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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl jasmonate.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Insect repellents are important prophylactic tools for travelers and populations living in endemic areas of malaria, dengue, encephalitis, and other vector-borne diseases. DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is a 6-decade-old synthetic repellent, which is still considered the gold standard of mosquito repellents. Mosquitoes use their sense of smell to detect DEET, but there are currently two hypotheses regarding its mode of action: activation of ionotropic receptor IR40a vs. odorant receptor(s). Here, we demonstrate that DEET, picaridin, insect repellent 3535, and p-menthan-3,8-diol activate the odorant receptor CquiOR136 of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Electrophysiological and behavioral assays showed that CquiIR40a knockdown had no significant effect on DEET detection and repellency. By contrast, reduction of CquiOR136 transcript levels led to a significant decrease in electroantennographic responses to DEET and a complete lack of repellency. Thus, direct activation of an odorant receptor, not an ionotropic receptor, is necessary for DEET reception and repellency in Culex mosquitoes. Interestingly, methyl jasmonate, a repellent derived from the nonvolatile jasmonic acid in the signaling pathway of plant defenses, elicited robust responses in CquiOR136•CquiOrco-expressing Xenopus oocytes, thus suggesting a possible link between natural products with long insect-plant evolutionary history and synthetic repellents.
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Facile functional analysis of insect odorant receptors expressed in the fruit fly: validation with receptors from taxonomically distant and closely related species.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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With the advent of genomic sequences and next-generation sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq), multiple repertoires of olfactory proteins in various insect species are being unraveled. However, functional analyses are lagging behind due in part to the lack of simple and reliable methods for heterologous expression of odorant receptors (ORs). While the Xenopus oocyte recording system fulfills some of this lacuna, this system is devoid of other olfactory proteins, thus testing only the "naked" ORs. Recently, a moth OR was expressed in the majority of neurons in the antennae of the fruit fly using Orco-GAL4 to drive expression of the moth OR. Electroantennogram (EAG) was used to de-orphanize the moth OR, but generic application of this approach was brought to question. Here, we describe that this system works with ORs not only from taxonomically distant insect species (moth), but also closely related species (mosquito), even when the fruit fly has highly sensitive innate ORs for the odorant being tested. We demonstrate that Orco-GAL4 flies expressing the silkworm pheromone receptor, BmorOR1, showed significantly higher responses to the sex pheromone bombykol than the control lines used to drive expression. Additionally, we show that flies expressing an OR from the Southern house mosquito, CquiOR2, gave significantly stronger responses to the cognate odorants indole and 2-methylphenol than the "background noise" recorder from control lines. In summary, we validate the use of Orco-GAL4 driven UAS-OR lines along with EAG analysis as a simple alternative for de-orphanization and functional studies of insect ORs in an intact olfactory system.
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Differential expression of olfactory genes in the southern house mosquito and insights into unique odorant receptor gene isoforms.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, has one of the most acute and eclectic olfactory systems of all mosquito species hitherto studied. Here, we used Illumina sequencing to identify olfactory genes expressed predominantly in antenna, mosquitos main olfactory organ. Less than 50% of the trimmed reads generated by high-quality libraries aligned to a transcript, but approximately 70% of them aligned to the genome. Differential expression analysis, which was validated by quantitative real-time PCR on a subset of genes, showed that approximately half of the 48 odorant-binding protein genes were enriched in antennae, with the other half being predominantly expressed in legs. Similar patterns were observed with chemosensory proteins, "plus-C" odorant-binding proteins, and sensory neuron membrane proteins. Transcripts for as many as 43 ionotropic receptors were enriched in female antennae, thus making the ionotropic receptor family the largest of antennae-rich olfactory genes, second only to odorant receptor (OR) genes. As many as 177 OR genes have been identified, including 36 unique transcripts. The unique OR genes differed from previously annotated ORs in internal sequences, splice variants, and extended N or C terminus. One of the previously unknown transcripts was validated by cloning and functional expression. When challenged with a large panel of physiologically relevant compounds, CquiOR95b responded in a dose-dependent manner to ethyl 2-phenylacteate, which was demonstrated to repel Culex mosquitoes, and secondarily to citronellal, a known insect repellent. This transcriptome study led to identification of key molecular components and a repellent for the southern house mosquito.
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Pheromone discrimination by a pH-tuned polymorphism of the Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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The Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP) is known to adopt two different conformations. These are BmorPBP(A), where a regular helix formed by the C-terminal dodecapeptide segment, ?7, occupies the ligand-binding cavity, and BmorPBP(B), where the binding site is free to accept ligands. NMR spectra of delipidated BmorPBP solutions at the physiological pH of the bulk sensillum lymph near pH 6.5 show only BmorPBP(A), and in mixtures, the two species are in slow exchange on the chemical shift frequency scale. This equilibrium has been monitored at variable pH and ligand concentrations, demonstrating that it is an intrinsic property of BmorPBP that is strongly affected by pH variation and ligand binding. This polymorphism tunes BmorPBP for optimal selective pheromone transport: Competition between ?7 and lipophilic ligands for its binding cavity enables selective uptake of bombykol at the pore endings in the sensillum wall, whereas compounds with lower binding affinity can only be bound in the bulk sensillum lymph. After transport across the bulk sensillum lymph into the lower pH area near the dendritic membrane surface, bombykol is ejected near the receptor, whereas compounds with lower binding affinity are ejected before reaching the olfactory receptor, rendering them susceptible to degradation by enzymes present in the sensillum lymph.
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High condylectomy procedure: a valuable resource for surgical management of the mandibular condylar hyperplasia.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Condylar hyperplasia is an overdevelopment of the condyle, which may manifest unilaterally or bilaterally. This pathological condition can lead to facial asymmetry, malocclusion, and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology and pathogenesis of condylar hyperplasia remain uncertain, but it has been suggested that its etiology may be associated with hormonal factors, trauma, and hereditary hypervascularity, affecting both genders. The diagnosis is made by clinical examination, and radiological imaging, and additionally, bone scintigraphy, is a fundamental resource for determining whether the affected condyle shows active growth. Patients with active condylar hyperplasia management have better results when they are subjected to the high condylectomy procedure. The authors report a case in a 20-year-old female subject with unilateral active condylar hyperplasia who was treated by high condylectomy. The patient has been followed up for 4 years without signs of recurrence and with good functional stability of the occlusion.
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RNAi-based demonstration of direct link between specific odorant receptors and mosquito oviposition behavior.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus--a vector of West Nile virus--is equipped with 130 odorant receptors (ORs), which enable young females to locate plants and blood-meal sources and older females to find suitable sites for oviposition. In our attempts to de-orphanize ORs expressed in female antennae, we identified CquiOR37 and CquiOR99, which were narrowly tuned to two phenolic compounds, 4-methylphenol and 4-ethylphenol. When tested in the Xenopus oocyte recording system the observed EC50s for 4-methylphenol and 4-ethylphenol were 6.4 and 18.2 ?M for CquiOR37 and 14.4 and 0.74 ?M for CquiOR99 (goodness of fit, R² = 0.88-0.99), respectively. Indoor behavioral assays demonstrated that gravid female mosquitoes laid significantly more eggs in water trays spiked with these compounds than in control water trays. Field studies with gravid traps corroborated that 4-ethylphenol is active in a wide range of doses from 0.1 to 10 ?g/l, as required for practical applications. A dsRNA construct based on the two genes, CquiOR37/99-dsRNA was stable in pupa hemolymph for up to 3 h. Pupae injected with CquiOR37/99-dsRNA, ?-galactosidase-dsRNA or water had more than 40% survival rate at the peak of oviposition (day-9). qPCR analysis showed individual variation, but significant mean reduction in CquiOR37 and CquiOR99 transcript levels in CquiOR37/99-dsRNA-treated mosquitoes. Water-injected females and those treated with the control gene laid significantly more eggs in trays containing 4-ethylphenol than in water trays, whereas CquiOR37/99-dsRNA-treated mosquitoes laid normal number of eggs, but could not discriminate treatment from control. This study linked for the first time specific receptors for 4-ethylphenol with increased oviposition in the important vector Cx. quinquefasciatus.
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Conservative condylectomy for management of osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Osteochondroma is one of the most common benign tumors of the skeleton. This tumor is rare in the craniofacial region, with the most common sites of occurrence being the coronoid process of the mandible and the mandibular condyle. Traditionally, the treatments of these lesions include total condylectomy or local resection of the lesion. Conservative condylectomy procedure with reshaping of the remaining condylar neck and repositioning of the articular disk has been suggested. This article aimed to describe a 35-year-old woman with osteochondroma in the left mandibular condyle who was treated by conservative condylectomy. The patient has been free of recurrence for 2 years, showing good aesthetic and functional stability.
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Silent, generic and plant kairomone sensitive odorant receptors from the Southern house mosquito.
J. Insect Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The Southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus has the largest repertoire of odorant receptors (ORs) of all mosquitoes and dipteran species whose genomes have been sequenced to date. Previously, we have identified and de-orphanized two ORs expressed in female antennae, CquiOR2 and CquiOR10, which are sensitive to oviposition attractants. In view of a new nomenclature for the Culex genome (VectorBase) we renamed these ORs as CquiOR21 (formerly CquiOR10) and CquiOR121 (CquiOR2). In addition, we selected ORs from six different phylogenetic groups for deorphanization. We cloned four of them by using cDNA from female antennae as a template. Attempts to clone CquiOR87 and CquiOR110 were unsuccessful either because they are pseudogenes or are not expressed in adult female antennae, the main olfactory tissue. By contrast, CquiOR1, CquiOR44, CquiOR73, and CquiOR161 were highly expressed in female antennae. To de-orphanize these ORs, we employed the Xenopus oocyte recording system. CquiORx-CquiOrco-expressed oocytes were challenged with a panel of 90 compounds, including known oviposition attractants, human and vertebrate host odorants, plant kairomones, and naturally occurring repellents. While CquiOR161 did not respond to any test compound in two different laboratories, CquiOR1 showed the features of a generic OR, with strong responses to 1-octen-3-ol and other ligands. CquiOR44 and CquiOR73 showed preference to plant-derived terpenoids and phenolic compounds, respectively. While fenchone was the best ligand for the former, 3,5-dimethylphenol elicited the strongest responses in the latter. The newly de-orphanized ORs may be involved in reception of plant kairomones and/or natural repellents.
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Probing insect odorant receptors with their cognate ligands: insights into structural features.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Odorant receptors (ORs) are essential for insect survival in the environment and thus are ideal molecular targets for the design of insect-inspired modern green chemicals to control populations of agricultural pests and insects of medical importance. Although insect ORs are known for more than a decade, their structural biology is still in its infancy. Here, we unravel the first structural features of ORs from the malaria mosquito, the Southern house mosquito and the silkworm moth. The second extracellular loops (ECL-2s) of their predicted structures are much longer than ECL-1s and ECL-3s. The 27 amino-acid-residue-long of the ECL-2s in mosquito and the 43 amino-acid-residue-long ECL2s in moth ORs are well-conserved. About one-third of the residues are identical, including 3-4 Pro residues. Thorough examination of well-conserved residues in these structures, by point mutation and functional assay with the Xenopus oocyte recording system, strongly suggest that these "loops" include three ?-turns and some degree of folding. In the Southern house mosquito three Pro residues in ECL-2 are essential for full activation of the receptor, which is finely tuned to the oviposition attractant 3-methylindole. Additionally, the "corner residues" of prolines, including Gly, Tyr, and Leu are functionally important thus suggesting that turns are stabilized not only by backbone hydrogen bonds, but also by side-chain interactions. Examination of ECL-2s from a distant taxonomical group suggests these ECL-2 loops might be functionally important in all insect ORs. Two of the four Pro residues in the predicted ECL-2 of the bombykol receptor in the silkworm moth, BmorOR1, are essential for function. Experimental evidence indicates that these loops may not be specificity determinants, but they may form a cover to the yet-to-be-identified membrane embedded binding cavities of insect ORs.
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Crystallographic observation of pH-induced conformational changes in the Amyelois transitella pheromone-binding protein AtraPBP1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella is a major agricultural pest causing large losses in a variety of tree crops. Control of this insect pest may be achieved by interfering with olfactory pathways to block detection of female-produced sex pheromones and consequently, disrupt mating. The first component of this pathway is the pheromone-binding protein AtraPBP1, which recognizes the pheromone and presents it to the odorant receptor housed in a sensory neuron of the male antennae. Release of the ligand depends on a pH-induced conformational change associated with the acidity of the membrane surface. To characterize this conformational change and to understand how pheromones bind, we have determined the high resolution crystal structures of AtraPBP1 in complex with two main constituents of the sex pheromone, i.e., (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal and (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienol. Comparison with the structure of the unliganded form demonstrates a large ?90° movement of the C-terminal helix which is observed in other pheromone- or odorant-binding proteins accompanied by an unpredicted 37° displacement of the N-terminal helix. Molecular dynamic trajectories suggest that the conformational change of the ?1 helix facilitates the movement of the C-terminal helix.
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Fatty acid solubilizer from the oral disk of the blowfly.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Blowflies are economic pests of the wool industry and potential vectors for epidemics. The establishment of a pesticide-free, environmentally friendly blowfly control strategy is necessary. Blowflies must feed on meat in order to initiate the cascade of events that are involved in reproduction including juvenile hormone synthesis, vitellogenesis, and mating. During feeding blowflies regurgitate salivary lipase, which may play a role in releasing fatty acids from triglycerides that are found in food. However, long-chain fatty acids show low solubility in aqueous solutions. In order to solubilize and ingest the released hydrophobic fatty acids, the blowflies must use a solubilizer.
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Quasi-double-blind screening of semiochemicals for reducing navel orangeworm oviposition on almonds.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A three-step, quasi-double-bind approach was used as a proof-of-concept study to screen twenty compounds for their ability to reduce oviposition of gravid female navel orangeworm(NOW), Ameylois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). First, the panel of compounds, whose identity was unknown to the experimenters, was tested by electroantennogram (EAG) using antennae of two-day old gravid females as the sensing element. Of the twenty compounds tested three showed significant EAG responses. These three EAG-active compounds and a negative control were then analyzed for their ability to reduce oviposition via small-cage, two-choice laboratory assays. Two of the three compounds significantly reduced oviposition under laboratory conditions. Lastly, these two compounds were deployed in a field setting in an organic almond orchard in Arbuckle, CA using black egg traps to monitor NOW oviposition. One of these two compounds significantly reduced oviposition on black egg traps under these field conditions. Compound 9 (later identified as isophorone) showed a significant reduction in oviposition in field assays and thus has a potential as a tool to control the navel orangeworm as a pest of almonds.
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Identification and characterization of an antennae-specific aldehyde oxidase from the navel orangeworm.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Antennae-specific odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) are postulated to inactivate odorant molecules after they convey their signal. Different classes of insect ODEs are specific to esters, alcohols, and aldehydes--the major functional groups of female-produced, hydrophobic sex pheromones from moth species. Esterases that rapidly inactive acetate and other esters have been well-studied, but less is known about aldehyde oxidases (AOXs). Here we report cloning of an aldehyde oxidase, AtraAOX2, from the antennae of the navel orangeworm (NOW), Amyelois transitella, and the first activity characterization of a recombinant insect AOX. AtraAOX2 gene spans 3,813 bp and encodes a protein with 1,270 amino acid residues. AtraAOX2 cDNA was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect Sf21 cells as a ?280 kDa homodimer with 140 kDa subunits. Recombinant AtraAOX2 degraded Z11Z13-16Ald and plant volatile aldehydes as substrates. However, as expected for aldehyde oxidases, recombinant AtraAOX2 did not show specificity for Z11Z13-16Ald, the main constituent of the sex pheromone, but showed high activity for plant volatile aldehydes. Our data suggest AtraAOX2 might be involved in degradation of a diversity of aldehydes including sex pheromones, plant-derived semiochemicals, and chemical cues for oviposition sites. Additionally, AtraAOX2 could protect the insects olfactory system from xenobiotics, including pesticides that might reach the sensillar lymph surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons.
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Unusual macrocyclic lactone sex pheromone of Parcoblatta lata, a primary food source of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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Wood cockroaches in the genus Parcoblatta, comprising 12 species endemic to North America, are highly abundant in southeastern pine forests and represent an important prey of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis. The broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata, is among the largest and most abundant of the wood cockroaches, constituting >50% of the biomass of the woodpeckers diet. Because reproduction in red-cockaded woodpeckers is affected dramatically by seasonal and spatial changes in arthropod availability, monitoring P. lata populations could serve as a useful index of habitat suitability for woodpecker conservation and forest management efforts. Female P. lata emit a volatile, long-distance sex pheromone, which, once identified and synthesized, could be deployed for monitoring cockroach populations. We describe here the identification, synthesis, and confirmation of the chemical structure of this pheromone as (4Z,11Z)-oxacyclotrideca-4,11-dien-2-one [= (3Z,10Z)-dodecadienolide; herein referred to as "parcoblattalactone"]. This macrocyclic lactone is a previously unidentified natural product and a previously unknown pheromonal structure for cockroaches, highlighting the great chemical diversity that characterizes olfactory communication in cockroaches: Each long-range sex pheromone identified to date from different genera belongs to a different chemical class. Parcoblattalactone was biologically active in electrophysiological assays and attracted not only P. lata but also several other Parcoblatta species in pine forests, underscoring its utility in monitoring several endemic wood cockroach species in red-cockaded woodpecker habitats.
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Conserved odorant-binding proteins from aphids and eavesdropping predators.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2011
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The sesquiterpene (E)-ß-farnesene is the main component of the alarm pheromone system of various aphid species studied to date, including the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae. Aphid natural enemies, such as the marmalade hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus and the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis, eavesdrop on aphid chemical communication and utilize (E)-ß-farnesene as a kairomone to localize their immediate or offspring preys. These aphid-predator systems are important models to study how the olfactory systems of distant insect taxa process the same chemical signal. We postulated that odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), which are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception, have conserved regions involved in binding (E)-ß-farnesene.
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Electrophysiological measurements from a moth olfactory system.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Insect olfactory systems provide unique opportunities for recording odorant-induced responses in the forms of electroantennograms (EAG) and single sensillum recordings (SSR), which are summed responses from all odorant receptor neurons (ORNs) located on the antenna and from those housed in individual sensilla, respectively. These approaches have been exploited for getting a better understanding of insect chemical communication. The identified stimuli can then be used as either attractants or repellents in management strategies for insect pests.
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Characterization of olfactory genes in the antennae of the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.
J. Insect Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Odorant reception in insects is mediated by different families of olfactory proteins. Here we focus on the characterization of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), "plus-C" odorant-binding proteins ("plus-C" OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) families from the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector of pathogens implicated in multiple human diseases. Using bioinformatics and molecular approaches, we have identified a diversity of genes in the genome of Culex quinquefasciatus and examined their expression profiles by RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR. Based on their high transcript enrichment in female antennae compared to non-olfactory tissues, we have identified twelve OBPs, two "plus-C" OBPs and two SNMPs that likely play important roles in odorant reception. Transcripts of two genes were clearly enriched in female antennae compared to male antennae, whereas other genes displayed relatively equivalent transcript levels in antennae of both sexes. Additionally, eight genes were found to be transcribed at very high levels in female antennae compared to CquiOR7, suggesting they might encode highly abundant olfactory proteins. Comparative analysis across different mosquito species revealed that olfactory genes of Culex quinquefasciatus are related to putative orthologs in other species, indicating that they might perform similar functions. Understanding how mosquitoes are able to detect ecologically relevant odorant cues might help designing better control strategies. We have identified olfactory genes from different families which are likely important in Culex quinquefasciatus behaviors, thus paving the way towards a better understanding of the diversity of proteins involved in the reception of semiochemicals in this species.
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Generic insect repellent detector from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Insect repellents are prophylactic tools against a number of vector-borne diseases. There is growing demand for repellents outperforming DEET in cost and safety, but with the current technologies R&D of a new product takes almost 10 years, with a prohibitive cost of $30 million dollar in part due to the demand for large-scale synthesis of thousands of test compounds of which only 1 may reach the market. R&D could be expedited and cost dramatically reduced with a molecular/physiological target to streamline putative repellents for final efficacy and toxicological tests.
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Dynamic conformational equilibria in the physiological function of the Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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The Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP) undergoes a pH-dependent conformational transition from a form at basic pH, which contains an open cavity suitable for ligand binding (BmorPBP(B)), to a form at pH 4.5, where this cavity is occupied by an additional helix (BmorPBP(A)). This helix ?7 is formed by the C-terminal dodecapeptide 131-142, which is flexibly disordered on the protein surface in BmorPBP(B) and in its complex with the pheromone bombykol. Previous work showed that the ligand-binding cavity cannot accommodate both bombykol and helix ?7. Here we further investigated mechanistic aspects of the physiologically crucial ejection of the ligand at lower pH values by solution NMR studies of the variant protein BmorPBP(1-128), where the C-terminal helix-forming tetradecapeptide is removed. The NMR structure of the truncated protein at pH 6.5 corresponds closely to BmorPBP(B). At pH 4.5, BmorPBP(1-128) maintains a B-type structure that is in a slow equilibrium, on the NMR chemical shift timescale, with a low-pH conformation for which a discrete set of (15)N-(1)H correlation peaks is NMR unobservable. The full NMR spectrum was recovered upon readjusting the pH of the protein solution to 6.5. These data reveal dual roles for the C-terminal tetradecapeptide of BmorPBP in the mechanism of reversible pheromone binding and transport, where it governs dynamic equilibria between two locally different protein conformations at acidic pH and competes with the ligand for binding to the interior cavity.
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Extrusion of the C-terminal helix in navel orangeworm moth pheromone-binding protein (AtraPBP1) controls pheromone binding.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is an agricultural insect pest that can be controlled by disrupting male-female communication with sex pheromones, a technique known as mating disruption. Insect pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) provide fast transport of hydrophobic pheromones through aqueous sensillar lymph and promote sensitive delivery of pheromones to receptors. Here we present a mutational analysis on a PBP from A. transitella (AtraPBP1) to evaluate how the C-terminal helix in this protein controls pheromone binding as a function of pH. Pheromone binds tightly to AtraPBP1 at neutral pH, but the binding is much weaker at pH below 5. Deletion of the entire C-terminal helix (residues 129-142) causes more than 100-fold increase in pheromone-binding affinity at pH 5 and only a 1.5-fold increase at pH 7. A similar pH-dependent increase in pheromone binding is also seen for the H80A/H95A double mutant that promotes extrusion of the C-terminal helix by disabling salt bridges at each end of the helix. The single mutants (H80A and H95A) also exhibit pheromone binding at pH below 5, but with ?2-fold weaker affinity. NMR and circular dichroism data demonstrate a large overall structural change in each of these mutants at pH 4.5, indicating an extrusion of the C-terminal helix that profoundly affects the overall structure of the low pH form. Our results confirm that sequestration of the C-terminal helix at low pH as seen in the recent NMR structure may serve to block pheromone binding. We propose that extrusion of these C-terminal residues at neutral pH (or by the mutations in this study) exposes a hydrophobic cleft that promotes high affinity pheromone binding.
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Crystal and solution structures of an odorant-binding protein from the southern house mosquito complexed with an oviposition pheromone.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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Culex mosquitoes introduce the pathogens responsible for filariasis, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, and other diseases into humans. Currently, traps baited with oviposition semiochemicals play an important role in detection efforts and could provide an environmentally friendly approach to controlling their populations. The odorant binding proteins (OBPs) in the females antenna play a crucial, if yet imperfectly understood, role in sensing oviposition cues. Here, we report the X-ray crystallography and NMR 3D structures of OBP1 for Culex quinquefasciatus (CquiOBP1) bound to an oviposition pheromone (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (MOP). In both studies, CquiOBP1 had the same overall six-helix structure seen in other insect OBPs, but a detailed analysis revealed an important previously undescribed feature. There are two models for OBP-mediated signal transduction: (i) direct release of the pheromone from an internal binding pocket in a pH-dependent fashion and (ii) detection of a pheromone-induced conformational change in the OBP·pheromone complex. Although CquiOBP1 binds MOP in a pH-dependent fashion, it lacks the C terminus required for the pH-dependent release model. This study shows that CquiOBP binds MOP in an unprecedented fashion using both a small central cavity for the lactone head group and a long hydrophobic channel for its tail.
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Odorant-binding proteins of the malaria mosquito Anopheles funestus sensu stricto.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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The mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vector species in sub-Saharan Africa. Olfaction is essential in guiding mosquito behaviors. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception. An improved understanding of the function of malaria mosquito OBPs may contribute to identifying new attractants/repellents and assist in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly mosquito controlling strategies.
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Evaluation of an oviposition-stimulating kairomone for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in Recife, Brazil.
J. Vector Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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A synthetic mixture of an oviposition-stimulating kairomone for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, comprising of 83% tetradecanoic acid, 16% nonanoic acid and 1% tetradecanoic acid methyl ester (NTT, in short) was tested in a dengue endemic area in Recife, Brazil. Gravid female mosquitoes confined to a cage under semi-field conditions deposited significantly higher numbers of eggs in traps baited with NTT at doses ranging from 0.6 to 600 ng/microl than in control (water) traps. When tested in homes, egg-laying in traps baited with 60 ng NTT/microl (final concentration in trap, approximately 3.33 ng/ml) and in control traps was not significantly different, but egg deposited in traps with lower dosage (6 ng NTT/microl; final concentration in trap, approximately 0.33 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in control traps. In subsequent trials, the numbers of eggs laid in traps baited with 0.6 ng NTT/microl (final concentration in trap, approximately 0.033 ng/ml) were not significantly different from the numbers deposited in trap loaded with 6 ng NTT/microl. Egg-laying was significantly higher in these treatments than in control traps.
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Odorant receptor from the southern house mosquito narrowly tuned to the oviposition attractant skatole.
J. Chem. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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Oviposition attractants are environmental cues that allow Culex gravid female mosquitoes to locate suitable sites for egg-laying and, therefore, may be exploited for environmentally friendly strategies for controlling mosquito populations. Naturally occurring skatole has been identified as an oviposition attractant for the Southern House mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Previously, we identified in Cx. quinquefasciatus female antennae an olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) highly sensitive to skatole and an odorant-binding protein involved in the detection of this semiochemical. Here, we describe the characterization of an odorant receptor (OR), CquiOR10, which is narrowly tuned to skatole when expressed in the Xenopus oocyte system. Odorant-induced response profiles generated by heterologously expressed CquiOR10 suggest that this OR is expressed in the mosquito ORN sensitive to skatole. However, geranylacetone, which stimulates the antennal ORN, was not detected by CquiOR10-expressing oocytes, thus raising interesting questions about reception of oviposition attractants in mosquitoes.
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Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) egg laying in traps loaded with Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis and baited with skatole.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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The Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is an important human health pest as a vector of several pathogens, including agents of lymphatic filariasis and arboviruses like West Nile virus. We conducted preliminary experiments in Recife, Brazil, to explore applications of Culex oviposition attractants in combination with Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) in an attract-and-kill approach. Simple, cost-effective oviposition traps, BR-OVT, loaded with Bti and baited with or without attractant, were deployed in 10 homes for 30 d in 2 consecutive yr. Significantly higher numbers of egg rafts were deposited in traps baited with skatole or infusion than the control water traps. In the first year, 2006, significantly higher numbers of eggs were deposited in infusion-baited traps, particularly in the first 15 d of the experiment, than in skatole traps, but in the following year no significant difference was observed between synthetic and natural attractants. The tests strongly demonstrate that skatole or infusion can be used to enhance the number of egg rafts deposited on Bti-treated oviposition traps.
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Bombykol receptors in the silkworm moth and the fruit fly.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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Male moths are endowed with odorant receptors (ORs) to detect species-specific sex pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. We serendipitously discovered that an endogenous OR in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is highly sensitive to the sex pheromone of the silkworm moth, bombykol. Intriguingly, the fruit fly detectors are more sensitive than the receptors of the silkworm moth, although its ecological significance is unknown. By expression in the "empty neuron" system, we identified the fruit fly bombykol-sensitive OR as DmelOR7a (= DmOR7a). The profiles of this receptor in response to bombykol in the native sensilla (ab4) or expressed in the empty neuron system (ab3 sensilla) are indistinguishable. Both WT and transgenic flies responded with high sensitivity, in a dose-dependent manner, and with rapid signal termination. In contrast, the same empty neuron expressing the moth bombykol receptor, BmorOR1, demonstrated low sensitivity and slow signal inactivation. When expressed in the trichoid sensilla T1 of the fruit fly, the neuron housing BmorOR1 responded with sensitivity comparable to that of the native trichoid sensilla in the silkworm moth. By challenging the native bombykol receptor in the fruit fly with high doses of another odorant to which the receptor responds with the highest sensitivity, we demonstrate that slow signal termination is induced by overdose of a stimulus. As opposed to the empty neuron system in the basiconic sensilla, the structural, biochemical, and/or biophysical features of the sensilla make the T1 trichoid system of the fly a better surrogate for the moth receptor.
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Pheromone binding to general odorant-binding proteins from the navel orangeworm.
J. Chem. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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General odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs) of moths are postulated to be involved in the reception of semiochemicals other than sex pheromones, the so-called "general odorants." We have expressed two GOBPs, AtraGOBP1 and AtraGOBP2, which were previously isolated from the antennae of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella. Surprisingly, these two proteins did not bind compounds that are known to attract adult moths, particularly females. The proper folding and functionality of the recombinant proteins was inferred from circular dichroism analysis and demonstration that both GOBPs bound nonanal in a pH-dependent manner. EAG experiments demonstrated that female attractants (1-phenylethanol, propionic acid phenyl ester, and isobutyric acid phenyl ester) are detected with high sensitivity by the antennae of day-0 to day-4 adult females, with response declining in older moths. The same age-dependence was shown for male antennae responding to constituents of the sex pheromone. Interestingly, AtraGOBP2 bound the major constituent of the sex pheromone, Z11Z13-16Ald, with affinity comparable to that shown by a pheromone-binding protein, AtraPBP1. The related alcohol bound to AtraPBP1 with higher affinity than to AtraGOBP2. AtraGOBP1 bound both ligands with low but nearly the same affinity.
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An odorant receptor from the southern house mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus sensitive to oviposition attractants.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Insect odorant receptors (ORs) are heteromers comprised of highly variable odorant-binding subunits associated with one conserved co-receptor. They are potential molecular targets for the development of novel mosquito attractants and repellents. ORs have been identified in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. However, they are still unknown in the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, which transmits pathogens that cause human diseases throughout the world, including West Nile Virus in the United States.
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Chemical ecology of animal and human pathogen vectors in a changing global climate.
J. Chem. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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Infectious diseases affecting livestock and human health that involve vector-borne pathogens are a global problem, unrestricted by borders or boundaries, which may be exacerbated by changing global climate. Thus, the availability of effective tools for control of pathogen vectors is of the utmost importance. The aim of this article is to review, selectively, current knowledge of the chemical ecology of pathogen vectors that affect livestock and human health in the developed and developing world, based on key note lectures presented in a symposium on "The Chemical Ecology of Disease Vectors" at the 25th Annual ISCE meeting in Neuchatel, Switzerland. The focus is on the deployment of semiochemicals for monitoring and control strategies, and discusses briefly future directions that such research should proceed along, bearing in mind the environmental challenges associated with climate change that we will face during the 21st century.
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NMR structure of navel orangeworm moth pheromone-binding protein (AtraPBP1): implications for pH-sensitive pheromone detection.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is an agricultural insect pest that can be controlled by disrupting male-female communication with sex pheromones, a technique known as mating disruption. Insect pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) provide fast transport of hydrophobic pheromones through the aqueous sensillar lymph and promote sensitive delivery of pheromones to receptors. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of a PBP from A. transitella (AtraPBP1) in solution at pH 4.5 determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments, multiangle light scattering, and (15)N NMR relaxation analysis indicate that AtraPBP1 forms a stable monomer in solution at pH 4.5 in contrast to forming mostly dimers at pH 7. The NMR structure of AtraPBP1 at pH 4.5 contains seven alpha-helices (alpha1, L8-L23; alpha2, D27-F36; alpha3, R46-V62; alpha4, A73-M78; alpha5, D84-S100; alpha6, R107-L125; alpha7, M131-E141) that adopt an overall main-chain fold similar to that of PBPs found in Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori. The AtraPBP1 structure is stabilized by three disulfide bonds formed by C19/C54, C50/C108, and C97/C117 and salt bridges formed by H69/E60, H70/E57, H80/E132, H95/E141, and H123/D40. All five His residues are cationic at pH 4.5, whereas H80 and H95 become neutral at pH 7.0. The C-terminal helix (alpha7) contains hydrophobic residues (M131, V133, V134, V135, V138, L139, and A140) that contact conserved residues (W37, L59, A73, F76, A77, I94, V111, and V115) suggested to interact with bound pheromone. Our NMR studies reveal that acid-induced formation of the C-terminal helix at pH 4.5 is triggered by a histidine protonation switch that promotes rapid release of bound pheromone under acidic conditions.
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Knockdown of a mosquito odorant-binding protein involved in the sensitive detection of oviposition attractants.
J. Chem. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) were discovered almost three decades ago, but there is still considerable debate regarding their role(s) in insect olfaction, particularly due to our inability to knockdown OBPs and demonstrate their direct phenotypic effects. By using RNA interference (RNAi), we reduced transcription of a major OBP gene, CquiOBP1, in the antennae of the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mosquito oviposition pheromone (MOP) binds to CquiOBP1, which is expressed in MOP-sensitive sensilla. Antennae of RNAi-treated mosquitoes showed significantly lower electrophysiological responses to known mosquito oviposition attractants than the antennae of water-injected, control mosquitoes. While electroantennogram (EAG) responses to MOP, skatole, and indole were reduced in the knockdowns, there was no significant difference in the EAG responses from RNAi-treated and water-injected mosquito antennae to nonanal at all doses tested. These data suggest that CquiOBP1 is involved in the reception of some oviposition attractants, and that high levels of OBPs expression are essential for the sensitivity of the insects olfactory system.
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Acute olfactory response of Culex mosquitoes to a human- and bird-derived attractant.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2009
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West Nile virus, which is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes while feeding on birds and humans, has emerged as the dominant vector borne disease in North America. We have identified natural compounds from humans and birds, which are detected with extreme sensitivity by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). One of these semiochemicals, nonanal, dominates the odorant spectrum of pigeons, chickens, and humans from various ethnic backgrounds. We determined the specificity and sensitivity of all ORN types housed in different sensilla types on Cx. quinquefasciatus antennae. Here, we present a comprehensive map of all antennal ORNs coding natural ligands and their dose-response functions. Nonanal is detected by a large array of sensilla and is by far the most potent stimulus; thus, supporting the assumption that Cx. quinquefasciatus can smell humans and birds. Nonanal and CO(2) synergize, thus, leading to significantly higher catches of Culex mosquitoes in traps baited with binary than in those with individual lures.
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Structure of an odorant-binding protein from the mosquito Aedes aegypti suggests a binding pocket covered by a pH-sensitive "Lid".
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for the viruses that cause yellow fever, mostly in tropical regions of Africa and in parts of South America, and human dengue, which infects 100 million people yearly in the tropics and subtropics. A better understanding of the structural biology of olfactory proteins may pave the way for the development of environmentally-friendly mosquito attractants and repellents, which may ultimately contribute to reduction of mosquito biting and disease transmission.
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Olfactory proteins mediating chemical communication in the navel orangeworm moth, Amyelois transitella.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
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The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most serious insect pest of almonds and pistachios in California for which environmentally friendly alternative methods of control--like pheromone-based approaches--are highly desirable. Some constituents of the sex pheromone are unstable and could be replaced with parapheromones, which may be designed on the basis of molecular interaction of pheromones and pheromone-detecting olfactory proteins.
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Strategies for competitiveness and sustainability: adaptation of a Brazilian subsidiary of a Swedish multinational corporation.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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The competitiveness, in terms of macro and micro levels of an enterprise, is often dictated by its capacity to innovate, ability to respond to the needs of the market, and resilience to challenges from competition. This paper reviews the literature on the adaptation of research and development (R&D) units in subsidiaries of multinational corporations. It focuses mainly on the impact of the technological dynamic on sustainability performance of the Brazilian subsidiary of the Swedish multinational Ericsson. Through a conceptual framework, it explores information and communication technologies (ICT) towards a transversal and comprehensive vision of levels of innovation and sustainability.
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Genome analysis and expression patterns of odorant-binding proteins from the Southern House mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
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Olfactory-based behaviors in mosquitoes are mediated by odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). They form a multigenic family involved in the peripheral events in insect olfaction, specifically the transport of odorants to membrane-bound odorant receptors. OBPs contribute to the remarkable sensitivity of the insects olfactory system and may be involved in the selective transport of odorants.We have employed a combination of bioinformatics and molecular approaches to identify and characterize members of the "classic" OBP family in the Southern House mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus ( = Cx. quinquefasciatus), a vector of pathogens causing several human diseases. By taking advantage of the recently released genome sequences, we have identified fifty-three putative Cx. quinquefasciatus OBP genes by Blast searches. As a first step towards their molecular characterization, expression patterns by RT-PCR revealed thirteen genes that were detected exclusively and abundantly in chemosensory tissues. No clear differences were observed in the transcripts levels of olfactory-specific OBPs between antennae of both sexes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Phylogenetic and comparative analysis revealed orthologous of Cx. quinquefasciatus OBPs in Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti. The identification of fifty-three putative OBP genes in Cx. quinquefasciatus highlights the diversity of this family. Tissue-specificity study suggests the existence of different functional classes within the mosquito OBP family. Most genes were detected in chemosensory as well as non chemosensory tissues indicating that they might be encapsulins, but not necessarily olfactory proteins. On the other hand, thirteen "true" OBP genes were detected exclusively in olfactory tissues and might be involved specifically in the detection of "key" semiochemicals. Interestingly, in Cx. quinquefasciatus olfactory-specific OBPs belong exclusively to four distinct phylogenetic groups which are particularly well conserved among three mosquito species.
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(1)H, (15)N, and (13)C chemical shift assignments of the mosquito odorant binding protein-1 (CquiOBP1) bound to the mosquito oviposition pheromone.
Biomol NMR Assign
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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An odorant-binding protein from the Southern house mosquito, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Cqui-OBP1) binds to the mosquito oviposition pheromone (MOP), 6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide to facilitate the transport of MOP to membrane-bound odorant receptors. We report complete NMR chemical shift assignments of Cqui-OBP1 bound to the MOP pheromone obtained at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C (BMRB no. 16175).
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Surgical prediction of skeletal and soft tissue changes in treatment of Class II.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
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The purpose of this study was to study the treatment outcomes and the accuracy of digital prediction and the actual postoperative outcome with Dolphin program on subjects presenting Class II malocclusions.
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Long-term skeletal and profile stability after surgical-orthodontic treatment of Class II and Class III malocclusion.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
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The purpose of this perspective research was to study the long-term stability of skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue after orthognathic surgery in subjects presenting with Class II and Class III malocclusions.
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Odorant reception in insects: roles of receptors, binding proteins, and degrading enzymes.
Annu. Rev. Entomol.
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Our knowledge of the molecular basis of odorant reception in insects has grown exponentially over the past decade. Odorant receptors (ORs) from moths, fruit flies, mosquitoes, and the honey bees have been deorphanized, odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) have been isolated, and the functions of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have been unveiled. OBPs contribute to the sensitivity of the olfactory system by transporting odorants through the sensillar lymph, but there are competing hypotheses on how they act at the end of the journey. A few ODEs that have been demonstrated to degrade odorants rapidly may act in signal inactivation alone or in combination with other molecular traps. Although ORs in Drosophila melanogaster respond to multiple odorants and seem to work in combinatorial code involving both periphery and antennal lobes, reception of sex pheromones by moth ORs suggests that their labeled lines rely heavily on selectivity at the periphery.
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Large unicystic ameloblastoma of the mandible: management guided by biological behavior.
J Craniofac Surg
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Ameloblastoma is a true neoplasm of odontogenic epithelial origin. It is a slow-growing benign tumor of the jaw, and patients usually present late after the tumor achieves considerable size to cause facial disfigurement. Diagnosis mainly from tissue biopsy and radiograph findings does assist in differentiating between types of ameloblastoma. Unicystic ameloblastoma is a tumor with a strong propensity for recurrence. There is a difference in biological behavior between mural unicystic ameloblastoma and those which are simply cystic or show intraluminal proliferation. The challenges in the management of this tumor are to provide complete excision in addition to reconstructing the bony defect, to provide the patient with reasonable cosmetic and functional outcome. The authors report a case of a mural unicystic ameloblastoma in a 23-year-old man who was treated by partial resection of the mandible. Biomedical prototypes were used because they provide acceptable precision and are useful for treatment planning.
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Specificity determinants of the silkworm moth sex pheromone.
PLoS ONE
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The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1-C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains.
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Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.
PLoS ONE
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The insects olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 (?=?HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.
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Surgical prediction of skeletal and soft tissue changes in Class III treatment.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
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The purpose of this study was to study the treatment outcomes and accuracy of the digital prediction using Dolphin Imaging Software and the actual postoperative outcome in subjects presenting Class III malocclusions.
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