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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch increases mortality after myeloablative unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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We examined current outcomes of unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to determine the clinical implications of donor-recipient HLA matching. Adult and pediatric patients who had first undergone myeloablative-unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood HCT for acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome between 1999 and 2011 were included. All had high-resolution typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1. Of the total (n = 8003), cases were 8/8 (n = 5449), 7/8 (n = 2071), or 6/8 (n = 483) matched. HLA mismatch (6-7/8) conferred significantly increased risk for grades II to IV and III to IV acute graft vs host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, transplant-related mortality (TRM), and overall mortality compared with HLA-matched cases (8/8). Type (allele/antigen) and locus (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1) of mismatch were not associated with overall mortality. Among 8/8 matched cases, HLA-DPB1 and -DQB1 mismatch resulted in increased acute GVHD, and HLA-DPB1 mismatch had decreased relapse. Nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 allele mismatch was associated with higher TRM compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch or HLA-DPB1 match and increased overall mortality compared with permissive HLA-DPB1 mismatch in 8/8 (and 10/10) matched cases. Full matching at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 is required for optimal unrelated donor HCT survival, and avoidance of nonpermissive HLA-DPB1 mismatches in otherwise HLA-matched pairs is indicated.
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Long-term Survival and Late Effects among 1-year Survivors of Second Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Relapsed Acute Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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We analyzed the outcomes of patients who survived disease-free for 1-year or more following second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for relapsed acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes between 1980 and 2009. A total of 1285 patients received a second allogeneic transplant following disease relapse; among these 325 survived relapse-free at 1-year after the second HCT. The median time from first to second HCT was 17 and 24 months for children and adults, respectively. A myeloablative preparative regimen was used in the second transplant in 62% of children and 45% of adult patients. The overall 10-year conditional survival rates after second transplantation in this cohort of patients who had survived disease-free for at least one year were 55% in children and 39% in adults. Relapse was the leading cause of mortality (77% and 54% of deaths in children and adults, respectively). In multivariate analyses, only disease status prior to second HCT was significantly associated with higher risk for overall mortality (HR 1.71 for patients with disease not in complete remission prior to second HCT, P<0.01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in 43% and 75% of children and adults following second transplant. Chronic GVHD was the leading cause of non-relapse mortality followed by organ failure and infection. The cumulative incidence of developing at least one of the studied late effects at 10-years after second HCT was 63% in children and 55% in adults. The most frequent late effects in children were growth disturbance (10-year cumulative incidence 22%) and cataracts (20%), and in adults were cataracts (20%) and avascular necrosis (13%). Among patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes who receive a second allogeneic HCT for relapse and survive disease-free for at least 1-year, many can be expected to survive long term. However, they continue to be at risk for relapse and non-relapse morbidity and mortality. Novel approaches are needed to minimize relapse risk and long-term transplant morbidity in this population.
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Plerixafor and Abbreviated-Course Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor for Mobilizing Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells in Light Chain Amyloidosis.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Cytokine-based mobilization in light chain (AL) amyloidosis is frequently complicated by fluid overload, weight gain, cardiac arrhythmias, and peri-mobilization mortality. We analyzed hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) mobilization outcomes in 49 consecutive AL amyloidosis patients at our institution between 2004 and 2013 with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G) (10 ?g/kg/day) (n = 25) versus an institutional protocol to limit G exposure using plerixafor (P) (.24 mg/kg s.c. starting day 3 of G 10 ?g/kg) (n = 24). G+P strategy yielded higher total CD34(+) cells/kg (12.8 × 10(6) versus 6.3 × 10(6); P < .001) and CD34(+) cells/kg collected on day 1 (10.8 × 10(6) versus 4.9 × 10(6), P = .004) compared with the G cohort. More G+P patients collected ?5 × 10(6) CD34(+) HPCs/kg (22 versus 16, P = .02) and ? 10 × 10(6) CD34(+) HPCs/kg (13 versus 5, P = .01). Four patients (16%) had mobilization failure with G; none with G+P. Peri-mobilization weight gain was lower with G+P strategy (median weight gain 1 versus 7 pounds, P = .009). Numbers of apheresis sessions (median, 1 versus 1, P = .52), number of hospitalization days (median, 1.1 versus 1.6, P = .52), transfusions, use of intravenous antibiotics, and cardiac arrhythmias were similar. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that upfront use of G+P as a mobilization strategy results in superior HPC collection, no mobilization failures, and less weight gain than G alone.
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Second solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation using reduced-intensity conditioning.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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We examined risk of second solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) using reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NMC). RIC/NMC recipients with leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n = 2833) and lymphoma (n = 1436) between 1995 and 2006 were included. In addition, RIC/NMC recipients 40 to 60 years of age (n = 2138) were compared with patients of the same age receiving myeloablative conditioning (MAC, n = 6428). The cumulative incidence of solid cancers was 3.35% at 10 years. There was no increase in overall cancer risk compared with the general population (leukemia/MDS: standardized incidence ratio [SIR] .99, P = 1.00; lymphoma: SIR .92, P = .75). However, risks were significantly increased in leukemia/MDS patients for cancers of lip (SIR 14.28), tonsil (SIR 8.66), oropharynx (SIR 46.70), bone (SIR 23.53), soft tissue (SIR 12.92), and vulva (SIR 18.55) and skin melanoma (SIR 3.04). Lymphoma patients had significantly higher risks of oropharyngeal cancer (SIR 67.35) and skin melanoma (SIR 3.52). Among RIC/NMC recipients, age >50 years was the only independent risk factor for solid cancers (hazard ratio [HR] 3.02, P < .001). Among patients ages 40 to 60 years, when adjusted for other factors, there was no difference in cancer risks between RIC/NMC and MAC in leukemia/MDS patients (HR .98, P = .905). In lymphoma patients, risks were lower after RIC/NMC (HR .51, P = .047). In conclusion, the overall risks of second solid cancers in RIC/NMC recipients are similar to the general population, although there is an increased risk of cancer at some sites. Studies with longer follow-up are needed to realize the complete risks of solid cancers after RIC/NMC AHCT.
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Early Failure of Frontline Rituximab-Containing Chemo-immunotherapy in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Does Not Predict Futility of Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The poor prognosis for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who relapse within 1 year of initial diagnosis after first-line rituximab-based chemo-immunotherapy has created controversy about the role of autologous transplantation (HCT) in this setting. We compared autologous HCT outcomes for chemosensitive DLBCL patients between 2000 and 2011 in 2 cohorts based on time to relapse from diagnosis. The early rituximab failure (ERF) cohort consisted of patients with primary refractory disease or those with first relapse within 1 year of initial diagnosis. The ERF cohort was compared with those relapsing >1 year after initial diagnosis (late rituximab failure [LRF] cohort). ERF and LRF cohorts included 300 and 216 patients, respectively. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM), progression/relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of ERF versus LRF cohorts at 3 years were 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6% to 13%) versus 9% (95% CI, 5% to 13%), 47% (95% CI, 41% to 52%) versus 39% (95% CI, 33% to 46%), 44% (95% CI, 38% to 50%) versus 52% (95% CI, 45% to 59%), and 50% (95% CI, 44% to 56%) versus 67% (95% CI, 60% to 74%), respectively. On multivariate analysis, ERF was not associated with higher NRM (relative risk [RR], 1.31; P = .34). The ERF cohort had a higher risk of treatment failure (progression/relapse or death) (RR, 2.08; P < .001) and overall mortality (RR, 3.75; P <.001) within the first 9 months after autologous HCT. Beyond this period, PFS and OS were not significantly different between the ERF and LRF cohorts. Autologous HCT provides durable disease control to a sizeable subset of DLBCL despite ERF (3-year PFS, 44%) and remains the standard-of-care in chemosensitive DLBCL regardless of the timing of disease relapse.
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Validation and refinement of the Disease Risk Index for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Because the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is predominantly influenced by disease type and status, it is essential to be able to stratify patients undergoing HCT by disease risk. The Disease Risk Index (DRI) was developed for this purpose. In this study, we analyzed 13,131 patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who underwent HCT between 2008 and 2010. The DRI stratified patients into 4 groups with 2-year overall survival (OS) ranging from 64% to 24% and was the strongest prognostic factor, regardless of age, conditioning intensity, graft source, or donor type. A randomly selected training subgroup of 9849 patients was used to refine the DRI, using a multivariable regression model for OS. This refined DRI had improved prediction ability for the remaining 3282 patients compared with the original DRI or other existing schemes. This validated and refined DRI can be used as a 4- or 3-group index, depending on the size of the cohort under study, for prognostication; to facilitate the interpretation of single-center, multicenter, or registry studies; to adjust center outcome data; and to stratify patients entering clinical trials that enroll patients across disease categories.
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Myelodysplastic syndromes in the United States: an update for clinicians.
Ann. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous malignant bone marrow disorders diagnosed most often in elderly white persons. MDS have significant clinical consequences, including cytopenias leading to infection, bleeding, and death; and approximately one-third of cases progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Only one potentially curative therapy exists-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT)-but this therapy is not widely used due to associated morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. Recent research suggests MDS occurs more frequently than previously thought and may be responsible for a substantial proportion of unexplained anemias in elderly persons. Incidence of MDS is expected to increase with increases in life expectancy. Therefore, we offer this comprehensive narrative update of MDS to inform the medical community treating the population at risk for MDS, with a focus on MDS epidemiology and clinical management in the United States. This review includes a brief historical background of MDS, provides an overview of the population burden of disease, discusses the molecular pathology of MDS, describes the clinical features and management of MDS, and discusses future directions in MDS research. Our objective is to inform general medicine practitioners and call attention to the need for translational research in MDS.
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Outcomes of human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling donor hematopoietic cell transplantation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: myeloablative versus reduced-intensity conditioning regimens.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can cure some chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) subjects. This study compared outcomes of myeloablative (MA) and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) transplants from HLA-matched sibling donors (MSD) for CLL. From 1995 to 2007, information regarding 297 CLL subjects was reported to the Center of International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research; of these, 163 underwent MA and 134 underwent RIC MSD HCT. The MA subjects underwent transplantation less often after 2000 and less commonly received antithymocyte globulin (4% versus 13%, P = .004) or prior antibody therapy (14% versus 53%; P < .001). RIC was associated with a greater likelihood of platelet recovery and less grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease compared with MA conditioning. One- and 5-year treatment-related mortality (TRM) were 24% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 16% to 33%) versus 37% (95% CI, 30% to 45%; P = .023), and 40% (95% CI, 29% to 51%) versus 54% (95% CI, 46% to 62%; P = .036), respectively, and the relapse/progression rates at 1 and 5 years were 21% (95% CI, 14% to 29%) versus 10% (95% CI, 6% to 15%; P = .020), and 35% (95% CI, 26% to 46%) versus 17% (95% CI, 12% to 24%; P = .003), respectively. MA conditioning was associated with better progression-free (PFS) (relative risk, .60; 95% CI, .37 to .97; P = .038) and 3-year survival in transplantations before 2001, but for subsequent years, RIC was associated with better PFS and survival (relative risk, 1.49 [95% CI, .92 to 2.42]; P = .10; and relative risk, 1.86 [95% CI, 1.11 to 3.13]; P = .019). Pretransplantation disease status was the most important predictor of relapse (P = .003) and PFS (P = .0007) for both forms of transplantation conditioning. MA and RIC MSD transplantations are effective for CLL. Future strategies to decrease TRM and reduce relapses are warranted.
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Multicenter biologic assignment trial comparing reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant to hypomethylating therapy or best supportive care in patients aged 50 to 75 with intermediate-2 and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: Blood and Marrow Transplan
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The introduction of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens made it possible to offer allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) to older patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, the relative risks and benefits of alloHCT compared with novel nontransplant therapies continue to be the source of considerable uncertainty. We will perform a prospective biologic assignment trial to compare RIC alloHCT with nontransplant therapies based on donor availability. Primary outcome is 3-year overall survival. Secondary outcomes include leukemia-free survival, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Four hundred patients will be enrolled over roughly 3 years. Planned subgroup analyses will evaluate key biologic questions, such as the impact of age and response to hypomethylating agents on treatment effects. Findings from this study potentially may set a new standard of care for older MDS patients who are considered candidates for alloHCT.
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Outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation for diffuse large B cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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There are limited data on the outcomes of autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma. We analyzed transplantation outcomes in 141 subjects with biopsy-proven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1990 and 2009. Two groups were identified: autologous HCT (auto-HCT; n = 108) and allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT; n = 33). Fewer auto-HCTs were done for transformed follicular lymphoma in 2003 to 2009, with a shift favoring allo-HCT. Auto-HCT was associated with a 1-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) of 8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4% to 14%), 5-year progression-free survival of 35% (95% CI, 26% to 45%), and 5-year overall survival of 50% (95% CI, 40% to 59%). In contrast, allo-HCT was associated with a 1-year NRM of 41% (95% CI, 23% to 58%), 5-year progression-free survival of 18% (95% CI, 6% to 35%), and 5-year overall survival of 22% (95% CI, 8% to 41%). Auto-HCT for transformed follicular lymphoma achieves sustained remission in a high proportion of subjects. The high NRM of allo-HCT offset any benefit that might be associated with this transplantation modality.
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Allotransplantation for patients age ?40 years with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: encouraging progression-free survival.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) disproportionately affects older patients, who do not often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We analyzed Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data on 1248 patients age ?40 years receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning HCT for aggressive (n = 668) or indolent (n = 580) NHL. Aggressive lymphoma was more frequent in the oldest cohort 49% for age 40 to 54 versus 57% for age 55 to 64 versus 67% for age ?65; P = .0008). Fewer patients aged ?65 had previous autografting (26% versus 24% versus 9%; P = .002). Rates of relapse, acute and chronic GVHD, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year post-HCT were similar in the 3 age cohorts (22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19% to 26%] for age 40 to 54, 27% [95% CI, 23% to 31%] for age 55 to 64, and 34% [95% CI, 24% to 44%] for age ?65. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years was slightly lower in the older cohorts (OS: 54% [95% CI, 50% to 58%] for age 40 to 54; 40% [95% CI, 36% to 44%] for age 55 to 64, and 39% [95% CI, 28% to 50%] for age ?65; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant effect of age on the incidence of acute or chronic GVHD or relapse. Age ?55 years, Karnofsky Performance Status <80, and HLA mismatch adversely affected NRM, PFS, and OS. Disease status at HCT, but not histological subtype, was associated with worse NRM, relapse, PFS, and OS. Even for patients age ?55 years, OS still approached 40% at 3 years, suggesting that HCT affects long-term remission and remains underused in qualified older patients with NHL.
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Treatment of older patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): the emerging role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo HSCT).
Curr Hematol Malig Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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MDS are myeloid clonal hematologic disorders that are most commonly diagnosed in the seventh decade of life. Several treatment options are currently available. However, allo HSCT remains the only curative therapy. Unfortunately, despite the higher incidence of MDS in the older population, less than 10 % of patients undergoing allo HSCT for MDS are > 65 years old. In this paper we discuss the various treatment options in older patients with high-risk MDS with particular emphasis on the role of allo HSCT in older MDS patients.
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Better leukemia-free and overall survival in AML in first remission following cyclophosphamide in combination with busulfan compared with TBI.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Cyclophosphamide combined with total body irradiation (Cy/TBI) or busulfan (BuCy) are the most widely used myeloablative conditioning regimens for allotransplants. Recent data regarding their comparative effectiveness are lacking. We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research for 1230 subjects receiving a first hematopoietic cell transplant from a human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling or from an unrelated donor during the years 2000 to 2006 for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) after conditioning with Cy/TBI or oral or intravenous (IV) BuCy. Multivariate analysis showed significantly less nonrelapse mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.86; P = .007), and relapse after, but not before, 1 year posttransplant (RR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.08-0.65; P = .006), and better leukemia-free survival (RR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55-0.88; P = .003) and survival (RR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52-0.88; P = .003) in persons receiving IV, but not oral, Bu compared with TBI. In combination with Cy, IV Bu is associated with superior outcomes compared with TBI in patients with AML in first CR.
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Does Total Body Irradiation Conditioning Improve Outcomes of Myeloablative Human Leukocyte Antigen-Identical Sibling Transplantations for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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An allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from an HLA-identical donor after high-dose (myeloablative) pretransplantation conditioning is an effective therapy for some people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Because CLL is a highly radiosensitive cancer, we hypothesized that total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimens may be associated with better outcomes than those without TBI. To answer this, we analyzed data from 180 subjects with CLL receiving myeloablative doses of TBI (n = 126) or not (n = 54), who received transplants from an HLA-identical sibling donor between 1995 and 2007 and reported to the Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research. At 5 years, treatment-related mortality was 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39% to 57%) versus 50% (95% CI, 36% to 64%); P = NS. Relapse rates were 17% (95% CI, 11% to 25%) versus 22% (95% CI, 11% to 35%); P = NS. Five-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 34% (95% CI, 26% to 43%) versus 28% (95% CI, 15% to 42%); P = NS and 42% (95% CI, 33% to 51%) versus 33% (95% CI, 19% to 48%); P = NS, respectively. The single most common cause of death in both cohorts was recurrent/progressive CLL. No variable tested in the multivariate analysis was found to significantly affect these outcomes, including having failed fludarabine. Within the limitations of this study, we found no difference in HLA-identical sibling transplantation outcomes between myeloablative TBI and chemotherapy pretransplantation conditioning in persons with CLL.
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Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Comorbidity Index is predictive of survival after Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHCT) improves survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) but is associated with morbidity and non-relapse mortality (NRM). Hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index (HCT-CI) was shown to predict risk of NRM and survival after allogeneic transplantation. We tested the utility of HCT-CI as a predictor of NRM and survival in patients with MM undergoing AHCT.
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Amino acid substitution at peptide-binding pockets of HLA class I molecules increases risk of severe acute GVHD and mortality.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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HLA disparity has a negative impact on the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied the independent impact of amino acid substitution (AAS) at peptide-binding positions 9, 99, 116, and 156, and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor binding position 77 of HLA-A, B, or C, on the risks for grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), chronic GVHD, treatment-related mortality (TRM), relapse, and overall survival. In multivariate analysis, a mismatch at HLA-C position 116 was associated with increased risk for severe acute GVHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-1.82, P = .0016). Mismatch at HLA-C position 99 was associated with increased transplant-related mortality (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.1-1.69, P = .0038). Mismatch at HLA-B position 9 was associated with increased chronic GVHD (HR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.36-3.82, P = .0018). No AAS were significantly associated with outcome at HLA-A. Specific AAS pair combinations with a frequency >30 were tested for association with HCT outcomes. Cysteine to tyrosine substitution at position 99 of HLA-C was associated with increased TRM (HR = 1.78, 95% = CI 1.27-2.51, P = .0009). These results demonstrate that donor-recipient mismatch for certain peptide-binding residues of the HLA class I molecule is associated with increased risk for acute and chronic GVHD and death.
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Effect of Postremission Therapy before Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Allogeneic Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The impact of pretransplant (hematopoietic cell transplantation [HCT]) cytarabine consolidation therapy on post-HCT outcomes has yet to be evaluated after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning. We analyzed 604 adults with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission (CR1) reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who received a reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT from an HLA-identical sibling, HLA-matched unrelated donor, or umbilical cord blood donor from 2000 to 2010. We compared transplant outcomes based on exposure to cytarabine postremission consolidation. Three-year survival rates were 36% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29% to 43%) in the no consolidation arm and 42% (95% CI, 37% to 47%) in the cytarabine consolidation arm (P = .16). Disease-free survival was 34% (95% CI, 27% to 41%) and 41% (95% CI, 35% to 46%; P = .15), respectively. Three-year cumulative incidences of relapse were 37% (95% CI, 30% to 44%) and 38% (95% CI, 33% to 43%), respectively (P = .80). Multivariate regression confirmed no effect of consolidation on relapse, disease-free survival, and survival. Before reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning HCT, these data suggest pre-HCT consolidation cytarabine does not significantly alter outcomes and support prompt transition to transplant as soon as morphologic CR1 is attained. If HCT is delayed while identifying a donor, our data suggest that consolidation does not increase transplant treatment-related mortality and is reasonable if required.
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Impact of donor source on hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched related donor (MRD) and matched unrelated donors (MUD) produces similar survival for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Whether these results can be extended to patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is unknown. Therefore, analysis of post-HCT outcomes for MDS was performed. Outcomes of 701 adult MDS patients who underwent HCT between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed (MRD [n = 176], 8 of 8 HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 allele matched MUD [n = 413], 7 of 8 MUD [ n = 112]). Median age was 53 years (range, 22-78 years). In multivariate analyses, MRD HCT recipients had similar disease free survival (DFS) and survival rates compared with 8 of 8 MUD HCT recipients (relative risk [RR] 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.42] and 1.24 [95% CI 0.98-1.56], respectively), and both MRD and 8 of 8 MUD had superior DFS (RR 1.47 [95% CI 1.10-1.96] and 1.29 [95% CI 1.00-1.66], respectively) and survival (RR 1.62 [95% CI 1.21-2.17] and 1.30 [95% CI 1.01-1.68], respectively) compared with 7 of 8 MUD HCT recipients. In patients with MDS, MRD remains the best stem cell source followed by 8 of 8 MUD. Transplantation from 7 of 8 MUD is associated with significantly poorer outcomes.
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Reduced-intensity hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with primary myelofibrosis: a cohort analysis from the center for international blood and marrow transplant research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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We evaluated outcomes and associated prognostic factors in 233 patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for primary myelofibrosis (MF) using reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). The median age at RIC HCT was 55 yr. Donors were a matched sibling donor (MSD) in 34% of RIC HCTs, an HLA well-matched unrelated donor (URD) in 45%, and a partially matched/mismatched URD in 21%. Risk stratification according to the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) was 12% low, 49% intermediate-1, 37% intermediate-2, and 1% high. The probability of survival at 5 yr was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40% to 53%). In a multivariate analysis, donor type was the sole independent factor associated with survival. Adjusted probabilities of survival at 5-yr were 56% (95% CI, 44% to 67%) for MSD, 48% (95% CI, 37% to 58%) for well-matched URD, and 34% (95% CI, 21% to 47%) for partially matched/mismatched URD (P = .002). The relative risk (RR) for NRM was 3.92 (P = .006) for well-matched URD and 9.37 (P < .0001) for partially matched/mismatched URD. Trends toward increased NRM (RR, 1.7; P = .07) and inferior survival (RR, 1.37; P = .10) were observed in DIPSS intermediate-2/high-risk patients compared with DIPSS low/intermediate-1 risk patients. Our data indicate that RIC HCT is a potentially curative option for patients with MF, and that donor type is the most important factor influencing survival in these patients.
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Trends in utilization and outcomes of autologous transplantation as early therapy for multiple myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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The impact of novel drugs for treating multiple myeloma (MM) on the utilization and outcomes of autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (AHPCT) is unknown. We reviewed characteristics and outcomes of 20,278 patients who underwent AHPCT within 12 months of diagnosis of MM in the United States and Canada and registered at the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) in 3 time cohorts reflecting the increasing availability of novel drugs: 1995 to 1999 (n = 2226), 2000 to 2004 (n = 6408), and 2005 to 2010 (n = 11,644). In the United States, the number of AHPCTs performed increased at a greater rate than new MM cases. Patients in recent cohorts were older, less likely to have stage 3 MM, and more likely to have received previous thalidomide, lenalidomide, or bortezomib. On multivariate analysis, AHPCT in the 2000 to 2004 cohort (HR = 0.77) or in the 2005 to 2010 cohort (HR = 0.68) were associated with lower risk of death. Survival at 60 months post-AHPCT improved from 47% in 1995 to 1999 to 55% in 2000 to 2004 and to 57% in 2005 to 2010, owing less to improvement in progression-free survival (50% versus 55% versus 57% at 24 months) than to postrelapse/progression survival (58% versus 65% versus 72% at 24 months). AHPCT and new biological agents are complementary, nonredundant therapies and should be combined in the management of MM in suitable patients.
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Divergent effects of novel immunomodulatory agents and cyclophosphamide on the risk of engraftment syndrome after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Engraftment syndrome (ES) is an increasingly observed and occasionally fatal complication after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). In this study, we demonstrate that the incidence of ES is significantly increased in patients undergoing autologous PBSCT for multiple myeloma in comparison to patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or Hodgkin lymphoma. Multivariate analysis revealed that age > 60 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 2.62; P = .013) and transplantation for multiple myeloma (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.60 to 4.90; P = .0003) were associated with an increased risk of this complication. When stratified for myeloma patients only, age > 60 (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.87; P = .013) and prior treatment with both lenalidomide and bortezomib (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.11 to 3.04; P = .0001) were associated with an increased incidence of ES. Conversely, lack of exposure to cyclophosphamide from either chemomobilization or as a component of the pretransplantation therapeutic regimen increased the risk of this complication (HR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.91 to 4.87; P <.0001). These studies demonstrate that the pretransplantation exposure of multiple myeloma patients to novel immunomodulatory agents and cyclophosphamide significantly affects the subsequent risk of developing ES.
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The impact of HLA unidirectional mismatches on the outcome of myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with unrelated donors.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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The impact of HLA homozygosity at mismatched (MM) loci on the outcome of 2687 myeloablative unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantations performed for malignant disease was evaluated among 4 groups: 7/8 bidirectional MM transplants (donor and recipient heterozygous MM, n = 1393), 7/8 host-versus-graft (HVG) vector MM (recipient homozygous, n = 112), 7/8 graft-versus-host (GVH) vector MM (donor homozygous, n = 119), and 8/8 matches (n = 1063). Multivariate analyses found 7/8 GVH (P = .001) and bidirectional MM groups (P < .0001) had significantly worse transplant-related mortality and overall and disease-free survival than the 8/8 match group, a difference not observed with the 7/8 HVG MM group (P > .01). The 3 7/8 groups differed only for grades III-IV acute GVH disease (GVHD), where HVG MM had less GVHD than the 7/8 bidirectional MM (hazard ratio [HR] 0.52, P = .0016) and GVH MM (HR 0.43, P = .0009) groups but not the 8/8 group (HR 0.83, P = .39). There were no differences between the 7/8 groups for relapse, chronic GVHD, neutrophil engraftment, or graft failure. GVH MM have the same risk as 7/8 bidirectional MM. 7/8 HVG MM confer a reduced risk of acute GVHD without an increased risk of disease relapse or graft failure compared with a 7/8 bidirectional MM.
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Autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphoma with secondary CNS involvement.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Pre-existing central nervous system (CNS) involvement may influence referral for autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The outcomes of 151 adult patients with NHL with prior secondary CNS involvement (CNS(+) ) receiving an AHCT were compared to 4688 patients without prior CNS lymphoma (CNS(-) ). There were significant baseline differences between the cohorts. CNS(+) patients were more likely to be younger, have lower performance scores, higher age-adjusted international prognostic index scores, more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, more aggressive histology, more sites of extranodal disease, and a shorter interval between diagnosis and AHCT. However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups by analysis of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. A matched pair comparison of the CNS(+) group with a subset of CNS(-) patients matched on propensity score also showed no differences in outcomes. Patients with active CNS lymphoma at the time of AHCT (n = 55) had a higher relapse rate and diminished PFS and OS compared with patients whose CNS lymphoma was in remission (n = 96) at the time of AHCT. CNS(+) patients can achieve excellent long-term outcomes with AHCT. Active CNS lymphoma at transplant confers a worse prognosis.
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Impact of pretransplantation conditioning regimens on outcomes of allogeneic transplantation for chemotherapy-unresponsive diffuse large B cell lymphoma and grade III follicular lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Patients with chemorefractory non-Hodgkin lymphomas generally have a poor prognosis. We used the observational database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to study the outcome of 533 patients with refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or grade III follicular lymphoma (FL-III) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using either myeloablative (MA; n = 307) or reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NST; n = 226) between 1998 and 2010. We analyzed nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Only 45% of the patients at transplantation had a Karnofsky performance score of ?90%. Median follow-up of surviving patients after MA and RIC/NST allo-HCT is 35 months and 30 months, respectively. At 3 years, MA allo-HCT was associated with a higher NRM compared with RIC/NST (53% versus 42%; P = .03), similar PFS (19% versus 23%; P = .40), and lower OS (19% versus 28%; P = .02), respectively. On multivariate analysis, FL-III histology was associated with lower NRM (relative risk [RR], .52), reduced risk of relapse/progression (RR, .42), and superior PFS (RR, .51) and OS (RR, .53), whereas MA conditioning was associated with reduced risk of relapse/progression (RR, .66). Despite a refractory state, a small subset of DLBCL and FL-III patients can attain durable remissions after allo-HCT. Conditioning regimen intensity was not associated with PFS and OS despite a higher risk of relapse/progression with RIC/NST allo-HCT.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for chemotherapy-unresponsive mantle cell lymphoma: a cohort analysis from the center for international blood and marrow transplant research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Patients with chemorefractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) have a poor prognosis. We used the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database to study the outcome of 202 patients with refractory MCL who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using either myeloablative (MA) or reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning (RIC/NST), during 1998-2010. We analyzed nonrelapse mortality (NRM), progression/relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Seventy-four patients (median age, 54 years) received MA, and 128 patients (median age, 59 years) received RIC/NST. Median follow-up after allo-HCT was 35 months in the MA group and 43 months in the RIC/NST group. At 3 years post-transplantation, no significant between-group differences were seen in terms of NRM (47% in MA versus 43% in RIC/NST; P = .68), relapse/progression (33% versus 32%; P = .89), PFS (20% versus 25%; P = .53), or OS (25% versus 30%; P = .45). Multivariate analysis also revealed no significant between-group differences in NRM, relapse, PFS, or OS; however, receipt of a bone marrow or T cell-depleted allograft was associated with an increased risk of NRM and inferior PFS and OS. Our data suggest that despite a refractory disease state, approximately 25% of patients with MCL can attain durable remission after allo-HCT, and conditioning regimen intensity does not influence outcome of allo-HCT.
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Salvage second hematopoietic cell transplantation in myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) as initial therapy of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) improves survival. However, data to support this approach for relapsed/progressive disease after initial AHCT (AHCT1) are limited. Using Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data, we report the outcomes of 187 patients who underwent a second AHCT (AHCT2) for the treatment of relapsed/progressive MM. Planned tandem AHCT was excluded. Median age at AHCT2 was 59 years (range, 28 to 72), and median patient follow-up was 47 months (range, 3 to 97). Nonrelapse mortality after AHCT2 was 2% at 1 year and 4% at 3 years. Median interval from AHCT1 to relapse/progression was 18 months, and median interval between transplantations was 32 months. After AHCT2, the incidence of relapse/progression at 1 and 3 years was 51% and 82%, respectively. At 3 years after AHCT2, progression-free survival was 13%, and overall survival was 46%. In multivariate analyses, those relapsing ?36 months after AHCT1 had superior progression-free (P = .045) and overall survival (P = .019). Patients who underwent AHCT2 after 2004 had superior survival (P = .026). AHCT2 is safe and feasible for disease progression after AHCT1. In this retrospective study, individuals relapsing ?36 months from AHCT1 derived greater benefit from AHCT2 compared with those with a shorter disease-free interval. Storage of an adequate graft before AHCT1 will ensure that the option of a second autologous transplantation is retained for patients with relapsed/progressive MM.
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Tocilizumab for the treatment of steroid refractory graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Corticosteroid refractory graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the major challenges in the management of allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Although numerous agents have been employed to treat this patient population, no standardized second-line therapy exists. In this study, we report our experience with the administration of tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin 6 receptor antibody, in the treatment of steroid refractory GVHD. Tocilizumab was administered to 8 patients with refractory acute (n = 6) or chronic GVHD (cGVHD) (n = 2) once every 3 to 4 weeks. The majority of patients with acute GVHD (aGVHD) had grade IV organ involvement of the skin or gastrointestinal tract, whereas both patients with cGVHD had long-standing severe skin sclerosis at the time of treatment. There were no allergic or infusion-related adverse events. Treatment was discontinued in one patient over concerns that tocilizumab may have worsened preexisting hyperbilirubinemia. Several patients also had transient elevations in serum transaminase values. Infections were the primary adverse events associated with tocilizumab administration. Four patients (67%) with aGVHD had either partial or complete responses apparent within the first 56 days of therapy. One patient with cGVHD had a significant response to therapy, whereas the second had stabilization of disease that allowed for a modest reduction in immune suppressive medications. These results indicate that tocilizumab has activity in the treatment of steroid refractory GVHD and warrants further investigation as a therapeutic option for this disorder.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for advanced polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative for selected patients with advanced essential thrombocythemia (ET) or polycythemia vera (PV). From 1990 to 2007, 75 patients with ET (median age 49 years) and 42 patients with PV (median age 53 years) underwent transplantations at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC; n = 43) or at other Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) centers (n = 74). Thirty-eight percent of the patients had splenomegaly and 28% had a prior splenectomy. Most patients (69% for ET and 67% for PV) received a myeloablative (MA) conditioning regimen. Cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at 28 days was 88% for ET patients and 90% for PV patients. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grades II to IV occurred in 57% and 50% of ET and PV patients, respectively. The 1-year treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 27% for ET and 22% for PV. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 13% for ET and 30% for PV. Five-year survival/progression-free survival (PFS) was 55%/47% and 71%/48% for ET and PV, respectively. Patients without splenomegaly had faster neutrophil and platelet engraftment, but there were no differences in TRM, survival, or PFS. Presence of myelofibrosis (MF) did not affect engraftment or TRM. Over 45% of the patients who undergo transplantations for ET and PV experience long-term PFS.
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HLA DR15 antigen status does not impact graft-versus-host disease or survival in HLA-matched sibling transplantation for hematologic malignancies.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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The HLA class II DRB1 antigen DR15 is an important prognostic marker in immune-mediated marrow failure states. DR15 has also been associated with favorable outcomes (reduced acute graft-versus-host disease [aGVHD] and relapse) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. To elucidate the impact of DR15 on transplantation outcomes, we conducted a retrospective study of 2891 recipients of first allogeneic stem cell transplant from HLA-matched sibling donors for the treatment of acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) between 1990 and 2007. All patients received conventional myeloablative conditioning, T-replete grafts, and cyclosporine plus methotrexate-based GVHD prophylaxis. DNA-based HLA typing allowed categorization of 732 patients (25.3%) as positive and 2159 patients (74.7%) as negative for DRB1*15:01 or *15:02 (DR15). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the HLA DR15 positive and negative groups. In univariate analysis, HLA-DR15 status had no impact on neutrophil engraftment, aGVHD, chronic GVHD (cGVHD), treatment-related mortality, relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, DR15 status showed no significant difference in aGVHD, cGVHD, OS, or relapse. In conclusion, DR15 status had no impact on major HLA-matched sibling donor hematopoietic cell transplant outcomes in this large and homogenous cohort of patients with leukemia and MDS.
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Outcomes after matched unrelated donor versus identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation in adults with acute myelogenous leukemia.
Blood
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Approximately one-third of patients with an indication for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have an HLA-matched related donor (MRD) available to them. For the remaining patients, a matched unrelated donor (MUD) is an alternative. Prior studies comparing MRD and MUD HCT provide conflicting results, and the relative efficacy of MRD and MUD transplantation is an area of active investigation. To address this issue, we analyzed outcomes of 2223 adult acute myelogenous leukemia patients who underwent allogeneic HCT between 2002 and 2006 (MRD, n = 624; 8/8 HLA locus matched MUD, n = 1193; 7/8 MUD, n = 406). The 100-day cumulative incidence of grades B-D acute GVHD was significantly lower in MRD HCT recipients than in 8/8 MUD and 7/8 MUD HCT recipients (33%, 51%, and 53%, respectively; P < .001). In multivariate analysis, 8/8 MUD HCT recipients had a similar survival rate compared with MRD HCT recipients (relative risk [RR], 1.03; P = .62). 7/8 MUD HCT recipients had higher early mortality than MRD HCT recipients (RR, 1.40; P < .001), but beyond 6 months after HCT, their survival rates were similar (RR, 0.88; P = .30). These results suggest that transplantation from MUD and MRD donors results in similar survival times for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia.
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