Hurler disease (mucopolysaccharidosis type I [MPS-I]) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme ?-L-iduronidase (IDUA). Currently, the only therapies for MPS-I, enzyme replacement and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, are generally ineffective for central nervous system manifestations.
Immune system cells are known to affect loss of neurons due to injury or disease. Recruitment of immune cells following retinal/CNS injury has been shown to affect the health and survival of neurons in several models. We detected close, physical contact between dendritic cells and retinal ganglion cells following an optic nerve crush, and sought to understand the underlying mechanisms.
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is the taurine conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a US Food and Drug Administration-approved hydrophilic bile acid for the treatment of certain cholestatic liver diseases. There is a growing body of research on the mechanism(s) of TUDCA and its potential therapeutic effect on a wide variety of non-liver diseases. Both UDCA and TUDCA are potent inhibitors of apoptosis, in part by interfering with the upstream mitochondrial pathway of cell death, inhibiting oxygen-radical production, reducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and stabilizing the unfolded protein response (UPR). Several studies have demonstrated that TUDCA serves as an anti-apoptotic agent for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. In addition, TUDCA plays an important role in protecting against cell death in certain retinal disorders, such as retinitis pigmentosa. It has been shown to reduce ER stress associated with elevated glucose levels in diabetes by inhibiting caspase activation, up-regulating the UPR, and inhibiting reactive oxygen species. Obesity, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, spinal cord injury, and a long list of acute and chronic non-liver diseases associated with apoptosis are all potential therapeutic targets for T/UDCA. A growing number of pre-clinical and clinical studies underscore the potential benefit of this simple, naturally occurring bile acid, which has been used in Chinese medicine for more than 3000 years.
We tested the hypothesis that a novel vaccine developed from autologous dendritic cells (DC) loaded with cells from a unique allogeneic brain tumor cell line (GBM6-AD) would be well-tolerated and would generate an immune response.
Cellular therapy for myocardial repair has been one of the most intensely investigated interventional strategies for acute myocardium infarction. Although the therapeutic potential of stem cells has been demonstrated in various studies, the underlying mechanisms for such improvement are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the long?term effects of stem cell therapy on both myocardial fiber organization and regional contractile function using a rat model of post?infarct remodeling. Human non?hematopoietic umbilical cord blood stem cells (nh?UCBSCs) were administered via tail vein to rats 2 days after infarct surgery. Animals were maintained without immunosuppressive therapy. In vivo and ex vivo MR imaging was performed on infarct hearts ten months after cell transplantation. Compared to the age?matched rats exposed to the identical surgery, both global and regional cardiac function of the nhUCBSC?treated hearts, such as ejection fraction, ventricular strain and torsion, were significantly improved. More importantly, the treated hearts exhibited preserved fiber orientation and water diffusivities that were similar to those in sham?operated control hearts. These data provide the first evidence that nh?UCBSC treatment may prevent/delay untoward structural remodeling in post?infarct hearts, which supports the improved LV function observed in vivo in the absence of immunosuppression, suggesting a beneficial paracrine effect that occurred with the cellular therapy.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1 (FGFR1) is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We investigated the preclinical activity of OM-RCA-01, a novel therapeutic humanized anti-FGFR1 antibody in RCC. OM-RCA-01 has been shown to inhibit in vitro kinase activity of FGFR1 and has high affinity (Kd of 1.59 nM). In human renal carcinoma Caki-1 FGFR1-expressing cells, OM-RCA-01 potently inhibited FGF-mediated signaling and proliferation. In vivo, the tumors in untreated mice or mice treated with non-specific IgG continued their aggressive growth to reach the size of 2,000 cm3, at which point the mice were killed. In contrast, treatment with OM-RCA-01 not only significant arrested further growth of the tumors (P < 0.01) but also demonstrated differences in tumor volume compared with vehicle already on Day 13. A similar anti-tumor activity of OM-RCA-01 was observed when the antibody was given in low (1 mg/kg) or high (10 mg/kg) doses (P = 0.917). In Matrigel assay, OM-RCA-01 significantly inhibited FGF-induced endothelial cell migration, capillary-like tubular structure and mature vessels formation. Administration of 10 mg/kg antibody for up to 35 days resulted in minimal body weight loss and no observations of gross toxicity were made. Collectively, the data obtained with OM-RCA-01 are consistent with potent inhibition of FGFR1-signaling, angiogenesis, and tumor growth. OM-RCA-01 is being developed clinically as an intravenous therapy for the treatment of clear cell RCC.
Neural stem cells (NSCs) respond to inflammatory cues induced during brain injury and are thought to be involved in recovery from brain damage. Little is known about NSC response during brain infections. The present study evaluated NSC proliferation during Herpes Simplex Virus-1 brain infection. Total numbers of nestin(+) NSCs increased significantly in infected brains at 6 days post infection (p.i.). However, by 15 days p.i. the nestin(+) population decreased significantly below levels observed in uninfected brains and remained depressed through 30 days p.i. This initial increase in NSC population occurred concurrently with increased brain cell proliferation, which peaked at 3 days p.i. On closer examination, we found that while actively proliferating Sox2(+) NSCs increased in number at 6 days p.i., proliferating DCX(+) neuroblasts contributed to the increased response at 3 days p.i. However, overall proliferation decreased steadily from 15 days p.i. to below control levels. To determine the mechanisms involved in altering NSC proliferation, neurotrophin and growth factor expression profiles were assessed. FGF-2 gene expression increased at 5 days p.i. and was robustly down-regulated at 15 days p.i. (>1000-fold), which was further confirmed by increased FGF-2 immunostaining around the lateral ventricles. Furthermore, supplementing infected animals with recombinant FGF-2, at 15 days p.i., significantly increased the number of proliferating brain cells. These findings demonstrate that the temporal changes in NSC proliferation are mediated through the regulation of FGF-2 and that the NSC niche may benefit from supplementation with FGF-2 during HSV-1 brain infection.
Early detection (localized stage) of colon cancer is associated with a five-year survival rate of 91%. Only 39% of colon cancers, however, are diagnosed at that early stage. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, constitutes a critical need and a decisive factor in the clinical treatment of colon cancer and its success. In this study, using supervised linear discriminant analysis, we have developed three diagnostic biomarker models that-based on global micro-RNA expression analysis of colonic tissue collected during surgery-can discriminate with a perfect accuracy between subjects with colon cancer (stages II-IV) and normal healthy subjects. We developed our three diagnostic biomarker models with 57 subjects [40 with colon cancer (stages II-IV) and 17 normal], and we validated them with 39 unknown (new and different) subjects [28 with colon cancer (stages II-IV) and 11 normal]. For all three diagnostic models, both the overall sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The nine most significant micro-RNAs identified, which comprise the input variables to the three linear discriminant functions, are associated with genes that regulate oncogenesis, and they play a paramount role in the development of colon cancer, as evidenced in the tumor tissue itself. This could have a significant impact in the fight against this disease, in that it may lead to the development of an early serum or blood diagnostic test based on the detection of those nine key micro-RNAs.
Although ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its highly water-soluble formula (Yoos solution; YS) have been shown to prevent neuronal damage, the effects of UDCA or YS against Parkinsons disease (PD)-related dopaminergic cell death has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of UDCA and YS on sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced cytotoxicity in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Both UDCA (50-200 ?M) and YS (100-200 ?M) dose-dependently prevented SNP (1mM)-induced cell death. Results showed that both UDCA and YS effectively attenuated the production of total reactive oxygen species (ROS), peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and nitric oxide (NO), and markedly inhibited the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion. SNP-induced programmed cell death events, such as nuclear fragmentation, caspase-3/7 and -9 activation, Bcl-2/Bax ratio decrease, and cytochrome c release, were significantly attenuated by both UDCA and YS. Furthermore, selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositiol-3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002, and Akt/PKB inhibitor, triciribine, reversed the preventive effects of UDCA on the SNP-induced cytotoxicity and Bax translocation. These results suggest that UDCA can protect SH-SY5Y cells under programmed cell death process by regulating PI3K-Akt/PKB pathways.
Following initial standard chemotherapy (platinum/taxol), more than 75% of those patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) experience a recurrence. There are currently no accurate prognostic tests that, at the time of the diagnosis/surgery, can identify those patients with advanced stage EOC who will respond to chemotherapy. Using a novel mathematical theory, we have developed three prognostic biomarker models (complex mathematical functions) that-based on a global gene expression analysis of tumor tissue collected during surgery and prior to the commencement of chemotherapy-can identify with a high accuracy those patients with advanced stage EOC who will respond to the standard chemotherapy [long-term survivors (>7 yrs)] and those who will not do so [short-term survivors (<3 yrs)]. Our three prognostic biomarker models were developed with 34 subjects and validated with 20 unknown (new and different) subjects. Both the overall biomarker model sensitivity and specificity ranged from 95.83% to 100.00%. The 12 most significant genes identified, which are also the input variables to the three mathematical functions, constitute three distinct gene networks with the following functions: 1) production of cytoskeletal components, 2) cell proliferation, and 3) cell energy production. The first gene network is directly associated with the mechanism of action of anti-tubulin chemotherapeutic agents, such as taxanes and epothilones. This could have a significant impact in the discovery of new, more effective pharmacological treatments that may significantly extend the survival of patients with advanced stage EOC.
The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of 11 storage diseases caused by disruptions in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) catabolism, leading to their accumulation in lysosomes. Resultant multisystemic disease is manifested by growth delay, hepatosplenomegaly, skeletal dysplasias, cardiopulmonary obstruction, and, in severe MPS I, II, III, and VII, progressive neurocognitive decline. Some MPSs are treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and/or recombinant enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), but effectiveness is limited by central nervous system (CNS) access across the blood-brain barrier. To provide a high level of gene product to the CNS, we tested neonatal intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 8 vector transducing the human ?-L-iduronidase gene in MPS I mice. Supranormal levels of iduronidase activity in the brain (including 40× normal levels in the hippocampus) were associated with transduction of neurons in motor and limbic areas identifiable by immunofluorescence staining. The treatment prevented accumulation of GAG and GM3 ganglioside storage materials and emergence of neurocognitive dysfunction in a modified Morris water maze test. The results suggest the potential of improved outcome for MPSs and other neurological diseases when a high level of gene expression can be achieved by direct, early administration of vector to the CNS.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has emerged as a technology that can provide metabolite information within organ systems in vivo. In this study, we introduced a new method of employing a clustering algorithm to develop a diagnostic model that can differentially diagnose a single unknown subject in a disease with well-defined group boundaries. We used three tests to assess the suitability and the accuracy required for diagnostic purposes of the four clustering algorithms we investigated (K-means, Fuzzy, Hierarchical, and Medoid Partitioning). To accomplish this goal, we studied the striatal metabolomic profile of R6/2 Huntington disease (HD) transgenic mice and that of wild type (WT) mice using high field in vivo proton NMR spectroscopy (9.4T). We tested all four clustering algorithms (1) with the original R6/2 HD mice and WT mice, (2) with unknown mice, whose status had been determined via genotyping, and (3) with the ability to separate the original R6/2 mice into the two age subgroups (8 and 12 weeks old). Only our diagnostic models that employed ROC-supervised Fuzzy, unsupervised Fuzzy, and ROC-supervised K-means Clustering passed all three stringent tests with 100% accuracy, indicating that they may be used for diagnostic purposes.
Principal component analysis (PCA) is a data analysis method that can deal with large volumes of data. Owing to the complexity and volume of the data generated by todays advanced technologies in genomics, pro-teomics, and metabolomics, PCA has become predominant in the medical sciences. Despite its popularity, PCA leaves much to be desired in terms of accuracy and may not be suitable for certain medical applications, such as diagnostics, where accuracy is paramount. In this study, we introduced a new PCA method, one that is carefully supervised by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. In order to assess its performance with respect to its ability to render an accurate differential diagnosis, and to compare its performance with that of standard PCA, we studied the striatal metabolomic profile of R6/2 Huntington disease (HD) transgenic mice, as well as that of wild type (WT) mice, using high field in vivo proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (9.4-Tesla). We tested both the standard PCA and our ROC-supervised PCA (using in each case both the covariance and the correlation matrix), 1) with the original R6/2 HD mice and WT mice, 2) with unknown mice, whose status had been determined via genotyping, and 3) with the ability to separate the original R6/2 mice into the two age subgroups (8 and 12 wks old). Only our ROC-supervised PCA (both with the covariance and the correlation matrix) passed all tests with a total accuracy of 100%; thus, providing evidence that it may be used for diagnostic purposes.
Putative neural stem cells have been identified within the enteric nervous system (ENS) of adult rodents and cultured from human myenteric plexus. We conducted studies to identify neural stem cells or progenitor cells within the submucosa of adult human ENS. Jejunum tissue was removed from adult human subjects undergoing gastric bypass surgery. The tissue was immunostained, and confocal images of ganglia in the submucosal plexus were collected to identify protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) - immunoractive neurons and neuronal progenitor cells that coexpress PGP 9.5 and nestin. In addition to PGP-9.5-positive/nestin-negative neuronal cells within ganglia, we observed two other types of cells: (1) cells in which PGP 9.5 and nestin were co-localized, (2) cells negative for both PGP 9.5 and nestin. These observations suggest that the latter two types of cells are related to a progenitor cell population and are consistent with the concept that the submucosa of human adult ENS contains stem cells capable of maintenance and repair within the peripheral nervous system.
Trinucleotide expansions cause disease by both protein- and RNA-mediated mechanisms. Unexpectedly, we discovered that CAG expansion constructs express homopolymeric polyglutamine, polyalanine, and polyserine proteins in the absence of an ATG start codon. This repeat-associated non-ATG translation (RAN translation) occurs across long, hairpin-forming repeats in transfected cells or when expansion constructs are integrated into the genome in lentiviral-transduced cells and brains. Additionally, we show that RAN translation across human spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8) and myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) CAG expansion transcripts results in the accumulation of SCA8 polyalanine and DM1 polyglutamine expansion proteins in previously established SCA8 and DM1 mouse models and human tissue. These results have implications for understanding fundamental mechanisms of gene expression. Moreover, these toxic, unexpected, homopolymeric proteins now should be considered in pathogenic models of microsatellite disorders.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a rapidly emerging technology that can be used to assess tissue metabolic profile in the living animal. At the present time, no approach has been developed 1) to systematically identify profiles of key chemical alterations that can be used as biomarkers to diagnose diseases and to monitor disease progression; and 2) to assess mathematically the diagnostic power of potential biomarkers. To address this issue, we have evaluated mathematical approaches that employ receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and logistic regression analysis to systematically identify key biomarkers from NMR spectra that have excellent diagnostic power and can be used accurately for disease diagnosis and monitoring. To validate our mathematical approaches, we studied the striatal concentrations of 17 metabolites of 13 R6/2 transgenic mice with Huntingtons disease, as well as those of 17 wild-type (WT) mice, which were obtained via in vivo proton NMR spectroscopy (9.4 Tesla). We developed diagnostic biomarker models and clinical change assessment models based on our three aforementioned mathematical approaches, and we tested all of them, first, with the 30 original mice and, then, with 31 unknown mice. Their prediction results were compared with genotyping-the gold standard. All models correctly diagnosed all of the 30 original mice (17 WT and 13 R6/2) and all of the 31 unknown mice (20 WT and 11 R6/2), with a positive likelihood ratio approximating infinity [1/0 (? ?)], and with a negative likelihood ratio equal to zero [0/1 = 0].
MicroRNAs (miRs or miRNAs) regulate several biological processes in the cell. However, evidence for miRNAs that control the differentiation program of specific neural cell types has been elusive. Recently, we have shown that apoptosis-associated factors, such as p53 and caspases participate in the differentiation process of mouse neural stem (NS) cells. To identify apoptosis-associated miRNAs that might play a role in neuronal development, we performed global miRNA expression profiling experiments in NS cells. Next, we characterized the expression of proapoptotic miRNAs, including miR-16, let-7a and miR-34a in distinct models of neural differentiation, including mouse embryonic stem cells, PC12 and NT2N cells. In addition, the expression of antiapoptotic miR-19a and 20a was also evaluated.
Long-term neurological sequela is common among herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) survivors. Animal models for HSE are used to investigate mechanisms of acute disease, but little has been done to model chronic manifestations of HSE. The current study presents a detailed, systematic analysis of chronic neuropathology, including characterization of topography and sequential progression of degenerative lesions and inflammation. Subsequent to intranasal HSV-1 infection, inflammatory responses that were temporally and spatially distinct persisted in infected cortical and brain stem regions. Neutrophils were present exclusively within the olfactory bulb and brain stem regions during the acute phase of infection, while the chronic inflammation was marked by plasma cells, lymphocytes and activated microglia. The chronic lymphocytic infiltrate, cytokine production, and activated microglia were associated with the loss of cortical neuropile in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Animals surviving the acute infection showed a spectrum of chronic lesions from decreased brain volume, neuronal loss, activated astrocytes, and glial scar formation to severe atrophy and cavitations of the cortex. These lesions were also associated with severe spatial memory deficits in surviving animals. Taken together, this model can be utilized to further investigate the mechanisms of neurological defects that follow in the wake of HSE.
Neural stem cells (NSCs) differentiate into neurons and glia, and a large percentage undergoes apoptosis. The engagement and activity of apoptotic pathways may favor either cell death or differentiation. In addition, Akt represses differentiation by up-regulating the inhibitor of differentiation 1 (Id1), through phosphorylation of its repressor FOXO3A. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential cross-talk between apoptosis and proliferation during mouse NSC differentiation. We determined the time of neurogenesis and gliogenesis using neuronal beta-III tubulin and astroglial GFAP to confirm that both processes occurred at approximately 3 and 8 days, respectively. p-Akt, p-FOXO3A, and Id1 were significantly reduced throughout differentiation. Caspase-3 processing, p53 phosphorylation, and p53 transcriptional activation increased at 3 days of differentiation, with no evidence of apoptosis. Importantly, in cells exposed to the pancaspase inhibitor z-VAD.fmk, p-FOXO3A and Id1 were no longer down-regulated, p53 phosphorylation and transcriptional activation were reduced, while neurogenesis and gliogenesis were significantly delayed. The effect of siRNA-mediated silencing of p53 on FOXO3A/Id1 was similar to that of z-VAD.fmk only at 3 days of differentiation. Interestingly, caspase inhibition further increased the effect of p53 knockdown during neurogenesis. In conclusion, apoptosis-associated factors such as caspases and p53 temporally modulate FOXO3A/Id1 signaling and differentiation of mouse NSCs.
No effective therapy is currently available to promote recovery following ischemic stroke. Stem cells have been proposed as a potential source of new cells to replace those lost due to central nervous system injury, as well as a source of trophic molecules to minimize damage and promote recovery. We undertook a detailed review of data from recent basic science and preclinical studies to investigate the potential application of endogenous and exogenous stem cell therapies for treatment of cerebral ischemia. To date, spontaneous endogenous neurogenesis has been observed in response to ischemic injury, and can be enhanced via infusion of appropriate cytokines. Exogenous stem cells from multiple sources can generate neural cells that survive and form synaptic connections after transplantation in the stroke-injured brain. Stem cells from multiple sources cells also exhibit neuroprotective properties that may ameliorate stroke deficits. In many cases, functional benefits observed are likely independent of neural differentiation, although the exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Future studies of neuroregeneration will require the demonstration of function in endogenously born neurons following focal ischemia. Further, methods are currently lacking to demonstrate definitively the therapeutic effect of newly introduced neural cells. Increased plasticity following stroke may facilitate the functional integration of new neurons, but the loss of appropriate guidance cues and supporting architecture in the infarct cavity will likely impede the restoration of lost circuitry. Thus careful investigation of the mechanisms underlying trophic benefits will be essential. Evidence to date suggests that continued development of stem cell therapies may ultimately lead to viable treatment options for ischemic brain injury.
The loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is well characterized in Parkinsons disease (PD). Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have provided the opportunity to evaluate for changes in cellular density. Longitudinal relaxation measurements in the rotating frame (T(1rho)) provide a unique magnetic resonance imaging contrast in vivo. Due to the specificity of T(1rho) to water-protein interactions, the T(1rho) MRI method has strong potential to be used as a non-invasive method for quantification of neuronal density in the brain. Recently introduced adiabatic T(1rho) magnetic resonance imaging mapping methods provide a tool to assess molecular motional regimes with high sensitivity due to utilization of an effective magnetic field sweep during adiabatic pulses. In this work, to investigate the sensitivity of T(1rho) to alterations in neuronal density, adiabatic T(1rho) MRI measurements were employed in vivo on Pitx3-homeobox gene-deficient aphakia mice in which the deficit of DA neurons in the SNc is well established. The theoretical analysis of T(1rho) maps in the different areas of the brain of aphakia mouse suggested variation of the (1)H(2)O rotational correlation times, tau(c). This suggests tau(c) to be a sensitive indicator for neuronal loss during neurological disorders. The results manifest significant dependencies of the T(1rho) relaxations on the cell densities in the SNc, suggesting T(1rho) MRI method as a candidate for detection of neuronal loss in neurological disorders.
Multipotent cochlear neural progenitors (CNPs) in the organ of Corti hold the promise for cell replacement in degenerative hearing disorders. However, not much is known about the CNPs and the specific conditions for their differentiation. Here we isolate the CNPs from the postnatal day 1 organ of Corti in mice and demonstrate their capability to self-renew and to differentiate into hair cell-like and neuronal cell-like phenotypes under the guidance of sonic hedgehog (SHH), epidermal growth factor (EGF), retinoic acid (RA), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), herein termed SERB (abbreviation of SHH, EGF, RA, and BDNF) in an asymmetric or symmetric manner from clonal isolates. Differentiation of CNPs into hair cells by SERB was dependent on the ERK signaling pathway, whereas the differentiation of CNPs into neurons by SERB was not. This work develops a new in vitro methodology for the maintenance and self-regeneration of CNPs for future design of regenerative strategies for hearing disorders.
Spontaneous mouse models of cancer show promise to more accurately recapitulate human disease and predict clinical efficacy. Transgenic mice or viral vectors have been required to generate spontaneous models of glioma, a lethal brain tumor, because nonviral gene transfer is typically transient. To overcome this constraint, we used the Sleeping Beauty transposable element to achieve chromosomal integration of human oncogenes into endogenous brain cells of immunocompetent mice. Genetically engineered, spontaneous brain tumors were induced with plasmid DNA in a matter of weeks in three separate mouse strains. The phenotype of tumors was influenced by the combination of oncogenes delivered, resembling human astrocytoma or glioblastoma in the majority of cases. At least five different genes can be cotransfected simultaneously including reporters, allowing measurement of tumor viability by in vivo imaging. This model can accelerate brain tumor research in a variety of ways such as generation of "humanized" models for high throughput drug screening and candidate gene validation with exceptional speed and flexibility.
Cell-based therapies are being investigated as an adjunct to IV thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy in ischemic stroke. This review summarizes the potential applications as well as challenges of intravascular cell delivery in ischemic stroke.
Pertaining to the female population in the USA, breast cancer is the leading cancer in terms of annual incidence rate and, in terms of mortality, the second most lethal cancer. There are currently no biomarkers available that can predict which breast cancer patients will respond to chemotherapy with both sensitivity and specificity > 80%, as mandated by the latest FDA requirements. In this study, we have developed a prognostic biomarker model (complex mathematical function) that-based on global gene expression analysis of tumor tissue collected during biopsy and prior to the commencement of chemotherapy-can identify with a high accuracy those patients with breast cancer (clinical stages I-III) who will respond to the paclitaxel-fluorouracil-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy and will experience pathological complete response (Responders), as well as those breast cancer patients (clinical stages I-III) who will not do so (Non-Responders). Most importantly, both the application and the accuracy of our breast cancer prognostic biomarker model are independent of the status of the hormone receptors ER, PR, and HER2, as well as of the ethnicity and age of the subjects. We developed our prognostic biomarker model with 50 subjects [10 responders (R) and 40 non-responders (NR)], and we validated it with 43 unknown (new and different) subjects [10 responders (R) and 33 non-responders (NR)]. All 93 subjects were recruited at five different clinical centers around the world. The overall sensitivity and specificity of our prognostic biomarker model were 90.0% and 91.8%, respectively. The nine most significant genes identified, which comprise the input variables to the mathematical function, are involved in regulation of transcription; cell proliferation, invasion, and migration; oncogenesis; suppression of immune response; and drug resistance and cancer recurrence.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS-I; Hurler syndrome) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by lack of the functional lysosomal glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-degrading enzyme ?-L-iduronidase (IDUA). Without treatment, the resulting GAG accumulation causes multisystem dysfunction and death within the first decade. Current treatments include allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enzyme replacement therapy. HSCT ameliorates clinical features and extends life but is not available to all patients, and inadequately corrects the most devastating features of the disease including mental retardation and skeletal deformities. Recent developments suggest that stem cells can be used to deliver needed enzymes to the central nervous system. To test this concept, we transplanted bone marrow-derived normal adult human MultiStem® cells into the cerebral lateral ventricles of immunodeficient MPS-I neonatal mice. Transplanted cells and human-specific DNA were detected in the hippocampal formation, striatum, and other areas of the central nervous system. Brain tissue assays revealed significant long-term decrease in GAG levels in the hippocampus and striatum. Sensorimotor testing 6 months after transplantation demonstrated significantly improved rotarod performance of transplanted mice in comparison to nontransplanted and sham-transplanted control animals. These results suggest that a single injection of MultiStem cells into the cerebral ventricles of neonatal MPS-I mice induces sustained reduction in GAG accumulation within the brain, and modest long-term improvement in sensorimotor function.
Here we provide the first evidence that therapeutic levels of a lysosomal enzyme can bypass the blood-brain barrier following intranasal administration. ?-L-iduronidase (IDUA) activity was detected throughout the brains of IDUA-deficient mice following a single intranasal treatment with concentrated Aldurazyme® (laronidase) and was also detected after intranasal treatment with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing human IDUA. These results suggest that intranasal routes of delivery may be efficacious in the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders.
Previously, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a research grade recombinant chymotrypsin, derived from the larvae of Lucilia sericata, in "debriding" slough/eschar from venous leg ulcers ex vivo. Furthermore, we were able to formulate this enzyme for successful delivery to in vitro wound healing assays, from a prototype hydrogel wound dressing, and showed that enzyme delivered in this way could degrade wound tissue ex vivo. Recently, to progress biotechnological development of the enzyme as a potential therapeutic product, we explored expression using current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) guidelines, and now report that a recombinant chymotrypsin I zymogen from L. sericata can be expressed in the cGMP acceptable strain of Escherichia coli (BLR-DE3). In addition, the conditions required for purification, refolding and activation of the chymotrypsinogen have been determined. The activated enzyme was stable, and effective in digesting wound slough/eschar tissue. To summarise, we have successfully initiated the production and characterisation of a novel cGMP compatible product for use in future clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.