Cancers associated with immunosuppression and infections have long been recognized as a major complication of HIV/AIDS. More recently, persons living with HIV are increasingly diagnosed with a wider spectrum of HIV-associated malignancies (HIVAM) as they live longer on combination antiretroviral therapy. This has spurred research to characterize the epidemiology and determine the optimal management of HIVAM with a focus on low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Given background coinfections, environmental exposures, host genetic profiles, antiretroviral therapy usage, and varying capacities for early diagnosis and treatment, one can expect the biology of cancers in HIV-infected persons in LMICs to have a significant impact on chronic HIV care, as is now the case in high-income countries. Thus, new strategies must be developed to effectively prevent, diagnose, and treat HIVAM in LMICs; provide physical/clinical infrastructures; train the cancer and HIV workforce; and expand research capacity-particularly given the challenges posed by the limitations on available transportation and financial resources and the population's general rural concentration. Opportunities exist to extend resources supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria to improve the health-care infrastructure and train the personnel required to prevent and manage cancers in persons living with HIV. These HIV chronic care infrastructures could also serve cancer patients regardless of their HIV status, facilitating long-term care and treatment for persons who do not live near cancer centers, so that they receive the same degree of care as those receiving chronic HIV care today.
Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) replication in the oropharynx may play an important role in HHV-8 transmission and contribute to the development of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in some individuals. Studies in the United States and Europe report high rates of HHV-8 DNA detection in saliva of HHV-8 infected men, but little is known about the natural history of HHV-8 among persons in sub-Saharan Africa, where prevalence of HHV-8 infection and KS is greatest. To address this gap, this study evaluated oral HHV-8 replication in a cohort of 40 HHV-8 seropositive Kenyan women. Study clinicians collected daily oral swabs from participants for up to 30 consecutive days, and swab samples were tested for HHV-8 DNA using quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction. HHV-8 was detected at least once in 27 (68%) participants, and the overall shedding rate was 23%. On days with HHV-8 detection, mean HHV-8 quantity was 4.5?log10 ?copies/ml. Among HIV-infected women, CD4 count ?500?cells/mm(3) versus <500?cells/mm(3) was associated with higher HHV-8 copy number (4.8?log10 ?copies/ml vs. 3.4?log10 ?copies/ml; coef 1.2 [95% CI, 0.5-1.9]; P?=?0.001) and a higher HHV-8 shedding rate (49% vs.12%; RR, 4.2 [95% CI, 0.8-21.4]; P?=?0.08). No other factors were associated with HHV-8 shedding rate or copy number. The study demonstrates high rates and quantity of HHV-8 in the oropharynx of HHV-8 seropositive African women. These findings support the observation that oral replication is an essential feature of HHV-8 infection, with likely implications for HHV-8 transmission and KS pathogenesis.
HIV infection is associated with cancer risk. This relationship has resulted in a growing cancer burden, especially in resource-limited countries where HIV is highly prevalent. Little is known, however, about how HIV affects cancer survival in these settings. We therefore investigated the role of HIV in cancer survival in Uganda.
Patients with newly acquired genital herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection have virus frequently detected at the genital mucosa. Rates of genital shedding initially decrease over time after infection, but data on long-term viral shedding are lacking.
The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has increased dramatically among women in sub-Saharan Africa since the onset of the HIV pandemic, but data on KS disease in women are limited. To identify gender-related differences in KS presentation and outcomes, we evaluated the clinical manifestations and response in men and women with AIDS-associated KS in Uganda.
Syphilis incidence has increased dramatically in the United States since 2000, occurring primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM) and disproportionately affecting those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The continued increases in syphilis rates among MSM signals the need for enhanced prevention methods. We undertook a study to examine the rate of repeat syphilis infection among MSM in San Francisco and to identify risk factors associated with syphilis reinfection that may inform additional prevention strategies.
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