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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Differential expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/CD147) in avian tibial dyschondroplasia.
Avian Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is an avian bone disorder of different aetiologies that may be associated with lameness. It is characterized by focal disruption of endochondral bone formation, with a lack of matrix proteolysis and an accumulation of non-mineralized avascular cartilage. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/CD147) in normal, thiram-induced TD lesions and in the process of recovery from TD in broiler chickens. An extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzyme [matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)] was selected to investigate the effects of CD147 in the degradation of ECM. Gene expression was analysed by quantitative real-time PCR and protein levels by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The birds were divided into three groups: (1) thiram fed; (2) recovery; and (3) controls. Genes encoding CD147 and MMP-9 were down-regulated during the development of the disease, and up-regulated during recovery. Western blotting also showed lower protein levels of CD147 in TD which increased during the recovery phase associated with ECM degradation and growth plate repair. The findings of this study suggest that ECM has crucial role in the occurrence of TD and that CD147 appears to play a pivotal role in matrix proteolysis in the chicken, similar to that in other species.
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Microfluidic assistant beat-frequency interferometer based on a single-hole-infiltrated dual-mode microstructured optical fiber.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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A microfluidic assistant beat-frequency interferometer based on a single-hole-infiltrated dual-mode microstructured optical fiber (DM-MOF) is proposed and demonstrated. The interferometer is constructed by inserting a piece of fluid-filled DM-MOF into two sections of single-mode fiber with slight core-offset. The mode-mismatch induced interferences with high-frequency dips and low-frequency envelope are observed in the transmission spectrum. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that the beat-frequency spectrum works from the interferences between LP01 core mode and the components of LP11 core mode with close but different frequencies. The deliberately infiltrated liquid rod in the air hole located at the second ring near the core of the DM-MOF enhances the sensitivity of the envelope to temperature or axial force. However, it shows little impact on the high-frequency dips. The distinguishing sensitivities of -959.22 pm/°C (-70.59 pm/°C) and 24.26 nm/N (-3.14 nm/N) for the envelope (dips) are simultaneously achieved in experiment, allowing for dual parameter measurement in such a compact structure.
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Magnetic Three-dimensional Graphene Solid-phase Extraction Of Chlorophenols From Honey Samples.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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In this work, a novel magnetic three-dimensional graphene nano-composite (3D-G@Fe3O4) with a high surface area was synthesised by a vacuum freeze-dried method. Due to its high surface area, specific three-dimensional nano-porous structure and excellent magnetic properties, it can be used as a magnetic solid-phase extraction adsorbent. Some chlorophenols in honey samples were enriched by this nanocomposite prior to their determination by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Factors that affect the extraction efficiency, such as the amount of 3D-G@Fe3O4, extraction time, sample pH, ionic strength and desorption conditions were investigated and optimised. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity existed in the range of 10.0~1000.0 ng/g. The enrichment factors of the method for the analytes were in the range from 101 to 248. The limits of detection of the method (S/N = 3) were 1.0~1.5 ng/g. The recoveries of the method for the analytes at spiking levels of 100.0 and 400.0 ng/g were in the range of 93.2%~98.9%. The results showed that the proposed method is simple, reliable and sensitive. It will be a useful tool for the routine monitoring of chlorophenols in honey products.
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Low Tidal Volume Ventilation in Patients Without Acute Lung Injury.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a life threatening respiratory condition characterized by breakdown of the alveolar-capillary barrier, leading to flooding of the alveolar space producing the classical chest radiograph of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. In this study, we employed lung protective ventilation strategies in patients without acute lung injury (ALI) to determine whether mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volume would provide more clinical benefits to patients without ALI.
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The Anti-apoptotic Effect of Polypeptide from Chlamys farreri (PCF) in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Cells Involves Inhibition of iNOS and TGF-?1.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To investigate the molecular mechanisms of polypeptide from Chlamys farreri (PCF)'s anti-apoptotic effect, HaCaT cells were exposed to 20 mJ/CM(2) UVB, with or without pretreatment of TGF-?1 antagonist SB431542, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor S-methylisothiourea sulfate (SMT), nitric oxide scavenger carboxy-PTIO, or 1.42, 2.84, and 5.69 mM PCF, or iNOS transfection (without UVB exposure). Apoptosis was confirmed with Hoechst 33258 staining; RT-PCR and western blot were used to determine the expression levels of iNOS and TGF-?1 signaling pathway. Both UVB exposure and iNOS transfection-induced apoptosis in UVB-exposed HaCat cells, while PCF, SB431542, SMT, and carboxy-PTIO all inhibited UVB-induced apoptosis. TGF-?1, Smad4, and Smad7 mRNA levels were all altered, similarly, iNOS, TGF-?1, and pSmad2/3 protein levels were all altered in UVB-exposed HaCaT cells. In pretreated cells, SB431542, SMT, carboxy-PTIO, and 1.42-5.69 mM PCF all inhibited UVB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PCF treatment inhibited the expression levels of iNOS, TGF-?1, pSmad2/3, and Smad4, while increased the expression level of Smad7. SB431542 did not significantly alter iNOS expression, while SMT and carboxy-PTIO significantly altered TGF-?1 signaling level. The anti-apoptotic effect of PCF in UVB-exposed HaCaT cells involves the inhibition of iNOS expression and subsequently inhibition of TGF-?1 signaling pathway.
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Role of Pre-procedural C-reactive Protein Level in the Prediction of Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: a Meta-analysisof Longitudinal Studies.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Numerous studies have reported the relation between pre-procedural C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the results across the studies were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive effect of pre-procedural CRP levels and the risk of MACEs in patients undergoing PCI. Longitudinal studies on the association between pre-procedural CRP levels and MACEs were identified by electronic and manual searches. Summary risk ratios (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated employing an inverse variance random-effects model irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Thirty-three studies involving 34,367 patients with 4119 MACEs were included in this study. High CRP level was associated with increased incidences of MACEs, all-cause death, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and clinical restenosis, with pooled RRs of 1.97 (95 % CI, 1.65, 2.35), 2.88 (95 % CI, 2.15, 3.86), 1.81 (95 % CI, 1.48, 2.21), 1.31 (95 % CI, 1.11, 1.56), and 1.45 (95 % CI, 1.07, 1.96), respectively. Dose-response analysis showed that every 1 mg/L increment in pre-procedural serum CRP level was associated with a significant 12 % increase in the risk of MACEs. In spite of heterogeneity across the included studies, this meta-analysis suggests that pre-procedural serum CRP level is a valuable predictor of MACEs in patients undergoing PCI.
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miR-150 modulates cisplatin chemosensitivity and invasiveness of muscle-invasive bladder cancer cells via targeting PDCD4 in vitro.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Chemotherapeutic insensitivity and tumor cell invasiveness are major obstacles to effectively treating muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Recent reports show that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the chemotherapeutic response and disease progression of MIBC. Therefore, here we investigated the role of miR-150 in MIBC cells in vitro.
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Inhibitory act of selenoprotein p on cu(+)/cu(2+)-induced tau aggregation and neurotoxicity.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by peptide and protein misfolding and aggregation, in part due to the presence of excess metal ions such as copper. Aggregation and cytotoxicity of amyloid-? (A?) peptide with copper ion have been investigated extensively; however, the effects of metalation on tau are less known. Here, we presented the effects of Cu(+) and Cu(2+) on aggregation and neurotoxicity of the second repeat unit of the microtubule-binding domain of tau (tau-R2). Tau-R2 was demonstrated to bind 0.44 Cu(2+) and 0.34 Cu(+) per monomer with dissociation constants of 1.1 nM and 0.2 pM, respectively. Copper in both oxidation states stimulated the aggregation, ROS production, and neuronal cytotoxicity of tau-R2. We showed that copper-associated tau-R2 aggregates, decreased protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), and synaptophysin in the primarily cultured cortical neurons, reduced mitochondrial density and mobility in the axon and, as a consequence, impaired the growth and probably also the function of neurons. Previously, we reported that the His-rich domain of selenoprotein P (SelP-H) inhibited metal-induced aggregation and toxicity of A?, due to its metal chelation ability. Here we demonstrated that SelP-H not only inhibited copper-mediated tau aggregation but also interfered with the ongoing aggregation and reversed the already formed aggregates. More intriguing, SelP-H significantly attenuated Cu(2+)/Cu(+)-tau-R2-induced intracellular ROS production and the impairments of synapse and mitochondrial movement in neurons. This work implies that the surface-exposed His-rich domain of SelP makes it capable of modulating Cu(+)/Cu(2+)-mediated aggregation and neurotoxicity of both Aß and tau and may play important roles in the prevention of AD progression.
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[Establishment of a method to detect duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA based on rolling circle amplification].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a newly developed experimental technique that can specific ally amplify circular DNA. Since 2008, RCA has been extensively used in hepatitis B virus (HBV) research, such as the amplification of the full-length sequence of the HBV genome, and the analysis of the drug-resistant mutations of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), amongst others. To create an easy assay for the analysis of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) cccDNA, this study established an RCA-based method. DHBV cccDNA was amplified from the DHBV DNA samples of duck liver with four pairs of sulfur-modified primers, which were designed according to the highly conserved sequence of DHBV using sera DHBV DNA as the negative control. DHBV cccDNA was detected in the obtained RCA products by the sequencing of RCA amplicons that were amplified with primer pairs on both sides of the gap of DH BV relaxed circular DNA, rather than by digesting RCA products with a restriction enzyme. The liver and sera DHBV DNA samples of 39 ducks infected with DHBV were examined with the RCA-based DHBV cccDNA detection method, and the results showed that while DHBV cccDNA was detected from all 39 liver DHBV DNA samples, no DHBV cccDNA was found in any of the sera DHBV DNA samples. These results suggest that the method established in the study is highly specific and sensitive for the detection of DHBV cccDNA. The establishment of this RCA-based DHBV method for cccDNA detection lays the groundwork for using a DHBV model to study the role of cccDNA in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B and to evaluate the effect of anti-virus therapies.
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The effect of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on intact parathyroid hormone levels in peritoneal dialysis patients.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The objective of this article is to investigate the effect of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) on intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients.
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Intravitreal bevacizumab with or without triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular edema: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs and corticosteroids are being widely used to treat diabetic macular edema (DME). The purpose of this study was to evaluate further the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) alone in comparison with intravitreal bevacizumab combined with triamcinolone acetonide (IVB/IVT) in the treatment of DME.
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HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 represses seedling traits in Arabidopsis thaliana dry seeds.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Plant life is characterized by major phase changes. We studied the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in the transition from seed to seedling in Arabidopsis. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC stimulated germination of freshly harvested seeds. Subsequent analysis revealed that histone deacetylase 9 (hda9) mutant alleles displayed reduced seed dormancy and faster germination than wild-type plants. Transcriptome meta-analysis comparisons between the hda9 dry seed transcriptome and published datasets demonstrated that transcripts of genes that are induced during imbibition in wild-type prematurely accumulated in hda9-1 dry seeds. This included several genes associated with photosynthesis and photoautotrophic growth such as RuBisCO and RuBisCO activase (RCA). Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated enhanced histone acetylation levels at their loci in young hda9-1 seedlings. Our observations suggest that HDA9 negatively influences germination and is involved in the suppression of seedling traits in dry seeds, probably by transcriptional repression via histone deacetylation. Accordingly, HDA9 transcript is abundant in dry seeds and becomes reduced during imbibition in wild-type seeds. The proposed function of HDA9 is opposite to that of its homologous genes HDA6 and HDA19, which have been reported to repress embryonic properties in germinated seedlings.
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Overexpression of codA gene confers enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses in alfalfa.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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We generated transgenic alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L. cv. Xinjiang Daye) expressing a bacterial codA gene in chloroplasts under the control of the SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SC plants) and evaluated the plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Three transgenic plants (SC7, SC8, and SC9) were selected for further characterization based on the strong expression levels of codA in response to methyl viologen (MV)-mediated oxidative stress. SC plants showed enhanced tolerance to NaCl and drought stress on the whole plant level due to induced expression of codA. When plants were subjected to 250 mM NaCl treatment for 2 weeks, SC7 and SC8 plants maintained higher chlorophyll contents and lower malondialdehyde levels than non-transgenic (NT) plants. Under drought stress conditions, all SC plants showed enhanced tolerance to drought stress through maintaining high relative water contents and increased levels of glycinebetaine and proline compared to NT plants. Under normal conditions, SC plants exhibited increased growth due to increased expression of auxin-related IAA genes compared to NT plants. These results suggest that the SC plants generated in this study will be useful for enhanced biomass production on global marginal lands, such as high salinity and arid lands, yielding a sustainable agricultural product.
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Magnetic porous carbon as an adsorbent for the enrichment of chlorophenols from water and peach juice samples.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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In this paper, porous carbon with a highly ordered structure was synthesized using zeolite ZSM-5 as a template and sucrose as a carbon source. Through the in situ reduction of Fe(3+), magnetic property was successfully introduced into the ordered porous carbon, resulting in a magnetic porous carbon (MPC). MPC was used as an adsorbent for the extraction of some chlorophenols (2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol and 3,4-dichlorophenol) from water and peach juice samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Good linearity was observed in the range 1.0-100.0 ng mL(-1) and 2.0-100.0 ng mL(-1) for water and peach juice sample, respectively. The limits of detection (S/N=3) were between 0.10 and 0.30 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviations were less than 5.3% and the recoveries of the method for the compounds were in the range from 87.8% to 102.3%. The results demonstrated that the MPC had a high adsorptive capability toward the four chlorophenols from water and peach juice samples.
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Caspase-3 inhibition prevents the development of hepatopulmonary syndrome in common bile duct ligation rats by alleviating pulmonary injury.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Common bile duct ligation (CBDL) rats is an accepted experimental model of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), defined as liver disease and intrapulmonary vascular dilatation and hypoxaemia. Pulmonary Akt and ERK activation followed by angiogenesis in the later stages of CBDL, contribute to the pathogenesis of HPS. However, the mechanisms behind Akt and ERK activation remain undefined. Pulmonary injury induced by increased bilirubin, endotoxin and inflammatory mediators occurs in the early stages of CBDL. We assessed the effects of relieving pulmonary injury on Akt and ERK activation and on the development of HPS following CBDL.
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Zinc supplementation protects against cadmium accumulation and cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Cadmium ions (Cd2+) have been reported to accumulate in bovine tissues, although Cd2+ cytotoxicity has not been investigated thoroughly in this species. Zinc ions (Zn2+) have been shown to antagonize the toxic effects of heavy metals such as Cd2+ in some systems. The present study investigated Cd2+ cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells, and explored whether this was modified by Zn2+. Exposure to Cd2+ led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death, with increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage. Zn2+ supplementation alleviated Cd2+-induced cytotoxicity and this protective effect was more obvious when cells were exposed to a lower concentration of Cd2+ (10 ?M), as compared to 50 ?M Cd2+. This indicated that high levels of Cd2+ accumulation might induce irreversible damage in bovine kidney cells. Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding proteins that play an essential role in heavy metal ion detoxification. We found that co-exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ synergistically enhanced RNA and protein expression of MT-1, MT-2, and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in MDBK cells. Notably, addition of Zn2+ reduced the amounts of cytosolic Cd2+ detected following MDBK exposure to 10 ?M Cd2+. These findings revealed a protective role of Zn2+ in counteracting Cd2+ uptake and toxicity in MDBK cells, indicating that this approach may provide a means to protect livestock from excessive Cd2+ accumulation.
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Decreased interleukin 35 and CD4+EBI3+ T cells in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is likely to contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases, as the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene protein 3 (EBI3) is the specificity subunit of IL-35. Nevertheless, until recently, no studies have evaluated its role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in humans. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4EBI3 T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with SLE and explore the roles of double-positive T cells and IL-35 in the pathogenesis of SLE and the effects of glucocorticoid on these roles.
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Survival characteristics of injected human cartilage slurry in a nude mouse model: a preliminary study.
Ear Nose Throat J
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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We conducted a study to examine the viability, host response, and volume retention characteristics of drilled human septal cartilage slurry when injected into an athymic nude mouse model. We injected 0.2 ml of the slurry into the hind limbs of 6 mice. The mice were sequentially sacrificed over a period of 180 days. Histologic reviews of the hind limbs were performed to determine the viability of injected chondrocytes, host response, and volume retention. Specimens were obtained and histomorphologic analysis was performed at 1, 30, 90, and 180 days after injection. We identified viable cartilage throughout the study. Cartilage injection was well tolerated, and minimal inflammatory reaction occurred without significant adverse effects. The injected bolus of cartilage was found to have progressively dispersed throughout the muscle over time. Our findings warrant further investigation with a larger cohort of nude mice or possibly human subjects.
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A sensitive and quantitative fluorescent multi-component immuno-chromatographic sensor for ?-agonist residues.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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A sensitive and quantitative fluorescent multi-component immuno-chromatographic sensor was developed for detection of three ?-agonizts: clenbuterol, ractopamine and salbuterol. A competitive immune strategy between antibody conjugated fluorescent beads and ?-agonist or their antigens was employed. Each monoclonal antibody specifically recognizes it is corresponding ?-agonist in the conjugating zone. The unreacted antibodies were captured by ?-agonist antigens immobilized at three test lines in nitrocellulose membrane reaction zone. This enables simultaneous detection of 3 ?-agonizts in one single test without any further sample preparation. The test results can be obtained within 10min. Limit of detections for clenbuterol, ractopamine and salbuterol were 0.10ng/mL, 0.10ng/mL and 0.09ng/mL, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 70.0% to 100.5% and relative standard deviations were below 15%. The assay was evaluated using spiked and real samples and the results were compared with LC-MS/MS. The developed novel assay method provides a low cost, sensitive and rapid approach for on site detection of ?-agonizts.
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Control and design of fiber birefringence characteristics based on selective-filled hybrid photonic crystal fibers.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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We demonstrated a kind of birefringence-controllable hybrid photonic crystal fibers (HPCFs) by selectively infiltrating air holes of PCFs with index-tunable liquids processing higher index than silica background. Detailed theoretical investigations on mode couplings from fundamental core mode to high-index-liquid-rod modes and birefringence properties of several HPCFs were presented. Strong wavelength dependence of phase and group birefringence was found, and HPCFs with different arrangements of high index liquid rods possess distinct birefringence characteristics. Then, the Sagnac interferometers (SIs) based on two typical HPCFs with different liquid-rod arrangements were theoretically and experimentally studied. The results indicated the SIs exhibit different transmission spectra and temperature responses due to the distinct birefringence features of HPCFs. A temperature sensitivity of -45.8 nm/°C at 56.5 °C was achieved using one HPCF, and a sensitivity of -11.6 nm/°C from 65 °C to 85 °C was achieved using the other HPCF. The thermal tunable HPCFs with birefringence-controllable properties will provide great potential for a variety of tunable optical devices and sensors.
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The roles of histone acetylation in seed performance and plant development.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Histone acetylation regulates gene transcription by chromatin modifications and plays a crucial role in the plant development and response to environment cues. The homeostasis of histone acetylation is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) in different plant tissues and development stages. The vigorous knowledge of the function and co-factors about HATs (e.g. GCN5) and HDACs (e.g. HDA19, HDA6) has been obtained from model plant Arabidopsis. However, understanding individual role of other HATs and HDACs require more work, especially in the major food crops such as rice, maize and wheat. Many co-regulators have been recently identified to function as a component of HAT or HDAC complex in some specific developmental processes. The described findings show a distinctive and interesting epigenetic regulation network composed of HATs, HDACs and co-regulators playing crucial roles in the seed performance, flowering time, plant morphogenesis, plant response to stresses etc. In this review, we summarized the recent progresses and suggested the perspective of histone acetylation research, which might provide us a new window to understand the epigenetic code of plant development and to improve the crop production and quality.
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Extraperitoneal and Transperitoneal Laparoscopic Partial Cystectomy for Benign Non-Urothelial Bladder Tumors: An Initial Experience.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Objective: This study presents our initial experience with extraperitoneal and transperitoneal laparoscopic partial cystectomy (LPC) in the treatment of benign non-urothelial bladder tumors. Methods: Eleven patients with benign non-urothelial bladder tumors underwent extraperitoneal or transperitoneal LPC. The five cases with tumors located on the anterior/anterolateral bladder wall received the extraperitoneal approach. The six cases with tumors located around the bladder dome or over the posterior bladder wall received the transperitoneal approach. Key perioperative parameters were recorded. Results: All patients underwent laparoscopic resection smoothly without requiring a conversion to a traditional open procedure, and no patient displayed perioperative complications. Pathology showed benign non-urothelial bladder tumors with normal margins in all eleven patients, including five leiomyoma cases, three pheochromocytoma cases, two paraganglioma cases and one inflammatory fibrous histiocytoma case. Follow-up cystoscopy and imaging studies in all eleven patients (mean follow-up period 32 months) revealed neither residual nor local recurrence. Conclusions: LPC is safe and feasible in select patients with benign non-urothelial bladder tumors and yields satisfactory oncological and functional results. Extraperitoneal LPC should be preferred for lesions located on the anterior/anterolateral bladder wall, while transperitoneal LPC should be preferred for lesions around the bladder dome or over the posterior bladder wall. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic frameworks coated fiber for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in river and lake water samples.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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In this study, polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic frameworks (PDMS/MOFs), including PDMS/MIL-101 and PDMS/MOF-199, were immobilized onto a stainless steel wire through sol-gel technique as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The prepared fibers were used for the extraction of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Under the optimized experiment conditions, the PDMS/MIL-101 coated fiber exhibited higher extraction efficiency towards PAHs than that of PDMS/MOF-199. Several parameters affecting the extraction of PAHs by SPME with PDMS/MIL-101 fiber, including the extraction temperature, extraction time, sample volume, salt addition and desorption conditions, were investigated. The limits of detection (LODs) were less than 4.0 ng L(-1) and the linearity was observed in the range from 0.01 to 2.0 µg L(-1) with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9940 to 0.9986. The recoveries of the method for the PAHs from water samples at spiking levels of 0.05 and 0.2 µg L(-1) ranged from 78.2% to 110.3%. Single fiber repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were less than 9.3% and 13.8%, respectively.
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Effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on the growth and toxin production of Microcystis aeruginosa isolated from Lake Dianchi.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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The exogenous organic pollutant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) pollution and Microcystis bloom are two common phenomena in eutrophic lakes, but the effects of LAS alone on Microcystis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of LAS on the growth, photochemical efficiency, and microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa in the laboratory. Results showed that low LAS (?10 mg/L) concentrations improved the growth of M. aeruginosa (12 days of exposure). High LAS (20 mg/L) concentrations inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa on the first 8 days of exposure; afterward, growth progressed. After 12 days of exposure, the concentrations of chlorophyll a in algal cells were not significantly affected by any of LAS concentrations (0.05 to 20 mg/L) in the present study; by contrast, carotenoid and protein concentrations were significantly inhibited when LAS concentrations reached as high as 20 mg/L. After 6 and 12 days of exposure, low LAS (?10 mg/L) concentrations enhanced the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the maximal electron transport rate (ETRmax) of M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, LAS increased the microcystin production of M. aeruginosa. Extracellular and intracellular microcystin contents were significantly increased after M. aeruginosa was exposed to high LAS concentrations. Our results indicated that LAS in eutrophic lakes may increase the risk of Microcystis bloom and microcystin production.
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Polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica show hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in mice with experimentally induced diabetes.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder of the endocrine system. The rapid increase in the incidence of DM is a serious public health concern worldwide. The treatment of DM and its complications mainly involves the use of chemically or biochemically synthesized drugs, but these drugs also have adverse side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to search for drugs from natural sources that would cause fewer side effects. This study aimed to determine whether polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica (LJP) exert hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. To this end, diabetes was induced by alloxan injection (200?mg/kg body weight [bw], intraperitoneal [ip]). After induction of diabetes, diabetic mice were randomly divided into five groups: diabetic control (DC) group, glibenclamide-treated (DG) group, low-dose LJP-treated (DLL) group, moderate-dose LJP-treated (DML) group, and high-dose LJP-treated (DHL) group, with normal mice used as the control group (NC group). After treatment for 28 days, body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured. The results revealed that LJP administration prevented body-weight loss, decreased FBG levels, and increased serum insulin levels in diabetic mice. Furthermore, it decreased TC, TG, and LDL-C levels, and increased HDL-C levels in these mice. Thus, the results indicate that LJP possesses hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities and polysaccharides from LJP may hold promise for the development of a drug of natural origin for the treatment of DM.
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Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing AtNDPK2 exhibit increased growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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In this study, we generated and evaluated transgenic alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L. cv. Xinjiang Daye) expressing the Arabidopsis nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (AtNDPK2) gene under the control of the oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SN plants) to develop plants with enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses. We selected two SN plants (SN4 and SN7) according to the expression levels of AtNDPK2 and the enzyme activity of NDPK in response to methyl viologen (MV)-mediated oxidative stress treatment using leaf discs for further characterization. SN plants showed enhanced tolerance to high temperature, NaCl, and drought stress on the whole-plant level. When the plants were subjected to high temperature treatment (42 °C for 24 h), the non-transgenic (NT) plants were severely wilted, whereas the SN plants were not affected because they maintained high relative water and chlorophyll contents. The SN plants also showed significantly higher tolerance to 250 mM NaCl and water stress treatment than the NT plants. In addition, the SN plants exhibited better plant growth through increased expression of auxin-related indole acetic acid (IAA) genes (MsIAA3, MsIAA5, MsIAA6, MsIAA7, and MsIAA16) under normal growth conditions compared to NT plants. The results suggest that induced overexpression of AtNDPK2 in alfalfa will be useful for increasing biomass production under various abiotic stress conditions.
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Efficacy, safety and feasibility of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation for large hepatic hemangioma.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of microwave ablation (MWA) for large hepatic hemangioma.
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CD86 +1057G/A polymorphism and risk of chronic immune thrombocytopenia.
Autoimmunity
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Abstract The G to A transition at position +1057 single nucleotide polymorphism site in CD86 gene results in the alanine to threonine substitution, which further affects the antigen-presenting cells' signal transduction. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the association between CD86 +1057G/A polymorphism and the risk for chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP). The CD86 +1057G/A polymorphism in 158 cITP patients and 150 healthy controls were detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism and then confirmed by DNA sequencing. In the patients with cITP, the frequencies of GG, AG and AA genotypes and G and A alleles were 18.4%, 58.8%, 22.8%, 47.8% and 52.2%, respectively. No difference in genotype and allele frequencies was detected in total cITP patients and normal controls (p?=?0.913 and 0.845, respectively). Cases were subsequently classified by age at diagnosis, gender or clinical responses to glucocorticoids, and still no obvious discrepancy of genotype and allele frequencies was found between each of the groups and normal controls. In conclusion, this study suggests that CD86 +1057G/A polymorphism may be not associated with the genetic susceptibility to cITP in a Chinese population.
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Hydrogen sulfide ameliorates high-glucose toxicity in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells by attenuating oxidative stress.
Nephron Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Continuous exposure of the peritoneal membrane to high-glucose (HG) peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) can produce peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) injury. It has been demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third endogenous gaseous mediator identified after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, exhibits a potent protective effect on cell activity. We studied the toxic effects of HG PDFs and their reversal by H2S on cultures of rat PMCs.
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Discovery of quinazolin-4-amines bearing benzimidazole fragments as dual inhibitors of c-Met and VEGFR-2.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Both c-Met and VEGFR-2 are important targets for the treatment of cancers. In this study, a series of N-(2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)quinazolin-4-amine derivatives were designed and identified as dual c-Met and VEGFR-2 inhibitors. Among these compounds bearing quinazoline and benzimidazole fragments, compound 7j exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against c-Met and VEGFR-2 with IC50 of 0.05?M and 0.02?M, respectively. It also showed the highest anticancer activity against the tested cancer cell lines with IC50 of 1.5?M against MCF-7 and 8.7?M against Hep-G2. Docking simulation supported the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis and suggested a common mode of interaction at the ATP-binding site of c-Met and VEGFR-2, which demonstrates that compound 7j is a potential agent for cancer therapy deserving further researching.
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A critical role of glutamate transporter type 3 in the learning and memory of mice.
Neurobiol Learn Mem
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory are associated with trafficking of excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3) to the plasma membrane. To assess whether this trafficking is an intrinsic component of the biochemical responses underlying learning and memory, 7- to 9-week old male EAAT3 knockout mice and CD-1 wild-type mice were subjected to fear conditioning. Their hippocampal CA1 regions, amygdalae and entorhinal cortices were harvested before, or 30 min or 3 h after the fear conditioning stimulation. We found that EAAT3 knockout mice had worse contextual and tone-related learning and memory than did the wild-type mice. The expression of EAAT3, glutamate receptor (GluR)1 and GluR2 in the plasma membrane and of phospho-GluR1 (at Ser 831) and phospho-CaMKII in the hippocampus of the wild-type mice was increased at 30 min after the fear conditioning stimulation. Similar biochemical changes occurred in the amygdala. Fear conditioning also increased the expression of c-Fos and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in the CA1 regions and of Arc in the entorhinal cortices of the wild-type mice. These biochemical responses were attenuated in the EAAT3 knockout mice. These results suggest that EAAT3 plays a critical role in learning and memory. Our results also provide initial evidence that EAAT3 may have receptor-like functions to participate in the biochemical reactions underlying learning and memory.
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Tunable fiber polarizing filter based on a single-hole-infiltrated polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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A tunable fiber polarizing filter based on selectively filling a single hole of a solid-core polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with high index liquid are proposed and demonstrated. Two groups of polarization-dependent resonance dips in the transmission spectrum of the single-hole-infiltrated photonic crystal fiber are observed. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that these resonant dips result from the couplings between the silica core fundamental mode at x or y polarization and high order modes (TM(01), TE(01) and HE(11)) in the liquid core. Especially, a distinctive characteristic near the strongest resonant point (SRP) is demonstrated and revealed. The transmission loss and spectral shape at the SRP wavelength are extremely sensitive to the filling length and temperature (or Refractive Index, RI), which permits a fiber bandpass or bandstop polarizing filter with a good performance on tunability and controllability. Furthermore, the narrowband dips on both sides of the SRP wavelength have wavelength-dependent tuning velocities, providing a method to achieve flexible and controllable filters as well as two- or multi-parameter sensors with a compact structure.
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Molecular modeling studies of atorvastatin analogues as HMGR inhibitors using 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase (HMGR) is generally regarded as targets for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. HMGR inhibitors (more commonly known as statins) are discovered as plasma cholesterol lowering molecules. In this work, 120 atorvastatin analogues were studied using a combination of molecular modeling techniques including three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR), molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results show that the best CoMFA (comparative molecular field analysis) model has q(2)=0.558 and r(2)=0.977, and the best CoMSIA (comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) model has q(2)=0.582 and r(2)=0.919. Molecular docking and MD simulation explored the binding relationship of the ligand and the receptor protein. The calculation results indicated that the hydrophobic and electrostatic fields play key roles in QSAR model. After MD simulation, we found four vital residues (Lys735, Arg590, Asp690 and Asn686) and three hydrophobic regions in HMGR binding site. The calculation results show that atorvastatin analogues obtained by introduction of F atoms or gem-difluoro groups could obviously improve the inhibitory activity. The new HMGR inhibitor analogues design in this Letter had been submitted which is being currently synthesized by our laboratories.
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Discovery of N-(2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)quinolin-4-amine derivatives as novel VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitors.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Inhibition of the VEGF signaling pathway has become a valuable approach in the treatment of cancers. In this work, a series of N-(2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)quinolin-4-amine derivatives were designed and identified as potent inhibitors of VEGFR-2 (KDR) kinase. These compounds with quinoline scaffold and benzimidazole moiety were synthesized and their biological activities against VEGFR-2 and two human cancer cell lines were evaluated. Among them, compound 7s exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against VEGFR-2 with IC50 of 0.03 ?M and it also showed the highest anticancer activity against the tested cancer cell lines with IC50 of 1.2 ?M against MCF-7 and 13.3 ?M against Hep-G2. Docking simulation supported the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis and suggested a common mode of interaction at the ATP-binding site of VEGFR-2, which demonstrates that compound 7s is a potential agent for cancer therapy deserving further researching.
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Multi-component-intermodal-interference mechanism and characteristics of a long period grating assistant fluid-filled photonic crystal fiber interferometer.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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A compact in-line modal interferometer based on a long period grating (LPG) inscribed in water-filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed and demonstrated. The interferometer works from the interference between fundamental core mode and different vector components of LP(11) core mode. The LPG is especially inscribed to realize the energy exchange between the fundamental core mode and different vector components of LP(11) core mode in the PCF. We build a complete theoretical model and systematically analyze the multi-component-intermodal-interference mechanism of the interferometer based on coupled-mode theory. Due to the asymmetric index distribution over the cross section of the PCF caused by CO(2)-laser side illumination, the dispersion curves and temperature sensitivities referring to different vector components of LP(11) core mode are quite different. Thus the interferometer is polarization-dependent and the adjacent interference fringes according to different components of LP(11) mode show greatly discrimination in sensitivities of temperature and strain, making it a good candidate for multiple physics parameters measurements.
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Implementation of blind source separation for optical fiber sensing.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Blind source separation (BSS) is implemented for optical fiber sensing systems, such as the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system and the single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber (SMS) sensing system. The FastICA, a kind of multichannel BSS algorithm, is used to get the strain and the temperature with two FBGs. For the SMS sensing, a single-channel blind source separation (SCBSS) algorithm is employed to simultaneously measure the vibration and the temperature variation with only one SMS sensor. The errors of both the FBG and the SMS optical fiber sensing system are very small with the BSS algorithm. The implementation of BSS for the optical fiber sensing makes the multiparameter measurements more easily with low cost and high accuracy and can also be applied for signal de-noising field.
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Enzymatic resolution of ibuprofen in an organic solvent under ultrasound irradiation.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Ultrasound has been successfully adopted to improve the biocatalytic properties of APE1547 (a novel esterase from the archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1) in the resolution of ibuprofen. After optimizing the conditions (ultrasound power, 200 W; temperature, 35 °C), the best biocatalytic performance of APE1547 (enzyme activity, 5.39 µmol/H/mg; E value, 130.8) was obtained. Compared with the conventional reaction in an orbital shaker, the enzyme activity was significantly enhanced about 90-fold, and the enantioselectivity was enhanced about fourfold after an ultrasound. The results of scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that the activation effect of ultrasound on APE1547 originated mainly in the morphological change of the enzyme powder. Both lower particle size and conformational change of APE1547 under ultrasound might be helpful to enhance the enantioselectivity. In addition, APE1547 kept its best performance under the low-power ultrasound for at least five reaction cycles.
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One-month toxicokinetic study of SHENMAI injection in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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'SHENMAI' injection (SMI) has been widely used in cardioprotection and modulation of the immune system because of its great efficacy. SMI primarily comprises the saponins from Panax ginseng and Ophiopogon japonicas. The profiles of saponins in SMI during long-term toxicokinetics remain unclear. MiR-146a possesses excellent sensitivity as a bio-marker in the innate immunity modification effect of SMI.
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[Detection of occupational hazards in a large shipbuilding factory].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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To provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of occupational diseases by the analysis of existing major occupational hazards and health conditions of workers in a large shipbuilding factory.
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Direct interaction between selenoprotein P and tubulin.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Selenium (Se), an essential trace element for human health, mainly exerts its biological function via selenoproteins. Among the 25 selenoproteins identified in human, selenoprotein P (SelP) is the only one that contains multiple selenocysteines (Sec) in the sequence, and has been suggested to function as a Se transporter. Upon feeding a selenium-deficient diet, mice lacking SelP develop severe neurological dysfunction and exhibit widespread brainstem neurodegeneration, indicating an important role of SelP in normal brain function. To further elucidate the function of SelP in the brain, SelP was screened by the yeast two-hybrid system from a human fetal brain cDNA library for interactive proteins. Our results demonstrated that SelP interacts with tubulin, alpha 1a (TUBA1A). The interaction between SelP and tubulin was verified by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays. We further found that SelP interacts with the C-terminus of tubulin by its His-rich domain, as demonstrated by FRET and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) assays. The implications of the interaction between SelP and tubulin in the brain and in Alzheimer's disease are discussed.
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Knockdown of CDK2AP1 by RNA interference inhibits cell growth and tumorigenesis of human glioma.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Previous reports support the role of cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (CDK2AP1) as a tumor suppressor that functions as a key player in cell cycle regulation. Although the misadjustment of CDK2AP1 has been revealed in several types of human malignancies, the functional role of CDK2AP1 in human glioma remains unknown. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of CDK2AP1 knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) on glioma cell growth and tumorigenesis. We employed lentivirus-mediated RNAi to down-regulate CDK2AP1 expression in U251 and U373 cells. Knockdown of CDK2AP1 resulted in a significant reduction in U251 and U373 cell proliferation, as determined by MTT and colony formation assays. Cell cycle analysis showed CDK2AP1 silencing caused U251 cells arrest in G0/G1 phase, especially in the sub-G1 phase representing apoptotic cells. In vivo tumorigenesis was assessed using xenograft formation and CDK2AP1 depletion remarkably inhibited glioma growth and tumorigenesis. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK2AP1 siRNA may have an anti-tumorigenic effect on human glioma.
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Neuregulin-1 increases connexin-40 and connexin-45 expression in embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is a vital factor involved in heart development. NRG-1 up-regulated connexin-40 (Cx40) in mice fetal cardiomyocytes has been reported, while the effect of NRG-1 on expression of connexins in embryonic stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes (ESCMs) is limited studied. The process of cardiomyocytes differentiated from embryonic stem cells with or without NRG-1 treatment was observed continuously. Exposure to NRG-1 increased the expression of Cx40 and connexin-45 (Cx45) in ESCMs, while the expression of connexin-43 was unchanged regardless of NRG-1 treatment Western blot analysis also confirmed that the expression of Cx40 and Cx45 in the beating foci was increased in the presence of NRG-1. These results indicate that connexins are differentially regulated by exogenous NRG-1 during cardiomyocytic differentiation of embryonic stem cells.
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Anthocyanins potentiate the activity of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been found to be overexpressed in ~25% of invasive breast cancer and is significantly associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. The anthocyanins cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and peonidin-3-glucoside have been identified as potential drugs for the therapy of HER2?positive breast cancer. They have been used as supplements in targeted therapeutics and chemotherapeutics in Asia, however, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergism between C3G and trastuzumab (Trast). To address this question, the response to C3G, Trast and a combination of the two drugs, in three representative HER2?positive cell lines was evaluated. The combination treatments induced apoptosis, inhibited cell growth and affected HER2 and its downstream signaling pathway in MDA?MB?453, BT474 and HCC1569 cells, and the effects were synergistic. The combination of 3CG and Trast inhibited tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft model. The data from the present study suggested that C3G exhibits potent antitumor activity when combined with Trast under the investigated conditions.
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Sevoflurane postconditioning provides neuroprotection against brain hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Application of volatile anesthetics after brain ischemia provides neuroprotection in adult animals (anesthetic postconditioning). We tested whether postconditioning with sevoflurane, the most commonly used general anesthetic in pediatric anesthesia, reduced neonatal brain injury in rats. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to brain hypoxia-ischemia (HI). They were postconditioned with sevoflurane in the presence or absence of 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, a mitochondrial KATP channel inhibitor. Sevoflurane postconditioning dose-dependently reduced brain tissue loss observed 7 days after brain HI. This effect was induced by clinically relevant concentrations and abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoic acid. These results suggest that sevoflurane postconditioning protects neonatal brain against brain HI via mitochondrial KATP channels.
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The protective effect of autophagy on mouse spermatocyte derived cells exposure to 1800MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The increasing exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phone use has raised public concern regarding the biological effects of RF exposure on the male reproductive system. Autophagy contributes to maintaining intracellular homeostasis under environmental stress. To clarify whether RF exposure could induce autophagy in the spermatocyte, mouse spermatocyte-derived cells (GC-2) were exposed to 1800MHz Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals in GSM-Talk mode at specific absorption rate (SAR) values of 1w/kg, 2w/kg or 4w/kg for 24h, respectively. The results indicated that the expression of LC3-II increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner with RF exposure, and showed a significant change at the SAR value of 4w/kg. The autophagosome formation and the occurrence of autophagy were further confirmed by GFP-LC3 transient transfection assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II was enhanced by co-treatment with Chloroquine (CQ), indicating autophagic flux could be enhanced by RF exposure. Intracellular ROS levels significantly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after cells were exposed to RF. Pretreatment with anti-oxidative NAC obviously decreased the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and attenuated the degradation of p62 induced by RF exposure. Meanwhile, phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) significantly increased after RF exposure at the SAR value of 2w/kg and 4w/kg. Moreover, we observed that RF exposure did not increase the percentage of apoptotic cells, but inhibition of autophagy could increase the percentage of apoptotic cells. These findings suggested that autophagy flux could be enhanced by 1800MHz GSM exposure (4w/kg), which is mediated by ROS generation. Autophagy may play an important role in preventing cells from apoptotic cell death under RF exposure stress.
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Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel thermophilic polygalacturonase from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM 6725.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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We cloned the gene ACM61449 from anaerobic, thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, and expressed it in Escherichia coli origami (DE3). After purification through thermal treatment and Ni-NTA agarose column extraction, we characterized the properties of the recombinant protein (CbPelA). The optimal temperature and pH of the protein were 72 °C and 5.2, respectively. CbPelA demonstrated high thermal-stability, with a half-life of 14 h at 70 °C. CbPelA also showed very high activity for polygalacturonic acid (PGA), and released monogalacturonic acid as its sole product. The Vmax and Km of CbPelA were 384.6 U·mg?¹ and 0.31 mg·mL?¹, respectively. CbPelA was also able to hydrolyze methylated pectin (48% and 10% relative activity on 20%-34% and 85% methylated pectin, respectively). The high thermo-activity and methylated pectin hydrolization activity of CbPelA suggest that it has potential applications in the food and textile industry.
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Extraction of carbamate pesticides in fruit samples by graphene reinforced hollow fibre liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatographic detection.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Graphene reinforced hollow fibre liquid phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection was developed for the determination of some carbamate pesticides (metolcarb, carbaryl, isoprocarb, and diethofencarb) in fruit samples. The main parameters that affect the extraction efficiency for the carbamates were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity was observed in the range of 1.0-100.0 ng g(-1) for carbaryl and 3.0-100.0 ng g(-1) for the other three analytes, with the correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9965-0.9993. The limits of detection of the method ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng g(-1). The relative standard deviations were in the range from 6.2% to 7.8%. The results indicated that the developed method is sensitive and efficient for the determination of the carbamate pesticides in fruit samples.
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Qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion in traditional Chinese medicine.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function.
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V1 and v2b interneurons secure the alternating flexor-extensor motor activity mice require for limbed locomotion.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here, we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity.
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Graphene oxide as a micro-solid-phase extraction sorbent for the enrichment of parabens from water and vinegar samples.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A simple hydrophilic polyamide organic membrane protected micro-solid-phase extraction method with graphene oxide as the sorbent was developed for the enrichment of some parabens from water and vinegar samples prior to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The main experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as the type and amount of the sorbent, extraction time, stirring rate, salt addition, sample solution pH and desorption conditions, were investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the method showed a good linearity in the range of 0.1-100.0 ng/mL for water samples and 0.5-100.0 ng/mL for vinegar samples, with the correlation coefficients varying from 0.9978 to 0.9997. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) of the method were in the range of 0.005-0.010 ng/mL for water samples and 0.01-0.05 ng/mL for vinegar samples, respectively. The recoveries of the method for the analytes at spiking levels of 5.0 and 70.0 ng/mL were between 84.6 and 106.4% with the relative standard deviations varying from 4.2 to 9.5%. The results indicated that the developed method could be a practical approach for the determination of paraben residues in water and vinegar samples.
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A solid phase microextraction fiber coated with graphene-poly(ethylene glycol) composite for the extraction of volatile aromatic compounds from water samples.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted graphene (PEG-g-G) was prepared and used as the solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating for the extraction of seven volatile aromatic compounds (VACs) from water samples followed by the determination with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The PEG-g-G coating was characterized by both the thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results verified that the PEG was successfully grafted onto the surface of graphene and the coating had a highly porous structure. Several important experimental parameters that could influence the SPME efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection were in the range from 1.0 to 6.0 ng L(-1). The relative standard deviations for intraday and interday variations were in the range of 1.8-5.8% and 5.1-8.3%, and for fiber-to-fiber variations, were between 6.5 and 11.9%, respectively. The results indicated that the PEG-g-G fiber had the advantages of high extraction efficiency and good thermal stability and durability. It can be reused more than 200 times without a significant loss of extraction efficiency. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of seven VACs in tap, river and mineral water samples.
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Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling High Calcium Response in Arabidopsis thaliana.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Natural variation for primary root growth response to high Ca stress in Arabidopsis thaliana was studied by screening a series of accessions (ecotypes) under high Calcium (40 mM CaCl2 ) conditions. The genetic basis of this variation was further investigated by QTL analysis using recombinant inbred lines from Landsberg erecta (Ler)×Cape Verde Islands (Cvi) cross. Four QTLs were identified in chromosome 1, 2 and 5,and named response to high Calcium (RHCA) 1-4. The three QTLs (RHCA1, RHCA2 and RHCA4) were further confirmed by analysis of near isogenic lines harboring Cvi introgression fragments in Ler background. Real-time PCR analysis showed that several genes associated with high Ca response including SMT1 and XHT25 have changed expression pattern between Ler and near isogenic lines. These results were useful for detecting molecular mechanisms of plants for high Ca adaption.
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Overendocytosis of gold nanoparticles increases autophagy and apoptosis in hypoxic human renal proximal tubular cells.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can potentially be used in biomedical fields ranging from therapeutics to diagnostics, and their use will result in increased human exposure. Many studies have demonstrated that GNPs can be deposited in the kidneys, particularly in renal tubular epithelial cells. Chronic hypoxic is inevitable in chronic kidney diseases, and it results in renal tubular epithelial cells that are susceptible to different types of injuries. However, the understanding of the interactions between GNPs and hypoxic renal tubular epithelial cells is still rudimentary. In the present study, we characterized the cytotoxic effects of GNPs in hypoxic renal tubular epithelial cells.
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Temporally and spatially constrained ICA of fMRI data analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Constrained independent component analysis (CICA) is capable of eliminating the order ambiguity that is found in the standard ICA and extracting the desired independent components by incorporating prior information into the ICA contrast function. However, the current CICA method produces constraints that are based on only one type of prior information (temporal/spatial), which may increase the dependency of CICA on the accuracy of the prior information. To improve the robustness of CICA and to reduce the impact of the accuracy of prior information on CICA, we proposed a temporally and spatially constrained ICA (TSCICA) method that incorporated two types of prior information, both temporal and spatial, as constraints in the ICA. The proposed approach was tested using simulated fMRI data and was applied to a real fMRI experiment using 13 subjects who performed a movement task. Additionally, the performance of TSCICA was compared with the ICA method, the temporally CICA (TCICA) method and the spatially CICA (SCICA) method. The results from the simulation and from the real fMRI data demonstrated that TSCICA outperformed TCICA, SCICA and ICA in terms of robustness to noise. Moreover, the TSCICA method displayed better robustness to prior temporal/spatial information than the TCICA/SCICA method.
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Load-insensitive temperature sensor based on azobenzene-chloroform-solution-filled microstructured optical fiber.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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A solid-core microstructured optical fiber is infiltrated with the Dispersed Yellow 7 and chloroform mixture solution, resulting in the appearance of several transmission dips with different temperature and axial load responses. The temperature- and load-dependent spectral characteristics of these dips have been investigated and the experimental results indicate that they are pretty temperature-sensitive, but insensitive to the variation of applied axial load. Such a compact fiber-optic device with electric perturbation immunity could be employed for load-insensitive temperature sensing with high sensitivity.
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Simultaneous measurement of curvature and strain based on fiber Bragg grating in two-dimensional waveguide array fiber.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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We report on the fabrication of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with multiple resonances in a two-dimensional waveguide array microstructured optical fiber containing 91 cores. Theoretical investigation reveals that these resonances originate from the identical and nonidentical mode couplings between forward-propagating and backward-propagating LP0m-like (m=1, 2, 3; LP refers to linearly polarized) supermodes. Since both the central wavelength and minimum transmission of these resonant dips respond differently to curvature and axial strain, this FBG can be applied in the simultaneous measurement of curvature and axial strain.
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[Clinical research on children mental retardation treated with acupuncture].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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To observe the impacts of acupuncture on intelligent structure, social adaptability and fMRI brain function in children mental retardation (MR).
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[Population trends and behavioral observations of wintering common cranes (Grus grus) in Yancheng Nature Reserve].
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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To understand the population status and behavioural features of wintering common cranes in the Yancheng Nature Reserve, two transects were established and population trends were monitored every month over five recent winters from 2008 to 2013. Wintering behaviours were also observed in order to explore the possible effects of family size and age on time budgets. Results indicated that the populations were stable with a range of 303 to 707 individuals. Negative effects of coastal developments were not found on the wintering population of common cranes, which might be related to their diets and preference for artificial wetland habitats. We found a significant effect of age on time budgets, with juveniles spending more time feeding and less time alerting, which might be related to the needs of body development and skill learning. Family size did not affect the time budgets of the cranes, which indicated that adults did not increase vigilance investment even when raising a larger family.
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Risk factor analysis of calcification in aortic and mitral valves in maintenance peritoneal dialysis patients.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate potential risk factors for calcification in aortic and mitral valves in maintenance peritoneal dialysis (MPD) patients. Methods: We enrolled MPD patients who had undergone over 18 months of dialysis in our dialysis center, examined their cardiac valve calcification status by echocardiography, and recorded their biochemical data and dialysis-related indicators. These results were compared by logistic regression analyses to identify the risk factors associated with calcification in aortic and mitral valves. Results: Among the 117 enrolled MPD patients, 41 exhibited calcification in aortic or mitral valves, including 38 with aortic valve calcification (AVC) and 17 with mitral valve calcification (MVC); 14 of them had calcification in both aortic and mitral valves. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age (OR=1.965, p=0.01), diabetes history (OR=4.693, p=0.029), calcium-phosphorus product (OR=2.373, p=0.001) and prealbumin (OR=0.908, p=0.012) were independently related to AVC, whereas age (OR=3.179, p=0.023), calcium-phosphorus product (OR=6.512, p=0.001), prealbumin (OR=0.885, p=0.033), high-density lipoprotein (OR=19.540, p=0.011) and diabetes history (OR=6.948, p=0.038) were independently related to MVC. Conclusions The incidence of cardiac valve calcification in MPD patients is high, and the incidence of AVC is higher than MVC. Age, diabetes history, calcium-phosphorus product and hypo-prealbuminemia are independent risk factors for AVC, whereas age, calcium-phosphorus product and hypo-prealbuminemia are independent risk factors for MVC. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group f polymorphisms influence risk of glioma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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We conducted an exploratory investigation of whether variation in six common SNPs of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XPF) is associated with risk of glioma in a Chinese population. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 207 glioma cases and 236 cancer-free controls by a 384-well plate format on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform (Sequenom, San Diego, USA). The rs1800067 G and rs2276466 G allele frequencies were significantly higher in the glioma group than controls. Individuals with the rs1800067 GG genotype were at greater risk of glioma when compared with the A/A genotype in the codominant model, with an OR (95% CI) of 2.63 (1.04-7.25). The rs2276466 polymorphism was significantly associated with moderate increased risk of glioma in codominant and dominant models, with ORs (95% CI) of 1.90 (1.05-3.44) and 1.55 (1.07-2.47), respectively. The combination genotype of rs1800067 G and rs2276466 G alleles was associated with a reduced risk of glioma (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.19-0.98). These findings indicate that genetic variants of the XPF gene have critical functions in the development of glioma.
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Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatographic Determination of Triazine Herbicides in Water Samples.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with online sweeping preconcentration in micellar electrokinetic chromatography was developed for the simultaneous determination of five triazine herbicides (atrazine, simazine, propazine, prometon and simetryn) in water samples. Several experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies such as the type and volume of both the extraction and dispersive solvents, the addition of salt to sample solution, the extraction time and the pH of the sample solution were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the linearity of the method was good in the range from 0.33 to 20 ng mL(-1) for simazine, propazine, atrazine and simetryn, and from 0.17 to 20 ng mL(-1) for prometon, respectively. The sensitivity enrichment factors were in the range from 1750 to 2100, depending on the compound. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) ranged from 0.05 to 0.10 ng mL(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the five triazines in river, ground and well waters.
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Pontibacter soli sp. nov., isolated from the soil of a Populus rhizosphere in Xinjiang, China.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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A Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and pink-pigmented bacterial strain, designated strain HYL7-26(T), was isolated from a soil in the Desert Park of Huyang forest located in Xinjiang, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain HYL7-26(T) belongs to the genus Pontibacter in the family Cytophagaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain HYL7-26(T) and type strains of Pontibacter species ranged from 93.2 to 96.0 %. Strain HYL7-26(T) was found to contain iso-C15:0 (15.9 %), iso-C17:0 3-OH (9.5 %) and summed feature 4 (comprising anteiso-C17:1 B and/or iso-C17:1 I, 21.0 %, as defined by the MIDI system) as the major cellular fatty acids. The major respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7 and the DNA G+C content was determined to be 43.8 mol%. sym-Homospermidine was the major polyamine observed in the cells. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain HYL7-26(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pontibacter, for which the name Pontibacter soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HYL7-26(T) (=CCTCC AB 206240(T) = NRRL B-59490(T)).
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Determination of thioglycolic acid in cosmetics by capillary electrophoresis.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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A new and simple method for the accurate determination of thioglycolic acid (TGA) in cosmetics was developed using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection at 236nm. The CE separation was performed on an uncoated fused silica capillary with a separation buffer solution containing 300mmolL(-1) tri-sodium phosphate and 0.5mmolL(-1) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide at a voltage of -5kV. Both the intra- and inter-day precisions of the method were 1.4%. The calibration curve between the corrected peak areas and the concentrations of the TGA was linear within the concentration range of 0.006-1.0mgmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.002mgmL(-1) (S/N=3) and 0.006mgmL(-1) (S/N=10), respectively. The average recoveries at the spiked levels of 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500mgmL(-1) were 96.9%, 102.3% and 94.0% with the relative standard derivations of 2.1%, 3.9% and 2.2%, respectively. The method was cross-validated by both high performance liquid chromatographic and ion chromatographic method. Eighty-five commercial depilatory creams and hair-treatment products were analyzed with satisfactory results.
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The use of silica-coated magnetic graphene microspheres as the adsorbent for the extraction of pyrethroid pesticides from orange and lettuce samples followed by GC-MS analysis.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Graphene-grafted ferroferric oxide microspheres were used as the adsorbent to extract some pyrethroid pesticides (bifenthrin, ?-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and deltamethrin) from orange and lettuce samples prior to their determination by GC-MS. The main variables that could affect the extraction, including the amount of the adsorbent, pH of the sample solution, extraction time, concentration of salt, and desorption conditions, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a linear response was obtained in the concentration range of 0.3-100.0 ng/g for the analytes with the coefficients of determination ranging from 0.9877 to 0.9925. The LODs for the pyrethroids ranged from 0.01 to 0.02 ng/g. The method provided a good repeatability with RSDs < 10.6%. The recoveries for the six pyrethroid pesticides were in the range from 90.0 to 103.7%. The method was applied to the determination of the pesticides in orange and lettuce samples with a satisfactory result.
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Capsaicin induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells through AMPK-dependent and AMPK-independent signaling pathways.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Recent studies have focused on the anti-tumor activity of capsaicin. However, the potential effects of capsaicin in osteosarcoma cells and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the current study, we observed that capsaicin-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in cultured osteosarcoma cells (U2OS and MG63), which were associated with a significant AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. AMPK inhibition by compound C or RNA interference suppressed capsaicin-induced cytotoxicity, while AMPK activators (AICAR and A769662) promoted osteosarcoma cell death. For the mechanism study, we found that AMPK activation was required for capsaicin-induced mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) inhibition, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) downregulation and Bax upregulation in MG63 cells. Capsaicin administration induced p53 activation, mitochondrial translocation and Bcl-2 killer association, such effects were dependent on AMPK activation. Interestingly, we observed a significant pro-apoptotic c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases activation by capsaicin in MG63 cells, which appeared to be AMPK independent. In conclusion, capsaicin possessed strong efficacy against human osteosarcoma cells. Molecular studies revealed that capsaicin activated AMPK-dependent and AMPK-independent signalings to mediate cell apoptosis. The results of this study should have significant translational relevance in managing this deadly malignancy.
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Association between polymorphism of the G-protein ?3 subunit C825T and essential hypertension: an updated meta-analysis involving 36,802 subjects.
Biol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Purpose: The G-protein ?3-subunit gene C825T polymorphism (GNB3-C825T) has been reported to be associated with essential hypertension (EH), but results from previous studies are conflicting. The present study aimed at investigating the association between this polymorphism and risk of EH using a meta-analysis on the published studies. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Embase, CBM (China Biological Medicine Database), Wanfang and VIP databases were searched to identify eligible studies published in English and Chinese before March 2013. Data were extracted using standardized methods. The association was assessed by the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Beggs test was used to measure publication bias. Results: A total of 40 case-control studies containing 16,518 EH patients and 20,284 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, a significant association was found between GNB3 C825T polymorphism and risk of EH when all studies were pooled with a random-effects model for T versus C (OR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.19). In the subgroup analysis, the same association was found in overall Caucasian (T versus C, OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.08-1.24) and Chinese populations (TT versus CC, OR=1.23, 95% CI 1.06-1.57). No associations were detected between GNB3-C825T and the risk of EH overall in Asian and Japanese people. Conclusions: Meta-analysis results suggest that the GNB3-C825T polymorphism is associated with risk of EH in the overall population, the Caucasians and the Chinese. The effect of the variants on the expression levels and the possible functional role of the variants in EH should be addressed in further studies.
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Intranasal pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate decreases brain inflammatory mediators and provides neuroprotection after brain hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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Brain injury due to birth asphyxia is the major cause of death and long-term disabilities in newborns. We determined whether intranasal pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) could provide neuroprotection in neonatal rats after brain hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Seven-day old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to brain HI. They were then treated with intranasal PDTC. Neurological outcomes were evaluated 7 or 30 days after the brain HI. Brain tissues were harvested 6 or 24 h after the brain HI for biochemical analysis. Here, PDTC dose-dependently reduced brain HI-induced brain tissue loss with an effective dose (ED)50 at 27 mg/kg. PDTC needed to be applied within 45 min after the brain HI for this neuroprotection. This treatment reduced brain tissue loss and improved neurological and cognitive functions assessed 30 days after the HI. PDTC attenuated brain HI-induced lipid oxidative stress, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and various inflammatory mediators in the brain tissues. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase after brain HI reduced brain tissue loss. Our results suggest that intranasal PDTC provides neuroprotection possibly via reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Intranasal PDTC may have a potential to provide neuroprotection to human neonates after birth asphyxia.
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Hypermethylation and Clinicopathological Significance of RASAL1 Gene in Gastric Cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Background: Recent studies have suggested that expression of the RAS protein activator like-1 gene (RASAL1) is decreased in gastric carcinoma tissues and cell lines, indicated a role in tumorigenesis and development of gastric cancer. Reduced expression of RASAL1 could result in aberrant increase of activity of RAS signaling pathways in cancer cells. However, the exact mechanism which induces down-regulation of the RASAL1 gene remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the methylation status and regulation of RASAL1 in gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: Using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), the methylation status of CpG islands in the RASAL1 promoter in gastric cancers and paired adjacent non-cancerous tissues from 40 patients was assessed and its clinicopathological significance was analyzed. The methylation status of RASAL1 in gastric cancer lines MKN-28, SGC-790l, BGC-823, as well as in normal gastric epithelial cell line GES-l was also determined after treatment with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2-doexycytidine (5-Aza-CdR). RAS activity (GAS-GTP) was assessed through a pull-down method, while protein levels of ERK1/2, a downstream molecule of RAS signaling pathways, were determined by Western blotting. Results: The frequencies of RASAL1 promoter methylation in gastric cancer and paired adjacent non-cancerous tissues were 70% (28/40) and 30% (12/40) respectively (P<0.05). There were significantly correlations between RASAL1 promoter methylation with tumor differentiation, tumor size, invasive depth and lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric cancer (all P<0.05), but no correlation was found for age or gender. Promoter hypermethylation of the RASAL1 gene was detected in MKN-28, SGC-790l and BGC-823 cancer cells, but not in the normal gastric epithelial cell line GES-1. Elevated expression of the RASAL1 protein, a decreased RAS-GTP and p-ERK1/2 protein were detected in three gastric cancer cell lines after treatment with 5-Aza-CdR. Conclusions: Aberrant hypermethylation of the RASAL1 gene promoter frequently occurs in gastric cancer tissues and cells. In addition, the demethylating agent 5-Aza-CdR can reverse the hypermethylation of RASAL1 gene and up-regulate the expression of RASAL1 significantly in gastric cancer cells in vivo. Our study suggests that RASAL1 promoter methylation may have a certain relationship with the reduced RASAL1 expression in gastric cancer.
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IDH1 mutation is associated with improved overall survival in patients with glioblastoma: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Previous studies proposed that isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation was associated with improved survival in patients with glioblastoma, but those studies reported varying estimates and yielded inconclusive results. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of IDH1 mutation on the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma by performing a meta-analysis. Pubmed and Embase databases were searched for eligible studies. Studies reporting overall survival by IDH1 mutation in patients with glioblastoma were considered potentially eligible for the meta-analysis. For the quantitative aggregation of the survival results, the IDH mutation effect was measured by the pooled hazard ratio (HR) with its 95 % confidence interval (95%CI). Nine studies with a total of 1,669 patients with glioblastoma were finally included into this meta-analysis. Overall, the IDH1 mutation was associated with improved survival in patients with glioblastoma (random effects model HR?=?0.45, 95%CI 0.29-0.69, P?
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