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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[In vitro studies of Raf-CREB, Akt-CREB, and CaMK II -CREB signal transduction pathway regulated by ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1 and Re].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Effects of ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1 and Re on neurotrophic factor signal transduction pathway using liposome-mediated transfection of eukaryotic cells approach.
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Lipase-Supported Metal-Organic Framework Bioreactor Catalyzes Warfarin Synthesis.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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A green and sustainable strategy synthesizes clinical medicine warfarin anticoagulant by using lipase-supported metal-organic framework (MOF) bioreactors (see scheme). These findings may be beneficial for future studies in the industrial production of chemical, pharmaceutical, and agrochemical precursors.
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Nitrogen-enriched hierarchically porous carbons prepared from polybenzoxazine for high-performance supercapacitors.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Nitrogen-enriched hierarchically porous carbons (HPCs) were synthesized from a novel nitrile-functionalized benzoxazine based on benzoxazine chemistry using a soft-templating method and a potassium hydroxide (KOH) chemical activation method and used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The textural and chemical properties could be easily tuned by adding a soft template and changing the activation temperature. The introduction of the soft-templating agent (surfactant F127) resulted in the formation of mesopores, which facilitated fast ionic diffusion and reduced the internal resistance. The micropores of HPCs were extensively developed by KOH activation to provide large electrochemical double-layer capacitance. As the activation temperature increased from 600 to 800 °C, the specific surface area of nitrogen-enriched carbons increased dramatically, micropores were enlarged, and more meso/macropores were developed, but the nitrogen and oxygen content decreased, which affected the electrochemical performance. The sample HPC-800 activated at 800 °C possesses a high specific surface area (1555.4 m(2) g(-1)), high oxygen (10.61 wt %) and nitrogen (3.64 wt %) contents, a hierarchical pore structure, a high graphitization degree, and good electrical conductivity. It shows great pseudocapacitance and the largest specific capacitance of 641.6 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) in a 6 mol L(-1) KOH aqueous electrolyte when measured in a three-electrode system. Furthermore, the HPC-800 electrode exhibits excellent rate capability (443.0 F g(-1) remained at 40 A g(-1)) and good cycling stability (94.3% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles).
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Effect of degree of hydrolysis on the bioavailability of corn gluten meal hydrolysates.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Under the situation that the shortage of proteins and large quantity of corn gluten meal (CGM) which is a superior protein resource was underexploited because of its special amino acid composition, the enzymatic hydrolysis of CGM was employed to improve its bioavailability.
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Influence of metal of the applicator on the dose distribution during brachytherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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This study explores how the metal materials of the applicator influence the dose distribution when performing brachytherapy for cervical cancer. A pinpoint ionization chamber, Monte Carlo code MCNPX, and treatment planning system are used to evaluate the dose distribution for a single Ir-192 source positioned in the tandem and ovoid. For dose distribution in water with the presence of the tandem, differences among measurement, MCNPX calculation and treatment planning system results are <5%. For dose distribution in water with the presence of the ovoid, the MCNPX result agrees with the measurement. But the doses calculated from treatment planning system are overestimated by up to a factor of 4. This is due to the shielding effect of the metal materials in the applicator not being considered in the treatment planning system. This result suggests that the treatment planning system should take into account corrections for the metal materials of the applicator in order to improve the accuracy of the radiation dose delivered.
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Jagunal homolog 1 is a critical regulator of neutrophil function in fungal host defense.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Neutrophils are key innate immune effector cells that are essential to fighting bacterial and fungal pathogens. Here we report that mice carrying a hematopoietic lineage-specific deletion of Jagn1 (encoding Jagunal homolog 1) cannot mount an efficient neutrophil-dependent immune response to the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Global glycobiome analysis identified marked alterations in the glycosylation of proteins involved in cell adhesion and cytotoxicity in Jagn1-deficient neutrophils. Functional analysis confirmed marked defects in neutrophil migration in response to Candida albicans infection and impaired formation of cytotoxic granules, as well as defective myeloperoxidase release and killing of Candida albicans. Treatment with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) protected mutant mice from increased weight loss and accelerated mortality after Candida albicans challenge. Notably, GM-CSF also restored the defective fungicidal activity of bone marrow cells from humans with JAGN1 mutations. These data directly identify Jagn1 (JAGN1 in humans) as a new regulator of neutrophil function in microbial pathogenesis and uncover a potential treatment option for humans.
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[Diagnostic potential of five natural antigens from Echinococcus granulosus in the patients of cystic echinococcosis with different clinical status].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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To analyze the characteristics of serum antibody reactivity of cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients with different clinical status towards five native antigens obtained from Echinococcus granulosus (Eg).
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[Influence of the river-lake relation change on the distribution of heavy metal and ecological risk assessment in the surface sediment of Poyang Lake].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Effects of river (Yangtze River)-lake (Poyang Lake) relation on the distribution and potential ecological risk of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Cd were investigated in surface sediment of Poyang Lake under different waterregimens. The results indicated: (1) the sediments of Poyang Lake were polluted by various concentrations of heavy metals mainly originated from particulates of Yangtze River, and Cu and Pb were the main pollution factors. The pollution level of determined heavy metals followed the order of Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr >Cd. The concentration ranges of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Cd in the sediment of Poyang Lake were 13.1-108.1 mg.kg-1 , 37-119.1 mg.kg-1, 29.9-129.9 mgkg-1, 13.3-98.6 mgkg-1 and 0. 19-2.77 mg.kg-1 during the wet period, and 3.05-69.7 mg.kg-1, 27.5-105 mgkg-1, 18.8-95.4 mg.kg-1, 7.34-70 mg.kg- and 0.033-0.406 mg.kg-1 during the dry period respectively. The region with the highest heavy metal concentrations was located in water input area of the " Five River" and water output area of " Hukou" ; (2)The regions with high risk of heavy metals in sediment were mainly located in the area of the trail of "Five Rivers" during the wet period; while during the dry period, the area with high risk of heavy metals in sediment enlarged, which was not only limited in the area of the trail of "Five Rivers", but also enlarged northwards. The potential ecological risk of "Hukou" was relatively high, however, the potential ecological risk of the sediment in the whole lake during the dry period was lower than that during the wet period. (3) With the change of river-lake relation, water level rose, the maintaining time was shortened during the wet period, the dry season appeared ahead of schedule, the transformation course of Poyang Lake from "Lake morphology" to " River morphology" increased, and the typical river properties were enhanced, which resulted in the decreased potential ecological risk of heavy metals in sediment of the whole lake, however, the area of high risk-region was enlarged northwards.
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An update to the taxonomy of the genus Gastroserica Brenske (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Based on the examination of newly collected material and additional specimens housed in Chinese collections, our knowledge of Gastroserica Brenske, 1897, is expanded. Here, seven new species are described, including habitus photographs and illustrations of the male genitalia: Gastroserica haoyui sp. n. (China: Zhejiang Prov.), G. fengduana sp. n. (China: Sichuan Prov.), G. wenzhui sp. n. (China: Guangxi Prov.), G. damingshanica sp. n. (from China: Guangxi Prov.), G. jinxiuensis sp. n. (China: Guangxi Prov.), G. liboensis sp. n. (China: Yunnan Prov.) and G. carolusi sp. n. (Laos). Additionally, we provide a distribution map of the new taxa and new distribution records of the known taxa.
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Electro-acupuncture at Neiguan pretreatment alters genome-wide gene expressions and protects rat myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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This study investigated genome-wide gene expressions and the cardioprotective effects of electro-acupuncture pretreatment at the PC6 Neiguan acupoint on myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation (SO), I/R, electro-acupuncture at the PC6 Neiguan acupoint pretreatment (EA) and electro-acupuncture at non-acupoint pretreatment (NA). Compared with the I/R group, the survival rate of the EA group was significantly increased, the arrhythmia score, infarction area, serum concentrations of CK, LDH and CK-Mb and plasma level of cTnT were significantly decreased. RNA-seq results showed that 725 genes were up-regulated and 861 genes were down-regulated under I/R conditions compared to the SO group; both EA and NA reversed some of these gene expression levels (592 in EA and 238 in NA group). KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these genes were involved in multiple pathways, including ECM, MAPK signaling, apoptosis, cytokine and leukocyte pathways. In addition, some pathways were uniquely regulated by EA, but not NA pretreatment, such as oxidative stress, cardiac muscle contraction, gap junction, vascular smooth muscle contraction, hypertrophic, NOD-like receptor, and P53 and B-cell receptor pathways. This study was first to reveal the gene expression signatures of acute myocardial I/R injury and electro-acupuncture pretreatment in rats.
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Cyclin D1 represses gluconeogenesis via inhibition of the transcriptional coactivator PGC1?.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial to maintain normal blood glucose during periods of nutrient deprivation. Gluconeogenesis is controlled at multiple levels by a variety of signal transduction and transcriptional pathways. However, dysregulation of these pathways leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. While the effects of various signaling pathways on gluconeogenesis are well established, the downstream signaling events repressing gluconeogenic gene expression are not as well understood. The cell-cycle regulator cyclin D1 is expressed in the liver, despite the liver being a quiescent tissue. The most well-studied function of cyclin D1 is activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), promoting progression of the cell cycle. We show here a novel role for cyclin D1 as a regulator of gluconeogenic and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) gene expression. In mice, fasting decreases liver cyclin D1 expression, while refeeding induces cyclin D1 expression. Inhibition of CDK4 enhances the gluconeogenic gene expression, whereas cyclin D1-mediated activation of CDK4 represses the gluconeogenic gene-expression program in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, we show that cyclin D1 represses gluconeogenesis and OxPhos in part via inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC1?) activity in a CDK4-dependent manner. Indeed, we demonstrate that PGC1? is novel cyclin D1/CDK4 substrate. These studies reveal a novel role for cyclin D1 on metabolism via PGC1? and reveal a potential link between cell-cycle regulation and metabolic control of glucose homeostasis.
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Dysfunction of hippocampal interneurons in epilepsy.
Neurosci Bull
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA)-containing interneurons are crucial to both development and function of the brain. Down-regulation of GABAergic inhibition may result in the generation of epileptiform activity. Loss, axonal sprouting, and dysfunction of interneurons are regarded as mechanisms involved in epileptogenesis. Recent evidence suggests that network connectivity and the properties of interneurons are responsible for excitatory-inhibitory neuronal circuits. The balance between excitation and inhibition in CA1 neuronal circuitry is considerably altered during epileptic changes. This review discusses interneuron diversity, the causes of interneuron dysfunction in epilepsy, and the possibility of using GABAergic neuronal progenitors for the treatment of epilepsy.
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Increased HIF-1alpha expression in tumor cells and lymphocytes of tumor microenvironments predicts unfavorable survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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The expression of hypoxia-induced factor (HIF)-1? is up-regulated in tumor microenvironments under hypoxia condition. However, the prognostic significance of HIF-1? in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still elusive. We measured the HIF-1? expression by immunochemistry in tumor specimens from 136 resected ESCC; in the current study, the HIF-1? expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with tumor stage (P = 0.003) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.006); whereas the HIF-1? expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) had no relationship with patients' clinicopathological parameters. Patients with high HIF-1? expression in tumor cells or in TILs showed worse survival related to those with low HIF-1? expression. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that expression of HIF-1? in TILs was an independent factor for DFS (P = 0.007) and OS (P = 0.013). Additionally, the expression of HIF-1? in tumor cells was an independent factor for DFS (P = 0.037) and OS (P = 0.033) in locoregional ESCC patients, whereas the expression of HIF-1? in TILs was an independent factor for DFS (P = 0.048) and OS (P = 0.039) in metastatic ESCC patients. Correlation analysis revealed that expressions of HIF-1? in tumor cells and in TILs were positively correlated, and patients with combined high HIF-1? in both tumor cells and TILs had the worst survivals (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the HIF-1? expressions in different cell populations of ESCC microenvironments have different clinical relevance and prognostic impact on patients.
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Elevated p53 promotes the processing of miR-18a to decrease estrogen receptor-? in female hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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The estrogen pathway has long been implicated as a tumor protector in female hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our previous study identified that estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) protein is downregulated in 60% of female HCC cases, via a miR-18a elevation mediated suppression of ER? translation. This study aims to delineate the mechanism underlying the upregulation of miR-18a in female HCC. The analysis of 77 female HCC specimens revealed that miR-18a levels were associated with pre-miR-18a rather than pri-miR-18a levels, suggesting an enhanced processing of pri- to pre-miR-18a. Among a panel of factors involved in microRNA processing, p53 was identified as a novel regulator for miR-18a maturation process. Knockdown of p53 by si-RNA decreased the level of miR-18a, whereas overexpression of either wild-type or mutant p53 increased its level. The association between the elevation of miR-18a and the accumulation of p53, mainly caused by somatic mutations, was confirmed in the clinical specimens of HBV-related female HCC. By analyzing the association with clinicopathological features, activation of this p53/miR-18a pathway mainly occurs in younger or noncirrhosis female HCC patients and associated with a trend of worse overall survival. Therefore, this study demonstrated a novel function of elevated/mutant p53 in regulating the amount of ER? protein through its promoting the biogenesis of miR-18a, which could lead to decrease the tumor-protective function of the estrogen pathway in female hepatocarcinogenesis.
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Evidence for a Far East Asian origin of lager beer yeast.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Lager-brewing arose in 15th century Bavaria [1] and is nowadays the most popular technique for alcoholic beverage production in the world. The technique is characterized by low temperature fermentation using the domesticated yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus (synonym S. carlsbergensis). It has been clear that the lager yeast is a hybrid with one portion of its genome having originated from S. cerevisiae ale yeast [2]. However, the source of the non-ale subgenome, which endows lager yeast with cold tolerance, had been a matter of debate [3]. Recently, a Patagonian origin hypothesis of lager yeast has been proposed based on the discovery of a new cryotolerant Saccharomyces species from Patagonian native forests of Argentina [4]. This yeast, named S. eubayanus, exhibited the closest known match (99.56%) to the non-ale portion of lager yeast and, thus, was believed to be its progenitor. However, we now show that this yeast species is likely native to the Tibetan Plateau. One of the Tibetan populations of the species exhibits closer affinity with lager yeast than the Patagonian population as inferred from population genetics and genome sequence analyses. We thus provide strong evidence for a Far East Asian origin hypothesis of lager yeast, which apparently corresponds better with geography and world trade history.
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Ultrasound enhanced production and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from mycelial fermentation of Phellinus igniarius.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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In this study, a novel flat-plate ultrasound technology was developed to stimulate polysaccharides production from Phellinus igniarius mycelial fermentation. Three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic treatment time, duty cycle time and culture time for a high yield of P. igniarius polysaccharides (PIPS). Optimal conditions were found to be ultrasound treatment time 65 min, duty cycle time 25s, and culture time 3.8d that gave a maximum PIPS yield of 1.8002 g/L, which increased ? 22.64% compared with the control (without any ultrasound). PIPS mainly contained low-molecular weight (MW) polysaccharides (3.1 kDa, 80%) composed of glucose, rhamnose and mannose in a molar ratio of 11.0:14.0:1.0. PIPS with higher carbohydrate and uronic acid contents exhibited strong antioxidant activities in vitro. Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) observations suggested that ultrasound could change the morphology and structure of P. igniarius mycelium, and accelerate the transfer of nutrients and metabolites.
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A repA-based ELISA for discriminating cattle vaccinated with Brucella suis 2 from those naturally infected with Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis.
Mol. Cell. Probes
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The commonest ways of diagnosing brucellosis in animals include the Rose-Bengal plate agglutination test, the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA), the slide agglutination test, the complement fixation test, and the indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). However, these methods cannot discriminate the Brucella vaccine strain (Brucella suis strain 2; B. suis S2) from naturally acquired virulent strains. Of the six common Brucella species, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and B. suis are the commonest species occurring in China. To develop an ELISA assay that can differentiate between cows inoculated with B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis, genomic sequences from six Brucella spp. (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, Brucella canis, Brucella neotomae and Brucella ovis) were compared using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool software. One particular gene, the repA-related gene, was found to be a marker that can differentiate B. suis from B. abortus and B. melitensis. The repA-related gene of B. suis was PCR amplified and subcloned into the pET-32a vector. Expressed repA-related protein was purified and used as an antigen. The repA-based ELISA was optimized and used as specific tests. In the present study, serum from animals inoculated with the B. suis S2 vaccine strain had positive repA-based ELISA results. In contrast, the test-positive reference sera against B. abortus and B. melitensis had negative repA-based ELISA results. The concordance rate between B. abortus antibody-negative (based on the repA-based ELISA) and the Brucella gene-positive (based on the 'Bruce ladder' multiplex PCR) was 100%. Therefore, the findings suggest that the repA-based ELISA is a useful tool for differentiating cows vaccinated with the B. suis S2 and naturally infected with B. abortus and B. melitensis.
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Epstein-Barr virus infection induces indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages through p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-?B pathways: impairment in T cell functions.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been observed in tumor-infiltrated macrophages, but its infection effects on macrophage immune functions are poorly understood. Here, we showed that some macrophages in the tumor stroma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue expressed the immunosuppressive protein indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) more strongly than did tumor cells. EBV infection induced mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity of IDO in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Infection increased the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas the neutralizing antibodies against TNF-? and IL-6 inhibited IDO induction. EBV infection also activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and NF-?B, and the inhibition of these two pathways with SB202190 and SN50 almost abrogated TNF-? and IL-6 production and inhibited IDO production. Moreover, the activation of IDO in response to EBV infection of MDMs suppressed the proliferation of T cells and impaired the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T cells, whereas the inhibition of IDO activity with 1-methyl-l-tryptophan (1-MT) did not affect T cell proliferation and function. These findings indicate that EBV-induced IDO expression in MDMs is substantially mediated by IL-6- and TNF-?-dependent mechanisms via the p38/MAPK and NF-?B pathways, suggesting that a possible role of EBV-mediated IDO expression in tumor stroma of NPC may be to create a microenvironment of suppressed T cell immune responses.
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Mammography and breast localization for the interventionalist.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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The goal of any physician practicing breast imaging and interventions is to identify breast cancers at their earliest so as to best affect patient outcomes. As screening mammography is the most widely used diagnostic tool in the detection of breast cancer, a thorough understanding of mammography and potential benign and malignant findings are a core requirement for breast imagers and interventionalists. Once identified, tumors must be surgically removed. Mammographic guided breast needle localization is a basic yet essential and very important procedure to facilitate proper surgical removal of breast cancer with a high degree of accuracy and lowest possible patient morbidity.
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Autoimmune responses in T1DM: quantitative methods to understand onset, progression, and prevention of disease.
Pediatr Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Understanding the physiological processes that underlie autoimmune disorders and identifying biomarkers to predict their onset are two pressing issues that need to be thoroughly sorted out by careful thought when analyzing these diseases. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a typical example of such diseases. It is mediated by autoreactive cytotoxic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells that infiltrate the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and destroy insulin-secreting ?-cells, leading to abnormal levels of glucose in affected individuals. The disease is also associated with a series of islet-specific autoantibodies that appear in high-risk subjects (HRS) several years prior to the onset of diabetes-related symptoms. It has been suggested that T1D is relapsing-remitting in nature and that islet-specific autoantibodies released by lymphocytic B-cells are detectable at different stages of the disease, depending on their binding affinity (the higher, the earlier they appear). The multifaceted nature of this disease and its intrinsic complexity make this disease very difficult to analyze experimentally as a whole. The use of quantitative methods, in the form of mathematical models and computational tools, to examine the disease has been a very powerful tool in providing predictions and insights about the underlying mechanism(s) regulating its onset and development. Furthermore, the models developed may have prognostic implications by aiding in the enrollment of HRS into trials for T1D prevention. In this review, we summarize recent advances made in determining T- and B-cell involvement in T1D using these quantitative approaches and delineate areas where mathematical modeling can make further contributions in unraveling certain aspect of this disease.
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Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation.
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Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6.
BMC Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo.
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A novel joint problem of routing, scheduling, and variable-width channel allocation in WMNs.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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This paper investigates a novel joint problem of routing, scheduling, and channel allocation for single-radio multichannel wireless mesh networks in which multiple channel widths can be adjusted dynamically through a new software technology so that more concurrent transmissions and suppressed overlapping channel interference can be achieved. Although the previous works have studied this joint problem, their linear programming models for the problem were not incorporated with some delicate constraints. As a result, this paper first constructs a linear programming model with more practical concerns and then proposes a simulated annealing approach with a novel encoding mechanism, in which the configurations of multiple time slots are devised to characterize the dynamic transmission process. Experimental results show that our approach can find the same or similar solutions as the optimal solutions for smaller-scale problems and can efficiently find good-quality solutions for a variety of larger-scale problems.
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Establishment of using serum YKL-40 and SCCA in combination for the diagnosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Elevated serum YKL-40 levels have been observed in various cancers. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of serum YKL-40 alone or in combination with the CEA, CYFRA21-1 and SCCA tumor markers for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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The prevalence of glucose metabolism disturbances in Chinese Muslims and possible risk factors: a study from northwest China.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Objective To survey the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and pre-diabetes mellitus (PDM) in the Muslim population in northwest China, and discuss the risk factor. Materials and methods According to the income and the population, we randomly selected 3 villages with stratified and cluster sampling. The subjects were residents ? 20 years of age, and were from families which have been local for > 3 generations. The questionnaire and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were completed and analyzed for 660 subjects. Results The prevalence of DM and PDM between the Han and Muslim populations were different (P = 0.041). And the prevalence were also different with respect to age in the Han (P < 0.001) and Muslim population (P < 0.001) respectively. Except for the 20-year-old age group the prevalence of DM and PDM within the Muslim population was higher than the Han (P = 0.013), we did not find any significant difference for other age groups (P > 0.05). The intake of salt (P < 0.001) and edible oil (P < 0.001) in the Muslim population was higher than the Han, while cigarette smoking (P < 0.001) and alcohol consumption (P < 0.001) was lower. BMI (P < 0.001), age (P = 0.025), and smoking cigarettes (P = 0.011) were risk factors for DM and PDM, but alcohol consumption (P < 0.001) was a protective factor. Conclusions In northwest China, the prevalence of DM was higher in the Muslim population, and it was special higher on the 20-year-old age compared to the Han. This might be explained by the potential genetic differences and poor dietary habits.
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Effects of downregulation of microRNA-181a on H2O2-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1) is a pivotal intracellular antioxidant enzyme that enzymatically reduces hydrogen peroxide to water to limit its harmful effects. This study aims to identify a microRNA (miRNA) that targets GPx1 to maintain redox homeostasis. Dual luciferase assays combined with mutational analysis and immunoblotting were used to validate the bioinformatically predicted miRNAs. We sought to select miRNAs that were responsive to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the H9c2 rat cardiomyocyte cell line. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) demonstrated that the expression of miR-181a in H2O2-treated H9c2 cells was markedly upregulated. The downregulation of miR-181a significantly inhibited H2O2-induced cellular apoptosis, ROS production, the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, the disruption of mitochondrial structure, and the activation of key signaling proteins in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Our results suggest that miR-181a plays an important role in regulating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in cardiomyocytes challenged with oxidative stress. MiR-181a may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases.
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Copy number variations of the extensively amplified Y-linked genes, HSFY and ZNF280BY, in cattle and their association with male reproductive traits in Holstein bulls.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Recent transcriptomic analysis of the bovine Y chromosome revealed at least six multi-copy protein coding gene families, including TSPY, HSFY and ZNF280BY, on the male-specific region (MSY). Previous studies indicated that the copy number variations (CNVs) of the human and bovine TSPY were associated with male fertility in men and cattle. However, the relationship between CNVs of the bovine Y-linked HSFY and ZNF280BY gene families and bull fertility has not been investigated.
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Determination of amino acids by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography laser induced fluorescence method.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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In this study, detection of 20 FITC-derivatized amino acids using an MEEKC-LIF was demonstrated. In order to achieve good separation for hydrophobic amino acids, the MEEKC method was employed and detection limits were obtained in the range of 0.32-2.2 nM, which is comparable to previous reports on amino acid analyses. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the reaction time from 1 h for conventional derivatization to 3 min for the microwave-assisted derivatization was observed and achieved, as opposed to the traditional pretreatment of real sample due to its complexity prior to the analysis of amino acid content. Finally, this microwave-assisted derivatization MEEKC-LIF method successfully determined amino acids in beverage, food, and biological samples (rat brain) with good recovery.
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Molecular characterization and functional divergence of two Gadd45g homologs in sex determination in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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The growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 gamma (Gadd45g) is known to play a major role in embryonic development and sex determination. In this study, two Gadd45g genes were isolated from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Using chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Gadd45g1 and Gadd45g2 were located on the W and Z chromosomes, respectively. The full-length cDNA sequences of Gadd45g1 (1270bp) and Gadd45g2 (1181bp) were predicted to contain a 480-bp coding sequence that could encode a protein of 159 amino acids residues. A phylogenetic tree showed that the predicted Gadd45g1 and Gadd45g2 amino acid sequences clustered closely in one branch. It is proposed that Gadd45g1 and Gadd45g2 are paralogous genes derived from the divergence of the sex chromosome. Ka/Ks ratios indicated that Gadd45g1 and Gadd45g2 may have undergone a high number of mutations and have a divergence time of only about 68,000years, although Gadd45g homologs are highly conserved. The qRT-PCR demonstrated that Gadd45g1 and Gadd45g2 were highly expressed in ovary, and negligibly expressed in testis of male and neo-male. During development of the ovary (from 80 to 150days), the expression levels of both genes reached high levels. Gadd45g1 was also highly expressed at 50days, the stage just before gonad differentiation in C. semilaevis. All these findings imply functional divergence of the two Gadd45g homologs; Gadd45g1 may be necessary for sex differentiation in the early stage of gonad development, and then Gadd45g1 and Gadd45g2 maintain ovary development and the female character of half-smooth tongue sole.
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Fast multipoint immobilized MOF bioreactor.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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An enzyme-NBD@MOF bioreactor with exemplary proteolytic performance, even after successive reuse and storage, was produced through a novel, rapid and simple multipoint immobilization technique without chemical modification of the solid support. Enzyme loading and distribution could be directly monitored from the fluorescence emission of the bioreactor. The dye molecular dimension plays a role in its overall performance.
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Physicochemical pretreatments and hydrolysis of furfural residues via carbon-based sulfonated solid acid.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Potential commercial physicochemical pretreatment methods, NaOH/microwave and NaOH/ultrasound were developed, and the carbon-based sulfonated solid acid catalysts were prepared for furfural residues conversion into reducing sugars. After the two optimum pretreatments, both the content of cellulose increased (74.03%, 72.28%, respectively) and the content of hemicellulose (94.11%, 94.17% of removal rate, respectively) and lignin (91.75%, 92.09% of removal rate, respectively) decreased in furfural residues. The reducing sugar yields of furfural residues with the two physicochemical pretreatments on coal tar-based solid acid reached 33.94% and 33.13%, respectively, higher than that pretreated via NaOH alone (27%) and comparable to that pretreated via NaOH/H2O2 (35.67%). The XRD patterns, IR spectra and SEM images show microwave and ultrasound improve the pretreatment effect. The results demonstrate the carbon-based sulfonated solid acids and the physicochemical pretreatments are green, effective, low-cost for furfural residues conversion.
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A taxonomic review on the species of Tetraserica Ahrens, 2004, of China (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A review on the Chinese species of Tetraserica Ahrens, 2004, is presented. The lectotype of Tetrasericatonkinensis (Moser, 1908), comb. n. is designated. Twenty-nine new Tetraserica species are described from China and adjacent regions: Tetrasericaanhuaensis sp. n., Tetrasericachangjiangensis sp. n., Tetrasericachangshouensis sp. n., Tetrasericadamaidiensis sp. n., Tetrasericadaqingshanica sp. n., Tetrasericafikaceki sp. n., Tetrasericagraciliforceps sp. n., Tetrasericajinghongensis sp. n., Tetrasericaleishanica sp. n., Tetrasericaliangheensis sp. n., Tetrasericalinaoshanica sp. n., Tetrasericalongipenis sp. n., Tetrasericalongzhouensis sp. n., Tetrasericamaoershanensis sp. n., Tetrasericamengeana sp. n., Tetrasericamenglongensis sp. n., Tetrasericapingjiangensis sp. n., Tetrasericaruiliana sp. n., Tetrasericaruiliensis sp. n., Tetrasericasculptilis sp. n., Tetrasericashangsiensis sp. n., Tetrasericashunbiensis sp. n., Tetrasericasigulianshanica sp. n., Tetrasericatianchiensis sp. n., Tetrasericawandingensis sp. n., Tetrasericawangtongensis sp. n., Tetrasericaxichouensis sp. n., Tetrasericayaoanica sp. n., Tetrasericayaoquensis sp. n. A key to the Chinese Tetraserica species is given, species distribution as well as the habitus and male genitalia of all species are illustrated.
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A taxonomic revision of the Neoserica(sensu lato)calva group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The species of the Neoserica(sensu lato)calva group are revised. Neosericacalva Frey, 1972, comb. n. is redescribed. Thirteen new species are described from China and South Korea: Neosericaailaoshanica sp. n., Neosericaanonyma sp. n., Neosericacalvoides sp. n., Neosericagulinqingensis sp. n., Neosericakoelkebecki sp. n., Neosericaliangi sp. n., Neosericaluxiensis sp. n., Neosericamenghaiensis sp. n., Neosericamengi sp. n., Neosericataipingensis sp. n., Neosericazheijangensis sp. n., Neosericazhibenshanica sp. n., and Neosericazongyuani sp. n. A key to Sericini genera with multilamellate antenna and species groups of Neoserica of mainland Asia as well as a key to species of the Neosericacalva group are provided. A map of species distribution is given, habitus and male genitalia are illustrated.
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A taxonomic revision of the Neoserica (sensu lato) pilosula group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nine new species of the Neoserica (sensu lato) pilosula Moser, 1915, group are described from China: Neoserica curvipenis sp. n., N. emeishanensis sp. n., N. lincangensis sp. n., N. ludingensis sp. n., N. lushuiana sp. n., N. rangshuiensis sp. n., N. shennongjiaensis sp. n., N. tianeana sp. n., and N. weibaoshanica sp. n. The lectotype of Neoserica pilosula Moser, 1915, is designated. Habitus and male genitalia are illustrated, a key to the species of the group and a map of species distribution are given.
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A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The present paper revises the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group, so far known only with two nominal species. Twenty new species are herein described from Indochina and southern China: N. abnormoides sp. n. (Vietnam, China), N. allolaotica sp. n., N. namthaensis sp. n., N. simplicissima sp. n. (Laos), N. thailandensis sp. n. (Thailand), N. alloputaoana sp. n., N. kanphantensis sp. n., N. natmatoungensis sp. n., N. putaoana sp. n., N. taunggyiana sp. n. (Myanmar), N. lamellosa sp. n., N. tonkinea sp. n. (Vietnam), N. bairailingshanica sp. n., N. euyunnanica sp. n., N. huangi sp. n., N. jiangxiensis sp. n., N. trifida sp. n., N. yaoi sp. n., N. yingjiangensis sp. n. (China), N. cardamomensis sp. n. (Indochina and southern China). One new combination is established: Neoserica ponderosa Arrow, 1946, comb. n. The lectotypes of Neoserica abnormis Moser, 1908 and the taxonomically uncertain N. inclinata Brenske, 1898, which very likely also belongs to this species group, are designated herein. A key to the species and to species groups is given, the genitalia of all species including their habitus are illustrated. Maps of species distribution are included.
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Transient receptor potential is essential for high temperature tolerance in invasive Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia minor 1 cryptic species.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Temperature is an important factor in affecting population dynamics and diffusion distribution of organisms. Alien species can successfully invade and colonize to various temperature environments, and one of important reasons is that alien species have a strong resistance to stress temperature. Recently, researchers have focused on the mechanisms of temperature sensing to determine the sensing and regulation mechanisms of temperature adaptation. The transient receptor potential (TRP) is one of the key components of an organism's temperature perception system. TRP plays important roles in perceiving temperature, such as avoiding high temperature, low temperature and choosing the optimum temperature. To assess high temperature sensation and the heat resistance role of the TRP gene, we used 3' and 5' rapid-amplification of cDNA ends to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of the TRP gene from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 (Middle East Asia Minor 1), examined the mRNA expression profile under various temperature conditions, and identified the heat tolerance function. This is the first study to characterize the TRP gene of invasive B. tabaci MEAM1 (MEAM1 BtTRP). The full-length cDNA of MEAM1 BtTRP was 3871 bp, and the open reading frames of BtTRP was 3501 bp, encoding 1166 amino acids. Additionally, the BtTRP mRNA expression level was significantly increased at 35°C. Furthermore, compared with control treatments, the survival rate of B. tabaci MEAM1 adults was significantly decreased under high temperature stress conditions after feeding with dsRNA BtTRP. Collectively, these results showed that MEAM1 BtTRP is a key element in sensing high temperature and plays an essential role in B. tabaci MEAM1 heat tolerance ability. Our data improved our understanding of the mechanism of temperature sensation in B. tabaci MEAM1 at the molecular level and could contribute to the understanding of the thermal biology of B. tabaci MEAM1 within the context of global climate change.
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Pharmacokinetics of BPA in gliomas with ultrasound induced blood-brain barrier disruption as measured by microdialysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be transiently disrupted by focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles for targeted drug delivery. Previous studies have illustrated the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery across the BBB after sonication using indirect visualization techniques. In this study, we investigated the in vivo extracellular kinetics of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f) in glioma-bearing rats with FUS-induced BBB disruption by microdialysis. After simultaneous intravenous administration of BPA and FUS exposure, the boron concentration in the treated brains was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. With FUS, the mean peak concentration of BPA-f in the glioma dialysate was 3.6 times greater than without FUS, and the area under the concentration-time curve was 2.1 times greater. This study demonstrates that intracerebral microdialysis can be used to assess local BBB transport profiles of drugs in a sonicated site. Applying microdialysis to the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics is useful for obtaining selective information within a specific brain site after FUS-induced BBB disruption.
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A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) septemlamellata group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the present paper the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) septemlamellata group, that included so far only four known species, are revised. Here we describe eleven new species originating mainly from Indochina and Southern China: N. daweishanica sp. n., N. gaoligongshanica sp. n., N. guangpingensis sp. n., N. igori sp. n., N. jiulongensis sp. n., N. plurilamellata sp. n., N. weishanica sp. n., N. yanzigouensis sp. n. (China) N. sapaensis sp. n. (China, Vietnam), N. bansongchana sp. n., N. takakuwai sp. n. (Laos). The lectotypes of Neoserica septemlamellata Brenske, 1898 and N. septemfoliata Moser, 1915 are designated. Keys to the species and species groups are given, the genitalia of all species and their habitus are illustrated and distribution maps are included.
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Outbreaks of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in the Yangtze River Delta: immigration or local reproduction?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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An effective control strategy for migratory pests is difficult to implement because the cause of infestation (i.e., immigration or local reproduction) is often not established. In particular, the outbreak mechanisms of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), an insect causing massive losses in rice fields in the Yangtze River Delta in China, are frequently unclear. Field surveys of N. lugens were performed in Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces in 2008 to 2010 and related historical data from 2003 onwards were collected and analyzed to clarify the cause of these infestations. Results showed that outbreaks of N. lugens in the Yangtze River Delta were mostly associated with an extremely high increase in population. Thus, reproduction rather than immigration from distant sources were the cause of the infestations. Although mass migration occurred late in the season (late August and early September), the source areas of N. lugens catches in the Yangtze River Delta were mainly located in nearby areas, including the Yangtze River Delta itself, Anhui and northern Jiangxi Provinces. These regions collectively form the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the late migration can thus be considered as an internal bioflow within one population.
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[Effect of pamidronate and ibandronate on orthodontic root resorption in rats].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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To compare the effects of pamidronate and ibandronate on orthodontic root resorption.
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Fractionated BNCT for locally recurrent head and neck cancer: Experience from a phase I/II clinical trial at Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor.
Appl Radiat Isot
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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To introduce our experience of treating locally and regionally recurrent head and neck cancer patients with BNCT at Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor in Taiwan, 12 patients (M/F=10/2, median age 55.5 Y/O) were enrolled and 11 received two fractions of treatment. Fractionated BNCT at 30-day interval with adaptive planning according to changed T/N ratios was feasible, effective and safe for selected recurrent head and neck cancer in this trial.
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Phenolics from Ageratina adenophora Roots and Their Phytotoxic Effects on Arabidopsis thaliana Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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A bioassay-directed phytochemical study was conducted to investigate potential allelochemicals in the roots of the invasive plant Ageratina adenophora. Eleven phenolic compounds, including seven new ones, 7-hydroxy-8,9-dehydrothymol 9-O-trans-ferulate (1), 7-hydroxythymol 9-O-trans-ferulate (2), 7,8-dihydroxythymol 9-O-trans-ferulate (3), 7,8-dihydroxythymol 9-O-cis-ferulate (4), methyl (7R)-3-deoxy-4,5-epoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonate 8-O-trans-p-coumarate (5), methyl (7R)-3-deoxy-4,5-epoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonate 8-O-cis-p-coumarate (6), and 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)propyl methyl malonate (7), were isolated from a bioactive subfraction of the ethanol extract of the roots of A. adenophora. The new structures were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. The potential phytotoxic effects of these compounds on the germination of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds were tested by a filter paper assay. Compound 7 and known compounds 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol (8) and o-coumaric acid (9) remarkably showed inhibition activity against Arabidopsis seed germination at a concentration of 1.0 mM. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 6, and 10 showed slight inhibitory activity at the test concentration after treatment for 3 days, while the other compounds showed no obvious inhibitory effects. Moreover, 7-9 were further found to show obvious inhibitory activity on retarding the seedling growth of Ar. thaliana cultured in soil medium.
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[A three-dimensional finite element study on the reaction of different force values generated from maxillary protraction appliance].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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To analyse the stress distribution of temporomandibular joint(TMJ) and jaw and the displacement changes of each part from the reaction force generated from maxillary protraction appliance by establishing a craniomaxillofacial three-dimensional finite element model (3-D FEM).
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Non-Peptide-based fluorogenic small-molecule probe for elastase.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) has been identified as a potential therapeutic target for the discovery of anti-inflammatory drugs for decades. However, little progress has been made on assays measuring the activity of HNE, especially on synthetic substrates which play essential role in determination of HNE activity. Herein, a small-molecule compound, 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoro-N-(2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-7-yl)-propanamide (compound 4), has been successfully designed as the first ever non-peptide-based fluorogenic substrate for HNE. A "turn-on" fluorometric assay based on 4 has been successfully developed for rapid determination of HNE activity and the inhibitory kinetic study. Most importantly, the probe 4 shows highly specific response for HNE among seven tested hydrolases or proteins and can be directly used to detect the elevated HNE activity in the serum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients compared to that of healthy controls. This specific and cost-effective probe will facilitate future high-throughput discovery of HNE inhibitors and clinical diagnosis of elastase-related diseases.
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[Study on the attitudes toward suicide among university students in Chongqing].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To explore the attitudes on suicide and their related factors among university students in Chongqing.
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Bioactive quinic acid derivatives from Ageratina adenophora.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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A novel quinic acid derivative, 5-O-trans-o-coumaroylquinic acid methyl ester (1), together with three known ones, chlorogenic acid methyl ester (2), macranthoin F (3) and macranthoin G (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of the invasive plant Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.). The structure of new compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 2-4 were isolated from plant A. adenophora for the first time. All the compounds showed in vitro antibacterial activity toward five assayed bacterial strains, especially 3 and 4, which showed in vitro antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica with MIC values of 7.4 and 14.7 ?M, respectively. Compound 1 was further found to display in vitro anti-fungal activity against spore germination of Magnaporthe grisea with an IC?? value 542.3 µM. These four compounds were also tested for their antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical.
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Male-specific region of the bovine Y chromosome is gene rich with a high transcriptomic activity in testis development.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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The male-specific region of the mammalian Y chromosome (MSY) contains clusters of genes essential for male reproduction. The highly repetitive and degenerative nature of the Y chromosome impedes genomic and transcriptomic characterization. Although the Y chromosome sequence is available for the human, chimpanzee, and macaque, little is known about the annotation and transcriptome of nonprimate MSY. Here, we investigated the transcriptome of the MSY in cattle by direct testis cDNA selection and RNA-seq approaches. The bovine MSY differs radically from the primate Y chromosomes with respect to its structure, gene content, and density. Among the 28 protein-coding genes/families identified on the bovine MSY (12 single- and 16 multicopy genes), 16 are bovid specific. The 1,274 genes identified in this study made the bovine MSY gene density the highest in the genome; in comparison, primate MSYs have only 31-78 genes. Our results, along with the highly transcriptional activities observed from these Y-chromosome genes and 375 additional noncoding RNAs, challenge the widely accepted hypothesis that the MSY is gene poor and transcriptionally inert. The bovine MSY genes are predominantly expressed and are differentially regulated during the testicular development. Synonymous substitution rate analyses of the multicopy MSY genes indicated that two major periods of expansion occurred during the Miocene and Pliocene, contributing to the adaptive radiation of bovids. The massive amplification and vigorous transcription suggest that the MSY serves as a genomic niche regulating male reproduction during bovid expansion.
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Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of an anthracenyl-linked bis(pyrazolyl)methane ligand and its zinc(II) complexes.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Three novel Zn(II) complexes (1-3) with 1,1-(anthracen-9-ylmethylene)bis(1H-pyrazole) (L(2)) have been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Among them, 1 is a binuclear Zn(II) complex while 2 and 3 are mononuclear. The in vitro cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of these complexes were also evaluated. The three complexes exhibit cytotoxic specificity and significant antitumor activity. The MIC50 value of complex 1 against Pseudomonas putida reaching 0.011 ?g/mL much lower than that the positive control chloromycin (0.182 ?g/mL), indicates that complex 1 is a potent antibacterial agent.
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Complete Genome Sequence of a New H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated in China.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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The complete genomic sequence of a new H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV), isolated in northwestern China, was determined. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of eight genomic segments revealed that the isolate is phylogenetically related to the Y280-like sublineage.
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Rudimentary substrates for vocal learning in a suboscine.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Vocal learning has evolved in only a few groups of mammals and birds. The key neuroanatomical and behavioural links bridging vocal learners and non-learners are still unknown. Here we show that a non-vocal-learning suboscine, the eastern phoebe, expresses neural and behavioural substrates that are associated with vocal learning in closely related oscine songbirds. In phoebes, a specialized forebrain region in the intermediate arcopallium seems homologous to the oscine song nucleus RA (robust nucleus of arcopallium) by its neural connections, expression of glutamate receptors and singing-dependent immediate-early gene expression. Lesion of this RA-like region induces subtle but consistent song changes. Moreover, the unlearned phoebe song unexpectedly develops through a protracted ontogeny. These features provide the first evidence of forebrain vocal-motor control in suboscines, which has not been encountered in other avian non-vocal-learners, and offer a potential configuration of brain and behaviour from which vocal learning might have evolved.
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[Comparison of two treatment method for maxillary incisors intrusion].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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To compare the clinical effects of miniscrews and conventional utility arch in the maxillary incisors intrusion.
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[Classification of Cimicifuga species based on 1H-NMR fingerprint combined with pattern recognition technique].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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The metabolomic analysis of three Cimicifuga species was performed using H-NMR spectroscopy and pattern recognition (PR) techniques. A broad range of metabolites could be detected by H-NMR spectroscopy without any chromatographic separation. The analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least square (DPLS) of the 1H-NMR spectrum showed a clear discrimination between C. foetida and the other two species. The major metabolites responsible for the discrimination were triterpenoid saponins and saccharides. These results indicated that the combination of 1H-NMR and PR provides a useful tool for chemotaxonomic analysis and authentification of Cimicifuga species, and could used for the quality control of plant materials.
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Different types of toxins targeting TRPV1 in pain.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1(TRPV1) channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily. Members of this family are expressed in primary sensory neurons and are best known for their role in nociception and sensory transmission. Multiple painful stimuli can activate these channels. In this review, we discussed the mechanisms of different types of venoms that target TRPV1, such as scorpion venom, botulinum neurotoxin, spider toxin, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). Some of these toxins activate TRPV1; however, some do not. Regardless of TRPV1 inhibition or activation, they occur through different pathways. For example, BoNT/A decreases TRPV1 expression levels by blocking TRPV1 trafficking to the plasma membrane, although the exact mechanism is still under debate. Vanillotoxins from tarantula (Psalmopoeus cambridgei) are proposed to activate TRPV1 via interaction with a region of TRPV1 that is homologous to voltage-dependent ion channels. Here, we offer a description of the present state of knowledge for this complex subject.
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Complete genome sequence of a newly emerging newcastle disease virus.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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The complete genome sequence of a newly emerging Newcastle disease virus, isolated in China, was determined. A phylogenetic analysis based on the F gene revealed that the isolate is phylogenetically related to Newcastle disease virus genotype VIId. Sequence analysis indicated that amino acid residue substitutions occur at neutralizing epitopes on the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein.
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[Contrast of curative effect and complications between peripheral venous thrombolysis and catheter-direct thrombolysis for acute deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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To evaluate the effects of catheter-direct thrombolysis in acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT).
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Analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood by capillary electrochromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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In this work, an on-line preconcentration capillary electrochromatographic (CEC) separation coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) was used for 16 PAHs analyses, in which poly(stearyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene) (poly(SMA-DVB)) monolith was used as the separation column. With variations in the effective length of poly(SMA-DVB) monolith as well as the volume fraction of acetonitrile (ACN) in the mobile phase, both separation and resolution were improved. A poly(SMA-DVB) monolith of 50-cm effective length (i.e. 50-cm column length filled with polymer) and a two-step step-gradient elution (by changing the ACN levels of the mobile phase starting with an initial of 70% up to 80% with 30-min time interval), which provided baseline separation for PAHs solutes (except for chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene) within 50 min, were employed as the optimal chromatographic conditions. In contrast to the other mass spectrometer parameters (nebulizer gas pressure, vaporizer temperature, corona current) as well as on-line preconcentration parameter (the ACN level in the sample matrix), the sheath liquid composition (methanol/water in the ratio of 3:1) and the sample injection time (40 min) were found as the predominant factors that control the sensitivity of PAHs determination. Finally, this on-line preconcentration CEC-APCI-MS method determined PAH residues in seafood samples successfully with as low as 10 ng/g level.
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Differential androgen receptor expression and DNA methylation state in striatum song nucleus Area X between wild and domesticated songbird strains.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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In songbirds, a specialized neural system, the song system, is responsible for acquisition and expression of species-specific vocal patterns. We report evidence for differential gene expression between wild and domesticated strains having different learned vocal phenotypes. A domesticated strain of the wild white-rumped munia, the Bengalese finch, has a distinct song pattern with a more complicated syntax than the wild strain. We identified differential androgen receptor (AR) expression in basal ganglia nucleus Area X GABAergic neurons between the two strains, and within different domesticated populations. Differences in AR expression were correlated with the mean coefficient of variation of the inter-syllable duration in the two strains. Differential AR expression in Area X was observed before the initiation of singing, suggesting that inherited and/or early developmental mechanisms may affect expression within and between strains. However, there were no distinct differences in regions upstream of the AR start codon among all the birds in the study. In contrast, an epigenetic modification, DNA methylation state in regions upstream of AR in Area X, was observed to differ between strains and within domesticated populations. These results provide insight into the molecular basis of behavioral evolution through the regulation of hormone-related genes and demonstrate the potential association between epigenetic modifications and behavioral phenotype regulation.
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Improvement in JOA Score of Treatment for Complex Atlas-Axis fractures.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the role of treatment for complex Atlas-Axis fractures, and compare the JOA score of surgical and conservation methods. Methodology: From June 2008 to May 2012, 33 patients suffering from Atlas-Axis fracture were included in our study. Fifteen patients received posterior cervical pedicle screw fixation, and 18 patients received the conservation treatment. All the patients were followed up for 12 months after discharge. Results: The mean operative time was about 128 minutes (ranged: 92 to 165 minutes), the mean hospital stay time was 15.5 days (ranged: 8-21 days), and the mean follow-up of all the patients was 27months (ranged: 7 to 43 months). All patients gained a solid fusion, and no one showed any disability at the end of the follow-up. The JOA scores before treatment were 6.4±0.3 and 7.1±0.4 before and after treatment, and they significantly increased to 13.8±0.8 and 13.7±0.9 when following up for 12 months (P<0.05). Conclusions: Posterior cervical pedicle screw fixation is a feasible, effective and safe method for complex atlantoaxial fractures. This technique could achieve high JOA score, decreased blood loss and post-operative complications.
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Differential expression of PRAMEL1, a cancer/testis antigen, during spermatogenesis in the mouse.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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PRAME belongs to a group of cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) that are characterized by their restricted expression in normal gametogenic tissues and a variety of tumors. The PRAME family is one of the most amplified gene families in the mouse and other mammalian genomes. Members of the PRAME gene family encode leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins functioning as transcription regulators in cancer cells. However, the role of PRAME in normal gonads is unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial expression of the mouse Pramel1 gene, and to determine the cellular localization of the PRAMEL1 protein during the mouse spermatogenesis. Our results indicated that the mouse Pramel1 was expressed in testis only. The mRNA and protein expression level was low in the newborn testes, and gradually increased from 1- to 3-week-old testes, and then remained constant after three weeks of age. Immunofluorescent staining on testis sections with the mouse PRAMEL1 antibody revealed that PRAMEL1 was localized in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes and the acrosomal region of round, elongating and elongated spermatids. Further analyses on the testis squash preparation and spermatozoa at a subcellular level indicated that the protein localization patterns of PRAMEL1 were coordinated with morphological alterations during acrosome formation in spermatids, and were significantly different in connecting piece, middle piece and principal piece of the flagellum between testicular and epididymal spermatozoa. Collectively, our results suggest that PRAMEL1 may play a role in acrosome biogenesis and sperm motility.
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Kaposis-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-activated dendritic cells promote HIV-1 trans-infection and suppress CD4(+) T cell proliferation.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Infection of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is commonly occurred in AIDS patients. KSHV and HIV-1 act cooperatively in regulating infection with each other and in human carcinogenesis. Dendritic cells (DCs), as the pivotal cells in host immunity, may be modulated by both viruses, for immunoevasion and dissemination, therefore, the interaction between DCs and each virus has been a prior focus for pathogenesis elucidation. Here, we assessed the potential effect of KSHV on DC-HIV-1 interaction. We found that KSHV stimulation could promote maturation of monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) and impaired the ability of MDDCs to drive proliferation of resting CD4(+) T cells, demonstrating the immunosuppression induced by KSHV. More importantly, KSHV-stimulated MDDCs could capture more HIV-1 and efficiently transferred these infectious viruses to Hut/CCR5 T cell line. Our results reveal the novel modulation of DC-mediated HIV-1 dissemination by KSHV, and highlight the importance of studying DC-HIV-1 interaction to elucidate HIV/AIDS pathogenesis.
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Studies on the interaction between triphenyltin and bovine serum albumin by fluorescence and CD spectroscopy.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The interaction between triphenyltin (TPT) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in physiological buffer (pH=7.4) was investigated by the fluorescence quenching technique. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that TPT could strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching procedure. The apparent binding constants K and number of binding sites n of TPT with BSA were (7.04±0.0057)×10(2) and (0.77±0.016) which were obtained by the fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters enthalpy change (?H), entropy change (?S) were positive, which indicated that the interaction of TPT with BSA was driven mainly by hydrophobic forces. The process of binding was a spontaneous process in which Gibbs free energy change was negative. The distance r between donor (BSA) and acceptor (TPT) was calculated to be 3.05nm based on Forsters non-radiative energy transfer theory. The results of synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence and Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra showed that the triphenyltin induced conformational changes of BSA.
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Interactions of several single nucleotide polymorphisms and high body mass index on serum lipid traits.
Biofactors
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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The interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and high body mass index (BMI) on serum lipid profiles are limited. This study was undertaken to detect the interactions of 10 SNPs and high BMI on serum lipid traits in an isolated population. A total of 978 normal BMI (< 24 kg/m2) and 751 high BMI (? 24 kg/m2) subjects of Bai Ku Yao were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotypes of rs2066715, rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) Ava||, rs2070895, rs2000813, rs1801133, rs3757354, rs505151, rs2016520, and rs5888 SNPs were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The interactions were detected by factorial design covariance analysis. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs2070895 and rs505151 were different between normal and high BMI subjects, the genotypic frequency of rs2000813 and allelic frequency of rs3757354 were also different between normal and high BMI subjects (P < 0.01). The levels of total cholesterol (TC), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 (rs2066715); TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB (rs2070895); triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and ApoA1 (rs2000813); TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoB (rs1801133); HDL-C and ApoA1 (rs3757354) in normal BMI subjects were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01). The levels of LDL-C, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB (rs2066715); HDL-C, ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB (rs2070895); TC, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoB (rs2000813); TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoB (rs1801133); TC, TG, and ApoB (rs3757354); TG (rs505151); TG and ApoA1 and ApoB (rs2016520); and TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoB (rs5888) in high BMI subjects were also different among the genotypes (P < 0.01). The SNPs of rs2066715 (LDL-C and ApoA1/ApoB); rs2070895 (TC, LDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoB); rs2000813 (ApoB); rs1801133 (TC, TG, and LDL-C); rs3757354 (TC and TG); rs505151 (TG, HDL-C, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB); rs2016520 (TG and ApoA1/ApoB); and rs5888 (TG, ApoA1, and ApoB) interacted with high BMI to influence serum lipid levels (P < 0.01). The differences in serum lipid levels between normal and high BMI subjects might partly result from different interactions of several SNPs and high BMI.
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The expressions of MIF and CXCR4 protein in tumor microenvironment are adverse prognostic factors in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Tumor-derived cytokines and their receptors usually take important roles in the disease progression and prognosis of cancer patients. In this survey, we aimed to detect the expression levels of MIF and CXCR4 in different cell populations of tumor microenvironments and their association with survivals of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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The influence of Typhoon Khanun on the return migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in eastern China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Migratory insects adapt to and exploit the atmospheric environment to complete their migration and maintain their population. However, little is known about the mechanism of insect migration under the influence of extreme weather conditions such as typhoons. A case study was conducted to investigate the effect of typhoon Khanun, which made landfall in the eastern China in Sept. 2005, on the migration of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). The migration pathways of N. lugens were reconstructed for the period under the influence of the typhoon by calculating trajectories using the MM5, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, and migration events were examined in 7 counties of the Yangtze River Delta region with ancillary information. The light trap catches and field observations indicated that the migration peak of N. lugens coincided with the period when the typhoon made landfall in this region. The trajectory analyses revealed that most emigrations from this region during this period were hampered or ended in short distances. The sources of the light-trap catches were mainly located the nearby regions of each station (i.e. mostly less than 100 km away, with a few exceeding 200 km but all less than 300 km). This disrupted emigration was very different from the usual N. lugens migration which would bring them to Hunan, Jiangxi, and southern Anhui from this region at this time of year. This study revealed that the return migration of N. lugens was suppressed by the typhoon Khanun, leading to populations remaining high in the Yangtze River Delta and exacerbating later outbreaks.
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Feature-preserving smoothing of diffusion weighted images using nonstationarity adaptive filtering.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Although promising for studying the microstructure of in vivo tissues, the performance and the potentiality of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging are hampered by the presence of high-level noise in diffusion weighted (DW) images. This paper proposes a novel smoothing approach, called the nonstationarity adaptive filtering, which estimates the intensity of a pixel by averaging intensities in its adaptive homogeneous neighborhood. The latter is determined according to five constraints and spatiodirectional nonstationarity measure maps. The proposed approach is compared with an anisotropic diffusion method used in DW image smoothing. Experimental results on both synthetic and real human DW images show that the proposed method achieves a better compromise between the smoothness of homogeneous regions and the preservation of desirable features such as boundaries, even for highly noisy data, thus leading to homogeneously consistent tensor fields and consequently more coherent fibers.
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A large-scale gene discovery for the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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The red palm weevil (RPW; Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) is a devastating pest of palms, prevalent in the Middle East as well as many other regions of the world. Here, we report a large-scale de novo complementary DNA (cDNA) sequencing effort that acquired ?5 million reads and assembled them into 26?765 contigs from 12 libraries made from samples of different RPW developmental stages based on the Roche/454 GS FLX platform. We annotated these contigs based on the publically available known insect genes and the Tribolium castaneum genome assembly. We find that over 80% of coding sequences (CDS) from the RPW contigs have high-identity homologs to known proteins with complete CDS. Gene expression analysis shows that the pupa and larval stages have the highest and lowest expression levels, respectively. In addition, we also identified more than 60?000 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 1?200 simple sequence repeat markers. This study provides the first large-scale cDNA dataset for RPW, a much-needed resource for future molecular studies.
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Clinical outcome of endoprosthetic replacement for failed treatment of intertrochanteric fractures: A retrospective case series.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Objective: The treatment methods for the failed internal fixation in elderly patients suffering from several osteoporostic fractures are still inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of endoprosthetic replacement for failure treatment of intertrochanteric fracture. Methodology: A total of 13 patients with failed internal fixation for intertrochanteric fracture were collected between January 2002 and October 2009. All of them were treated with endoprosthetic replacement and followed up till October 2010. Four of them received total hip replacement and the remained nine received artificial bipolar femoral head replacement. Clinical and functional outcomes of patients were assessed. Results: Of 13 patients, nine were females and four were males with the mean age of 76.5 years (SD, 11.7, range, 58-92 years) at the time of fracture. The average time of operation and follow-up was 124 minutes (89-187minutes) and 31 months (14-68 months), respectively. The average blood loss during the operation was 631 ml (450-1560 ml). All patients showed good pain relief and functional improvement. Final post-operative Harris and WOMAC scores were significantly improved from pre-operative levels (P<0.05). Only five patients showed operative complications. Conclusions: Our finding indicated that endoprosthetic replacement is an effective salvage procedure for failed internal fixation of intertrochanteric fracture in elderly patients with effective pain relief and functional improvement as well as few serious complications.
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ADAR2-Mediated Editing of miR-214 and miR-122 Precursor and Antisense RNA Transcripts in Liver Cancers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A growing list of microRNAs (miRNAs) show aberrant expression patterns in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the regulatory mechanisms largely remain unclear. RNA editing catalyzed by members of the adenosine deaminase acting on the RNA (ADAR) family could target the miRNA precursors and affect the biogenesis process. Therefore, we investigate whether RNA editing could be one mechanism contributing to the deregulation of specific miRNAs in HCC. By overexpression of individual ADARs in hepatoma cells, RNA editing on the precursors of 16 miRNAs frequently deregulated in HCC was screened by a sensitive high-resolution melting platform. The results identified RNA precursors of miR-214 and miR-122 as potential targets edited by ADAR2. A subset of HCC showing elevated ADAR2 verified the major editings identified in ARAR2 overexpressed hepatoma cells, either with A-to-I or U-to-C changes. The unusual U-to-C editing at specific residues was demonstrated as being attributed to the A-to-I editing on the RNA transcripts complementary to the pri-miRNAs. The editing event caused a decrease of the RNA transcript complementary to pri-miR-214, which led to the decrease of pri-miR-214 and miR-214 and resulted in the increased protein level of its novel target gene Rab15. In conclusion, the current study discovered ADAR2-mediated editing of the complementary antisense transcripts as a novel mechanism for regulating the biogenesis of specific miRNAs during hepatocarcinogenesis.
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[Clinical study on hybrid bioartificial liver supporting system for acute on chronic liver failure patients].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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To construct an hybrid bioartificial liver supporting system, and observe its effectiveness and safety on patients with acute on chronic liver failure.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.