage disequilibrium block neighboring NOTCH2 and FCGR1B; this signal was stronger for estrogen-receptor-positive tumors. A second SNP on chromosome 14q24.1 (rs999737; P = 1.74 x 10(-7)) localizes to RAD51L1, a gene in the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway. We also confirmed associations with loci on chromosomes 2q35, 5p12, 5q11.2, 8q24, 10q26 and 16q12.1.
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One thousand genomes imputation in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium aggressive prostate cancer genome-wide association study.
Prostate
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Genotype imputation substantially increases available markers for analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by leveraging linkage disequilibrium from a reference panel. We sought to (i) investigate the performance of imputation from the August 2010 release of the 1000 Genomes Project (1000GP) in an existing GWAS of prostate cancer, (ii) look for novel associations with prostate cancer risk, (iii) fine-map known prostate cancer susceptibility regions using an approximate Bayesian framework and stepwise regression, and (iv) compare power and efficiency of imputation and de novo sequencing.
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Common variation at 2q22.3 (ZEB2) influences the risk of renal cancer.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of renal cell cancer (RCC) have identified four susceptibility loci thus far. To identify an additional RCC common susceptibility locus, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with published GWASs (totalling 2215 cases and 8566 controls of European background) and followed up the most significant association signals [nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genomic regions] in 3739 cases and 8786 controls. A combined analysis identified a novel susceptibility locus mapping to 2q22.3 marked by rs12105918 (P = 1.80 × 10(-8); odds ratio 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18-1.41). The signal localizes to intron 2 of the ZEB2 gene (zinc finger E box-binding homeobox 2). Our findings suggest that genetic variation in ZEB2 influences the risk of RCC. This finding provides further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to RCC.
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A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify prostate cancer susceptibility loci associated with aggressive and non-aggressive disease.
Ali Amin Al Olama, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Fredrick R Schumacher, Fredrik Wiklund, Sonja I Berndt, Sara Benlloch, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, David E Neal, Freddie C Hamdy, Jenny L Donovan, David J Hunter, Brian E Henderson, Michael J Thun, Michael Gaziano, Edward L Giovannucci, Afshan Siddiq, Ruth C Travis, David G Cox, Federico Canzian, Elio Riboli, Timothy J Key, Gerald Andriole, Demetrius Albanes, Richard B Hayes, Johanna Schleutker, Anssi Auvinen, Teuvo L J Tammela, Maren Weischer, Janet L Stanford, Elaine A Ostrander, Cezary Cybulski, Jan Lubiński, Stephen N Thibodeau, Daniel J Schaid, Karina D Sorensen, Jyotsna Batra, Judith A Clements, Suzanne Chambers, Joanne Aitken, Robert A Gardiner, Christiane Maier, Walther Vogel, Thilo Dörk, Hermann Brenner, Tomonori Habuchi, Sue Ingles, Esther M John, Joanne L Dickinson, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Manuel R Teixeira, Radka Kaneva, Hong-Wei Zhang, Yong-Jie Lu, Jong Y Park, Kathleen A Cooney, Kenneth R Muir, Daniel A Leongamornlert, Edward Saunders, Malgorzata Tymrakiewicz, Nadiya Mahmud, Michelle Guy, Koveela Govindasami, Lynne T O'Brien, Rosemary A Wilkinson, Amanda L Hall, Emma J Sawyer, Tokhir Dadaev, Jonathan Morrison, David P Dearnaley, Alan Horwich, Robert A Huddart, Vincent S Khoo, Christopher C Parker, Nicholas van As, Christopher J Woodhouse, Alan Thompson, Tim Dudderidge, Chris Ogden, Colin S Cooper, Artitaya Lophatonanon, Melissa C Southey, John L Hopper, Dallas English, Jarmo Virtamo, Loic Le Marchand, Daniele Campa, Rudolf Kaaks, Sara Lindstrom, W Ryan Diver, Susan Gapstur, Meredith Yeager, Angela Cox, Mariana C Stern, Román Corral, Markus Aly, William Isaacs, Jan Adolfsson, Jianfeng Xu, S Lilly Zheng, Tiina Wahlfors, Kimmo Taari, Paula Kujala, Peter Klarskov, Børge G Nordestgaard, M Andreas Røder, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Stig E Bojesen, Liesel M Fitzgerald, Suzanne Kolb, Erika M Kwon, Danielle M Karyadi, Torben Falck Orntoft, Michael Borre, Antje Rinckleb, Manuel Luedeke, Kathleen Herkommer, Andreas Meyer, Jürgen Serth, James R Marthick, Briony Patterson, Dominika Wokolorczyk, Amanda Spurdle, Felicity Lose, Shannon K McDonnell, Amit D Joshi, Ahva Shahabi, Pedro Pinto, Joana Santos, Ana Ray, Thomas A Sellers, Hui-Yi Lin, Robert A Stephenson, Craig Teerlink, Heiko Muller, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Shintaro Narita, Guang-Wen Cao, Chavdar Slavov, Vanio Mitev, , Stephen Chanock, Henrik Grönberg, Christopher A Haiman, Peter Kraft, Douglas F Easton, Rosalind A Eeles.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common genetic variants associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PrCa), but these explain less than one-third of the heritability. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a meta-analysis of four GWAS including 5953 cases of aggressive PrCa and 11 463 controls (men without PrCa). We computed association tests for approximately 2.6 million SNPs and followed up the most significant SNPs by genotyping 49 121 samples in 29 studies through the international PRACTICAL and BPC3 consortia. We not only confirmed the association of a PrCa susceptibility locus, rs11672691 on chromosome 19, but also showed an association with aggressive PrCa [odds ratio = 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.21), P = 1.4 × 10(-8)]. This report describes a genetic variant which is associated with aggressive PrCa, which is a type of PrCa associated with a poorer prognosis.
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A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of breast cancer identifies two novel susceptibility loci at 6q14 and 20q11.
Afshan Siddiq, Fergus J Couch, Gary K Chen, Sara Lindstrom, Diana Eccles, Robert C Millikan, Kyriaki Michailidou, Daniel O Stram, Lars Beckmann, Suhn Kyong Rhie, Christine B Ambrosone, Kristiina Aittomäki, Pilar Amiano, Carmel Apicella, , Laura Baglietto, Elisa V Bandera, Matthias W Beckmann, Christine D Berg, Leslie Bernstein, Carl Blomqvist, Hiltrud Brauch, Louise Brinton, Quang M Bui, Julie E Buring, Saundra S Buys, Daniele Campa, Jane E Carpenter, Daniel I Chasman, Jenny Chang-Claude, Constance Chen, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Kamila Czene, Sandra L Deming, Robert B Diasio, W Ryan Diver, Alison M Dunning, Lorraine Durcan, Arif B Ekici, Peter A Fasching, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Laura Fejerman, Jonine D Figueroa, Olivia Fletcher, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Mia M Gaudet, Susan M Gerty, Jorge L Rodriguez-Gil, Graham G Giles, Carla H van Gils, Andrew K Godwin, Nikki Graham, Dario Greco, Per Hall, Susan E Hankinson, Arndt Hartmann, Rebecca Hein, Judith Heinz, Robert N Hoover, John L Hopper, Jennifer J Hu, Scott Huntsman, Sue A Ingles, Astrid Irwanto, Claudine Isaacs, Kevin B Jacobs, Esther M John, Christina Justenhoven, Rudolf Kaaks, Laurence N Kolonel, Gerhard A Coetzee, Mark Lathrop, Loic Le Marchand, Adam M Lee, I-Min Lee, Timothy Lesnick, Peter Lichtner, Jianjun Liu, Eiliv Lund, Enes Makalic, Nicholas G Martin, Catriona A McLean, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, Alfons Meindl, Penelope Miron, Kristine R Monroe, Grant W Montgomery, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Stefan Nickels, Sarah J Nyante, Curtis Olswold, Kim Overvad, Domenico Palli, Daniel J Park, Julie R Palmer, Harsh Pathak, Julian Peto, Paul Pharoah, Nazneen Rahman, Fernando Rivadeneira, Daniel F Schmidt, Rita K Schmutzler, Susan Slager, Melissa C Southey, Kristen N Stevens, Hans-Peter Sinn, Michael F Press, Eric Ross, Elio Riboli, Paul M Ridker, Fredrick R Schumacher, Gianluca Severi, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Jennifer Stone, Malin Sund, William J Tapper, Michael J Thun, Ruth C Travis, Clare Turnbull, André G Uitterlinden, Quinten Waisfisz, Xianshu Wang, Zhaoming Wang, Joellen Weaver, Rüdiger Schulz-Wendtland, Lynne R Wilkens, David Van Den Berg, Wei Zheng, Regina G Ziegler, Elad Ziv, Heli Nevanlinna, Douglas F Easton, David J Hunter, Brian E Henderson, Stephen J Chanock, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Peter Kraft, Christopher A Haiman, Celine M Vachon.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status have revealed loci contributing to susceptibility of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtypes. To identify additional genetic variants for ER-negative breast cancer, we conducted the largest meta-analysis of ER-negative disease to date, comprising 4754 ER-negative cases and 31 663 controls from three GWAS: NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) (2188 ER-negative cases; 25 519 controls of European ancestry), Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (1562 triple negative cases; 3399 controls of European ancestry) and African American Breast Cancer Consortium (AABC) (1004 ER-negative cases; 2745 controls). We performed in silico replication of 86 SNPs at P ? 1 × 10(-5) in an additional 11 209 breast cancer cases (946 with ER-negative disease) and 16 057 controls of Japanese, Latino and European ancestry. We identified two novel loci for breast cancer at 20q11 and 6q14. SNP rs2284378 at 20q11 was associated with ER-negative breast cancer (combined two-stage OR = 1.16; P = 1.1 × 10(-8)) but showed a weaker association with overall breast cancer (OR = 1.08, P = 1.3 × 10(-6)) based on 17 869 cases and 43 745 controls and no association with ER-positive disease (OR = 1.01, P = 0.67) based on 9965 cases and 22 902 controls. Similarly, rs17530068 at 6q14 was associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.12; P = 1.1 × 10(-9)), and with both ER-positive (OR = 1.09; P = 1.5 × 10(-5)) and ER-negative (OR = 1.16, P = 2.5 × 10(-7)) disease. We also confirmed three known loci associated with ER-negative (19p13) and both ER-negative and ER-positive breast cancer (6q25 and 12p11). Our results highlight the value of large-scale collaborative studies to identify novel breast cancer risk loci.
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Prediction of breast cancer risk by genetic risk factors, overall and by hormone receptor status.
J. Med. Genet.
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There is increasing interest in adding common genetic variants identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) to breast cancer risk prediction models. First results from such models showed modest benefits in terms of risk discrimination. Heterogeneity of breast cancer as defined by hormone-receptor status has not been considered in this context. In this study we investigated the predictive capacity of 32 GWAS-detected common variants for breast cancer risk, alone and in combination with classical risk factors, and for tumours with different hormone receptor status.
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Type II diabetes mellitus and the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer in the cancer prevention study-II nutrition cohort.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Despite consistent associations of type II diabetes mellitus with hormonally related cancers such as breast and endometrium, the relation between type II diabetes mellitus and ovarian cancer risk is unclear.
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The association between cigarette smoking and non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms in a large US cohort study.
Cancer Causes Control
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Results from studies of smoking and non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms (NHL) are inconsistent. This study assessed whether this inconsistency might be due to the heterogeneous nature of the disease, to different relationships in subpopulations such as gender, or to chance.
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Alcohol intake and the incidence of non-hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms in the cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
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Although several studies have shown a lower risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in alcohol drinkers compared with nondrinkers, the dose-response relation and potential differences between former and current drinking and across beverage types and subtypes are unclear. The authors examined associations of alcohol intake with risk of NHL and NHL subtypes in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a prospective study of US men and women aged 50-74 years. Between 1992 and 2007, there were 1,991 incident NHL cases among 143,124 participants. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk of NHL associated with former drinking was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75, 1.10); the relative risks associated with current intakes of <1, 1-2, and >2 drinks/day were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.03), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.06), and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.93), respectively. Associations did not differ by sex (P-interaction = 0.45) or beverage type (P-difference = 0.22). Alcohol intake was more strongly associated with B-cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.005) than with T-cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.76), and associations were similar among B-cell lymphoma subtypes. In this prospective study, current heavy alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of NHL. Associations did not differ by beverage type and were slightly stronger for B-cell tumors than for T-cell tumors.
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Common genetic variants in the PSCA gene influence gene expression and bladder cancer risk.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Genome-wide association studies have identified a SNP, rs2294008, on 8q24.3 within the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) gene, as a risk factor for bladder cancer. To fine-map this region, we imputed 642 SNPs within 100 Kb of rs2294008 in addition to 33 markers genotyped in one of the reported genome-wide association study in 8,652 subjects. A multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for rs2294008 revealed a unique signal, rs2978974 (r(2) = 0.02, D = 0.19 with rs2294008). In the combined analysis of 5,393 cases and 7,324 controls, we detected a per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.17, P = 5.8 × 10(-5)] for rs2294008 and OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.02-1.13, P = 9.7 × 10(-3)) for rs2978974. The effect was stronger in carriers of both risk variants (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.08-1.41, P = 1.8 × 10(-3)) and there was a significant multiplicative interaction (P = 0.035) between these two SNPs, which requires replication in future studies. The T risk allele of rs2294008 was associated with increased PSCA mRNA expression in two sets of bladder tumor samples (n = 36, P = 0.0007 and n = 34, P = 0.0054) and in normal bladder samples (n = 35, P = 0.0155), but rs2978974 was not associated with PSCA expression. SNP rs2978974 is located 10 Kb upstream of rs2294008, within an alternative untranslated first exon of PSCA. The non-risk allele G of rs2978974 showed strong interaction with nuclear proteins from five cell lines tested, implying a regulatory function. In conclusion, a joint effect of two PSCA SNPs, rs2294008 and rs2978974, suggests that both variants may be important for bladder cancer susceptibility, possibly through different mechanisms that influence the control of mRNA expression and interaction with regulatory factors.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.