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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
PSMA-targeting iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles enhance MRI of preclinical prostate cancer.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Aim: To evaluate the potential of newly-developed, biocompatible iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) conjugated with J591, an antibody to an extracellular epitope of PSMA, to enhance MRI of prostate cancer. Materials & methods: Specific binding to PSMA by J591-MNP was investigated in vitro. MRI studies were performed on orthotopic tumor-bearing NOD.SCID mice 2 h and 24 h after intravenous injection of J591-MNPs, or non-targeting MNPs. Results & conclusion: In vitro, MNPs did not affect prostate cancer cell viability, and conjugation to J591 did not compromise antibody specificity and enhanced cellular iron uptake. Magnetic resonance contrast of tumors was increased in vivo using PSMA-targeting MNPs, but not by non-targeting MNPs. This provides proof-of-concept that PSMA-targeting MNPs have potential to enhance magnetic resonance detection/localization of prostate cancer.
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Osteoclast Derivation from Mouse Bone Marrow.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that are derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage of the bone marrow. Their unique ability to resorb both the organic and inorganic matrices of bone means that they play a key role in regulating skeletal remodeling. Together, osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the dynamic coupling process that involves both bone resorption and bone formation acting together to maintain the normal skeleton during health and disease. As the principal bone-resorbing cell in the body, changes in osteoclast differentiation or function can result in profound effects in the body. Diseases associated with altered osteoclast function can range in severity from lethal neonatal disease due to failure to form a marrow space for hematopoiesis, to more commonly observed pathologies such as osteoporosis, in which excessive osteoclastic bone resorption predisposes to fracture formation. An ability to isolate osteoclasts in high numbers in vitro has allowed for significant advances in the understanding of the bone remodeling cycle and has paved the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies that combat these diseases. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate and cultivate osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow that will yield large numbers of osteoclasts.
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Chinese Herbal Medicine for Obesity: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Multicenter, Prospective Trial.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Obesity is a serious medical problem worldwide. As a holistic therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may have a potential in obesity management. In this controlled trial, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of Xin-Ju-Xiao-Gao-Fang (XJXGF), a TCM herbal formulation, in 140 obese subjects over a 24-week period. The XJXGF formula mainly consists of rhubarb, coptis, semen cassia, and citrus aurantium. Subjects with body mass index (BMI) 28-40 kg/m(2) were recruited at 5 centers in China. We assessed the changes in subjects' body weight, its related parameters, and the reduction of insulin resistance (IR) after administration of XJXGF formula or low-dose XJXGF (10% of the XJXGF formula, as control). After 24-week treatment, among participants in the XJXGF formula group and low-dose XJXGF group, the mean ± SE changes in the body weight were -3.58±0.48 and -1.91±0.38 kg, respectively (p < 0.01). The changes in the IR-index of two groups were -2.65±1.04 and -1.58±1.3, respectively (p < 0.05). There were no serious adverse events reported during the 24-week trial. Participants reported 7 minor adverse events, 4 in the XJXGF formula group and 3 in the low-dose XJXGF group (p = 0.578). Future studies are needed to investigate the clinical utility of this TCM formulation in the treatment of obese subjects.
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Mediastinal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma with paraneoplastic pemphigus.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a rare neoplasm of immune accessory cells. It occurs primarily in lymph nodes. Occurrences in the mediastinum are rarely reported. Diagnosis and management of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma remain unclear, and it is an under-recognized clinical entity. Only a few cases of paraneoplastic pemphigus as the first presentation of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma have been reported. We report an unusual case of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the anterior mediastinum, presenting as paraneoplastic pemphigus in a 62-year-old man. Typical histological features confirmed the diagnosis of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, and surgical resection was successfully performed.
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Genome-wide identification and analysis of heat shock protein 90 in tomato.
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp90) are a kind of specific proteins in plant which were produced under environmental stresses. By referring to the tomato genome database, we identified and analyzed Hsp90 gene family members using bioinformatics methods. Results indicated that the tomato genome contained at least 7 Hsp90 genes, which were distributed unevenly on 6 chromosomes. Amino acid sequence length of these proteins ranged from 267 to 794aa. Numbers of intron ranged from 2 to 19. Microsynteny analysis showed that two pairs of Hsp90 genes (Hsp90-1and Hsp90-3, Hsp90-5 and Hsp90-7) were identified by segment duplication. In addition, multiple conservation motifs were found in Hsp90 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hsp90 genes from tomato, rice and Arabidopsis can be divided into 5 groups. Three pair of orthologous genes and four pairs of homologous genes were found. Expression analysis based on RNA-seq showed that the expression of three genes (Hsp90-5, Hsp90-6 and Hsp90-7) was high in vegetable and reproductive organs, while the expression of other four genes (Hsp90-1, Hsp90-2, Hsp90-3 and Hsp90-4) was relatively low except for its expression at the breaking stage of fruit. Analysis of promoter regions of Hsp90 genes showed that multiple cis-elements were involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The expression of 7 genes under heat stress was also detected by qRT-PCR. Expression of all Hsp90 genes in tomato leaf was enhanced. The results indicated that these genes could be participated in tomato leaf response to heat stresses. Together, these results will lay a foundation for analyzing Hsp90 gene function and molecular evolution in the future.
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Vaginal mass following uncemented total hip arthroplasty.
Indian J Orthop
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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A 53-year-old woman developed a vaginal mass following an uncemented total hip arthroplasty. The mass was in direct communication with the hip through an acetabular medial wall defect after loosening of the acetabular component. The mass formation was caused simultaneously by changes secondary to polyethylene wear, a tiny delamination of the porous titanium mesh coating and a broken antirotational tab on the acetabular cup, all of which may have served as sources of metal particles. A careful evaluation of the patient's history, symptoms, X-ray findings and computed tomography scans should always be performed to ensure accurate diagnosis.
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The Combination of Nuclear Factor Kappa B, Cyclo-oxygenase-2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression Predicts Poor Prognosis in Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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To evaluate immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF?B), cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the impacts thereof on clinicopathological tumor features and survival in patients with colorectal cancer.
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Associations Between Serum Biomarkers and Pain and Pain-Related Function in Older Adults with Low Back Pain: A Pilot Study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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To examine the relationship between serum biomarkers and self-reported pain intensity and pain-related function, in addition to the contribution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of lumbar spine degenerative changes, in older adults with chronic low back pain.
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Diffraction-free surface waves by metasurfaces.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We propose a method to design and realize planar Bessel lens using artificial metasurfaces to produce diffraction-free surface waves. The planar Bessel lens is composed of two sublenses: a half Maxwell fisheye lens which can shape the surface cylindrical waves to surface plane waves, and an inhomogeneous flat lens which can convert the surface plane waves into approximate diffraction-free surface waves in a diamond-shaped focusing area. Through the planar Bessel lens, a point source on the metasurface directly radiates the diffraction-free surface waves. In realization, we construct the inhomogeneous metasurfaces by subwavelength metallic patches printed on a grounded dielectric substrate. Simulation and experimental results have good agreements, which jointly show the formation of the diffraction-free surface waves in the microwave band.
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[Effect of curcumin on caspase-12 and apoptosis in pulmonary ischemia/reperfusion injury mice].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To explore the effect of curcumin (CUR) on cycteinyl aspirate specific protease-12 (Caspase-12) and pneumocyte apoptosis in pulmonary ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury mice.
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Porous Liquids: A Promising Class of Media for Gas Separation.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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A porous liquid containing empty cavities has been successfully fabricated by surface engineering of hollow structures with suitable corona and canopy species. By taking advantage of the liquid-like polymeric matrices as a separation medium and the empty cavities as gas transport pathway, this unique porous liquid can function as a promising candidate for gas separation. Moreover, such a facile synthetic strategy can be further extended to the fabrication of other types of nanostructure-based porous liquid, opening up new opportunities for preparation of porous liquids with attractive properties for specific tasks.
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[Ischemic postconditioning attenuates pneumocyte apoptosis after lung ischemia/reperfusion injury via inactivation of p38 MAPK].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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To investigate the role of p38 MAPK on ischemic postconditioning (IPO) attenuating pneumocyte apoptosis after lung ischemia/reperfusion injury (LIRI).
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Frequency-controls of electromagnetic multi-beam scanning by metasurfaces.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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We propose a method to control electromagnetic (EM) radiations by holographic metasurfaces, including to producing multi-beam scanning in one dimension (1D) and two dimensions (2D) with the change of frequency. The metasurfaces are composed of subwavelength metallic patches on grounded dielectric substrate. We present a combined theory of holography and leaky wave to realize the multi-beam radiations by exciting the surface interference patterns, which are generated by interference between the excitation source and required radiation waves. As the frequency changes, we show that the main lobes of EM radiation beams could accomplish 1D or 2D scans regularly by using the proposed holographic metasurfaces shaped with different interference patterns. This is the first time to realize 2D scans of antennas by changing the frequency. Full-wave simulations and experimental results validate the proposed theory and confirm the corresponding physical phenomena.
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Interleukin 10 mediated by herpes simplex virus vectors suppresses neuropathic pain induced by human immunodeficiency virus gp120 in rats.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy is a common neurological complication of HIV infection affecting up to 30% of HIV-positive individuals. However, the exact neuropathological mechanisms remain unknown, which hinders our ability to develop effective treatments for HIV-related neuropathic pain (NP). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of proinflammatory factors with overexpression of interleukin (IL)-10 reduces HIV-related NP in a rat model.
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Indicators of perceived useful dementia care assistive technology: Caregivers' perspectives.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The study aims to investigate the caregivers' context-specific perceived usefulness of available assistive technology (AT) devices and the professionals' perspectives on the usefulness indicators of AT devices for home-dwelling individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia.
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Studies in fat grafting: Part III. Fat grafting irradiated tissue--improved skin quality and decreased fat graft retention.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Following radiation therapy, skin becomes fibrotic and can present a difficult problem for reconstructive surgeons. There is an increasing belief that fat grafting under irradiated skin can reverse the damage caused by radiation. The present study evaluated the effect of fat grafting on irradiated skin, along with fat graft quality and retention rates in irradiated tissue.
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The impact of mechanical bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery: a propensity score matching analysis.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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To evaluate the influence of preoperative mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) based on the occurrence of anastomosis leakage, surgical site infection (SSI), and severity of surgical complication when performing elective colorectal surgery.
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The effect of selected plant extracts on the development of single-species dental biofilms.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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To determine the effect of a mixture of plant extracts on the adherence and retention of bacteria in dental biofilm.
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An update to the taxonomy of the genus Gastroserica Brenske (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Based on the examination of newly collected material and additional specimens housed in Chinese collections, our knowledge of Gastroserica Brenske, 1897, is expanded. Here, seven new species are described, including habitus photographs and illustrations of the male genitalia: Gastroserica haoyui sp. n. (China: Zhejiang Prov.), G. fengduana sp. n. (China: Sichuan Prov.), G. wenzhui sp. n. (China: Guangxi Prov.), G. damingshanica sp. n. (from China: Guangxi Prov.), G. jinxiuensis sp. n. (China: Guangxi Prov.), G. liboensis sp. n. (China: Yunnan Prov.) and G. carolusi sp. n. (Laos). Additionally, we provide a distribution map of the new taxa and new distribution records of the known taxa.
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Studies in fat grafting: Part II. Effects of injection mechanics on material properties of fat.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Although fat grafting can address many soft-tissue deficits, results remain inconsistent. In this study, the authors compared physical properties of fat following injection using an automated, low-shear device or the modified Coleman technique.
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[Glybenclamide regulate ERK1/2 signal pathway during hypoxia hypercapnia pulmonary vasoconstriction in rats].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To investigate the role and significance of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the pathological process of hypoxia hypercapnia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction (HHPV) and the relationship with ERK1/2 signal pathway in rats.
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Moisturizing different racial skin types.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin.
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Impact of preoperative anemia on relapse and survival in breast cancer patients.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Previous studies have shown that preoperative anemia is correlated with the prognoses of various solid tumors. This study was performed to determine the effect of preoperative anemia on relapse and survival in patients with breast cancer.
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Association of serum and intratumoral cytokine profiles with tumor stage and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio in colorectal cancer.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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We examined cytokine profiles and evaluated the association between cytokine levels, pathological stages, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR).
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Positive Selection for Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor Type-IB Promotes Differentiation and Specification of Human Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Toward an Osteogenic Lineage.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Adipose tissue represents an abundant and easily accessible source of multipotent cells that may serve as an excellent building block for tissue engineering. However, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are a heterogeneous group and subpopulations may be identified with enhanced osteogenic potential.
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[Expression of KATP in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under hypoxia-hypercapnia condition and the relationship with p38 MAPK pathway].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The aim of the present study is to investigate the expressions of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (KATP) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and the relationship with p38 MAPK signal pathway in rats. Male SD rat PASMCs were cultured in vitro, and a model of hypoxia and hypercapnia was reconstructed. PASMCs were divided to normal (N), hypoxia-hypercapnia (H), hypoxia-hypercapnia+DMSO incubation (HD), hypoxia-hypercapnia+SB203580 (inhibitor of p38 MAPK pathway) incubation (HS) and hypoxia-hypercapnia+Anisomycin (agonist of p38 MAPK pathway) incubation (HA) groups. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of SUR2B and Kir6.1; semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression of SUR2B and Kir6.1. The results demonstrated that: (1) Compared with N, H, HD and HS groups, the expressions of Kir6.1 mRNA and protein in PASMCs of HA group were decreased significantly (P < 0.01), but there were no differences among N, H, HD and HS groups (P > 0.05); (2) Compared with N group, the expressions of SUR2B mRNA and protein in H, HD, HS and HA groups were increased significantly (P < 0.05), but there were no differences among H, HD, HS and HA groups (P > 0.05). The results imply that: (1) Hypoxia-hypercapnia, SB203580 didn't change the expressions of Kir6.1 mRNA and protein in PASMCs, but Anisomycin decreased the expressions of Kir6.1 mRNA and protein, so Kir6.1 may be regulated by the other subfamily of MAPK pathway; (2) Hypoxia-hypercapnia raised SUR2B mRNA and protein expressions in PASMCs, but SB203580 and Anisomycin did not affect the changes, so the increasing of SUR2B mRNA and protein induced by hypoxia-hypercapnia may be not depend on p38 MAPK pathway.
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A regulatory loop involving miR-22, Sp1, and c-Myc modulates CD147 expression in breast cancer invasion and metastasis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women for which the metastatic process is still poorly understood. CD147 is upregulated in breast cancer and has been associated with tumor progression, but little is known about its regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated that CD147 was overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines, and the high expression correlated with tumor invasion and metastasis. We also found that the transcription factors Sp1 and c-Myc could bind to the CD147 promoter and enhance its expression. The CD147 mRNA has a 748-bp 3'-untranslated region (UTR) with many miRNA target sites, suggesting possible regulation by miRNAs. We discovered that miR-22 repressed CD147 expression by directly targeting the CD147 3'UTR. We also determined that miR-22 could indirectly participate in CD147 modulation by downregulating Sp1 expression. miR-22 could form an autoregulatory loop with Sp1, which repressed miR-22 transcription by binding to the miR-22 promoter. Together with the c-Myc-mediated inhibition of miR-22 expression, our investigation identified a miR-22/Sp1/c-Myc network that regulates CD147 gene transcription. In addition, miR-22 overexpression suppressed breast cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and proliferation by targeting CD147 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we found that miR-22 was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues and that its expression was inversely correlated with the tumor-node-metastasis stage and lymphatic metastasis in patients. Our study provides the first evidence that an miR-22/Sp1/c-Myc network regulates CD147 upregulation in breast cancer and that miR-22 represses breast cancer invasive and metastatic capacities.
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From bench to bedside: immunotherapy for prostate cancer.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The mainstay therapeutic strategy for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) continues to be androgen deprivation therapy usually in combination with chemotherapy or androgen receptor targeting therapy in either sequence, or recently approved novel agents such as Radium 223. However, immunotherapy has also emerged as an option for the treatment of this disease following the approval of sipuleucel-T by the FDA in 2010. Immunotherapy is a rational approach for prostate cancer based on a body of evidence suggesting these cancers are inherently immunogenic and, most importantly, that immunological interventions can induce protective antitumour responses. Various forms of immunotherapy are currently being explored clinically, with the most common being cancer vaccines (dendritic-cell, viral, and whole tumour cell-based) and immune checkpoint inhibition. This review will discuss recent clinical developments of immune-based therapies for prostate cancer that have reached the phase III clinical trial stage. A perspective of how immunotherapy could be best employed within current treatment regimes to achieve most clinical benefits is also provided.
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Fat or fiction: origins matter.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Cell-lineage tracing has revealed a complex heterogeneity present in postnatal tissue and adult progenitors. Chau et al. (2014) and Long et al. (2014) provide further evidence for this among adipocytes, and their findings underscore the importance of cellular ontogeny not just for development but also for potential treatment of disease.
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Deltoid muscle injury scratched by an osteophyte on the greater tuberosity of the humeral head: an unusual cause of shoulder pain.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Few reports to date have discussed acute deltoid muscle injury, including partial or complete deltoid muscle detachment from its origin. The present report describes a different pathomechanism and clinical manifestations of deltoid muscle injury. A 52-year-old man experienced acute severe pain in the right shoulder as a result of abrupt elevation of the arm. The deltoid muscle had apparently been scratched by an osteophyte on the greater tuberosity. After arthroscopic excision of the osteophyte, the symptoms resolved completely. Level of evidence Case report with no comparison group, Level IV.
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Aesthetic Surgery Training during Residency in the United States: A Comparison of the Integrated, Combined, and Independent Training Models.
Plast Surg Int
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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Background. Three educational models for plastic surgery training exist in the United States, the integrated, combined, and independent model. The present study is a comparative analysis of aesthetic surgery training, to assess whether one model is particularly suitable to provide for high-quality training in aesthetic surgery. Methods. An 18-item online survey was developed to assess residents' perceptions regarding the quality of training in aesthetic surgery in the US. The survey had three distinct sections: demographic information, current state of aesthetic surgery training, and residents' perception regarding the quality of aesthetic surgery training. Results. A total of 86 senior plastic surgery residents completed the survey. Twenty-three, 24, and 39 residents were in integrated, combined, and independent residency programs, respectively. No statistically significant differences were seen with respect to number of aesthetic surgery procedures performed, additional training received in minimal-invasive cosmetic procedures, median level of confidence with index cosmetic surgery procedures, or perceived quality of aesthetic surgery training. Facial aesthetic procedures were felt to be the most challenging procedures. Exposure to minimally invasive aesthetic procedures was limited. Conclusion. While the educational experience in aesthetic surgery appears to be similar, weaknesses still exist with respect to training in minimally invasive/nonsurgical aesthetic procedures.
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Long noncoding RNA: significance and potential in skin biology.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Over the past few years, advances in genome analyses have identified an emerging class of noncoding RNAs that play critical roles in the regulation of gene expression and epigenetic reprogramming. Given their transcriptional pervasiveness, the potential for these intriguing macromolecules to integrate a myriad of external cellular cues with nuclear responses has become increasingly apparent. Recent studies have implicated noncoding RNAs in epidermal development and keratinocyte differentiation, but the complexity of multilevel regulation of transcriptional programs involved in these processes remains ill defined. In this review, we discuss the relevance of noncoding RNA in normal skin development, their involvement in cutaneous malignancies, and their role in the regulation of adult stem-cell maintenance in stratified epithelial tissues. Furthermore, we provide additional examples highlighting the ubiquity of noncoding RNAs in diverse human diseases.
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IL-10 mediated by herpes simplex virus vector reduces neuropathic pain induced by HIV gp120 combined with ddC in rats.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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HIV-associated sensory neuropathy affects over 50% of HIV patients and is a common peripheral nerve complication of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Evidence shows that painful HIV sensory neuropathy is influenced by neuroinflammatory events that include the proinflammatory molecules, MAP Kinase, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), stromal cell-derived factor 1-? (SDF1?), and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). However, the exact mechanisms of painful HIV sensory neuropathy are not known, which hinders our ability to develop effective treatments. In this study, we investigated whether inhibition of proinflammatory factors reduces the HIV-associated neuropathic pain state.
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The role of stem cells in aesthetic surgery: fact or fiction?
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Stem cells are attractive candidates for the development of novel therapies, targeting indications that involve functional restoration of defective tissue. Although most stem cell therapies are new and highly experimental, there are clinics around the world that exploit vulnerable patients with the hope of offering supposed stem cell therapies, many of which operate without credible scientific merit, oversight, or other patient protection.
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Enhancement of primary neuronal cell proliferation using printing-transferred carbon nanotube sheets.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Artificial nerve guidance conduits (aNGCs) prepared from polymer scaffolds and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess unique chemical and physical properties, and have been widely used in preclinical trials to promote neuronal differentiation and growth. However, there have been only a few reports on the clinical applicability of CNT sheets for proliferation of primary neuronal cells due to safety concerns. The present study assesses the ability and potential applicability of multiwalled CNTs (MWNTs) composited with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheets to promote and enhance the proliferation of primary neuronal cells. In this study, the aqueous MWNT dispersion was filtered, and the PDMS/MWNT sheets were prepared using a simple printing transfer method. Characterization of PDMS/MWNT sheets demonstrated their unique physical properties such as superior mechanical strength and electroconductivity when compared with PDMS sheets. The effect of the PDMS/MWNT sheets on the neural cell proliferation and cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT and alamar blue assays. Our results indicate the viability and proliferation of primary neuronal cells and Schwann cells in PDMS/MWNT sheets increased over twice when compared with a noncoated dish that is not usual in the primary neuronal cell growth control (p?
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Numerical simulation of nonlinear Lamb waves used in a thin plate for detecting buried micro-cracks.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Compared with conventional linear ultrasonic inspection methods, which are sensitive only to severe defects, nonlinear ultrasonic inspection methods are better for revealing micro-cracks in thin plates. However, most nonlinear ultrasonic inspection methods have only been experimentally investigated using bulk or Rayleigh waves. Numerical studies, especially numerical simulations of Lamb ultrasonic waves, have seldom been reported. In this paper, the interaction between nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves and micro-cracks of various lengths and widths buried in a thin metallic plate was simulated using the finite element method (FEM). The numerical results indicate that after interacting with a micro-crack, a new wave-packet was generated in addition to the S0 mode wave-packet. The second harmonics of the S0 mode Lamb waves and the new wave-packet were caused by nonlinear acoustic effects at the micro-crack. An amplitude ratio indicator is thus proposed for the early detection of buried micro-cracks.
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Clinical Characteristics and Effectiveness of the Lateral Tarsal Strip and Medial Spindle Procedure.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical characteristics and efficacy of the lateral tarsal strip (TS) and medial spindle procedure (MS). We conducted a retrospective chart review of the patients who underwent TS and MS between September 2008 and July 2011 by a single surgeon (S.H.B.). Data were collected on patient age, sex, laterality, diagnosis, procedures performed simultaneously, follow-up duration, postoperative complications, and surgical outcomes. One hundred eleven eyelids of 74 patients who underwent TS and 41 eyelids of 29 patients who underwent MS were included in this study. Patients' mean age was 61.5 years (range, 24-82) in the TS group and 68.2 years (range, 45-89) in the MS group. The most common diagnoses were lower lid laxity (54.1%) and involutional entropion (26.1%) in the TS group, and punctal ectropion in the MS group (95.1%). The percentage of patients who underwent an additional simultaneous procedure was 86.5% of the TS group and 92.7% of the MS group. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy was the most commonly performed simultaneous procedure in both TS and MS groups (28.1% and 65.8%, respectively). Success rates were 96.4% in the TS group and 97.6% in the MS group. In the TS group, 3 eyelids (2.7%) required reoperation. The most common complication was chemosis in both TS and MS groups (51.4% and 50%, respectively). TS and MS are commonly performed simultaneously with other surgical procedures. These procedures aim to resolve lower lid laxity and punctal ectropion as well as relieve the symptoms of epiphora by stabilizing medial and lateral lid laxity. This review of the clinical features and effectiveness of MS and TS procedures provides useful information for clinicians.
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Piecewise-constant and low-rank approximation for identification of recurrent copy number variations.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The post-genome era sees urgent need for more novel approaches to extracting useful information from the huge amount of genetic data. The identification of recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) from array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data can help understand complex diseases, such as cancer. Most of the previous computational methods focused on single-sample analysis or statistical testing based on the results of single-sample analysis. Finding recurrent CNVs from multi-sample data remains a challenging topic worth further study.
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Studies in fat grafting: Part I. Effects of injection technique on in vitro fat viability and in vivo volume retention.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Fat grafting has become increasingly popular for the correction of soft-tissue deficits at many sites throughout the body. Long-term outcomes, however, depend on delivery of fat in the least traumatic fashion to optimize viability of the transplanted tissue. In this study, the authors compare the biological properties of fat following injection using two methods.
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Importance of N-glycosylation on CD147 for its biological functions.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Glycosylation of glycoproteins is one of many molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. Post-translational modifications of proteins are closely associated with the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. CD147, a tumor-associated antigen that is highly expressed on the cell surface of various tumors, is a potential target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A significant biochemical property of CD147 is its high level of glycosylation. Studies on the structure and function of CD147 glycosylation provide valuable clues to the development of targeted therapies for cancer. Here, we review current understanding of the glycosylation characteristics of CD147 and the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of CD147 N-glycans. Finally, we discuss proteins regulating CD147 glycosylation and the biological functions of CD147 glycosylation.
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Mechanical allodynia induced by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor is suppressed by p55TNFSR mediated by herpes simplex virus vector through the SDF1?/CXCR4 system in rats.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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In the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy, neuropathic pain associated with the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is clinically common. While evidence demonstrates that neuropathic pain is influenced by neuroinflammatory events that include the proinflammatory molecules, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), stromal cell-derived factor 1-? (SDF1-?), and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), the detailed mechanisms by which NRTIs contribute to the development of neuropathic pain are not known. In this study, we investigated the role of these proinflammatory molecules in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the spinal dorsal horn in NRTIs-mediated neuropathic pain state.
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Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio predicts pathologic tumor response and survival after preoperative chemoradiation for rectal cancer.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) reflects the balance between pro- and anti-tumor immune activities. We evaluated whether NLR is associated with pathologic tumor response and prognosis in rectal cancer patients that underwent preoperative chemoradiaton therapy (CRT) with surgery.
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Comparison Between Preassembled and Modular Cups in Primary Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Two-Year Minimum Follow-up Study.
J Arthroplasty
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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We prospectively analyzed 83 patients who underwent ceramic-on-ceramic THA using preassembled (n=22) or modular acetabular components (n=61) between June 2010 and June 2012. There were no significant differences in mean postoperative radiographic outcomes, functional outcomes, or complications between the two groups. Both groups showed satisfactory performance at the 2year follow up. Only the gender of the patients was significantly different between the two groups. Half of the women had smaller acetabular diameters accommodating a cup size of only 48-50-mm. Although a preassembled cup with a 36-mm ceramic liner is proven to be safe in the short term, future research should focus on evaluating the long-term risks.
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The anesthetic experience of implantable left ventricular assist device insertion: a case report.
Korean J Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Because of insufficient number of donor hearts for cardiac transplantation, the use of implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has been increasing as an alternative. During this procedure, the fundamental role of anesthesiologists would be to maintain stable hemodynamics. This report describes the anesthetic case of a 75-year-old man who underwent implantable LVAD placement as a destination therapy of his heart failure in Korea. The procedure and anesthesia were uneventful with transesophageal echocariographic guide. He moved to the ward on postoperative day 10 without fatal complication.
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Patient information leaflets (PILs) for UK randomised controlled trials: a feasibility study exploring whether they contain information to support decision making about trial participation.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Informed consent is regarded as a cornerstone of ethical healthcare research and is a requirement for most clinical research studies. Guidelines suggest that prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT) participants should understand a basic amount of key information about the RCTs they are being asked to enrol in in order to provide valid informed consent. This information is usually provided to potential participants in a patient information leaflet (PIL). There is evidence that some trial participants fail to understand key components of trial processes or rationale. As such, the existing approach to information provision for potential RCT participants may not be optimal. Decision aids have been used for a variety of treatment and screening decisions to improve knowledge, but focus more on overall decision quality, and may be helpful to those making decisions about participating in an RCT. We investigated the feasibility of using a tool to identify which items recommended for good quality decision making are present in UK PILs.
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Synchronous multiple colonic adenocarcinomas arising in patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.
Ann Surg Treat Res
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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We report a case of synchronous multiple colon adenocarcinomas in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). NF1 is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder and patients with NF1 have high risk for both benign and malignant tumors. However, adenocarcinomas involving the colon have rarely been reported in patients with NF1. A 61-year-old man was referred for generalized peritonitis due to descending colon perforation. Left hemicolectomy was performed and pathologic examination showed four adenocarcinomas. Peritoneal nodules were confirmed as metastatic adenocarcinoma (pT4N1M1). The patient also had clinical features compatible with NF1 such as café au lait macules, axillary freckles, neurofibromas across the body, and Lisch nodules. Upon review of the literature, colon adenocarcinoma in patients with NF1 tends to occur in males and relatively young age groups, and is associated with advanced tumor stages and multiple colon cancers. To improve treatment outcome, early colonoscopic surveillance should be considered in patients with NF1.
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Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of bufalin in rodents.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The aims of this study were to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of bufalin, a major component of "Chan-su." We used a carrageenan-induced paw edema model to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of this compound, and Western blot analysis detected NF- ? B signaling during this effect. The antinociceptive activities were evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests; open-field test investigated effects on the central nervous system. Our data showed that bufalin (0.3 and 0.6?mg/kg, i.p.) potently decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema. Bufalin down regulated the expression levels of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) during these treatments. Further studies demonstrated that bufalin significantly inhibited the activation of NF-?B signaling. Bufalin also reduced acetic acid-induced writhing and the licking time in the formalin test and increased hot-plate reaction latencies. Naloxone pretreatment (2?mg/kg, i.p.) in the early phases of the formalin test and hot-plate test significantly attenuated the bufalin-induced antinociception effects, which suggests the involvement of the opioid system. A reduction in locomotion was not observed in the open-field test after bufalin administration. Taken together, bufalin treatment resulted in in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, and bufalin may be a novel, potential drug for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract.
Int J Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg?mL(-1); (iii) 3 mg?mL(-1); and (iv) 6 mg?mL(-1). The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×10(6) to 1.78×10(6) viable cell counts (CFU)?mL(-1). SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity.
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Paxillin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor A-induced in vitro angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of paxillin in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF?A)?induced adhesion, proliferation, migration and capillary formation of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used to evaluate these four processes in vitro. The HUVECs were either mock?transfected (control), transfected with scramble small interference RNA (siRNA) or transfected with siRNA specifically targeting paxillin. VEGF?A (20 ng/ml) was used to stimulate angiogenesis. The VEGF?A treatment significantly increased the adhesion, proliferation, migration and tube formation of the HUVECs in the control and scramble siRNA groups, whereas the siRNA?-mediated knockdown of paxillin inhibited these VEGF?A?induced effects. Paxillin is essential for VEGF?A?mediated angiogenesis in ECs and its inhibition may be a potential target for antiangiogenic therapies.
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Ex Vivo Response to Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors of the HIV Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Derived from HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) can induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR). However, ex vivo and in vivo responses to HDACi are variable and the activity of HDACi in cells other than T-cells have not been well characterised. Here, we developed a novel assay to determine the activity of HDACi on patient-derived HIV LTRs in different cell types. HIV LTRs from integrated virus were amplified using triple-nested Alu-PCR from total memory CD4+ T-cells (CD45RO+) isolated from HIV-infected patients prior to and following suppressive antiretroviral therapy. NL4-3 or patient-derived HIV LTRs were cloned into the chromatin forming episomal vector pCEP4, and the effect of HDACi investigated in the astrocyte and epithelial cell lines SVG and HeLa, respectively. There were no significant differences in the sequence of the HIV LTRs isolated from CD4+ T-cells prior to and after 18 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We found that in both cell lines, the HDACi panobinostat, trichostatin A, vorinostat and entinostat activated patient-derived HIV LTRs to similar levels seen with NL4-3 and all patient derived isolates had similar sensitivity to maximum HDACi stimulation. We observed a marked difference in the maximum fold induction of luciferase by HDACi in HeLa and SVG, suggesting that the effect of HDACi may be influenced by the cellular environment. Finally, we observed significant synergy in activation of the LTR with vorinostat and the viral protein Tat. Together, our results suggest that the LTR sequence of integrated virus is not a major determinant of a functional response to an HDACi.
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A taxonomic review on the species of Tetraserica Ahrens, 2004, of China (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A review on the Chinese species of Tetraserica Ahrens, 2004, is presented. The lectotype of Tetrasericatonkinensis (Moser, 1908), comb. n. is designated. Twenty-nine new Tetraserica species are described from China and adjacent regions: Tetrasericaanhuaensis sp. n., Tetrasericachangjiangensis sp. n., Tetrasericachangshouensis sp. n., Tetrasericadamaidiensis sp. n., Tetrasericadaqingshanica sp. n., Tetrasericafikaceki sp. n., Tetrasericagraciliforceps sp. n., Tetrasericajinghongensis sp. n., Tetrasericaleishanica sp. n., Tetrasericaliangheensis sp. n., Tetrasericalinaoshanica sp. n., Tetrasericalongipenis sp. n., Tetrasericalongzhouensis sp. n., Tetrasericamaoershanensis sp. n., Tetrasericamengeana sp. n., Tetrasericamenglongensis sp. n., Tetrasericapingjiangensis sp. n., Tetrasericaruiliana sp. n., Tetrasericaruiliensis sp. n., Tetrasericasculptilis sp. n., Tetrasericashangsiensis sp. n., Tetrasericashunbiensis sp. n., Tetrasericasigulianshanica sp. n., Tetrasericatianchiensis sp. n., Tetrasericawandingensis sp. n., Tetrasericawangtongensis sp. n., Tetrasericaxichouensis sp. n., Tetrasericayaoanica sp. n., Tetrasericayaoquensis sp. n. A key to the Chinese Tetraserica species is given, species distribution as well as the habitus and male genitalia of all species are illustrated.
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A taxonomic revision of the Neoserica(sensu lato)calva group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The species of the Neoserica(sensu lato)calva group are revised. Neosericacalva Frey, 1972, comb. n. is redescribed. Thirteen new species are described from China and South Korea: Neosericaailaoshanica sp. n., Neosericaanonyma sp. n., Neosericacalvoides sp. n., Neosericagulinqingensis sp. n., Neosericakoelkebecki sp. n., Neosericaliangi sp. n., Neosericaluxiensis sp. n., Neosericamenghaiensis sp. n., Neosericamengi sp. n., Neosericataipingensis sp. n., Neosericazheijangensis sp. n., Neosericazhibenshanica sp. n., and Neosericazongyuani sp. n. A key to Sericini genera with multilamellate antenna and species groups of Neoserica of mainland Asia as well as a key to species of the Neosericacalva group are provided. A map of species distribution is given, habitus and male genitalia are illustrated.
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Synthesis and field emission studies of tower-like GaN nanowires.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tower-like GaN nanowires were successfully fabricated on Au-coated Si substrates by chemical vapor deposition. The tower-like nanowire consisted of a nanowire at the center and microcrystal layers stacked one by one around the nanowire. The tower-like nanowires grew along the [0001] direction, and the exposed surfaces of the microcrystal layers are [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] facets. The growth mechanism of the tower-like GaN nanowires was proposed. The field emission property of tower-like GaN nanowires was tested. Due to the sharp tips, nearly vertical alignment and rough surfaces caused by the microcrystal layers, the tower-like GaN nanowires show excellent performance in field emission with a turn-on field of 2.44 V/?m which is lower than those of other GaN one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials.
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Community perceptions of a rural medical school: a pilot qualitative study.
Adv Med Educ Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient involvement in medical curricula development, this study was designed to pilot an approach to exploring the perspectives of well members of the community in the transition of institutional policy on community engagement to one medical school.
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A taxonomic revision of the Neoserica (sensu lato) pilosula group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nine new species of the Neoserica (sensu lato) pilosula Moser, 1915, group are described from China: Neoserica curvipenis sp. n., N. emeishanensis sp. n., N. lincangensis sp. n., N. ludingensis sp. n., N. lushuiana sp. n., N. rangshuiensis sp. n., N. shennongjiaensis sp. n., N. tianeana sp. n., and N. weibaoshanica sp. n. The lectotype of Neoserica pilosula Moser, 1915, is designated. Habitus and male genitalia are illustrated, a key to the species of the group and a map of species distribution are given.
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A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The present paper revises the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group, so far known only with two nominal species. Twenty new species are herein described from Indochina and southern China: N. abnormoides sp. n. (Vietnam, China), N. allolaotica sp. n., N. namthaensis sp. n., N. simplicissima sp. n. (Laos), N. thailandensis sp. n. (Thailand), N. alloputaoana sp. n., N. kanphantensis sp. n., N. natmatoungensis sp. n., N. putaoana sp. n., N. taunggyiana sp. n. (Myanmar), N. lamellosa sp. n., N. tonkinea sp. n. (Vietnam), N. bairailingshanica sp. n., N. euyunnanica sp. n., N. huangi sp. n., N. jiangxiensis sp. n., N. trifida sp. n., N. yaoi sp. n., N. yingjiangensis sp. n. (China), N. cardamomensis sp. n. (Indochina and southern China). One new combination is established: Neoserica ponderosa Arrow, 1946, comb. n. The lectotypes of Neoserica abnormis Moser, 1908 and the taxonomically uncertain N. inclinata Brenske, 1898, which very likely also belongs to this species group, are designated herein. A key to the species and to species groups is given, the genitalia of all species including their habitus are illustrated. Maps of species distribution are included.
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Quantitative measurement of elasticity of the appendix using shear wave elastography in patients with suspected acute appendicitis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Shear wave elastography (SWE) has not been studied for diagnosing appendicitis. We postulated that an inflamed appendix would become stiffer than a normal appendix. We evaluated the elastic modulus values (EMV) by SWE in healthy volunteers, patients without appendicitis, and patients with appendicitis. We also evaluated diagnostic ability of SWE for differentiating an inflamed from a normal appendix in patients with suspected appendicitis.
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HAb18G/CD147 regulates vinculin-mediated focal adhesion and cytoskeleton organization in cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Focal adhesions (FAs), integrin-mediated macromolecular complexes located at the cell membrane extracellular interface, have been shown to regulate cell adhesion and migration. Our previous studies have indicated that HAb18G/CD147 (CD147) is involved in cytoskeleton reorganization and FA formation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear. In the current study, we determined that CD147 was involved in vinculin-mediated FA focal adhesion formation in HCC cells. We also found that deletion of CD147 led to reduced vinculin-mediated FA areas (P<0.0001), length/width ratios (P<0.0001), and mean intensities (P<0.0001). CD147 promoted lamellipodia formation by localizing Arp2/3 to the leading edge of the cell. Deletion of CD147 significantly reduced the fluorescence (t1/2) recovery times (22.7±3.3 s) of vinculin-mediated focal adhesions (P<0.0001). In cell-spreading assays, CD147 was found to be essential for dynamic focal adhesion enlargement and disassembly. Furthermore, the current data showed that CD147 reduced tyrosine phosphorylation in vinculin-mediated focal adhesions, and enhanced the accumulation of the acidic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Together, these results revealed that CD147 is involved in vinculin-mediated focal adhesion formation, which subsequently promotes cytoskeleton reorganization to facilitate invasion and migration of human HCC cells.
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Skeletal muscle as a regulator of the longevity protein, Klotho.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Klotho is a powerful longevity protein that has been linked to the prevention of muscle atrophy, osteopenia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar anti-aging effects have also been ascribed to exercise and physical activity. While an association between muscle function and Klotho expression has been previously suggested from longitudinal cohort studies, a direct relationship between circulating Klotho and skeletal muscle has not been investigated. In this paper, we present a review of the literature and preliminary evidence that, together, suggests Klotho expression may be modulated by skeletal muscle activity. Our pilot clinical findings performed in young and aged individuals suggest that circulating Klotho levels are upregulated in response to an acute exercise bout, but that the response may be dependent on fitness level. A similar upregulation of circulating Klotho is also observed in response to an acute exercise in young and old mice, suggesting that this may be a good model for mechanistically probing the role of physical activity on Klotho expression. Finally, we highlight overlapping signaling pathways that are modulated by both Klotho and skeletal muscle and propose potential mechanisms for cross-talk between the two. It is hoped that this review will stimulate further consideration of the relationship between skeletal muscle activity and Klotho expression, potentially leading to important insights into the well-documented systemic anti-aging effects of exercise.
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Inferring epidemic network topology from surveillance data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The transmission of infectious diseases can be affected by many or even hidden factors, making it difficult to accurately predict when and where outbreaks may emerge. One approach at the moment is to develop and deploy surveillance systems in an effort to detect outbreaks as timely as possible. This enables policy makers to modify and implement strategies for the control of the transmission. The accumulated surveillance data including temporal, spatial, clinical, and demographic information, can provide valuable information with which to infer the underlying epidemic networks. Such networks can be quite informative and insightful as they characterize how infectious diseases transmit from one location to another. The aim of this work is to develop a computational model that allows inferences to be made regarding epidemic network topology in heterogeneous populations. We apply our model on the surveillance data from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong. The inferred epidemic network displays significant effect on the propagation of infectious diseases.
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A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) septemlamellata group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the present paper the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) septemlamellata group, that included so far only four known species, are revised. Here we describe eleven new species originating mainly from Indochina and Southern China: N. daweishanica sp. n., N. gaoligongshanica sp. n., N. guangpingensis sp. n., N. igori sp. n., N. jiulongensis sp. n., N. plurilamellata sp. n., N. weishanica sp. n., N. yanzigouensis sp. n. (China) N. sapaensis sp. n. (China, Vietnam), N. bansongchana sp. n., N. takakuwai sp. n. (Laos). The lectotypes of Neoserica septemlamellata Brenske, 1898 and N. septemfoliata Moser, 1915 are designated. Keys to the species and species groups are given, the genitalia of all species and their habitus are illustrated and distribution maps are included.
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HIV-1 entry and trans-infection of astrocytes involves CD81 vesicles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Astrocytes are extensively infected with HIV-1 in vivo and play a significant role in the development of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. Despite their extensive infection, little is known about how astrocytes become infected, since they lack cell surface CD4 expression. In the present study, we investigated the fate of HIV-1 upon infection of astrocytes. Astrocytes were found to bind and harbor virus followed by biphasic decay, with HIV-1 detectable out to 72 hours. HIV-1 was observed to associate with CD81-lined vesicle structures. shRNA silencing of CD81 resulted in less cell-associated virus but no loss of co-localization between HIV-1 and CD81. Astrocytes supported trans-infection of HIV-1 to T-cells without de novo virus production, and the virus-containing compartment required 37°C to form, and was trypsin-resistant. The CD81 compartment observed herein, has been shown in other cell types to be a relatively protective compartment. Within astrocytes, this compartment may be actively involved in virus entry and/or spread. The ability of astrocytes to transfer virus, without de novo viral synthesis suggests they are capable of sequestering and protecting virus and thus, they could potentially facilitate viral dissemination in the CNS.
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Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness changes in Parkinson disease: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative process that leads to a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons, mainly in the basal ganglia of the brain. Numerous studies have analyzed the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness abnormalities and changes in PD, but the results have not always been consistent. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the RNFL thickness measured with OCT in PD.
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Histological inflammatory cell infiltration is associated with the number of lymph nodes retrieved in colorectal cancer.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Antitumor immune response is suggested to be a factor affecting the number of nodes retrieved after colorectal cancer surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of antitumor immune response with the number of retrieved nodes.
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[Effects of curcumin on pneumocyte apoptosis and CHOP in pulmonary ischemia/reperfusion injury of mice].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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To investigate the effects of curcumin (CUR) on pneumocyte apoptosis and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in pulmonary ischemia/reperfusion injury (PIRI) in mice.
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Isolation of human adipose-derived stromal cells using laser-assisted liposuction and their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Harvesting adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering is frequently done through liposuction. However, several different techniques exist. Although third-generation ultrasound-assisted liposuction has been shown to not have a negative effect on ASCs, the impact of laser-assisted liposuction on the quality and differentiation potential of ASCs has not been studied. Therefore, ASCs were harvested from laser-assisted lipoaspirate and suction-assisted lipoaspirate. Next, in vitro parameters of cell yield, cell viability and proliferation, surface marker phenotype, osteogenic differentiation, and adipogenic differentiation were performed. Finally, in vivo bone formation was assessed using a critical-sized cranial defect in athymic nude mice. Although ASCs isolated from suction-assisted lipoaspirate and laser-assisted lipoaspirate both successfully underwent osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, the cell yield, viability, proliferation, and frequency of ASCs (CD34(+)CD31(-)CD45(-)) in the stromal vascular fraction were all significantly less with laser-assisted liposuction in vitro (p < .05). In vivo, quantification of osseous healing by micro-computed tomography revealed significantly more healing with ASCs isolated from suction-assisted lipoaspirate relative to laser-assisted lipoaspirate at the 4-, 6-, and 8-week time points (p < .05). Therefore, as laser-assisted liposuction appears to negatively impact the biology of ASCs, cell harvest using suction-assisted liposuction is preferable for tissue-engineering purposes.
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Molecular analysis and differentiation capacity of adipose-derived stem cells from lymphedema tissue.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Many breast cancer patients are plagued by the disabling complication of upper limb lymphedema after axillary surgery. Conservative treatments using massage and compression therapy do not offer a lasting relief, as they fail to address the chronic transformation of edema into excess adipose tissue. Liposuction to address the adipose nature of the lymphedema has provided an opportunity for a detailed analysis of the stromal fraction of lymphedema-associated fat to clarify the molecular mechanisms for this adipogenic transformation.
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TE-mode coplanar imaging using weakly anisotropic metasurface.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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We analyze and experimentally realize coplanar imaging of transverse-electric (TE) modes surface waves using weakly anisotropic metasurface consisting of non-periodic subwavelength U-shaped metallic structures. Such metallic structures with the exciting coplanar dipole are integrated on the top surface of a thin dielectric board. A circuit model is utilized to analyze the characteristics of the surface waves supported by the metasurface. By varying the geometrical parameters of the U-shaped metallic structures, the phases of surface waves are modulated, from which a planar lens is presented for the TE-mode coplanar imaging. The analyses and measurements show that anisotropies of the U-shaped metallic structures have little influence on the imaging properties of the planar lens. The measurement results have good agreements to numerical simulations.
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Enhancing in vivo survival of adipose-derived stromal cells through Bcl-2 overexpression using a minicircle vector.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Tissue regeneration using progenitor cell-based therapy has the potential to aid in the healing of a diverse range of pathologies, ranging from short-gut syndrome to spinal cord lesions. However, there are numerous hurdles to be overcome prior to the widespread application of these cells in the clinical setting. One of the primary barriers to effective stem cell therapy is the hostile environment that progenitor cells encounter in the clinical injury wound setting. In order to promote cellular survival, stem cell differentiation, and participation in tissue regeneration, relevant cells and delivery scaffolds must be paired with strategies to prevent cell death to ensure that these cells can survive to form de novo tissue. The Bcl-2 protein is a prosurvival member of a family of proteins that regulate the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Using several strategies to overexpress the Bcl-2 protein, we demonstrated a decrease in the mediators of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. This was shown through the use of two different clinical tissue repair models. Cells overexpressing Bcl-2 not only survived within the wound environment at a statistically significantly higher rate than control cells, but also increased tissue regeneration. Finally, we used a nonintegrating minicircle technology to achieve this in a potentially clinically applicable strategy for stem cell therapy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.