One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation and deposition of amyloid-? (A?) peptides in the brain and cerebral vasculature. A? evokes neuroinflammation and has been implicated in insulin signaling disruption and JNK-AP1 activation, contributing to AD neuropathologies including oxidative injury and vascular insufficiencies. In this study we aim to better understand the protective mechanisms of insulin signaling and JNK-AP1 inhibition on the adverse effects of A?. Four-hour treatment of hCMEC/D3, the immortalized human brain endothelial cells (iHBEC), with A?1-42 resulted in significant c-Jun phosphorylation, oxidative stress, and cell toxicity. Concurrent treatment with A?1-42 and insulin or A?1-42 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly improved cell viability. Cytokine array on conditioned media showed that insulin and SP600125 strongly reduced all A?1-42-induced cytokines. ELISA confirmed the protective effect of insulin and SP600125 on A?-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-8 and Growth related oncogene-? (Gro-?). qRT-PCR revealed that insulin and SP600125 protected iHBEC from A?1-42-induced inflammatory gene expression. Transcription factor profiling showed that treatment of iHBEC with A?1-42, insulin, or SP600125 alone or in combination resulted in profound changes in modulating the activities of multiple transcription factors and relevant pathways, some of which were validated by western blot. Insulin treatment and JNK inhibition in vitro synergistically reduced c-Jun phosphorylation and thus JNK-AP1 signaling activation. The study suggests that activation of insulin and blocking of JNK-AP1 signaling inhibits A?-induced dysregulation of insulin signaling and inflammatory response.
This study aimed to examine whether expression of human hepatic lipase (hHL) exerted an intracellular effect on hepatic production of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. The levels of secreted and cell-associated apoA-I were contrasted between primary hepatocytes isolated from Lipc-null and C57BL/6 mice, and between Lipc-null hepatocytes transfected with either hHL-encoding or control adenovirus. An HSPG-binding deficient hHL protein (hHLmt) was used to determine the impact of cell surface binding on HL action. Accumulation of apoA-I in conditioned media of primary hepatocytes isolated from Lipc-null mice was increased as compared to that from C57BL/6 mice. Metabolic labeling experiments showed that secretion of (35)S-apoA-I from Lipc-null cells was significantly higher than that from C57BL/6 cells. Expression of hHL in Lipc-null hepatocytes, through adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, resulted in decreased synthesis and secretion of (35)S-apoA-I, but not (35)S-apoE, as compared with cells transfected with control adenovirus. Expression of HSPG-binding deficient hHLmt in Lipc-null cells also exerted an inhibitory effect on apoA-I production, even though hHLmt displayed impaired exit from the endoplasmic reticulum as compared with hHL. Subcellular fractionation revealed that expression of hHL or hHLmt led to increased microsome-association of apoA-I relative to non-transfected control. Expression of hHL negatively impacts hepatic production of apoA-I.
Current evidence shows that apolipoprotein E (APOE), apolipoprotein CI (APOC1) and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) variations are related to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unclear if genetic polymorphisms in these genes are associated with cognitive decline in late-onset Alzheimer's disease patients. We performed a 30-month longitudinal cohort study to investigate the relationship between Alzheimer's disease and APOE, APOC1, and LRP. In this study, 78 Chinese Han patients with late-onset Alzheimer's disease were recruited form Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. APOE, APOC1, and LRP genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale were used to assess patients' cognitive function. After a 30-month follow-up period, we found a significant reduction in Mini-Mental State Examination total score, a higher proportion of patients fulfilling cognitive impairment progression criteria, and a higher proportion of APOC1 H2 carriers in APOE ?4 carriers compared with non-carriers. In addition, the APOE ?4 allele frequency was significantly higher in the cognitive impairment progression group compared with the non-cognitive impairment progression group. In conclusion, APOE ?4 plays an important role in augmenting cognitive decline, and APOC1 H2 may act synergistically with APOE ?4 in increasing the risk of cognitive decline in Chinese patients with late-onset Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Pathologically, it is characterized by degeneration of neurons and synapses, the deposition of extracellular plaques consisting of aggregated amyloid-? (A?) peptides, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles made up of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Recently, the spotlights have been centered on two characteristics of AD, neuroinflammation and insulin resistance. Because both of these pathways play roles in synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration, they become potential targets for therapeutic intervention that could impede the progression of the disease. Here, we present an overview of the traditional amyloid hypothesis, as well as emerging data on both inflammatory and impaired insulin signaling pathways in AD. It becomes evident that more than one concurrent treatment can be synergistic and various combinations should be discussed as a potential therapeutic strategy to correct the anomalies in AD. Insulin resistance, A?/tau pathologies, neuroinflammation, and dysregulation of central nervous system homeostasis are intertwined processes that together create the complex pathology of AD and should be considered as a whole picture.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation and deposition of amyloid-beta (A?) peptides in the brain. Neuroinflammation occurs in the AD brain and plays a critical role in the neurodegenerative pathology. Particularly, A? evokes an inflammatory response that leads to synaptic dysfunction, neuronal death, and neurodegeneration. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) proteins are involved in cholesterol transport, A? binding and clearance, and synaptic functions in the brain. The ApoE4 isoform is a key risk factor for AD, while the ApoE2 isoform has a neuroprotective effect. However, studies have reached different conclusions about the roles of the isoforms; some show that both ApoE3 and ApoE4 have anti-inflammatory effects, while others show that ApoE4 causes a predisposition to inflammation or promotes an inflammatory response following lipopolysaccharide treatment. These discrepancies may result from the differences in models, cell types, experimental conditions, and inflammatory stimuli used. Further, little was known about the role of ApoE isoforms in the A?-induced inflammatory response and in the neuroinflammation of AD. Our recent work showed that ApoE isoforms differentially regulate and modify the A?-induced inflammatory response in neural cells, with ApoE2 suppressing and ApoE4 promoting the response. In this article, we review the roles, mechanisms, and interrelations among A?, ApoE, and neuroinflammation in AD.
Adiponectin receptor 1 (encoded by ADIPOR1) is one of the major adiponectin receptors, and plays an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, few studies have reported simultaneous associations between ADIPOR1 variants and type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary artery disease (CAD) and T2D with CAD. Based on the "common soil" hypothesis, we investigated whether ADIPOR1 polymorphisms contributed to the etiology of T2D, CAD, or T2D with CAD in a Northern Han Chinese population.
A? transport (flux) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease as well as to elimination of toxic amyloid from the brain by immunotherapy. Several BBB transporters have been implicated in A? exchange between brain parenchyma and the circulation, including efflux transporters P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 and BCRP/ABCG2. Here we describe an application of in vivo optical imaging methods to study A? transport across the BBB in wild-type or animals deficient in specific efflux transporters.
OBJECTIVE The double transgenic mouse model (APPswe/PS1dE9) of Alzheimers disease (AD) has been widely used in experimental studies. ?-Amyloid (A?) peptide is excessively produced in AD mouse brain, which affects synaptic function and the development of central nervous system. However, little has been reported on characterization of this model. The present study aimed to characterize this mouse AD model and its wild-type counterparts by biochemical and functional approaches. METHODS Blood samples were collected from the transgenic and the wild-type mice, and radial arm water maze behavioral test was conducted at the ages of 6 and 12 months. The mice were sacrificed at 12-month age. One hemisphere of the brain was frozen-sectioned for immunohistochemistry and the other hemisphere was dissected into 7 regions. The levels of A?1-40, A?1-42 and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in blood or/and brain samples were analyzed by ELISA. Secretase activities in brain regions were analyzed by in vitro assays. RESULTS The pre-mature death rate of transgenic mice was approximately 35% before 6-month age, and high levels of A?(1-40) and A?(1-42) were detected in these dead mice brains with a ratio of 1:10. The level of blood-borne A? at 6-month age was similar with that at 12-month age. Besides, A?(1-40) level in the blood was significantly higher than A?(1-42) level at the ages of 6 and 12 months (ratio 2.37:1). In contrast, the level of A?(1-42) in the brain (160.6 ng/mg protein) was higher than that of A?(1-40) (74 ng/mg protein) (ratio 2.17:1). In addition, the levels of A?(1-40) and A?(1-42) varied markedly among different brain regions. A?(1-42) level was significantly higher than A?(1-40) level in cerebellum, frontal and posterior cortex, and hippocampus. Secretase activity assays did not reveal major differences among different brain regions or between wild-type and transgenic mice, suggesting that the transgene PS1 did not lead to higher ?-secretase activity but was more efficient in producing A?(1-42) peptides. 8-OHdG, the biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, showed a trend of increase in the blood of transgenic mice, but with no significant difference, as compared with the wild-type mice. Behavioral tests showed that transgenic mice had significant memory deficits at 6-month age compared to wild-type controls, and the deficits were exacerbated at 12-month age with more errors. CONCLUSION These results suggest that this mouse model mimics the early-onset human AD and may represent full-blown disease at as early as 6-month age for experimental studies.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase-? (PTP-?) is a receptor-like PTP whose biological function is poorly understood. A recent mouse PTP-? genetic deletion model associated the loss of PTP-? gene expression with a potential antidepressant phenotype. This led the authors to screen a subset of the Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) compound collection to identify selective small-molecule inhibitors of receptor-like PTP-? (RPTP-?) for use in evaluating enzyme function in vivo. Here, they report the design of a high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay based on the Z-LYTE technology to screen for inhibitors of RPTP-?. A subset of the BMS diverse compound collection was screened and several compounds identified as RPTP-? inhibitors in the assay. After chemical triage and clustering, compounds were assessed for potency and selectivity by IC(50) determination with RPTP-? and two other phosphatases, PTP-1B and CD45. One hundred twenty-nine RPTP-? selective (defined as IC(50) value greater than 5- to 10-fold over PTP-1B and CD45) inhibitors were identified and prioritized for evaluation. One of these hits, 3-(3, 4-dichlorobenzylthio) thiophene-2-carboxylic acid, was the primary chemotype for the initiation of a medicinal chemistry program.
Hypoxia is a common environmental stress factor and is associated with fibrogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), produced by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), plays an important role in liver fibrogenesis. However, inconsistent results have been reported on the impact of hypoxia on MMP-2 expression and activity in HSCs. We speculated that cell-cell interaction is involved in the regulation of MMP-2 expression and activity at low oxygen level in vivo. Therefore, in this report we investigated the mechanism by which hypoxic hepatocytes regulates MMP-2 expression in HSCs. Our results showed that the conditioned medium from hypoxia-treated rat hepatocytes strongly induced the expression of MMP-2 mRNA and protein in rat HSC-T6 cells. Reduced glutathione neutralized ROS released from hypoxic hepatocytes, leading to reduced MMP-2 expression in HSC-T6 cells. In addition, phospho-I?B-? protein level was increased in HSC-T6 cells treated with hypoxia conditioned medium, and NF-?B signaling inhibitor inhibited MMP-2 expression in HSC-T6 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that ROS is an important factor released by hypoxic hepatocytes to regulate MMP-2 expression in HSCs, and NF-?B signaling is crucially involved in ROS-induced MMP-2 expression in HSCs. Our findings suggest that strategies aimed at antagonizing the generation of ROS in hypoxic hepatocytes and inhibiting NF-?B signaling in HSCs may represent novel therapeutic options for liver fibrosis.
Drug addiction is an association of compulsive drug use with long-term associative learning/memory. Multiple forms of learning/memory are primarily subserved by activity- or experience-dependent synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent studies suggest LTP expression in locally activated glutamate synapses onto dopamine neurons (local Glu-DA synapses) of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) following a single or chronic exposure to many drugs of abuse, whereas a single exposure to cannabinoid did not significantly affect synaptic plasticity at these synapses. It is unknown whether chronic exposure of cannabis (marijuana or cannabinoids), the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, induce LTP or LTD at these synapses. More importantly, whether such alterations in VTA synaptic plasticity causatively contribute to drug addictive behavior has not previously been addressed. Here we show in rats that chronic cannabinoid exposure activates VTA cannabinoid CB1 receptors to induce transient neurotransmission depression at VTA local Glu-DA synapses through activation of NMDA receptors and subsequent endocytosis of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunits. A GluR2-derived peptide blocks cannabinoid-induced VTA synaptic depression and conditioned place preference, i.e., learning to associate drug exposure with environmental cues. These data not only provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic depression at VTA dopamine circuitry requires GluR2 endocytosis, but also suggest an essential contribution of such synaptic depression to cannabinoid-associated addictive learning, in addition to pointing to novel pharmacological strategies for the treatment of cannabis addiction.
Alzheimers disease is characterized by accumulation and deposition of A? peptides in the brain. A? deposition generates reactive-oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in Alzheimers inflammatory and neurodegenerative pathology. We have previously observed that, in Alzheimers disease brain, ABCG2 is up-regulated and AP-1 is activated, but NF-?B is not activated. In the present study, we examine the roles and mechanism of ABCG2 on ROS generation, inflammatory gene expression and signaling, heme homeostasis and A? production in cell models and on inflammatory signaling and A? deposition in Abcg2-knockout and wild-type mice. Our results show that ABCG2 plays a protective role against oxidative stress by decreasing ROS generation, enhancing antioxidant capacity, regulating heme level, and inhibiting inflammatory response in cell models. ABCG2 inhibits NF-?B activation but has less effect on AP-1 activation induced by ROS. This results in inhibition of interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene (GRO) expression induced by ROS via NF-?B pathway. Abcg2 deficiency increased A? deposition and NF-?B activation in the brains of Abcg2-knockout mice compared with controls. These findings suggest that ABCG2 may relieve oxidative stress and inflammatory response via inhibiting NF-?B signaling pathway in cell models and brain tissues and thus may play a potential protective role in Alzheimers neuroinflammatory response.
Lizhong Pill, composed of radix Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), rhizoma Zingiberis (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.) and radix Glycytthizae (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.), is a classical herbal product for curing spleen deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and reserpine treated rats show similar signs to TCM spleen deficiency pattern. This paper is aimed to explore the regulatory effect on neuroendocrinoimmune network by Lizhong Pill in reserpine induced TCM spleen deficiency rats.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic physical and biological barrier between blood circulation and the central nervous system (CNS). This unique feature of the BBB lies in the structure of the neurovascular unit and its cerebral micro-vascular endothelial cells. The BBB restricts the passage of blood-borne drugs, neurotoxic substances and peripheral immune cells from entering the brain, while selectively facilitating the transport of nutrients across the BBB into the brain. Thus, the integrity and proper function of the BBB is crucial to homeostasis and physiological function of the CNS. A number of transport and carrier systems are expressed and polarized on the luminal or abluminal surface of the BBB to realize these discrete functions. Among these systems, ABC transporters play a critical role in keeping drugs and neurotoxic substances from entering the brain and in transporting toxic metabolites out of the brain. A number of studies have demonstrated that ABCB1 and ABCG2 are critical to drug efflux at the BBB and that ABCC1 is essential for the blood-cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) barrier. The presence of these efflux ABC transporters also creates a major obstacle for drug delivery into the brain. We have comprehensively reviewed the literature on ABC transporters and drug efflux at the BBB. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these transporters is important in the development of new drugs and new strategies for drug delivery into the brain.
Tmub1 (C7orf21/HOPS) encodes a protein containing a ubiquitin-like domain. Tmub1 is highly expressed in the nervous system. To study its physiological function, we generated mice with Tmub1 deleted by homologous recombination. The knockout mice were grossly normal and viable. In a comprehensive behavioral testing battery, the only knockout phenotype displayed was a strong increase in home cage locomotor activity during the dark phase (subjective day) of the light:dark (L:D) cycle. There were no changes in activity during the light period. There were no changes in locomotor activity observed in other assays, e.g. novel open-field. The increase in dark phase locomotor activity persisted during a seven day D:D (complete darkness) challenge, and remained largely confined to the normally dark period. Telemetric recording in freely moving subjects for one 24 hr L:D cycle, revealed the same increase in locomotor activity in the dark phase. In addition, EEG analysis showed that the knockout mice exhibited increased waking and decreased NREM & REM times during the dark phase, but the EEG was otherwise normal. Using lacZ as a reporter we found Tmub1 expression prominent in a few brain structures including the thalamus, a region known to drive wakefulness and arousal via its projections to the cortex. We identified calcium modulating cyclophilin ligand CAMLG/CAML as a binding partner by a yeast two-hybrid screen of a brain library. The interaction of Tmub1 and CAMLG was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assays in HEK cells. The two proteins were also found to be co-localized to the cytoplasm when expressed in HEK cells. Both Tmub1 and CAMLG have been recently described in the regulation of membrane trafficking of specific receptors. Taken together our results implicate Tmub1 in the regulation of locomotor activity and wakefulness and suggest that Tmub1 binds to and functions together with CAMLG.
Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) has been associated with muscle & bone development -. N-terminal MEF2 and RUNX2 binding domains of HDAC4 have been shown to mediate these effects in vitro. A complete gene knockout has been reported to result in premature ossification and associated defects resulting in postnatal lethality . We report a viral insertion mutation that deletes the putative deacetylase domain, while preserving the N-terminal portion of the protein. Western blot and immuno-precipitation analysis confirm expression of truncated HDAC4 containing N-terminal amino acids 1-747. These mutant mice are viable, living to at least one year of age with no gross defects in muscle or bone. At 2-4 months of age no behavioral or physiological abnormalities were detected except for an increased latency to respond to a thermal nociceptive stimulus. As the mutant mice aged past 5 months, convulsions appeared, often elicited by handling. Our findings confirm the sufficiency of the N-terminal domain for muscle and bone development, while revealing other roles of HDAC4.
Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation and deposition of Abeta peptides in the brain. Abeta deposition in cerebrovessels occurs in many AD patients and results in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (AD/CAA). Since Abeta can be transported across blood-brain barrier (BBB), aberrant Abeta trafficking across BBB may contribute to Abeta accumulation in the brain and CAA development. Expression analyses of 273 BBB-related genes performed in this study showed that the drug transporter, ABCG2, was significantly upregulated in the brains of AD/CAA compared with age-matched controls. Increased ABCG2 expression was confirmed by Q-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Abcg2 was also increased in mouse AD models, Tg-SwDI and 3XTg. Abeta alone or in combination with hypoxia/ischemia failed to stimulate ABCG2 expression in BBB endothelial cells; however, conditioned media from Abeta-activated microglia strongly induced ABCG2 expression. ABCG2 protein in AD/CAA brains interacted and coimmunoprecipitated with Abeta. Overexpression of hABCG2 reduced drug uptake in cells; however, interaction of Abeta(1-40) with ABCG2 impaired ABCG2-mediated drug efflux. The role of Abcg2 in Abeta transport at the BBB was investigated in Abcg2-null and wild-type mice after intravenous injection of Cy5.5-labeled Abeta(1-40) or scrambled Abeta(40-1). Optical imaging analyses of live animals and their brains showed that Abcg2-null mice accumulated significantly more Abeta in their brains than wild-type mice. The finding was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that ABCG2 may act as a gatekeeper at the BBB to prevent blood Abeta from entering into brain. ABCG2 upregulation may serve as a biomarker of CAA vascular pathology in AD patients.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne single-stranded RNA virus, which has relatively recently emerged as a blood transfusion and organ transplantation transmissible pathogen. Low levels of WNV (viremia) are found in asymptomatic blood transfusion or cell/tissue donors with an infection, which poses a health threat to recipients. Since the introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) in 2003, many changes have occurred in the field of WNV detection and diagnosis. This review will focus on the recent progress in the in vitro assays for rapid and accurate detection of WNV in blood and tissues.
Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation and deposition of Abeta peptides in the brain. Abeta deposition in cerebral vessels occurs in many AD patients and results in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (AD/CAA). Abeta deposits evoke neuro- and neurovascular inflammation contributing to neurodegeneration. In this study, we found that exposure of cultured human brain endothelial cells (HBEC) to Abeta(1-40) elicited expression of inflammatory genes MCP-1, GRO, IL-1beta and IL-6. Up-regulation of these genes was confirmed in AD and AD/CAA brains by qRT-PCR. Profiling of 54 transcription factors indicated that AP-1 was strongly activated not only in Abeta-treated HBEC but also in AD and AD/CAA brains. AP-1 complex in nuclear extracts from Abeta-treated HBEC bound to AP-1 DNA-binding sequence and activated the reporter gene of a luciferase vector carrying AP-1-binding site from human MCP-1 gene. AP-1 is a dimeric protein complex and supershift assay identified c-Jun as a component of the activated AP-1 complex. Western blot analyses showed that c-Jun was activated via JNK-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting that as a result of c-Jun phosphorylation, AP-1 was activated and thus up-regulated MCP-1 expression. A JNK inhibitor SP600125 strongly inhibited Abeta-induced c-Jun phosphorylation, AP-1 activation, AP-1 reporter gene activity and MCP-1 expression in cells stimulated with Abeta peptides. The results suggested that JNK-AP1 signaling pathway is responsible for Abeta-induced neuroinflammation in HBEC and Alzheimers brain and that this signaling pathway may serve as a therapeutic target for relieving Abeta-induced inflammation.
The mammalian proline transporter (PROT) is a high affinity Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporter expressed in specific regions of the brain. It is homologous to other neurotransmitter transporters such as glycine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine transporters. PROT is enriched in glutamatergic synaptic terminals and may play an important role in the regulation of excitatory neurotransmission. No non-peptide small molecule inhibitors have been described for this transporter. To study its physiological role in the central nervous system and evaluate its potential as a therapeutic target, we established cell lines that stably express recombinant hPROT and characterized its kinetic properties for proline uptake. We then screened for inhibitors and identified a series of compounds that inhibit hPROT-mediated proline uptake. A known compound, benztropine, was found to inhibit hPROT with an IC(50) of 0.75microM. A series of novel compounds were also found, one of which, LP-403812, showed an IC(50) of approximately 0.1microM on both recombinant human and mouse PROT without significant inhibition of glycine and dopamine transporters at concentrations up to 10microM. This compound also inhibited proline transporter activity of mouse brain synaptosomes with the same potency. These inhibitors provide important tools for the understanding of PROT functions in the brain and may lead to the development of therapeutic agents for certain neurological disorders.
Receptor tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPRG, or RPTP?) is a mammalian receptor-like tyrosine phosphatase which is highly expressed in the nervous system as well as other tissues. Its function and biochemical characteristics remain largely unknown. We created a knockdown (KD) line of this gene in mouse by retroviral insertion that led to 98-99% reduction of RPTP? gene expression. The knockdown mice displayed antidepressive-like behaviors in the tail-suspension test, confirming observations by Lamprianou et al. 2006. We investigated this phenotype in detail using multiple behavioral assays. To see if the antidepressive-like phenotype was due to the loss of phosphatase activity, we made a knock-in (KI) mouse in which a mutant, RPTP? C1060S, replaced the wild type. We showed that human wild type RPTP? protein, expressed and purified, demonstrated tyrosine phosphatase activity, and that the RPTP? C1060S mutant was completely inactive. Phenotypic analysis showed that the KI mice also displayed some antidepressive-like phenotype. These results lead to a hypothesis that an RPTP? inhibitor could be a potential treatment for human depressive disorders. In an effort to identify a natural substrate of RPTP? for use in an assay for identifying inhibitors, "substrate trapping" mutants (C1060S, or D1028A) were studied in binding assays. Expressed in HEK293 cells, these mutant RPTP?s retained a phosphorylated tyrosine residue, whereas similarly expressed wild type RPTP? did not. This suggested that wild type RPTP? might auto-dephosphorylate which was confirmed by an in vitro dephosphorylation experiment. Using truncation and mutagenesis studies, we mapped the auto-dephosphorylation to the Y1307 residue in the D2 domain. This novel discovery provides a potential natural substrate peptide for drug screening assays, and also reveals a potential functional regulatory site for RPTP?. Additional investigation of RPTP? activity and regulation may lead to a better understanding of the biochemical underpinnings of human depression.
Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation play important roles in Alzheimers disease (AD). ABCG2 is a transporter protein expressed in the brain and involved in GSH transport. To study the roles of Abcg2 in oxidative stress and AD, we cross-bred Tg-SwDI and Abcg2-KO mice and generated Tg-SwDI/Abcg2-KO (double-tg) mice. Brain tissues from double-tg, Tg-SwDI, wild-type, and Abcg2-KO mice at various ages were analyzed. A?40 and A?42 were detected in Tg-SwDI and double-tg mice. Total brain GSH was decreased and levels of lipid/DNA oxidation were increased in 3-month double-tg compared to Tg-SwDI mice. Low brain GSH was still detected in 9-month double-tg mice. Increased HMOX-1 and MCP-5 expression was observed in 9-month double-tg mice but not in Tg-SwDI mice compared to WT and Abcg2-KO mice. Increased HMOX-1 and decreased ICAM-1 expression were observed in 12-month double-tg mice compared to Tg-SwDI mice. The levels of Nrf-2 expression and activity were decreased in 6-month double-tg mice. Behavioral tests show impaired cognitive/memory performance of 9-month double-tg compared to Tg-SwDI mice as well as WT and Abcg2-KO mice. These results suggest that Abcg2 deficiency increases oxidative stress and alters inflammatory response in the brain and exacerbates cognitive/memory deficit in double-tg mice at different developmental stages.
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