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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Coronary lumen and plaque segmentation from CTA using higher-order shape prior.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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We propose a novel segmentation method based on multi-label graph cuts utilizing higher-order potentials to impose shape priors. Each higher-order potential is defined with respect to a candidate shape, and takes a low value if and only if most of the voxels inside the shape are foreground and most of those outside are background. We apply this technique to coronary lumen and plaque segmentation in CT angiography, exploiting the prior knowledge that the vessel walls tend to be tubular, whereas calcified plaques are more likely globular. We use the Hessian analysis to detect the candidate shapes and introduce corresponding higher-order terms into the energy. Since each higher-order term has any effect only when its highly specific condition is met, we can add many of them at possible locations and sizes without severe side effects. We show the effectiveness of the method by testing it on the standardized evaluation framework presented at MICCAI segmentation challenge 2012. The method achieved values comparable to the best in each of the sensitivity and positive predictive value, placing it at the top in average rank.
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5-HT3a Receptors Modulate Hippocampal Gamma Oscillations by Regulating Synchrony of Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Gamma-frequency oscillatory activity plays an important role in information integration across brain areas. Disruption in gamma oscillations is implicated in cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders, and 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) are suggested as therapeutic targets for cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. Using a 5-HT3aR-EGFP transgenic mouse line and inducing gamma oscillations by carbachol in hippocampal slices, we show that activation of 5-HT3aRs, which are exclusively expressed in cholecystokinin (CCK)-containing interneurons, selectively suppressed and desynchronized firings in these interneurons by enhancing spike-frequency accommodation in a small conductance potassium (SK)-channel-dependent manner. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons therefore received diminished inhibitory input leading to increased but desynchronized firings of PV cells. As a consequence, the firing of pyramidal neurons was desynchronized and gamma oscillations were impaired. These effects were independent of 5-HT3aR-mediated CCK release. Our results therefore revealed an important role of 5-HT3aRs in gamma oscillations and identified a novel crosstalk among different types of interneurons for regulation of network oscillations. The functional link between 5-HT3aR and gamma oscillations may have implications for understanding the cognitive impairments in psychiatric disorders.
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Synthesis and Anti-HCV Activity of 4-Hydroxyamino ?-Pyranone Carboxamide Analogues.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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High genetic variability in hepatitis C virus (HCV), emergence of drug resistant viruses and side effects demand the requirement for development of new scaffolds to show an alternate mechanism. Herein, we report discovery of new scaffold I based on 4-hydroxyamino ?-pyranone carboxamide as promising anti-HCV agents. A comprehensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) was explored with several newly synthesized compounds. In all promising compounds (17-19, 21-22, 24-25, and 49) with EC50 ranging 0.15 to 0.40 ?M, the aryl group at C-6 position of ?-pyranone were unsubstituted. In particular, 25 demonstrated potential anti-HCV activity with EC50 of 0.18 ?M in cell based HCV replicon system with lower cytotoxicity (CC50 > 20 ?M) and provided a new scaffold for anti-HCV drug development. Further investigations, including biochemical characterization, are yet to be performed to elucidate its possible mode of action.
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The effect of pharmacological PI3K? inhibitor on eotaxin-induced human eosinophil functions.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation caused by activation of immune cells including Th2 lymphocytes and eosinophils. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) ? deficient asthmatic mice did not develop lung eosinophilia, although the detailed mechanisms are not well known. A CC chemokine eotaxin (CCL11) plays a prominent role in developing eosinophilic inflammation through CCR3. In this study, we tested the roles of PI3K? in eotaxin-induced eosinophil functions using a pharmacological inhibitor.
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Adiponectin attenuates human eosinophil adhesion and chemotaxis: implications in allergic inflammation.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Growing evidence has shown an association between obesity and asthma. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, is known to have anti-inflammatory effects with reduced concentrations in obese subjects. Recent findings raised the intriguing possibility that adiponectin might play a role in allergic inflammation, although the mechanistic basis for their relationship remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adiponectin might affect functions of eosinophils, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma.
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Gender difference in allergic airway remodelling and immunoglobulin production in mouse model of asthma.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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Epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of adult asthma and severe asthma is higher in women. It has also been reported that female mice are more susceptible than males to the development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The influence of gender difference in the pathogenesis of severe asthma, especially airway remodelling in an animal model, has been studied rarely. We investigated gender difference in the development of airway remodelling using a long-term antigen-challenged mouse asthma model.
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Lung metastasis from perineal leiomyosarcoma: a case report and a review of the Japanese literature.
Case Rep Med
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Pulmonary metastasis from leiomyosarcoma is rare and its clinical management is challenging. A single lung metastasis from a perineal leiomyosarcoma occurred in a 79-year-old woman. Five months after resection of the lung metastasis, a new metastatic tumor developed in the contralateral lung. Since the patient did not desire to receive hospitalized treatment, TS-1 (an oral agent consisting of a combination of tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium) therapy was started on an outpatient basis. The lung metastasis has been successfully controlled for at least 17 months with excellent tolerability. The clinical features and the treatment of this case are discussed.
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Detection of Mycobacterium abscessus from blood cultures during treatment of interstitial pneumonia: a case study.
Rinsho Byori
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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A 76-year-old male diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia in December 2002 was treated with a steroid in a nearby hospital. Exacerbation of infectious pneumonitis and interstitial pneumonia required complementary inpatient treatment in August 2007. Although polymerase chain reaction examination of expectorated sputa revealed the absence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium, and M. intracellulare on admission, nontuberculous M. abscessus was detected in the routine blood cultures. Taken together with clinical findings, M. abscessus was most likely the primary causative organism. Diagnosis of mycobaterium-induced septicemia generally involves the use of mycobacterium-designated bottles, MGIT method, and Ogawa medium; however, we used microbe cultures with routine blood-culture bottles in the present case. Of the 24 mycobacterium-induced septicemia cases reported in the past 10 years, only eight cases were detected from routine blood-culture bottles; they were all rapidly growing bacteria. Mycobacteria other than the rapidly growing mycobacteria display delayed culture proliferation, therefore it is possible that non-detected microbes were probably present in the patients despite the fact that they were suffering from septicemia. In cases suspected to have severe infections, particularly those with a depressed immunodefense system, blood-culture testing for mycobacteria would be highly helpful for diagnosis.
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RNA-binding protein Khd1 and Ccr4 deadenylase play overlapping roles in the cell wall integrity pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA-binding protein Khd1/Hek2 associates with hundreds of potential mRNA targets preferentially, including the mRNAs encoding proteins localized to the cell wall and plasma membrane. We have previously revealed that Khd1 positively regulates expression of MTL1 mRNA encoding a membrane sensor in the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. However, a khd1? mutation has no detectable phenotype on cell wall synthesis. Here we show that the khd1? mutation causes a severe cell lysis when combined with the deletion of the CCR4 gene encoding a cytoplasmic deadenylase. We identified the ROM2 mRNA, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho1, as a target for Khd1 and Ccr4. The ROM2 mRNA level was decreased in the khd1? ccr4? mutant, and ROM2 overexpression suppressed the cell lysis of the khd1? ccr4? mutant. We also found that Ccr4 negatively regulates expression of the LRG1 mRNA encoding a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Rho1. The LRG1 mRNA level was increased in the ccr4? and khd1? ccr4? mutants, and deletion of LRG1 suppressed the cell lysis of the khd1? ccr4? mutant. Our results presented here suggest that Khd1 and Ccr4 modulate a signal from Rho1 in the CWI pathway by regulating the expression of RhoGEF and RhoGAP.
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[Development of a microbiology data warehouse (Akita-ReNICS) for networking hospitals in a medical region].
Rinsho Byori
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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The active involvement of hospital laboratory in surveillance is crucial to the success of nosocomial infection control. The recent dramatic increase of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and their spread into the community suggest that the infection control strategy of independent medical institutions is insufficient. To share the clinical data and surveillance in our local medical region, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in Akita prefecture. This system, named Akita-ReNICS, is an easy-to-use information management system designed to compare, track, and report the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Participating laboratories routinely transfer their coded and formatted microbiology data to ReNICS server located at Akita University Hospital from their health care systems clinical computer applications over the internet. We established the system to automate the statistical processes, so that the participants can access the server to monitor graphical data in the manner they prefer, using their own computers browser. Furthermore, our system also provides the documents server, microbiology and antimicrobiotic database, and space for long-term storage of microbiological samples. Akita-ReNICS could be a next generation network for quality improvement of infection control.
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Thioredoxin in allergic inflammation.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Thioredoxin (TRX) is a redox-active protein that regulates reactive oxidative metabolism and plays a crucial role in the antioxidant system in regulating the reduction/oxidation balance by scavenging reactive oxygen species, which is implicated in the mechanism of asthma. As for the mechanisms by which TRX exerts its beneficial effects, some studies have shown that TRX suppresses allergic inflammation in animal models of asthma. Recently, we reported that TRX directly modulated the chemotaxis of eosinophils, which have been shown to play a pivotal role in the mechanism of allergic airway inflammation, in the absence of T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cytokines. Further, serum TRX levels in patients with asthma were significantly increased in patients with attacks compared with those in the asymptomatic period. This review focuses on TRX in allergic reactions and discusses the physiological role of TRX.
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Leptin has a priming effect on eotaxin-induced human eosinophil chemotaxis.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Tissue eosinophilia is one of the hallmarks of allergic diseases and Th2-type immune responses including asthma. Systemic inflammation caused by adipose tissue in obesity via production of adipokines such as leptin has been attracting attention recently as a contributor to exacerbation of allergic immune reactions. In this study, we examined whether leptin might affect eosinophil chemotactic responses.
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The opposing role of two prostaglandin D2 receptors, DP and CRTH2, in human eosinophil migration.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) regulates various immunological responses via two distinct PGD2 receptors, prostaglandin D receptor (DP), and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2). Recent studies have demonstrated that PGD2 induces the migration of eosinophils through CRTH2. Although human eosinophils express both DP and CRTH2, it is unclear whether the function of DP is involved in eosinophil migration.
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Selective suppression of plasticity in amygdala inputs from temporal association cortex by the external capsule.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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GABAergic neurons in the external capsule (EC) provide feedforward inhibition in the lateral amygdala (LA), but how EC affects synaptic transmission and plasticity in inputs from specific cortical areas remains unknown; this is because axonal fibers from different cortical areas are intermingled in the amygdala and cannot be activated selectively using conventional electrical stimulation. Here, we achieved selective activation of fibers from the temporal association cortex (TeA) or the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) by using channelrhodopsin-2. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the TeA-LA pathway, which runs through EC, was enabled by cutting connections between EC and LA or by blocking GABA(A) receptor-mediated transmission. In contrast, LTP in the ACC-LA pathway, which bypasses EC, was GABA(A) receptor independent. The EC transection shifted balance between inhibitory and excitatory responses in the TeA-LA pathway toward excitation, but had no effect on the ACC-LA pathway. Thus, EC provides pathway-specific suppression of amygdala plasticity.
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Effect of the hepatocyte growth factor on allergic inflammatory cells.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has multiple activities in a variety of tissues, and is known to prevent the onset and progression of various diseases, but the mechanisms by which HGF exert its beneficial effects remain to be elucidated, although many studies have shown that HGF exerts anti-inflammatory effects in multiple animal models of diseases of the liver, kidney, lung and other organs. Recently, we have reported that HGF also reduces allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma by ovalbumin. Furthermore, HGF directly modulates various functions of eosinophils, which have been shown to play a pivotal role in the development of allergic airway inflammation. HGF influences a number of cell types, and regulates various biological activities, including cytokine production, cell migration, proliferation and survival. This review focuses on the effect of HGF on various inflammatory cells, e.g. eosinophils and dendritic cells, in allergic reactions.
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The pathophysiological roles of PI3Ks and therapeutic potential of selective inhibitors in allergic inflammation.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are known to be involved in a variety of cellular responses such as cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and cell migration. Recently, PI3Ks have been associated with the pathogenesis of asthma because various immune cells regulate allergic responses. Among the three classes of PI3Ks, the roles of PI3K gamma and PI3K delta in allergic responses have attracted particular attention. In a previous report, allergic airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation and airway remodeling in an ovalbumin-induced asthma model were decreased in PI3K gamma-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. In addition, AHR and inflammation were attenuated by administration of a selective PI3K delta inhibitor in a murine model of asthma. These results indicate that PI3K gamma and PI3K delta may be new therapeutic targets for asthma. However, PI3K gamma and PI3K delta may differ in terms of the mechanism of regulation. In this review, we focus on the roles of PI3K gamma and PI3K delta in the pathogenesis of asthma and discuss the mechanistic differences between PI3K gamma and PI3K delta.
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[Akita University Graduate School of Medicine: status of clinical laboratory medicine education].
Rinsho Byori
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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Education in laboratory medicine is important. However, many medical students and doctors cannot understand this importance. This problem may be caused by the unclear character of laboratory medicine in research as well as hospital work, resulting in a lack of staff in the Department of Laboratory Medicine. One of the characters of laboratory medicine is its all-inclusive actions unrestrained by medical specialty. Thus, we tell medical students that the staff of laboratory medicine are suitable members of the infection control team (ICT) and nutrition support team (NST) in lectures. Moreover, we also teach allergy, immunology, infection, and sex-specific medicine, which are some subjects the topics of research. Many students in Akita University recognize that the staff of the Department of Laboratory Medicine are specialists of infection and allergy. On the other hand, young doctors can also receive postgraduate clinical training and conduct research not restricted to allergy and infection. We have a policy whereby the Department of Laboratory Medicine always opens its door widely to everyone including students and doctors. Nine staff joined the Department of Laboratory Medicine of Akita University about ten years, and now, can fully provide students with medical education. To solve some problems regarding education in laboratory medicine, we should promote our roles in medical education as well as in hospitals, and increase the number of staff.
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[Evaluation of infection control activities in health care facilities in Akita Prefecture].
Rinsho Byori
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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Infection control is essential for health care facilities. Aiming at improving the activity for infection control, increasing number of health care facilities has settled infection control team (ICT) in this decade. However, the quality of infection control activity has not been evaluated.
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15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 induces IL-8 and GM-CSF in a human airway epithelial cell line (NCI-H292).
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a major prostanoid metabolized from prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), plays an important role in various biological processes including inflammatory responses. 15d-PGJ2 exerts its effects through two major receptors, chemoattractant receptor- homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). The 15d-PGJ2/PPARgamma system, in particular, regulates numerous biological processes including adipogenesis, apoptosis, and inflammation. Although our studies have shown that PGD2 (metabolic precursor of 15d-PGJ2) induces IL-8 and GM-CSF production, the role of 15d-PGJ2 (metabolite of PGD2) is unknown in human bronchial epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the function of 15d-PGJ2 on a human airway epithelial cell line: NCI-H292.
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Regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in human eosinophils by estradiol.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates not only adipogenesis but also immune reaction. We previously demonstrated that human eosinophils expressed functional PPARgamma, although the modulator of PPARgamma expression is less well understood. Because clinical studies have shown that the efficacy of PPARgamma agonists as insulin sensitizers is stronger in women than in men, we investigated whether sex hormones caused any changes in eosinophil PPARgamma expression levels.
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Divergence between thalamic and cortical inputs to lateral amygdala during juvenile-adult transition in mice.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Adolescence is considered a critical time of life for emotional development in humans. During this period the amygdala, which regulates emotions, undergoes structural reorganization. Auditory fear conditioning, a form of amygdala-dependent emotional learning, occurs differently in juvenile and adult rodents. Because this learning is mediated by plastic changes in the thalamic and cortical inputs to lateral amygdala (LA), we investigated changes in synaptic properties of these inputs during juvenile-to-adult transition.
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Allergic airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling do not develop in phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma-deficient mice.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation caused by inflammatory cells. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are known to play a prominent role in fundamental cellular responses of various inflammatory cells, including proliferation, differentiation, and cell migration. PI3Ks therefore are expected to have therapeutic potential for asthma. Although some investigations of the involvement between the pathogenesis of asthma and PI3K have been performed, it is unknown whether PI3Kgamma, a PI3K isoform, is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma.
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Selective gating of glutamatergic inputs to excitatory neurons of amygdala by presynaptic GABAb receptor.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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GABAb receptor (GABAbR)-mediated suppression of glutamate release is critical for limiting glutamatergic transmission across the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that, upon tetanic stimulation of afferents to lateral amygdala, presynaptic GABAbR-mediated inhibition only occurs in glutamatergic inputs to principle neurons (PNs), not to interneurons (INs), despite the presence of GABAbR in terminals to both types of neurons. The selectivity is caused by differential local GABA accumulation; it requires GABA reuptake and parallels distinct spatial distributions of presynaptic GABAbR in terminals to PNs and INs. Moreover, GABAbR-mediated suppression of theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) occurs only in the inputs to PNs, not to INs. Thus, target-cell-specific control of glutamate release by presynaptic GABAbR orchestrates the inhibitory dominance inside amygdala and might contribute to prevention of nonadaptive defensive behaviors.
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Activation of eosinophils by lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte-derived cytokines.
Allergol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2009
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Interactions between eosinophils and monocytes after lipopolysaccharide inhalation are yet to be investigated. The mechanism of eosinophil activation induced by lipopolysaccharide in the presence of monocytes was investigated.
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Enhanced generalization of auditory conditioned fear in juvenile mice.
Learn. Mem.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Increased emotionality is a characteristic of human adolescence, but its animal models are limited. Here we report that generalization of auditory conditioned fear between a conditional stimulus (CS+) and a novel auditory stimulus is stronger in 4-5-wk-old mice (juveniles) than in their 9-10-wk-old counterparts (adults), whereas nonassociative sensitization induced by foot shock (US) and the ability to discriminate CS+ from an explicitly unpaired stimulus (CS-) are not dependent on age. These results suggest that aversive associations are less precise in juvenile mice and can more easily produce conditional responses to stimuli different from CS+. Yet, through the explicit unpairing of CS- from US during training, juveniles are able to overcome this greater fear generalization and learn that CS- is not associated with foot shock.
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Target-specific suppression of GABA release from parvalbumin interneurons in the basolateral amygdala by dopamine.
J. Neurosci.
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Dopamine (DA) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) promotes fear learning by disinhibiting principal neurons (PNs) and enabling synaptic plasticity in their sensory inputs. While BLA interneurons (INs) are heterogeneous, it is unclear which interneuron subtypes decrease GABAergic input to PNs in the presence of DA. Here, using cell type-selective photostimulation by channelrhodopsin 2 in BLA slices from mouse brain, we examined the role of parvalbumin-positive INs (PV-INs), the major interneuronal subpopulation in BLA, in the disinhibitory effect of DA. We found that DA selectively suppressed GABAergic transmission from PV-INs to PNs by acting on presynaptic D(2) receptors, and this effect was mimicked by Rp-cAMP, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent signaling. In contrast, DA did not alter GABA release from PV-INs to INs. Furthermore, neither suppressing cAMP-dependent signaling by Rp-cAMP nor enhancing it by forskolin altered GABA release from PV-INs to BLA INs. Overall, DA disinhibits BLA, at least in part, by suppressing GABA release from PV-INs in the target cell-specific manner that results from differential control of this release by cAMP-dependent signaling.
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Involvement of NF-?B transcription factors in antimicrobial peptide gene induction in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
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We previously demonstrated that Tribolium castaneum antimicrobical peptide (AMP) genes can be classified to IMD-dependent group I, Toll-dependent group III and co-dependent group II genes besides non-inducible group IV. Here, we focused on NF-?B transcription factor genes, Dif1, Dif2 and Rel, and examined their functions in AMP gene induction as well as linkages to the Toll or IMD pathway. IMD-dependent group I and Toll-dependent group III genes were revealed to be Rel- and Dif-dependent respectively through knockdown experiments, indicating that the pathway specificity of NF-?B classes found in Drosophila is also conserved in T. castaneum. The Toll-Dif and IMD-Rel pathways of T. castaneum were activated concomitantly by single microbe species, which may represent a distinctive feature of its immune responses. In addition, Rel knockdown impaired host defense against two model bacterial pathogens. Finally, potential ?B motifs were searched in the regulatory regions of AMP genes, and relevance to respective NF-?B transcription factors was discussed.
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Obesity and eosinophilic inflammation: does leptin play a role.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
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It has been pointed out that obesity is a risk factor for, and is involved in the exacerbation of asthma. Mounting evidence about adipose tissue-derived proteins (adipokines) gave rise to the current understanding of obesity as a systemic inflammatory disorder. In this review, we summarized the involvement of leptin, focusing on eosinophil functions. Several studies have indicated that leptin can restrain eosinophil apoptosis, enhance migration, increase adhesion molecules and induce cytokine production. Since leptin also acts on a variety of immune cells related to allergic response, increased leptin in obese individuals potentially explains the mechanism by which obesity leads to an exacerbation of asthma. Further studies targeting adipokines will delineate the association between obesity and eosinophil-associated diseases.
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Docosahexaenoic acid exerts anti-inflammatory action on human eosinophils through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-independent mechanisms.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
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Despite the fact that previous studies have indicated the significant roles of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the immune system through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) and PPAR?, the biological functions and the mechanisms of action in eosinophils are poorly understood.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.