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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Fibroblasts probe substrate rigidity with filopodia extensions before occupying an area.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Rigidity sensing and durotaxis are thought to be important elements in wound healing, tissue formation, and cancer treatment. It has been challenging, however, to study the underlying mechanism due to difficulties in capturing cells during the transient response to a rigidity interface. We have addressed this problem by developing a model experimental system that confines cells to a micropatterned area with a rigidity border. The system consists of a rigid domain of one large adhesive island, adjacent to a soft domain of small adhesive islands grafted on a nonadhesive soft gel. This configuration allowed us to test rigidity sensing away from the cell body during probing and spreading. NIH 3T3 cells responded to the micropatterned rigidity border similarly to cells at a conventional rigidity border, by showing a strong preference for staying on the rigid side. Furthermore, cells used filopodia extensions to probe substrate rigidity at a distance in front of the leading edge and regulated their responses based on the strain of the intervening substrate. Soft substrates inhibited focal adhesion maturation and promoted cell retraction, whereas rigid substrates allowed stable adhesions and cell spreading. Myosin II was required for not only the generation of probing forces but also the retraction in response to soft substrates. We suggest that a myosin II-driven, filopodia-based probing mechanism ahead of the leading edge allows cells to migrate efficiently, by sensing physical characteristics before moving over a substrate to avoid backtracking.
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Assessment of the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART) among HIV-Infected Adults: a prospective cohort study in Yunnan Province, 2004-2010.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Our objective was to describe the virological and immunological responses of ART with attempt to identify the risk factors for treatment failure, and to examine rates and reasons for initial regimen modification in Yunnan Province. A total of 144 HIV-infected adults who initiated antiretroviral treatment between 2004 and 2006 of Yunnan province were recruited in this longitudinal study. The endpoints were virological failure, immunological failure, and initial regimen modification, according to World Health Organization criteria. Over the 6-year follow-up, 16(11.1%) patients demonstrated virological failure and 34 (23.6%) experienced immunological failure, for overall failure rates of 2.79 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 1.71-4.55) and 6.17 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 4.41-8.64), respectively. Male (p=0.007, HR=5.22, 95%CI of HR: 1.58-17.21) was a risk factor for immunological failure. 37.5% patients modified their initial regimen over the follow-up duration, and the most common reason for modification was adverse events. Our analysis of ART in Yunnan reveals excellent outcomes achieved over the past years. High rate of initial regimen modification should be taken seriously. Given the discordant immunological and virological responses emerged after ART initiation, viral load monitoring is urgently needed for evaluating the treatment outcomes in resource-limited settings comprehensively.
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Effect of single nucleotide polymorphism in thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor on the risk of diabetic macrovascular disease.
Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Hypofibrinolysis is commonly found in patients with diabetes mellitus and is associated with the increased risk for many diabetic complications. An important inhibitor of fibrinolysis, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), participates in hypofibrinolysis in diabetes mellitus and may be involved in diabetic macrovascular disease. The present study was designed to determine whether TAFI polymorphisms (505G/A and 1040C/T) and TAFI levels are correlated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and macrovascular diseases (MVDs). A total of 249 clinical samples were collected, including 102 healthy individuals (H group), 44 T2DM patients without MVD (T group) and 103 T2DM patients with MVD (M group). The 505G/A polymorphism was equally represented in the three groups. In contrast, analysis of the 1040C/T polymorphism revealed a statistically lower percentage of the T allele in the M group than in the H group (P?=?0.014). This difference was due to decreased T/T homozygotes in the M groups compared with the H group (P?=?0.029). The antigen TAFI level was 31.72?±?13.64% in the H group, 62.56?±?18.77% in the T group (P?
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Microtubules stabilize cell polarity by localizing rear signals.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Microtubules are known to play an important role in cell polarity; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Using cells migrating persistently on micropatterned strips, we found that depolymerization of microtubules caused cells to change from persistent to oscillatory migration. Mathematical modeling in the context of a local-excitation-global-inhibition control mechanism indicated that this mechanism can account for microtubule-dependent oscillation, assuming that microtubules remove inhibitory signals from the front after a delayed generation. Experiments further supported model predictions that the period of oscillation positively correlates with cell length and that oscillation may be induced by inhibiting retrograde motors. We suggest that microtubules are required not for the generation but for the maintenance of cell polarity, by mediating the global distribution of inhibitory signals. Disassembly of microtubules induces cell oscillation by allowing inhibitory signals to accumulate at the front, which stops frontal protrusion and allows the polarity to reverse.
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P(EO-co-LLA) functionalized Fe3O4@mSiO2 nanocomposites for thermo/pH responsive drug controlled release and hyperthermia.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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The Fe3O4@mSiO2 nanocarrier that consisted of a magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle core and a mesoporous silica (mSiO2) shell was synthesized. It shows a uniform sphere morphology about 65 nm in diameter. Considering the magnetic hyperthermia of Fe3O4 under an alternating magnetic field (AMF), a thermo-sensitive polymer, poly[(ethylene glycol)-co-(l-lactide)] (P(EO-co-LLA)), was used as "gatekeeper" coating outside Fe3O4@mSiO2 to regulate the drug release behavior. The design of the nanocarrier was expected to block off the pores at low temperature and to reopen them at high temperature reversibly. The obtained hybrid nanocomposites were capable of loading the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) and controlled drug release behavior trigged by the hyperthermia of Fe3O4 under AMF. Besides, the nanocarriers also show pH-sensitive drug release based on the slight differences between the tumor (weakly acid) and the normal tissue (weakly alkaline). What's more, the chemotherapy of DOX combined with magnetic hyperthermia can improve the cytotoxicity obviously. On the basis of the high stability and excellent controlled release performance, the multifunctional nanocarriers exhibit potential applications in targeted-control drug release and hyperthermia for cancer treatment.
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Prognostic value of circulating inflammatory factors in non-small cell lung cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Cancer Biomark
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Inflammation has been recognized as an important contributing factor in the development and progression of lung cancer. However, the relationship between the magnitude of inflammation and prognosis in patients with lung cancer remains unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between levels of circulating inflammatory factors and clinical survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC).
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Transcriptional coactivator CBP upregulates hTERT expression and tumor growth and predicts poor prognosis in human lung cancers.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Upregulated expression and activation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a hallmarker of lung tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism underlying the aberrant hTERT activity in lung cancer cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we found the transcriptional co-activator CBP as a new hTERT promoter-binding protein that regulated hTERT expression and tumor growth in lung adenocarcinoma cells using a biotin-streptavidin-bead pulldown technique. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay verified the immortalized cell and tumor cell-specific binding of CBP on hTERT promoter. Overexpression of exogenous CBP upregulated the expression of the hTERT promoter-driven luciferase and endogenous hTERT protein in lung cancer cells. Conversely, inhibition of CBP by CBP-specific siRNA or its chemical inhibitor repressed the expression of hTERT promoter-driven luciferase and endogenous hTERT protein as well as telomerase activity. Moreover, inhibition of CBP expression or activity also significantly reduced the proliferation of lung cancer cells in vitro and tumor growth in an xenograft mouse model in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays of lung cancers revealed a positive correlation between CBP and hTERT. Importantly, the patients with high CBP and hTERT expression had a significantly shorter overall survival. Furthermore, CBP was found to interact with and acetylate transactivator Sp1 in lung cancer cells. Inhibition of CBP by CBP-specific siRNA or its chemical inhibitor significantly inhibited Sp1 acetylation and its binding to the hTERT promoter. Collectively, our results indicate that CBP contributes to the upregulation of hTERT expression and tumor growth, and overexpression of CBP predicts poor prognosis in human lung cancers.
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Targeting the MYC and PI3K Pathways Eliminates Leukemia-Initiating Cells in T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Disease relapse remains the major clinical challenge in treating T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), particularly those with PTEN loss. We hypothesized that leukemia-initiating cells (LIC) are responsible for T-ALL development and treatment relapse. In this study, we used a genetically engineered mouse model of Pten(-/-) T-ALL with defined blast and LIC-enriched cell populations to demonstrate that LICs are responsible for therapeutic resistance. Unlike acute and chronic myelogenous leukemia, LICs in T-ALL were actively cycling, were distinct biologically, and responded differently to targeted therapies in comparison with their differentiated blast cell progeny. Notably, we found that T-ALL LICs could be eliminated by cotargeting the deregulated pathways driven by PI3K and Myc, which are altered commonly in human T-ALL and are associated with LIC formation. Our findings define critical events that may be targeted to eliminate LICs in T-ALL as a new strategy to treat the most aggressive relapsed forms of this disease. Cancer Res; 74(23); 1-12. ©2014 AACR.
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Mechanical exfoliation of track-etched two-dimensional layered materials for the fabrication of ultrathin nanopores.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Mechanical exfoliation of ion-track-etched two-dimensional layered materials yields nanometer-thin nanoporous sheets that can be suspended atop a silicon window to controllably fabricate single- or multi-pore nanofluidic devices.
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Juvenile hormone-receptor complex acts on mcm4 and mcm7 to promote polyploidy and vitellogenesis in the migratory locust.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Juvenile hormone (JH), a sesquiterpenoid produced by the corpora allata, coordinates insect growth, metamorphosis, and reproduction. While JH action for the repression of larval metamorphosis has been well studied, the molecular basis of JH in promoting adult reproduction has not been fully elucidated. Methoprene-tolerant (Met), the JH receptor, has been recently shown to mediate JH action during metamorphosis as well as in vitellogenesis, but again, the precise mechanism underlying the latter has been lacking. We have now demonstrated using Met RNAi to phenocopy a JH-deprived condition in migratory locusts, that JH stimulates DNA replication and increases ploidy in preparation for vitellogenesis. Mcm4 and Mcm7, two genes in the DNA replication pathway were expressed in the presence of JH and Met. Depletion of Mcm4 or Mcm7 inhibited de novo DNA synthesis and polyploidization, and resulted in the substantial reduction of vitellogenin mRNA levels as well as severely impaired oocyte maturation and ovarian growth. By using luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have shown that Met directly regulates the transcription of Mcm4 and Mcm7 by binding to upstream consensus sequences with E-box or E-box-like motifs. Our work suggests that the JH-receptor complex acts on Mcm4 and Mcm7 to regulate DNA replication and polyploidy for vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation.
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Global ablation of the mouse rab11a gene impairs early embryogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase secretion.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Rab11a has been conceived as a prominent regulatory component of the recycling endosome, which acts as a nexus in the endo- and exocytotic networks. The precise in vivo role of Rab11a in mouse embryonic development is unknown. We globally ablated Rab11a and examined the phenotypic and molecular outcomes in Rab11a(null) blastocysts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Using multiple trafficking assays and complementation analyses, we determined, among multiple important membrane-associated and soluble cargos, the critical contribution of Rab11a vesicular traffic to the secretion of multiple soluble MMPs. Rab11a(null) embryos were able to properly form normal blastocysts but died at peri-implantation stages. Our data suggest that Rab11a critically controls mouse blastocyst development and soluble matrix metalloproteinase secretion.
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Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index Predicts Prognosis of Patients after Curative Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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We developed a novel systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) based on lymphocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts and explored its prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Regulatory roles of KDR antisense oligonucleotide on the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell line PC-3.
J BUON
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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To explore the regulatory roles of antisense oligonucleotide (ASODN) of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2/ VEGFR2 (kinase insert domain-containing receptor, KDR) on the proliferation of PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line.
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Characterization of CaHsp70-1, a Pepper Heat-Shock Protein Gene in Response to Heat Stress and Some Regulation Exogenous Substances in Capsicum annuum L.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is sensitive to heat stress (HS). Heat shock proteins 70 (Hsp70s) play a crucial role in protecting plant cells against HS and control varies characters in different plants. However, CaHsp70-1 gene was not well characterized in pepper. In this study, CaHsp70-1 was cloned from the pepper thermotolerant line R9, which encoded a protein of 652 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 71.54 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.20. CaHsp70-1 belongs to the cytosolic Hsp70 subgroup, and best matched with tomato SlHsp70. CaHsp70-1 was highly induced in root, stem, leaf and flower in R9 with HS treatment (40 °C for 2 h). In both thermosensitive line B6 and thermotolerant line R9, CaHsp70-1 significantly increased after 0.5 h of HS (40 °C), and maintained in a higher level after 4 h HS. The expression of CaHsp70-1 induced by CaCl2, H2O2 and putrescine (Put) under HS were difference between B6 and R9 lines. The different expression patterns may be related to the differences in promoters of CaHsp70-1 from the two lines. These results suggest that CaHsp70-1 as a member of cytosolic Hsp70 subgroup, may be involved in HS defense response via a signal transduction pathway contained Ca2+, H2O2 and Put.
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The role of Sec3p in secretory vesicle targeting and exocyst complex assembly.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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During membrane trafficking, vesicular carriers are transported and tethered to their cognate acceptor compartments before soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE)-mediated membrane fusion. The exocyst complex was believed to target and tether post-Golgi secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis. However, no definitive experimental evidence is available to support this notion. We developed an ectopic targeting assay in yeast in which each of the eight exocyst subunits was expressed on the surface of mitochondria. We find that most of the exocyst subunits were able to recruit the other members of the complex there, and mistargeting of the exocyst led to secretion defects in cells. On the other hand, only the ectopically located Sec3p subunit is capable of recruiting secretory vesicles to mitochondria. Our assay also suggests that both cytosolic diffusion and cytoskeleton-based transport mediate the recruitment of exocyst subunits and secretory vesicles during exocytosis. In addition, the Rab GTPase Sec4p and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec2p regulate the assembly of the exocyst complex. Our study helps to establish the role of the exocyst subunits in tethering and allows the investigation of the mechanisms that regulate vesicle tethering during exocytosis.
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miRNA-30 Family Inhibition Protects Against Cardiac Ischemic Injury by Regulating Cystathionine-?-Lyase Expression.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Abstract Aims: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of death globally. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as a novel class of MI injury regulators. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signaling molecule that regulates cardiovascular function. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of the miR-30 family in protecting against MI injury by regulating H2S production. Results: The expression of miR-30 family was upregulated in the murine MI model as well as in the primary cardiomyocyte hypoxic model. However, the cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) expression was significantly decreased. The overexpression of miR-30 family decreased CSE expression, reduced H2S production, and then aggravated hypoxic cardiomyocyte injury. In contrast, silencing the whole miR-30 family can protect against hypoxic cell injury by elevating CSE and H2S level. Nonetheless, the protective effect was abolished by cotransfecting with CSE-siRNA. Systemic delivery of a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-miR-30 family inhibitor correspondingly increased CSE and H2S level, then reduced infarct size, decreased apoptotic cell number in the peri-infarct region, and improved cardiac function in response to MI. However, these cardioprotective effects were absent in CSE knockout mice. MiR-30b overexpression in vivo aggravated MI injury because of H2S reduction, and this could be rescued by S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC), which is a novel modulator of CSE, or further exacerbated by propargylglycine (PAG), which is a selective inhibitor of CSE. Innovation and Conclusion: Our findings reveal a novel molecular mechanism for endogenous H2S production in the heart at the miRNA level and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of miR-30 family inhibition for ischemic heart diseases by increasing H2S production. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
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Effect of segmentation algorithms on the performance of computerized detection of lung nodules in CT.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The purpose of this study is to reveal how the performance of lung nodule segmentation algorithm impacts the performance of lung nodule detection, and to provide guidelines for choosing an appropriate segmentation algorithm with appropriate parameters in a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme.
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Gamabufotalin, a bufadienolide compound from toad venom, suppresses COX-2 expression through targeting IKK?/NF-?B signaling pathway in lung cancer cells.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Gamabufotalin (CS-6), a major bufadienolide of Chansu, has been used for cancer therapy due to its desirable metabolic stability and less adverse effect. However, the underlying mechanism of CS-6 involved in anti-tumor activity remains poorly understood.
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Elevated PIVKA-II is associated with early recurrence and poor prognosis in BCLC 0-A hepatocellular carcinomas.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To investigate the prognostic value of serum PIVKA-II (prothrombin induced by the absence of vitamin K or antagonist-II) in BCLC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer) 0-A hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after curative resection.
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Identification and Molecular Characterization of a Chitin-Binding Protein from the Beet Webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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As the first crucial barrier in the midgut of insects, the peritrophic membrane (PM) plays an important role in preventing external invasion. PM proteins, as the major components of the PM, determine the structure and function of this membrane. A new PM protein, named LstiCBP, from the PM of Loxostege sticticalis larvae was identified using cDNA library screening. The full cDNA of LstiCBP is 2606 bp in length and contains a 2403 bp ORF that encodes an 808-amino acid preprotein with a 15-amino acid as signal peptide. The deduced protein sequence of the cDNA contains 8 cysteine-rich chitin-binding domains (CBDs). Recombinant LstiCBP was successfully expressed in BL21 cells using recombinant plasmid DNA and showed high chitin-binding activity. LstiCBP expression was detected in the midgut at both the transcriptional and translational levels; however, the biochemical and physiological functions of LstiCBP in L. sticticalis require further investigation.
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The effect of pump-2 laser on Autler-Townes splitting in photoelectron spectra of K2 molecule.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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We theoretically investigated Autler-Townes (AT) splitting in the photoelectron spectra of a four-level ladder K2 molecule driven by pump1-pump2-probe pulses by employing the time-dependent wave packet approach. The effect of pump-2 laser intensity and wavelength on AT splitting was studied for the first time. Triple splitting with asymmetric profiles arises because of the non-resonant excitation. The triple splitting transforms to double splitting when pump-2 detuning approaches ±1/2 times of pump-1 Rabi frequency. The splitting between two side band peaks in the triplet or doublet does not change with the pump-2 laser wavelength. The three peaks shift to a lower energy with a different shift as pump-2 wavelength increases. The magnitude of AT splitting increases with increasing pump-2 laser intensity. The asymptotic behavior of AT splitting with the pump-2 laser intensity are interesting at the threshold point of the near resonant region and far-off resonant region.
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Salvage Lymphadenectomy Versus Salvage Radiotherapy/Chemoradiotherapy for Recurrence in Cervical Lymph Node After Curative Resection of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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A consensus treatment strategy for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) that recurs after definitive esophagectomy has not been established. This study compared outcomes in ESCC patients who underwent salvage lymphadenectomy and those who underwent salvage radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy for recurrence in cervical lymph nodes.
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High-performance ionic diode membrane for salinity gradient power generation.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Salinity difference between seawater and river water is a sustainable energy resource that catches eyes of the public and the investors in the background of energy crisis. To capture this energy, interdisciplinary efforts from chemistry, materials science, environmental science, and nanotechnology have been made to create efficient and economically viable energy conversion methods and materials. Beyond conventional membrane-based processes, technological breakthroughs in harvesting salinity gradient power from natural waters are expected to emerge from the novel fluidic transport phenomena on the nanoscale. A major challenge toward real-world applications is to extrapolate existing single-channel devices to macroscopic materials. Here, we report a membrane-scale nanofluidic device with asymmetric structure, chemical composition, and surface charge polarity, termed ionic diode membrane (IDM), for harvesting electric power from salinity gradient. The IDM comprises heterojunctions between mesoporous carbon (pore size ?7 nm, negatively charged) and macroporous alumina (pore size ?80 nm, positively charged). The meso-/macroporous membrane rectifies the ionic current with distinctly high ratio of ca. 450 and keeps on rectifying in high-concentration electrolytes, even in saturated solution. The selective and rectified ion transport furthermore sheds light on salinity-gradient power generation. By mixing artificial seawater and river water through the IDM, substantially high power density of up to 3.46 W/m(2) is discovered, which largely outperforms some commercial ion-exchange membranes. A theoretical model based on coupled Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations is established to quantitatively explain the experimental observations and get insights into the underlying mechanism. The macroscopic and asymmetric nanofluidic structure anticipates wide potentials for sustainable power generation, water purification, and desalination.
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A mitochondria-targetable fluorescent probe for dual-channel NO imaging assisted by intracellular cysteine and glutathione.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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A mitochondria-specific fluorescent probe for NO (1) was synthesized by the direct conjugation of a pyronin dye with one of the amino groups of o-phenylenediamino (OPD). The probe could selectively detect NO over dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), ascorbic acid (AA), and methylglyoxal (MGO) as well as the reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) with the significant off-on response due to the production of a red-emission triazole 2. In the presence of cysteine/glutathione (Cys/GSH), 2 could be further transformed into a green-emission aminopyronin 4 and a red-emission thiopyronin 5, respectively. Assisted by intracellular Cys and GSH, the probe demonstrated its potential to monitor mitochondrial NO in a dual-channel mode.
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[The giant mucous cyst of frontoethmomaxillary sinus: one case report].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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One case of rare giant mucous cyst of nasal sinus that implicated frontal, ethmoid and maxillary sinus was in our hospital. The patient manifested mainly slowly developing swelling and pain of cheek, exophthalmos and visual impairment. The image studies indicated cyst of nasal sinus, including frontal, ethmoid, and maxillary sinuses. The clinical diagnosis was cyst of frontoethmomaxillary sinus.
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Hepatitis C virus infection in China: an emerging public health issue.
J. Viral Hepat.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Hepatitis C virus now represents a global viral pandemic and is the fourth most commonly reported infectious disease in China. Information on China's national HCV epidemic was limited to cross -sectional seroprevalence studies of special populations, and a national surveillance effort had been launched to inform prevention and control. We analysed novel data from two national databases: (i) China's national medical HCV case report system and (ii) the national disease sentinel surveillance system. Between 1997 and 2012, reporting incidence of medical cases for HCV infection rose from 0.7 to 15.0 cases per 100 000 with the largest burden of disease concentrated among individuals over 35 years of age, rural residents and those tested as part of routine screening. Between 2010 and 2012, disease sentinel surveillance identified the highest HCV seropositive rates among persons who use drugs and haemodialysis patients, with far lower but not negligible rates among sexually active population. The concentration of cases among older age groups is consistent with past studies of age-specific prevalence rates in Asia. Differences across regions and testing modes suggest diverse biological and social forces driving the spread of HCV in China. Surveillance data show ongoing transmission, particularly among persons who use drugs and persons undergoing invasive medical treatments, particularly haemodialysis. Improvements in case detection and data reporting systems will be critical for understanding current drivers of transmission and identifying key areas for prevention.
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Distribution and accumulation of hexachlorobutadiene in soils and terrestrial organisms from an agricultural area, East China.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is a potential persistent organic pollutant that has been found in abiotic environments and organisms. However, information on HCBD in soils and its accumulation in terrestrial food chains is scarce. This study investigated the accumulation of HCBD in soils, plants, and terrestrial fauna in a typical agricultural area in Eastern China, and drew comparisons with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The HCBD concentrations in soils were <0.02-3.1ng/g dry weight, which were similar to ?-endosulfan concentrations but much lower than the concentrations of some other OCPs. The HCBD soil-plant accumulation factors, 8.5-38.1, were similar to those of o,p'-DDT and higher than those of HCHs and p,p'-DDT, indicating that HCBD is strongly bioaccumulated by rice and vegetables. HCBD concentrations of 1.3-8.2ng/g lipid weight were found in herbivorous insects, earthworms, and Chinese toads. The biomagnification factor, the ratio between the lipid-normalized concentrations in the predator and the prey, was found to be 0.16-0.64 for different food chains of Chinese toads, so HCBD was found not to biomagnify, which is in contrast with OCPs. Further research into whether HCBD is biomagnified in high trophic level organisms or through the entire terrestrial food web is required.
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VEGF genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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This meta-analysis aimed to investigate a comprehensive and reliable conclusion on the correlations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene with the risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).
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Incidence and risk factors for AIDS-related mortality in HIV patients in China: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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To estimate the incidence and risk factors for mortality in HIV-1-infected patients in China.
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Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Risk Factor for Stanford's Type B Aortic Dissection.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been associated with aortic dissection (AD), but the magnitude of this association and its independence from confounders have not yet been established.
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Meta-analysis of diagnostic significance of sixty-four-row multi-section computed tomography angiography and three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography in patients with cerebral artery aneurysm.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Imaging methods are essential in evaluating cerebral artery aneurysms and they have evolved with recent technical advances. Sixty-four-row multi-section computed tomography (64-MSCT) angiography and three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography (3D-DSA) are two of the most popular methods. We sought to systematically explore and find out which one would be better in imaging cerebral artery aneurysm, and try to investigate the potential use and value of 64-MSCT angiography and 3D-DSA in cerebral artery aneurysm.
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Effects of silencing key genes in the capsanthin biosynthetic pathway on fruit color of detached pepper fruits.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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BackgroundThere are many varieties of carotenoids in pepper fruits. Capsanthin is a red carotenoid that gives mature pepper fruits their red color. The red color in pepper fruits is regulated mainly by the genes capsanthin/capsorubin synthase(Ccs), phytoene synthase(Psy), lycopene-ß-cyclase(Lcyb) and ß-carotene hydroxylase(Crtz). There has been very limited research work related to the development and change in the red color during fruit formation and when a certain gene or several genes are deleted. In this paper, we constructed viral vectors, using the tobacco rattle virus (TRV), to carry the target gene to infect detached pepper fruits, and observed the fruits¿ color change. We used real-time quantitative PCR to analyze the gene silencing efficiency. At the same time, HPLC was used to determine the content of capsanthin and carotenoids that are associated with capsanthin synthesis when key genes in the pepper fruits were silenced.ResultsThese genes (Ccs, Psy, Lcyb and Crtz) were individually silenced through virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology, and pepper fruits from red fruit cultivars showed an orange or yellow color. When several genes were silenced simultaneously, the fruit also did not show the normal red color. Gene expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR showed 70-80% efficiency of target gene silencing when using the VIGS method. HPLC analysis showed that the contents of carotenoids associated with capsanthin synthesis (e.g. ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin or zeaxanthin) were decreased in varying degrees when silencing a gene or several genes together, however, the content of capsanthin reduced significantly. The synthesis of capsanthin was influenced either directly or indirectly when any key gene was silenced. The influence of the target genes on color changes in pepper fruits was confirmed via the targeted silencing of them.ConclusionsVIGS was a good method to study the molecular mechanism of pepper fruit color formation. By using virus induced gene silencing technology, capsanthin synthesis genes in pepper fruits were silenced individually or simultaneously, and pepper fruit color changes were observed. This provides a platform to further explore the molecular mechanism of pepper fruit color formation.
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Development of antigen capture ELISA for the quantification of EIAV p26 protein.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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An antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) was established based on two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the quantification of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Two p26-specific monoclonal antibodies were developed in mice. The mAb 9H8 was coated in microtiter plates as the capture antibody; the other mAb, 1G11, was coupled to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and used as the detection antibody. The limit of detection for the EIAV p26 protein was 0.98 ng/ml, and the linearity range was 3.9-62.5 ng/ml. The sensitivity of p26 AC-ELISA for the detection of the virus (EIAV infectious clone, FDDVcmv3-8) was the same as that for the purified p26 protein. No cross-reaction with other equine viruses was observed by this method. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 8.3 and 10.3 % for testing p26 and FDDVcmv3-8, respectively. The AC-ELISA was also compared to Western blotting (WB) and reverse transcriptase (RT) assays, validating the sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability of this method. Both the AC-ELISA and RT assay showed good agreement, with a correlation coefficient of R (2)?=?0.9946. Sample analysis showed that this AC-ELISA is a useful tool for quantifying EIAV p26 in cell lysates and culture medium.
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[Development of a chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer for continuous measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl radical].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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A home-made chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) has been developed for continuous measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl radical. Based on the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization technique, an ionization source with orthogonal dual tube structure was adopted in the instrument, which minimized the interference between the reagent gas ionization and the titration reaction. A 63Ni radioactive source was fixed inside one of the orthogonal tubes to generate reactant ion of NO(-)(3) from HNO3 vapor. Hydroxyl radical was first titrated by excess SO2 to form equivalent concentrations of H2SO4 in the other orthogonal tube, and then reacted with NO(-)(3) ions in the chemical ionization chamber, leading to HSO(-)(4) formation. The concentration of atmospheric hydroxyl radical can be directly calculated by measuring the intensities of the HSOj product ions and the NO(-)(3) reactant ions. The analytical capability of the instrument was demonstrated by measuring hydroxyl radical in laboratory air, and the concentration of the hydroxyl radical in the investigated air was calculated to be 1.6 x 106 molecules*cm ', based on 5 seconds integration. The results have shown that the instrument is competent for in situ continuous measurements of atmospheric trace radical.
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Protective effects of Vitamin C against spinal cord injury-induced renal damage through suppression of NF-?B and proinflammatory cytokines.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Spinal cord injury [SCI] leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions which affects various organ systems. The present study focused on determining the protection offered by Vitamin C against spinal injury-induced kidney damage in wistar rats. The experimental protocol was performed with three groups; Sham, SCI and Vitamin C [20 mg/kg/bw] followed by SCI. The kidney tissue was investigated for oxidative stress parameters [reactive oxygen species, protein carbonyl, sulphydryl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive species [TBARS], and myeloperoxidase activity] and antioxidant status [glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase activity]. Further, inflammation studies were performed by analyzing expression of NF-?B, cycloxygenase-2, iNOS through western blot analysis and inflammatory cytokines by TNF-? and IL-1? levels. The present study shows clear evidence that Vitamin C treatment abrogated spinal injury-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses and enhanced the antioxidant status. Thus, the protection offered by Vitamin C against spinal cord injury-induced kidney damage is attributed to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
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Increased Expression of TRPC5 in Cortical Lesions of the Focal Cortical Dysplasia.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are frequently associated with the medical refractory epilepsy in both children and adults. Transient receptor potential canonical channel 5 (TRPC5), a receptor-operated cation channel, has been well recognized as a regulator in the central nervous system. Here, we examined the expression and cellular distribution of TRPC5 in the specimens from patients with FCDIa (n?=?14), FCDIIa (n?=?12), and FCDIIb (n?=?12) compared with the age-matched control cortex (CTX). TRPC5 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in FCDs compared with CTX. Immunohistochemical data showed that TRPC5 was strongly expressed in the misshapen cells, particularly in neuronal microcolumns, dysmorphic neurons, and balloon cells. Moreover, the double-label immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that TRPC5 localized on NeuN-positive neurons. In addition, its co-localization with glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) indicated that TRPC5 was distributed on both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Taken together, these results suggested that increased expression of TRPC5 in FCDs and the cell-specific distribution patterns of TRPC5 in the misshapen neurons in FCDs could potentially contribute to the epileptogenesis of FCDs.
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Greenhouse gas emissions from cotton field under different irrigation methods and fertilization regimes in arid northwestern China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Drip irrigation is broadly extended in order to save water in the arid cotton production region of China. Biochar is thought to be a useful soil amendment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, a field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) under different irrigation methods (drip irrigation (D) and furrow irrigation (F)) and fertilization regimes (conventional fertilization (C) and conventional fertilization + biochar (B)) during the cotton growth season. The accumulated N2O emissions were significantly lower with FB, DC, and DB than with FC by 28.8%, 36.1%, and 37.6%, while accumulated CH4 uptake was 264.5%, 226.7%, and 154.2% higher with DC, DB, and FC than that with FB, respectively. Irrigation methods showed a significant effect on total global warming potential (GWP) and yield-scaled GWP (P < 0.01). DC and DB showed higher cotton yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and lower yield-scaled GWP, as compared with FC and FB. This suggests that in northwestern China mulched-drip irrigation should be a better approach to increase cotton yield with depressed GHG. In addition, biochar addition increased CH4 emissions while it decreased N2O emissions.
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Shear-induced mixing governs codeformation of crystalline-amorphous nanolaminates.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Deformation of ductile crystalline-amorphous nanolaminates is not well understood due to the complex interplay of interface mechanics, shear banding, and deformation-driven chemical mixing. Here we present indentation experiments on 10 nm nanocrystalline Cu-100 nm amorphous CuZr model multilayers to study these mechanisms down to the atomic scale. By using correlative atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy we find that crystallographic slip bands in the Cu layers coincide with noncrystallographic shear bands in the amorphous CuZr layers. Dislocations from the crystalline layers drag Cu atoms across the interface into the CuZr layers. Also, crystalline Cu blocks are sheared into the CuZr layers. In these sheared and thus Cu enriched zones the initially amorphous CuZr layer is rendered into an amorphous plus crystalline nanocomposite.
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Novel-designed Iliac Branch Stent Graft for Internal Iliac Artery Reconstruction during Aneurysm Repair.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Iliac branch stent grafts have been used for internal iliac artery preservation during aneurysm repair. However, current available branch iliac stent grafts used in western countries are not suitable for many patients in Asia because of shorter common iliac arteries (CIA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel-designed iliac branch stent graft (IBSG) in preservation of internal iliac artery during endovascular aneurysm repair in Chinese.
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The influence of admixture and consanguinity on population genetic diversity in Middle East.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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The Middle East (ME) is an important crossroad where modern humans migrated 'out of Africa' and spread into Europe and Asia. After the initial peopling and long-term isolation leading to well-differentiated populations, the ME also had a crucial role in subsequent human migrations among Africa, Europe and Asia; thus, recent population admixture has been common in the ME. On the other hand, consanguinity, a well-known practice in the ME, often reduces genetic diversity and works in opposition to admixture. Here, we explored the degree to which admixture and consanguinity jointly affected genetic diversity in ME populations. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data were generated in two representative ME populations (Arabian and Iranian), with comparisons made with populations worldwide. Our results revealed an overall higher genetic diversity in both ME populations relative to other non-African populations. We identified a much larger number of long runs of homozygosity in ME populations than in any other populations, which was most likely attributed to high levels of consanguineous marriages that significantly decreased both individual and population heterozygosity. Additionally, we were able to distinguish African, European and Asian ancestries in ME populations and quantify the impact of admixture and consanguinity with statistical approaches. Interestingly, genomic regions with significantly excessive ancestry from individual source populations are functionally enriched in olfactory pathways, which were suspected to be under natural selection. Our findings suggest that genetic admixture, consanguinity and natural selection have collectively shaped the genetic diversity of ME populations, which has important implications in both evolutionary studies and medical practices.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 25 September 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.81.
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Molecular evidence for natural hybridization between wild loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) and its relative E. prinoides.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Interspecific hybridization has long been recognized as a pivotal process in plant evolution and speciation. It occurs fairly common in the genera of the subtribe Pyrinae. In Eriobotrya, a small tree genus of Pyrinae, E. prinoides var. daduheensis has been recognized as either a variety of E. prinoides, a natural hybrid between E. prinoides and E. japonica, or a variety of E. japonica. However, to date, there has been no convincing evidence on its status.
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Prognostic value of residual node involvement after induction chemotherapy in operable oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of residual node involvement after induction chemotherapy (ICT) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and to investigate post-ICT node status associated with tumor characteristics.
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Suppression of human and mouse Th17 differentiation and autoimmunity by an endogenous Interleukin 23 receptor cytokine-binding homology region.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, a recently identified CD4+ T subset with a unique characteristic to produce Interleukin-17 (IL-17), are critical for the development of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, in which IL-23 plays an important role in the differentiation of Th17 cells through IL-23/IL-23-receptor/STAT3 pathway. Previously, soluble recombinant human IL-23 receptor cytokine-binding homology region (hIL23R-CHR) was constructed in our laboratory to neutralize IL-23 and inhibit murine Th17 development in vitro. Herein we present that hIL23R-CHR could inhibit both differentiation and function of human/murine Th17 cells. The present in vivo study further demonstrated that hIL23R-CHR inhibited murine Th17 cell development by down regulating IL-17 gene expression and protected mice against the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) through suppression of CNS inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In addition to the in vitro inhibition of human Th17 cells in a dose-dependent manner, the antagonizing effect of hIL23R-CHR was confirmed by reduced levels of IL-23 in both blood and brain of EAE mice and STAT3 phosphorylation in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrated that hIL23R-CHR could be an effective and specific immunosuppressive molecule for the treatment of Th17-related autoimmune diseases.
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Design, Synthesis, and Cercaricidal Activity of Novel High-efficient, Low-toxic Self-spreading PEG-N-salicylanilide Derivatives Against Cercariae Larvae of Schistosome Japonicum Floating on the Water Surface.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Novel cercaricides of PEG-N-salicylanilide derivatives that could self-spread and float on the water surface were designed and synthesized according to the particular habit of cercariae larvae of Schistosome japonicum. The structures of the cercaricides were characterized by the infrared spectra (IR), magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR), and mass spectrum (MS). The images of the floating cercaricides on the water surface were investigated by the Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). When the cercaricides were dropped on the water surface, they could spread along the air-water interface automatically and form thin membranes floating on the water surface immediately. The lethality rate of cercariae for 5a and 6a was more than 90% in 120 min at a surface concentration of 0.008 mg/cm(2) . The non-ionic surfactant-cercaricides not only showed strong cercaricidal activities against the cercariae larvae but also exhibited low toxicities, which offered an effective and environment-friendly approach for the reduction of population infection rate and the realization of schistosome control.
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Identification of a New Peritrophic Membrane Protein from Larval Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Motschulsky).
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Peritrophic membranes (PMs) are composed of proteins, proteoglycans and chitin that play important roles in the structural formation and function of the PM. This study identi?ed and characterized a new chitin binding protein named HpCBP45 by immunoscreening of the Holotrichia parallela larvae midgut expression library. The predicted amino acid sequence indicates that it contains eight tandem chitin binding domains belonging to the peritrophin-A family. The HpCBP45 protein was expressed as a recombinant protein in the yeast Pichia pastoris and chitin binding assay demonstrated that recombinant HpCBP45 protein could strongly bind to chitin. qRT-PCR analysis showed that HpCBP45 was mainly localized in the midgut, further confirming the H. parallela PM belongs to Type I PM. The discovery and characterization of the peritrophic membrane protein HpCBP45 provides a basis for the further investigation of its biochemical and physiological functions in H. parallela.
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Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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We isolated the complete Foxl2 (Foxl2a) cDNA from the Monopterus albus ovary. An alignment of known Foxl2 amino-acid sequences confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. The expression of Foxl2 was detected in the brain, eyes, and gonads. A high level of Foxl2 expression in the ovary before sex reversal, but its transcripts decreased sharply when the gonad developed into the ovotestis and testis. The correlation between the Foxl2 expression and the process of sex development revealed the important function of Foxl2 during the sex reversal of M. albus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Foxl2 was expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and in the interstitial cells of the ovotestis and testis. These results suggest that Foxl2 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ovarian function. Foxl2 may be also involved in the early development of testis and the development of ocular structures of M. albus.
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Differential expression of microRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as specific biomarker for major depressive disorder patients.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Currently, diagnosis and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) are based on the patients' description of symptoms, mental status examinations, and clinical behavioral observations, which increases the chance of misdiagnosis. There is a serious need to find a practical biomarker for the proper diagnosis of MDD. This study aimed to explore the possibility of microRNA (miRNA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as specific blood-based biomarker for MDD patients. By using an Affymetrix array that covers 723 human miRNAs, we identified 26 miRNAs with significant changes in expression in PBMCs of MDD patients. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis in a larger cohort of 81 MDD patients and 46 healthy controls confirmed that the expression levels of 5 miRNAs (miRNA-26b, miRNA-1972, miRNA-4485, miRNA-4498, and miRNA-4743) were up-regulated. By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the combining area under the ROC curve (AUC) of these five miRNAs was 0.636 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.90]. MiRNA target gene prediction and functional annotation analysis showed that there was a significant enrichment in several pathways associated with nervous system and brain functions, supporting the hypothesis that differentially-regulated miRNAs may be involved in mechanism underlying development of MDD. We conclude that altered expression of miRNAs in PMBCs might be involved in multiple stages of MDD pathogenesis, and thus might be able to serve as specific biomarker for diagnosis of MDD.
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Silencing of the CaCP gene delays salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in Capsicum annuum L.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF), and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs) superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper.
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Double-negative feedback loop between ZEB2 and miR-145 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell properties in prostate cancer cells.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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The invasion and metastasis of tumors are triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). EMT also promotes malignant tumor progression and the maintenance of the stem cell property, which endows cancer cells with the capabilities of self-renewal and immortalized proliferation. The transcriptional repressor zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2), as an EMT activator, might be an important promoter of metastasis in some tumors. Here, we report that ZEB2 directly represses the transcription of miR-145, which is a strong repressor of EMT. In turn, ZEB2 is also a direct target of miR-145. Further, our findings show that the downregulation of ZEB2 not only represses invasion, migration, EMT, and the stemness of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, but also suppresses the capability of PC-3 cells to invade bone in vivo. Importantly, the expression level of ZEB2 as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis is positively correlated to bone metastasis, the serum free PSA level, the total PSA level, and the Gleason score in PCa patients and is negatively correlated with miR-145 expression in primary PCa specimens. Thus, our findings demonstrate a double-negative feedback loop between ZEB2 and miR-145 and indicate that the ZEB2/miR-145 double-negative feedback loop plays a significant role in the control of EMT and stem cell properties during the bone metastasis of PCa cells. These results suggest that the double-negative feedback loop between ZEB2 and miR-145 contributes to PCa progression and metastasis and might have therapeutic relevance for the bone metastasis of PCa.
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Preparation of a micropatterned rigid-soft composite substrate for probing cellular rigidity sensing.
Methods Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Substrate rigidity has been recognized as an important property that affects cellular physiology and functions. While the phenomenon has been well recognized, understanding the underlying mechanism may be greatly facilitated by creating a microenvironment with designed rigidity patterns. This chapter describes in detail an optimized method for preparing substrates with micropatterned rigidity, taking advantage of the ability to dehydrate polyacrylamide gels for micropatterning with photolithography, and subsequently rehydrate the gel to regain the original elastic state. While a wide range of micropatterns may be prepared, typical composite substrates consist of micron-sized islands of rigid photoresist grafted on the surface of polyacrylamide hydrogels of defined rigidity. These islands are displaced by cellular traction forces, for a distance determined by the size of the island, the rigidity of the underlying hydrogel, and the magnitude of traction forces. Domains of rigidity may be created using this composite material to allow systematic investigations of rigidity sensing and durotaxis.
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Can surgical management of bone metastases improve quality of life among women with gynecologic cancer?
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The evaluation, counseling, and management of gynecologic patients with bone metastasis remain a challenge for clinicians. In order to critically evaluate the role of surgery, we retrospectively analyzed the records of 18 patients surgically treated for metastatic gynecologic tumors of bone, focusing on quality of life, local tumor control, and survival.
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The role of CD44-hyaluronic acid interaction in exogenous mesenchymal stem cells homing to rat remnant kidney.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The aim of our study was to reveal the role of CD44-Hyaluronic acid (HA) in the homing and improving renal function of systemically transplanted MSCs in chronic renal failure.
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pH-responsive controlled-release system based on mesoporous bioglass materials capped with mineralized hydroxyapatite.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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A controlled release system with pH-responsive ability has been presented. Mesoporous bioglass (MBG) was used as the drug carrier and a spontaneous mineralization method was adopted to cap the pores of the carrier with hydroxyapatite (HAp) and to restrict the drug release. It is a simple and green method to realize the ingenious pH-sensitive controlled release. The model drug, metformin hydrochloride (MH), was loaded simultaneously with the mineralization process. Due to the degradation of HAp at acid environments, the system shows well pH-sensitive drug release ability. The release kinetics can be easily adjusted by the mineralization time and the ion concentration of media. The system is recommended as a promising candidate as a pH-sensitive vehicle for drug controlled release to low pH tissues, such as inflammatory sites and tumors.
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Pharmacokinetic evaluation of dipfluzine and its three metabolites in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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A validated LC-MS/MS method to determine the content of dipfluzine (Dip) and its three metabolites (M1, M2, and M5) simultaneously within rat plasma samples was developed. After a single liquid-liquid extraction, the assay was performed by using a C18 column and positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI) in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with transitions of m/z 417.3?167.3, 251.2?165.2, 199.1?121.3, and 183.2?105.1 for Dip, M1, M2, and M5, respectively. Sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) was used as internal standard (IS). The method was linear ranged from 0.5-518, 0.5-524, 1.0-1036, and 0.5-514 ng/ml for Dip, M1, M2, and M5, respectively and all correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9919. The intra- and inter-day precision values obtained were less than 11.5% and the accuracy was between -3.2 and 9.7% for each analyte. The extraction recoveries of their three concentrations for Dip and its three metabolites were all higher than 71.9%. The technique was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of Dip and its metabolites after a single oral administration of Dip (20 mg/kg) to rats. The results indicated that the metabolite formation was rapid and generated M5 as the predominant metabolite, followed by M1 and M2. The maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 59±7, 37±4, 3±0.2, and 55±5 ng/ml; the time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) were 65±12, 95±12, 190±25, and 90±0 min and the areas under the concentration-time curves (AUC0??) were 17573±704, 8328±355, 5602±753, and 16101±429 ng min/ml for Dip, M1, M2, and M5, respectively. These results suggested that Dip was extensively metabolized and rapidly absorbed. The half-life (t1/2) of Dip, M1, M2, and M5 were 329±15, 767±75, 2364±434, and 378±36 min, respectively, which indicated that Dip and M5 were eliminated quickly. M2 reached its Tmax later and exhibited a longer t1/2 than the other metabolites, which indicated that there might be some type of flip-flop mechanism at work in the pharmacokinetics of M2.
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Endoprosthetic reconstruction for large extremity soft-tissue sarcoma with juxta-articular bone involvement: functional and survival outcome.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Large extracompartmental limb soft-tissue sarcoma with juxta-articular bone involvement poses major challenges in disease management. Radical resection of sarcoma frequently requires concomitant bone resection and reconstruction. We describe the clinical outcomes of endoprosthetic reconstruction and the complications associated with this procedure.
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Ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates activated microglia-induced neuronal damage.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The microglia-mediated inflammatory reaction promotes neuronal damage under cerebral ischemia/hypoxia conditions. We therefore speculated that inhibition of hypoxia-induced microglial activation may alleviate neuronal damage. To test this hypothesis, we co-cultured ginsenoside Rb1, an active component of ginseng, and cortical neurons. Ginsenoside Rb1 protected neuronal morphology and structure in a single hypoxic culture system and in a hypoxic co-culture system with microglia, and reduced neuronal apoptosis and caspase-3 production. The protective effect was observable prior to placing in co-culture. Additionally, ginsenoside Rb1 inhibited levels of tumor necrosis factor-? in a co-culture system containing activated N9 microglial cells. Ginsenoside Rb1 also significantly decreased nitric oxide and superoxide production induced by N9 microglia. Our findings indicate that ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates damage to cerebral cortex neurons by downregulation of nitric oxide, superoxide, and tumor necrosis factor-? expression in hypoxia-activated microglia.
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An enzyme-responsive controlled release system of mesoporous silica coated with Konjac oligosaccharide.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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A simple and green method to fabricate an ingenious enzyme-responsive drug controlled release system was presented. Mesoporous silica material (mSiO2) 100 nm in size was used as the host, and Konjac oligosaccharide (KOGC) was employed to seal the nanopores of mSiO2 to inhibit the drug release. Rhodamine B was used as the model cargo to reveal the release behavior of the system. The KOGC-modified mSiO2 (mSiO2@KOGC) retains the drug until it reaches the colonic environment where bacteria secrete enzymes (?-mannanase) can degrade KOGC and make drug release. The amount of KOGC and enzyme can be used to adjust the release performance. And all the release behaviors fit the two-step Higuchi model, which predominate by KOGC degradation and mesoporous structure, respectively. With well bioactivity and selectivity, the system has potential application as an oral medicine carrier for treating intestinal disease.
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Genetic, Epigenetic, and HPLC Fingerprint Differentiation between Natural and Ex Situ Populations of Rhodiola sachalinensis from Changbai Mountain, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Rhodiola sachalinensis is an endangered species with important medicinal value. We used inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) markers to analyze genetic and epigenetic differentiation in different populations of R. sachalinensis, including three natural populations and an ex situ population. Chromatographic fingerprint was used to reveal HPLC fingerprint differentiation. According to our results, the ex situ population of R. sachalinensis has higher level genetic diversity and greater HPLC fingerprint variation than natural populations, but shows lower epigenetic diversity. Most genetic variation (54.88%) was found to be distributed within populations, and epigenetic variation was primarily distributed among populations (63.87%). UPGMA cluster analysis of ISSR and MSAP data showed identical results, with individuals from each given population grouping together. The results of UPGMA cluster analysis of HPLC fingerprint patterns was significantly different from results obtained from ISSR and MSAP data. Correlation analysis revealed close relationships among altitude, genetic structure, epigenetic structure, and HPLC fingerprint patterns (R2?=?0.98 for genetic and epigenetic distance; R2?=?0.90 for DNA methylation level and altitude; R2?=?-0.95 for HPLC fingerprint and altitude). Taken together, our results indicate that ex situ population of R. sachalinensis show significantly different genetic and epigenetic population structures and HPLC fingerprint patterns. Along with other potential explanations, these findings suggest that the ex situ environmental factors caused by different altitude play an important role in keeping hereditary characteristic of R. sachalinensis.
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20(S)-protopanaxadiol inhibition of progression and growth of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Castration-resistant progression of prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapies remains the most critical challenge in the clinical management of prostate cancer. Resurgent androgen receptor (AR) activity is an established driver of castration-resistant progression, and upregulation of the full-length AR (AR-FL) and constitutively-active AR splice variants (AR-Vs) has been implicated to contribute to the resurgent AR activity. We reported previously that ginsenoside 20(S)-protopanaxadiol-aglycone (PPD) can reduce the abundance of both AR-FL and AR-Vs. In the present study, we further showed that the effect of PPD on AR expression and target genes was independent of androgen. PPD treatment resulted in a suppression of ligand-independent AR transactivation. Moreover, PPD delayed castration-resistant regrowth of LNCaP xenograft tumors after androgen deprivation and inhibited the growth of castration-resistant 22Rv1 xenograft tumors with endogenous expression of AR-FL and AR-Vs. This was accompanied by a decline in serum prostate-specific antigen levels as well as a decrease in AR levels and mitoses in the tumors. Notably, the 22Rv1 xenograft tumors were resistant to growth inhibition by the next-generation anti-androgen enzalutamide. The present study represents the first to show the preclinical efficacy of PPD in inhibiting castration-resistant progression and growth of prostate cancer. The findings provide a rationale for further developing PPD or its analogues for prostate cancer therapy.
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Automated Detection Framework of the Calcified Plaque with Acoustic Shadowing in IVUS Images.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) is one ultrasonic imaging technology to acquire vascular cross-sectional images for the visualization of the inner vessel structure. This technique has been widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery diseases. The detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images plays a vital role in the quantitative analysis of atheromatous plaques. The conventional method of the calcium detection is manual drawing by the doctors. However, it is very time-consuming, and with high inter-observer and intra-observer variability between different doctors. Therefore, the computer-aided detection of the calcified plaque is highly desired. In this paper, an automated method is proposed to detect the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images by the Rayleigh mixture model, the Markov random field, the graph searching method and the prior knowledge about the calcified plaque. The performance of our method was evaluated over 996 in-vivo IVUS images acquired from eight patients, and the detected calcified plaques are compared with manually detected calcified plaques by one cardiology doctor. The experimental results are quantitatively analyzed separately by three evaluation methods, the test of the sensitivity and specificity, the linear regression and the Bland-Altman analysis. The first method is used to evaluate the ability to distinguish between IVUS images with and without the calcified plaque, and the latter two methods can respectively measure the correlation and the agreement between our results and manual drawing results for locating the calcified plaque in the IVUS image. High sensitivity (94.68%) and specificity (95.82%), good correlation and agreement (>96.82% results fall within the 95% confidence interval in the Student t-test) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the detection of the calcified plaque with acoustic shadowing in IVUS images.
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Spatial analysis on hepatitis C virus infection in mainland china: from 2005 to 2011.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The burden of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become more and more considerable in China. A macroscopic spatial analysis of HCV infection that can provide scientific information for further intervention and disease control is lacking.
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Transcriptome sequencing and identification of cold tolerance genes in hardy Corylus species (C. heterophylla Fisch) floral buds.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The genus Corylus is an important woody species in Northeast China. Its products, hazelnuts, constitute one of the most important raw materials for the pastry and chocolate industry. However, limited genetic research has focused on Corylus because of the lack of genomic resources. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies provides a turning point for Corylus research. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for the first time to produce a comprehensive database for the Corylus heterophylla Fisch floral buds.
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Genetic variability and population structure of Disanthus cercidifolius subsp. longipes (Hamamelidaceae) based on AFLP analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Disanthus cercidifolius subsp. longipes is an endangered species in China. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of this species was investigated using amplified fragments length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. Nei's gene diversity ranged from 0.1290 to 0.1394. The AMOVA indicated that 75.06% of variation was distributed within populations, while the between-group component 5.04% was smaller than the between populations-within-group component 19.90%. Significant genetic differentiation was detected between populations. Genetic and geographical distances were not correlated. PCA and genetic structure analysis showed that populations from East China were together with those of the Nanling Range. These patterns of genetic diversity and levels of genetic variation may be the result of D. c. subsp. longipes restricted to several isolated habitats and "excess flowers production, but little fruit set". It is necessary to protect all existing populations of D. c. subsp. longipes in order to preserve as much genetic variation as possible.
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Simultaneous Fluorescence Sensing of Cys and GSH from Different Emission Channels.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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A chlorinated coumarin-hemicyanine dye with three potential reaction sites was exploited as fluorescent probe for biothiols. The Cys-induced substitution-rearrangement-cyclization, Hcy-induced substitution-rearrangement, and GSH-induced substitution-cyclizatioin cascades lead to the corresponding amino-coumarin, amino-coumarin-hemicyanine, thiol-coumarin with distinct photophysical properties, enabling Cys and GSH to be selectively detected from different emission channels at two different excitation wavelengths.
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Accuracy of Early DMSA Scan for VUR in Young Children With Febrile UTI.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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To evaluate the accuracy of an acute (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan in predicting dilating vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) among young children with a febrile urinary tract infection (UTI).
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Performance of microbial fuel cells on removal of metronidazole.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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The microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are the focus of extensive investigation as one of the promising technologies for renewable energy generation and wastewater treatment. Two-chambered MFCs were designed to investigate the removal of metronidazole and to quantify the effect of antibiotic on the efficacy of energy generation. Using 1,000 mg glucose L(-1) containing different concentrations of metronidazole (0, 10, 30, 50 mg L(-1)) as the fuels, the corresponding power densities were 141.94, 99.23, 25.44, 16.26 mW m(-2), respectively. The adverse effect on the performance of the MFCs was reversible. The removal of metronidazole achieved 85.4% within 24 hours in MFCs, while only 35.2% in open circuit. Current generation could account for the improved removal efficiency at these tested concentration levels. The findings of this paper indicated that antibiotics such as metronidazole could be removed in MFCs, which has implications for general wastewater treatment.
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TFAP2A Regulates Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Growth and Survival by Targeting HIF-1? Signaling Pathway.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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TFAP2A is a transcription factor which orchestrates a variety of cell processes including cell growth and tissue differentiation. However, the regulation of TFAP2A in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tumorigenesis and its precise mechanism of action remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological role and clinical significance of TFAP2A in NPC growth and progression and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that TFAP2A was highly expressed in various NPC cell lines and tumor tissue specimens and was significantly correlated with HIF-1? expression. A positive correlation of TFAP2A overexpression with advanced tumor stage, local invasion, clinical progression and poor prognosis of patients with NPCs were also observed. Moreover, we found that knockdown of TFAP2A expression by siRNA significantly inhibited tumor cell growth in NPC cell lines and in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model by targeting HIF-1?-mediated VEGF/PEDF signaling pathway. Treatment of NPC cells with TFAP2A siRNA dramatically inhibited the expression and the release of VEGF protein but did not change the level of PEDF protein, resulting in a significant reduction of the ratio of VEGF/PEDF. Pretreatment with a HIF-1? siRNA did not significantly change the TFAP2A siRNA-mediated inhibition in cell viability. Our results indicate that TFAP2A regulates nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth and survival through the modulation of the HIF-1?-mediated VEGF/PEDF signaling pathway, and suggest that TFAP2A could be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for NPC treatment.
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[Relationship between serum ?2-microglobulin and lower extremity atherosclerotic occlusive disease].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To explore the relationship between fasting serum level of ?2-microglobulin (?2-M) and the development of lower extremity atherosclerotic occlusive disease (LEAOD).
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InAs Nanowires Grown by Metal-Organic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) Employing PS/PMMA Diblock Copolymer Nanopatterning.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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Dense arrays of indium arsenide (InAs) nanowire materials have been grown by selective-area metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE) using polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) diblock copolymer (DBC) nanopatterning technique, which is a catalyst-free approach. Nanoscale openings were defined in a thin (?10 nm) SiNx layer deposited on a (111)B-oriented GaAs substrate using the DBC process and CF4 reactive ion etching (RIE), which served as a hard mask for the nanowire growth. InAs nanowires with diameters down to ?20 nm and micrometer-scale lengths were achieved with a density of ?5 × 10(10) cm(2). The nanowire structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, which indicate twin defects in a primary zincblende crystal structure and the absence of threading dislocation within the imaged regions.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.