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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of alpha-fetoprotein and des-?-carboxy prothrombin for diagnosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in China: A multi-center case-controlled study of 1,153 subjects.
Biosci Trends
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of alphafetoprotein (AFP) and des-?-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis in Chinese patients predominantly caused by hepatitis B virus infection by a multi-center case-controlled study. Subjects were 1,153 individuals from three major hospitals in China, including 550 cases in HCC group, 164 in Malignant disease group, 182 in Benign disease group, 85 in Chronic liver disease group, and 173 in Normal group. Serum levels of AFP and DCP were measured and clinicopathological features were determined for all subjects. Results showed that the levels of DCP and AFP were significantly higher in HCC group (550 patients, 74.18% with HBV infection) than that in other four groups (P < 0.001). Receiver operating curves (ROC) indicated the optimal cut-off value was 86 mAU/mL for DCP with a sensitivity of 71.50% and specificity of 86.30%, and 21 ng/mL for AFP with a sensitivity of 68.00% and specificity of 93.20%. The area under ROC curve was 0.846 for DCP, 0.832 for AFP, and 0.890 for the combination of DCP and AFP. The combination of DCP and AFP resulted in a higher Youden index and a sensitivity of approximately 90%, even for small tumors. The simultaneous measurement of AFP and DCP could achieve a better sensitivity in diagnosing Chinese HCC patients, even for small tumors.
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Case report: postradiation chondrosarcoma with a short latency period of 6 months.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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We describe a case of postradiation chondrosarcoma after basal cell carcinoma treatment. At the time he presented, the patient was a 35-year-old man who had received radiotherapy at a dose of 70 Gy for 8 weeks. Six months after radiation treatment, a rapidly growing mass at the upper right alveolar ridge of the gums, where radiation had been given, was diagnosed as chondrosarcoma. Generally, chondrosarcoma occurs after a latency period of several years following radiation. However, there are a few relevant reports indicating that maxillofacial chondrosarcoma can develop after radiotherapy for basal cell carcinoma, with a short latency of 6 months. We hypothesize that the dosage and treatment time of radiation may have played a role in the opening/closing of the Hh-signaling pathway in the case of this patient.
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[An epidemiological survey of current asthma control status in China].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Base on the China asthma and risk factors epidemiologic investigation (CARE study), we analyzed the current status of asthma control in China.
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[Preliminary research on the feature of dissolved inorganic carbon in Wulixia Reservoir in summer, Guangxi, China].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To gain more knowledge on the transformation process of dissolved inorganic carbon in a karst reservoir, in situ monitoring, sampling and lab experiments of water columns were carried out at various sampling sites along the flow line in Wulixia Reservoir, Guangxi, China during early July, 2013. Results showed that: (1) The hydrochemical characteristics of study areas were controlled by the carbonate equilibrium system and the hydrochemical type of all water samples was HCO3-Ca + Mg. (2) The DIC concentration decreased gradually (DIC(Average) : from 1.03 to 0.78 mmol x L(-1)) and the delta13C(DIC) increased gradually (delta13C(DIC(Average) : from -10.21per thousand to -6.62 per thousand) from the reservoir end area to dam area. Meanwhile, with the depth increase in water column, the DIC concentration increased gradually (DIC(Average) : from 0.86 to 1.05 mmol x L(-1)) and the delta13C(DIC) decreased gradually (delta13C(DIC(Average) : from -7.88 per thousand to -13.39 per thousand) from the surface to the bottom of the reservoir. Possible reasons for these research results were found as follows: (1) Dissolution-precipitation process of carbonate substance could be inhibited by other processes such as biogeochemical processes, which played little role in delta13C(DIC) variations. (2) Thermal stratification existed in the study areas which could influence the distribution of DIC and delta13C(DIC) by affecting the distribution of plankton and its orientation and strength of metabolism process, and the extent of organic matter decomposition, and so on.
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[Diel variations of hydrochemistry and influencing factors in a surface stream in subtropical karst area, SW China].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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In order to understand the diel variation and influencing factors of hydrochemistry in a surface creek fed by karst subterranean river in a subtropical area, where is located at Guancun Village, Daliang Township, Rong'an County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, two monitoring sites were set simultaneously to launch Guancun subterranean river outlet (G1) and surface creek mouth (G2), respectively. Physical and hydrochemical parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature (T) and specific conductivity (Spc) were measured at 15-minute intervals and water samples for analyzing major ions such as Ca2+, HCO3- and NO3- as well as delta3C(DIC) were collected at 2-hour intervals. The results showed that: (1) G1 and G2 sites were both HCO3- Ca type water, however the two monitoring sites showed different diel variations of hydrogeochemical process; (2) The physical and hydrochemical parameters (T, DO, pH, Spc) and major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO4(2-), NO3-, Cl- in G1 site were basically stable, while the physical and hydrochemical parameters (T, DO, pH, Spc) and major ions (Ca2+, HCO3- and NO3-) in G2 site displayed regular diel variation during monitoring; (3) The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and delta13C values in G2 monitoring site showed reverse characteristics in diurnal fluctuations, where DIC decreased in daylight and increased at night while the delta13C value increased in daylight and decreased at night, DIC also showed a negative correlation with the delta13C value (correlation coefficient is -0. 87, P < 0.01) in G2 site. These results indicated that photosynthesis and respiration of aquatic plants, water temperature and degassing jointly affected diurnal variation of hydrochemistry and controlled the cycling process of internal matter in this surface creek fed by karst subterranean river.
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[Results of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for early lung cancer: prevalence in 4 690 asymptomatic participants].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To report the results of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for early lung cancer in 4 690 asymptomatic participants at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between July 2007 and June 2012.
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Down-regulation of a LBD-like gene, OsIG1, leads to occurrence of unusual double ovules and developmental abnormalities of various floral organs and megagametophyte in rice.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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The indeterminate gametophyte1 (ig1) mutation was first characterized to modulate female gametophyte development in maize (Zea mays). However, the function of its rice orthologue, OsIG1, remains unknown. For this, we first analysed OsIG1 localization from differential tissues in rice. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and histochemical staining results demonstrated that the expression signal of OsIG1 was strongly detected in young inflorescence, moderately in mature flower and weakly in leaf. Furthermore, RNA in situ hybridization analyses exhibited that OsIG1 was strongly expressed in inflorescence meristems, floral meristems, empty-glume- and floret- primordia, especially in the primordia of stamens and immature ovules, and the micropylar side of the mature ovary. In OsIG1-RNAi lines, wrinkled blade formation was accompanied by increased leaf inclination angle. Cross-section further showed that the number of bulliform cells located between the vasculatures was significantly increased, indicating that OsIG1 is involved in division and differentiation of bulliform cell and lateral growth during leaf development. OsIG1-RNAi suppression lines showed pleiotropic phenotypes, including degenerated palea, glume-like features and open hull. In addition, a single OsIG1-RNAi floret is characterized by frequently developing double ovules with abnormal embryo sac development. Additionally, down-regulation of OsIG1 differentially affected the expression of genes associated with the floral organ development including EG1, OsMADS6 and OsMADS1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that OsIG1 plays an essential role in the regulation of empty-glume identity, floral organ number control and female gametophyte development in rice.
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The 19q12 Bladder Cancer GWAS Signal: Association with Cyclin E Function and Aggressive Disease.
Yi-Ping Fu, Indu Kohaar, Lee E Moore, Petra Lenz, Jonine D Figueroa, Wei Tang, Patricia Porter-Gill, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Alexandra Scott-Johnson, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Brian Muchmore, Dalsu Baris, Ashley Paquin, Kris Ylaya, Molly Schwenn, Andrea B Apolo, Margaret R Karagas, McAnthony Tarway, Alison Johnson, Adam Mumy, Alan Schned, Liliana Guedez, Michael A Jones, Masatoshi Kida, Gm Monawar Hosain, Nuria Malats, Manolis Kogevinas, Adonina Tardón, Consol Serra, Alfredo Carrato, Reina Garcia-Closas, Josep Lloreta, Xifeng Wu, Mark Purdue, Gerald L Andriole, Robert L Grubb, Amanda Black, Maria T Landi, Neil E Caporaso, Paolo Vineis, Afshan Siddiq, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Börje Ljungberg, Gianluca Severi, Elisabete Weiderpass, Vittorio Krogh, Miren Dorronsoro, Ruth C Travis, Anne Tjønneland, Paul Brennan, Jenny Chang-Claude, Elio Riboli, Jennifer Prescott, Constance Chen, Immaculata De Vivo, Edward Govannucci, David Hunter, Peter Kraft, Sara Lindstrom, Susan M Gapstur, Eric J Jacobs, W Ryan Diver, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J Weinstein, Jarmo Virtamo, Charles Kooperberg, Chancellor Hohensee, Rebecca J Rodabough, Victoria K Cortessis, David V Conti, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Mariana C Stern, Malcolm C Pike, David Van Den Berg, Jian-Min Yuan, Christopher A Haiman, Olivier Cussenot, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Morgan Rouprêt, Eva Compérat, Stefano Porru, Angela Carta, Sofia Pavanello, Cecilia Arici, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, H Barton Grossman, Zhaoming Wang, Xiang Deng, Charles C Chung, Amy Hutchinson, Laurie Burdette, William Wheeler, Joseph Fraumeni, Stephen J Chanock, Stephen M Hewitt, Debra T Silverman, Nathaniel Rothman, Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer identified a genetic marker rs8102137 within the 19q12 region as a novel susceptibility variant. This marker is located upstream of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes cyclin E, a cell-cycle protein. We performed genetic fine-mapping analysis of the CCNE1 region using data from two bladder cancer GWAS (5,942 cases and 10,857 controls). We found that the original GWAS marker rs8102137 represents a group of 47 linked SNPs (with r(2) ? 0.7) associated with increased bladder cancer risk. From this group, we selected a functional promoter variant rs7257330, which showed strong allele-specific binding of nuclear proteins in several cell lines. In both GWASs, rs7257330 was associated only with aggressive bladder cancer, with a combined per-allele OR = 1.18 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.27, P = 4.67 × 10(-5)] versus OR = 1.01 (95% CI, 0.93-1.10, P = 0.79) for nonaggressive disease, with P = 0.0015 for case-only analysis. Cyclin E protein expression analyzed in 265 bladder tumors was increased in aggressive tumors (P = 0.013) and, independently, with each rs7257330-A risk allele (Ptrend = 0.024). Overexpression of recombinant cyclin E in cell lines caused significant acceleration of cell cycle. In conclusion, we defined the 19q12 signal as the first GWAS signal specific for aggressive bladder cancer. Molecular mechanisms of this genetic association may be related to cyclin E overexpression and alteration of cell cycle in carriers of CCNE1 risk variants. In combination with established bladder cancer risk factors and other somatic and germline genetic markers, the CCNE1 variants could be useful for inclusion into bladder cancer risk prediction models. Cancer Res; 74(20); 5808-18. ©2014 AACR.
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Size-dependent silicon epitaxy at mesoscale dimensions.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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New discoveries on collective processes in materials fabrication and performance are emerging in the mesoscopic size regime between the nanoscale, where atomistic effects dominate, and the macroscale, where bulk-like behavior rules. For semiconductor electronics and photonics, dimensional control of the architecture in this regime is the limiting factor for device performance. Epitaxial crystal growth is the major tool enabling simultaneous control of the dimensions and properties of such architectures. Although size-dependent effects have been studied for many small-scale systems, they have not been reported for the epitaxial growth of Si crystalline surfaces. Here, we show a strong dependence of epitaxial growth rates on size for nano to microscale radial wires and planar stripes. A model for this unexpected size-dependent vapor phase epitaxy behavior at small dimensions suggests that these effects are universal and result from an enhanced surface desorption of the silane (SiH4) growth precursor near facet edges. Introducing phosphorus or boron dopants during the silicon epitaxy further decreases the growth rates and, for phosphorus, gives rise to a critical layer thickness for single crystalline epitaxial growth. This previously unknown mesoscopic size-dependent growth effect at mesoscopic dimensions points to a new mechanism in vapor phase growth and promises greater control of advanced device geometries.
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A universal molecular translator for non-nucleic acid targets that enables dynamic DNA assemblies and logic operations.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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A universal molecular translator based on the target-triggered DNA strand displacement was developed, which was able to convert various kinds of non-nucleic acid targets into a unique output DNA. This translation strategy was successfully applied in directing dynamic DNA assemblies and in realizing three-input logic gate operations.
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Sesquiterpenoids and lignans from the roots of Syringa pinnatifolia.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Two new sesquiterpenoids, pinnatifone A (1) and pinnatifone B (2), and two new lignans, pinnatifolin (3) and isopinnatifolin (4), along with six known lignans (5-10), were isolated from the roots of Syringa pinnatifolia. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectra. The lignans were screened for their anti-oxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay). Most of them showed potent anti-oxidant activity, especially compound 5, whose potent anti-oxidant activity had an SC50 value higher than that of the positive control vitamin C.
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Selection on a variant associated with improved viral clearance drives local, adaptive pseudogenization of interferon lambda 4 (IFNL4).
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Interferon lambda 4 gene (IFNL4) encodes IFN-?4, a new member of the IFN-? family with antiviral activity. In humans IFNL4 open reading frame is truncated by a polymorphic frame-shift insertion that eliminates IFN-?4 and turns IFNL4 into a polymorphic pseudogene. Functional IFN-?4 has antiviral activity but the elimination of IFN-?4 through pseudogenization is strongly associated with improved clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We show that functional IFN-?4 is conserved and evolutionarily constrained in mammals and thus functionally relevant. However, the pseudogene has reached moderately high frequency in Africa, America, and Europe, and near fixation in East Asia. In fact, the pseudogenizing variant is among the 0.8% most differentiated SNPs between Africa and East Asia genome-wide. Its raise in frequency is associated with additional evidence of positive selection, which is strongest in East Asia, where this variant falls in the 0.5% tail of SNPs with strongest signatures of recent positive selection genome-wide. Using a new Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approach we infer that the pseudogenizing allele appeared just before the out-of-Africa migration and was immediately targeted by moderate positive selection; selection subsequently strengthened in European and Asian populations resulting in the high frequency observed today. This provides evidence for a changing adaptive process that, by favoring IFN-?4 inactivation, has shaped present-day phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to disease.
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A map describing the association between effective components of traditional Chinese medicine and signaling pathways in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Drug Discov Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Cancer is the second leading cause of death by disease in the world. Chemotherapy is one of three major therapeutic methods for cancer treatment, but cancer cells gradually evolve resistance to chemotherapeutic reagents. For centuries, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was used to fight against cancer. In recent years, a number of effective component mechanisms of TCM have been increasingly illuminated. As we know, chemical structures of reagents decide or affect their activities on target pathways. Thus, we classified some antitumor-related TCM components reported in the last five years into thirteen groups by their chemical structures, such as, alkaloids, diterpenoids, triterpenes, sesquiterpenes, anthraquinones, benzoquinones, flavonoids, berbamines, xanthones, saponins, steroids, polysaccharides, and glycosides. In various cancer cell lines, these constituents target dozens of signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. Among these components, there are three sets: i) mainly apoptosis-related groups, such as, alkaloids, diterpenoids, anthraquinones, berbamines, and xanthones, target pathways like the mitochondrial pathway, NF-?B pathway, p53 pathway and so on; ii) mainly proliferation, invasion and metastasis-related groups, such as, triterpenes, sesquiterpenes, polysaccharides, and glycosides, target pathways like the mTOR pathway, ?-catenin pathway, ERK pathway and so on; iii) both apoptosis and proliferation, invasion and metastasis-related groups, such as benzoquinones, flavonoids, saponins, and steroids, target the pathways in i) and ii) synchronously. These will provide association information between TCM components and signaling pathways to promote studies on mechanisms of effective constituents, target drug development, and combinational chemotherapy. TCM could be alternative medicine for cancer treatment in the future.
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[Structural changes of aged biochar and the influence on phenanthrene adsorption].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Biochars prepared by pyrolysis of rice husk at 350 degrees C and 550 degrees C were incubated in the lucifugal thermostat for 300 d. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques were applied to explore the structural change before and after incubation. It was found that the oxygen content was increased after incubation, suggesting the formation of oxygen-containing functional groups. Incubation of the biochars also enhanced their nonlinear adsorption of phenanthrene. Structural change subjected to incubation was in fact affected by the pyrolysis temperatures at which the biochars were synthesized. Increase of polarity and decrease of aromaticity were found for biochars prepared at 350 degrees C. In contrast, incubation of biochars prepared at 550 degrees C resulted in increased aliphatic contents and aromaticity, as well as decrease of carboxyl group. The adsorption capacity of phenanthrene predicted by Langmuir model was 3.57 and 2.35 mg x g(-1) for new and aged biochar with lower pyrolysis temperature, respectively. It was assumed that change of the surface structure of the biochars due to aging inhibited the adsorption. On the contrary, aging of biochares prepared at 550 degrees C resulted in enhanced adsorption capacity of phenanthrene from 0.42 to 4.17 mg x (-1), which was probably correlated to the partition effect due to enhanced aromaticity. The data obtained in this research suggested that aging of biochars potentially affected the fate of the pollutants in environment.
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Acupuncture for overactive bladder in female adult: a randomized controlled trial.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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To assess the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating female adult with overactive bladder.
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Pathological changes in primary cilia: A novel mechanism of graft cholangiopathy caused by prolonged cold preservation in a rat model of orthotopic liver transplantation.
Biosci Trends
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To study the impairment of cholangiocyte primary cilia caused by prolonged cold preservation and its correlation with graft cholangiopathy after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Subjects were 60 male Wistar rats that were divided into 2 groups: a control group (n = 30) receiving a donor liver preserved for 1 h and a study group (n = 30) receiving a donor liver preserved for 12 h. A two-cuff method was used to establish the OLT model, and the hepatic artery and bile ducts were reconstructed using stents. Samples were collected 2, 8, and 16 weeks after surgery, and 5 samples were collected from each group at each time point. Serum biochemical indicators were measured, morphological changes in intrahepatic bile ducts and cholangiocyte primary cilia were observed using an optical microscope and scanning electronic microscope, respectively, and the ciliary marker (?-tubulin) and membrane proteins (PC-1, TRPV4, and P2Y12) were detected using immunofluorescence analysis and Western blotting. In the study group, phlogocytes infiltrated around bile ducts and bile ducts proliferated markedly at 8 weeks. At 16 weeks, the biliary structures were indistinct and some bile ducts disappeared, a large amount of collagen was deposited, numerous phlogocytes infiltrated around ducts, some biliary epithelial cells (BECs) were deformed or dead, and primary cilia disappeared. In the control group, the intrahepatic bile ducts and BECs were nearly intact and the primary cilia were present. In the study group, the expression of ?-tubulin, polycystin-1 (PC-1), TRPV4, and P2Y12 in bile ducts disappeared completely after 8 weeks. In the control group, expression of the marker and proteins decreased at 2 weeks and increased slightly after 8 weeks. These results suggest that the study group had dysfunctional primary cilia at the start of OLT and that this dysfunction was irreversible. In the control group, the primary cilia defects and subsequent biliary injury were temporary. Thus, prolonged cold preservation of a donor liver may cause graft cholangiopathy by altering the integrity and functions of cholangiocyte primary cilia.
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System-wide characterization of bZIP transcription factor proteins involved in infection-related morphogenesis of Magnaporthe oryzae.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain-containing transcription factors (TFs) function as key regulators of cellular growth and differentiation in eukaryotic organisms including fungi. We have previously identified MoAp1 and MoAtf1 as bZIP TFs in Magnaporthe oryzae and demonstrated that they regulate the oxidative stress response and are critical in conidiogenesis and pathogenicity. Studies of bZIP proteins could provide a novel strategy for controlling rice blast, but a systematic examination of the bZIP proteins has not been carried out. Here, we identified 19 additional bZIP TFs and characterized their functions. We found that the majority of these TFs exhibit active functions, most notably, in conidiogenesis. We showed that MoHac1 regulates the endoplasmic reticulum stress response through a conserved unfolded protein response pathway, MoMetR controls amino acid metabolism to govern growth and differentiation, and MoBzip10 governs appressorium function and invasive hyphal growth. Moreover, MoBzip5 participates in appressorium formation through a pathway distinct from that MoBzip10, and MoMeaB appears to exert a regulatory role through nutrient uptake and nitrogen utilization. Collectively, our results provide insights into shared and specific functions associated with each of these TFs and link the regulatory roles to the fungal growth, conidiation, appressorium formation, host penetration and pathogenicity.
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Gd-encapsulated carbonaceous dots with efficient renal clearance for magnetic resonance imaging.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Nanoprobes for MRI and optical imaging are demonstrated. Gd@C-dots possess strong fluorescence and can effectively enhance signals on T1 -weighted MR images. The nanoprobes have low toxicity, and, despite a relatively large size, can be efficiently excreted by renal clearance from the host after systemic injection.
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Histone deacetylase inhibitor regulates the balance of Th17/Treg in allergic asthma.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The aim of this study is to investigate the expression pattern of histone deacetylase 9 in peripheral blood of patients with allergic asthma and its regulatory effect on the balance of Th17/Treg cells involved in the pathogenesis of asthma.
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Allosteric Modulation of ?-Arrestin-biased Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Signaling by Membrane Stretch.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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It has recently been appreciated that the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), a prototypic member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, also functions as a mechanosensor. Specifically, mechanical stretch activates the AT1R to promote downstream signaling mediated exclusively by the multifunctional scaffold protein, ?-arrestin, in a manner consistent with previously identified ?-arrestin-biased ligands. However, the ligand-independent mechanism by which mechanical stretch promotes ?-arrestin-biased signaling remains unknown. Implicit in the concept of biased agonism (i.e. the ability of an agonist to activate a subset of receptor-mediated signaling pathways) is the notion that distinct active conformations of the receptor mediate differential activation of signaling pathways. Here we determined whether mechanical stretch stabilizes distinct ?-arrestin-activating conformations of the AT1R by using ?-arrestin2-biased agonists as conformational probes in pharmacological and biophysical assays. When tested at cells expressing the AT1R fused to ?-arrestin (AT1R-?-arrestin2), we found that osmotic stretch increased the binding affinity and potency of the ?-arrestin-biased agonist TRV120023, with no effect on the balanced agonist AngII. In addition, the effect of osmotic stretch on ERK activation was markedly augmented in cells expressing the AT1R-?-arrestin2 fusion compared with the wild type AT1R and completely blocked in cells expressing the AT1R-Gq fusion. Biophysical experiments with an intramolecular BRET ?-arrestin2 biosensor revealed that osmotic stretch and TRV120023 activate AT1Rs to stabilize ?-arrestin2 active conformations that differ from those stabilized by the AT1R activated by angiotensin II. Together, these data support a novel ligand-independent mechanism whereby mechanical stretch allosterically stabilizes specific ?-arrestin-biased active conformations of the AT1R and has important implications for understanding pathophysiological AT1R signaling.
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RNAi-directed downregulation of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (OsBADH1) results in decreased stress tolerance and increased oxidative markers without affecting glycine betaine biosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa).
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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As an important osmoprotectant, glycine betaine (GB) plays an essential role in resistance to abiotic stress in a variety of organisms, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, GB content is too low to be detectable in rice, although rice genome possesses several orthologs coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) involved in plant GB biosynthesis. Rice BADH1 (OsBADH1) has been shown to be targeted to peroxisome and its overexpression resulted in increased GB biosynthesis and tolerance to abiotic stress. In this study, we demonstrated a pivotal role of OsBADH1 in stress tolerance without altering GB biosynthesis capacity, using the RNA interference (RNAi) technique. OsBADH1 was ubiquitously expressed in different organs, including roots, stems, leaves and flowers. Transgenic rice lines downregulating OsBADH1 exhibited remarkably reduced tolerance to NaCl, drought and cold stresses. The decrease of stress tolerance occurring in the OsBADH1-RNAi repression lines was associated with an elevated level of malondialdehyde content and hydrogen peroxidation. No GB accumulation was detected in transgene-positive and transgene-negative lines derived from heterozygous transgenic T0 plants. Moreover, transgenic OsBADH1-RNAi repression lines showed significantly reduced seed set and yield. In conclusion, the downregulation of OsBADH1, even though not causing any change of GB content, was accounted for the reduction of ability to dehydrogenate the accumulating metabolism-derived aldehydes and subsequently resulted in decreased stress tolerance and crop productivity. These results suggest that OsBADH1 possesses an enzyme activity to catalyze other aldehydes in addition to betaine aldehyde (the precursor of GB) and thus alleviate their toxic effects under abiotic stresses.
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PGRN protects against colitis progression in mice in an IL-10 and TNFR2 dependent manner.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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This study was aimed to determine the role and regulation of progranulin (PGRN) in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-, picrylsulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced, bone marrow chimera and CD4+CD45Rb(hi) T cell transfer colitis model were established and analyzed in wild-type and several genetically-modified mice, including PGRN, IL-10 and TNFR2 deficient mice. Elevated levels of PGRN were found in colitis samples from human IBD patients and mouse colitis models in comparison to the corresponding controls. PGRN-deficient mice became highly susceptible to DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis, whereas recombinant PGRN ameliorated the pathology and reduced the histological score in both DSS and TNBS colitis models. In addition, hematopoietic-derived PGRN was critical for protection against DSS-induced colitis, and lack of PGRN signaling in CD4+ T cells also exacerbated experimental colitis. PGRN-mediated protective effect in colitis was compromised in the absence of IL-10 signaling. In addition, PGRN's effect was also largely lost in the TNFR2-deficient colitis model. Collectively, these findings not only provide the new insight into PGRN's anti-inflammatory action in vivo, but may also present PGRN and its derivatives as novel biological agent for treating IBD.
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Functional characterization of a new non-Kunitz serine protease inhibitor from the scorpion Lychas mucronatus.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Serine protease inhibitors have been widely discovered from different animal venoms, but most of them belong to Kunitz-type toxin subfamily. Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified four new non-Kunitz serine protease inhibitors with a conserved Ascaris-type structural fold: Ascaris-type toxins Lychas mucronatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (LmAPI), Pandinus cavimanus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (PcAPI), Pandinus cavimanus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (PcAPI-2), and Hottentotta judaicus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (HjAPI). The detailed characterization of one Ascaris-type toxin LmAPI was further carried out, which contains 60 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant LmAPI inhibits the activity of chymotrypsin potently with a Ki value of 15.5nM, but has little effect on trypsin and elastase. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that LmAPI contains unique functional residues "TQD" and might be a useful template to produce specific protease inhibitors. Our results indicated that animal venoms are a natural source of new type of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for human diseases that target diverse proteases.
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Contact electrification field-effect transistor.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Utilizing the coupled metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor and triboelectric nanogenerator, we demonstrate an external force triggered/controlled contact electrification field-effect transistor (CE-FET), in which an electrostatic potential across the gate and source is created by a vertical contact electrification between the gate material and a “foreign” object, and the carrier transport between drain and source can be tuned/controlled by the contact-induced electrostatic potential instead of the traditional gate voltage. With the two contacted frictional layers vertically separated by 80 ?m, the drain current is decreased from 13.4 to 1.9 ?A in depletion mode and increased from 2.4 to 12.1 ?A in enhancement mode at a drain voltage of 5 V. Compared with the piezotronic devices that are controlled by the strain-induced piezoelectric polarization charged at an interface/junction, the CE-FET has greatly expanded the sensing range and choices of materials in conjunction with semiconductors. The CE-FET is likely to have important applications in sensors, human–silicon technology interfacing, MEMS, nanorobotics, and active flexible electronics. Based on the basic principle of the CE-FET, a field of tribotronics is proposed for devices fabricated using the electrostatic potential created by triboelectrification as a “gate” voltage to tune/control charge carrier transport in conventional semiconductor devices. By the three-way coupling among triboelectricity, semiconductor, and photoexcitation, plenty of potentially important research fields are expected to be explored in the near future.
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Woven structured triboelectric nanogenerator for wearable devices.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To date, quite a few wearable electronics have entered the market, which are changing the life pattern of consumers. However, the limited lifetime and energy storage capacity have made rechargeable batteries the bottleneck in wearable technology, especially with the increase of number of wearable devices and their large distribution. To solve this problem, we demonstrate a woven-structured triboelectric nanogenerator (W-TENG) using commodity nylon fabric, polyester fabric, and conductive silver fiber fabric. With the advantage of being flexible, washable, breathable, wearable, and able to be triggered by a freestanding triboelectric layer, this W-TENG can move freely without any constraint and is suitable for wearable electronics. To demonstrate the potential applications of the W-TENG, the W-TENG is integrated into shoes, coats, and trousers to harvest different kinds of mechanical energy from human motion. This work presents a new approach in applying triboelectric nanogenerator to wearable devices.
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[Effect of dexmedetomidine and midazolam on respiration and circulation functions in patients undergoing open heart surgery under acupuncture-assisted general anesthesia].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To evaluate the effect of Dexmedetomidine and Midazolam on respiratory and circulation in patients experiencing open heart surgery under acupuncture-assisted general anesthesia.
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Ferritins as nanoplatforms for imaging and drug delivery.
Expert Opin Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Due to unique architecture and surface properties, ferritin has emerged as an important class of biomaterial. Many studies suggest that ferritin and its derivatives hold great potential in a wide range of bio-applications.
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Magnetic resonance imaging for the normal mesostenium and involvement of the mesostenium in acute pancreatitis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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The main point of this paper is to study MRI findings of the normal mesostenium and the involvement of the mesostenium in acute pancreatitis and to discuss the relationship between the involvement of the mesostenium and the severity of acute pancreatitis. In clinical practice, the mesenterical involvement in acute pancreatitis was often observed on MRI in daily works, which was little recorded in the reported studies. We conducted the current study to assess the mesenterical involvement in acute pancreatitis with MRI. We found that the mesenterical involvement of acute pancreatitis patients is common on MRI. The mesenterical involvement has a positive correlation with the MR severity index and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Healthy Evaluation II scoring system. It has been shown that MR can be used to visualize mesenterical involvement, which is a supplementary indicator in evaluating the severity of acute pancreatitis and local and systemic complications.
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Subcellular localization of KL-6 mucin in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas.
Drug Discov Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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This study aimed to clarify the expression profile of KL-6 mucin in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and its relation to tumor malignancy. Expression of KL-6 mucin in 38 IPMNs (intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma (IPMA), 24 cases; minimally invasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (MI-IPMC), 8 cases; invasive carcinoma originating from IPMC (IC-IPMC), 6 cases) and 66 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) was evaluated immunohistochemically. IC-IPMCs and MI-IPMCs had positive staining of KL-6 mucin whereas 58% of IPMAs tested negative. Subcellular localization of KL-6 mucin varied among IPMNs whereas all of the PDAC had positive expression in the circumferential membrane and cytoplasm of cancer cells. IC-IPMCs and MI-IPMCs had a higher frequency of circumferential membrane and cytoplasmic localization of KL-6 mucin than did IPMAs. These results suggest that localization of KL-6 mucin could be used to predict the malignancy of IPMN.
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Can gamma-glutamyl transferase levels contribute to a better prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma?
Drug Discov Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. Hepatic resection has long been considered a main treatment option for HCC, but the high rate of recurrence after hepatic resection remains a problem that impacts the prognosis and survival of patients with HCC. Thus, clarifying the factors for survival and risk factors for tumor recurrence after hepatic resection is crucial. Imaging studies are currently emphasized before selecting a treatment and predicting the prognosis for patients with HCC. Recently, laboratory testing of des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (DCP), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), indocyanine green 15 min after administration (ICG-R15), and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GTP) has garnered attention as a way to select treatment and predict the prognosis of patients with HCC. ?-GTP in particular has critical clinical significance as an indicator of prognosis. This indicator helps to predict prognosis and it helps with the selection of further treatment, as was revealed by studies based on different subgroups of patients published in the past 5 years. The reason for the association between ?-GTP and early recurrence and poor survival is being investigated. Preoperative laboratory results (DCP, AFP, ICG-R15, and ?-GTP) may warrant attention and need to be fully evaluated before selecting a treatment and predicting prognosis in order to improve the prognosis for patients with HCC.
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Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33.
Zhaoming Wang, Bin Zhu, Mingfeng Zhang, Hemang Parikh, Jinping Jia, Charles C Chung, Joshua N Sampson, Jason W Hoskins, Amy Hutchinson, Laurie Burdette, Abdisamad Ibrahim, Christopher Hautman, Preethi S Raj, Christian C Abnet, Andrew A Adjei, Anders Ahlbom, Demetrius Albanes, Naomi E Allen, Christine B Ambrosone, Melinda Aldrich, Pilar Amiano, Christopher Amos, Ulrika Andersson, Gerald Andriole, Irene L Andrulis, Cecilia Arici, Alan A Arslan, Melissa A Austin, Dalsu Baris, Donald A Barkauskas, Bryan A Bassig, Laura E Beane Freeman, Christine D Berg, Sonja I Berndt, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Richard B Biritwum, Amanda Black, William Blot, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Boffetta, Kelly Bolton, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Paige M Bracci, Paul Brennan, Louise A Brinton, Michelle Brotzman, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Julie E Buring, Mary Ann Butler, Qiuyin Cai, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Federico Canzian, Guangwen Cao, Neil E Caporaso, Alfredo Carrato, Tania Carreon, Angela Carta, Gee-Chen Chang, I-Shou Chang, Jenny Chang-Claude, Xu Che, Chien-Jen Chen, Chih-Yi Chen, Chung-Hsing Chen, Constance Chen, Kuan-Yu Chen, Yuh-Min Chen, Anand P Chokkalingam, Lisa W Chu, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Graham A Colditz, Joanne S Colt, David Conti, Michael B Cook, Victoria K Cortessis, E David Crawford, Olivier Cussenot, Faith G Davis, Immaculata De Vivo, Xiang Deng, Ti Ding, Colin P Dinney, Anna Luisa Di Stefano, W Ryan Diver, Eric J Duell, Joanne W Elena, Jin-Hu Fan, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Maria Feychting, Jonine D Figueroa, Adrienne M Flanagan, Joseph F Fraumeni, Neal D Freedman, Brooke L Fridley, Charles S Fuchs, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Steven Gallinger, Yu-Tang Gao, Susan M Gapstur, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Reina Garcia-Closas, Julie M Gastier-Foster, J Michael Gaziano, Daniela S Gerhard, Carol A Giffen, Graham G Giles, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Edward L Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Nalan Gokgoz, Alisa M Goldstein, Carlos González, Richard Gorlick, Mark H Greene, Myron Gross, H Barton Grossman, Robert Grubb, Jian Gu, Peng Guan, Christopher A Haiman, Göran Hallmans, Susan E Hankinson, Curtis C Harris, Patricia Hartge, Claudia Hattinger, Richard B Hayes, Qincheng He, Lee Helman, Brian E Henderson, Roger Henriksson, Judith Hoffman-Bolton, Chancellor Hohensee, Elizabeth A Holly, Yun-Chul Hong, Robert N Hoover, H Dean Hosgood, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Ann W Hsing, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Nan Hu, Wei Hu, Zhibin Hu, Ming-Shyan Huang, David J Hunter, Peter D Inskip, Hidemi Ito, Eric J Jacobs, Kevin B Jacobs, Mazda Jenab, Bu-Tian Ji, Christoffer Johansen, Mattias Johansson, Alison Johnson, Rudolf Kaaks, Ashish M Kamat, Aruna Kamineni, Margaret Karagas, Chand Khanna, Kay-Tee Khaw, Christopher Kim, In-Sam Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Yeul Hong Kim, Young-Chul Kim, Young Tae Kim, Chang Hyun Kang, Yoo Jin Jung, Cari M Kitahara, Alison P Klein, Robert Klein, Manolis Kogevinas, Woon-Puay Koh, Takashi Kohno, Laurence N Kolonel, Charles Kooperberg, Christian P Kratz, Vittorio Krogh, Hideo Kunitoh, Robert C Kurtz, Nilgun Kurucu, Qing Lan, Mark Lathrop, Ching C Lau, Fernando Lecanda, Kyoung-Mu Lee, Maxwell P Lee, Loic Le Marchand, Seth P Lerner, Donghui Li, Linda M Liao, Wei-Yen Lim, Dongxin Lin, Jie Lin, Sara Lindstrom, Martha S Linet, Jolanta Lissowska, Jianjun Liu, Börje Ljungberg, Josep Lloreta, Daru Lu, Jing Ma, Nuria Malats, Satu Mannisto, Neyssa Marina, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Keitaro Matsuo, Katherine A McGlynn, Roberta Mckean-Cowdin, Lorna H McNeill, Robert R McWilliams, Beatrice S Melin, Paul S Meltzer, James E Mensah, Xiaoping Miao, Dominique S Michaud, Alison M Mondul, Lee E Moore, Kenneth Muir, Shelley Niwa, Sara H Olson, Nick Orr, Salvatore Panico, Jae Yong Park, Alpa V Patel, Ana Patiño-García, Sofia Pavanello, Petra H M Peeters, Beata Peplonska, Ulrike Peters, Gloria M Petersen, Piero Picci, Malcolm C Pike, Stefano Porru, Jennifer Prescott, Xia Pu, Mark P Purdue, You-Lin Qiao, Preetha Rajaraman, Elio Riboli, Harvey A Risch, Rebecca J Rodabough, Nathaniel Rothman, Avima M Ruder, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Marc Sanson, Alan Schned, Fredrick R Schumacher, Ann G Schwartz, Kendra L Schwartz, Molly Schwenn, Katia Scotlandi, Adeline Seow, Consol Serra, Massimo Serra, Howard D Sesso, Gianluca Severi, Hongbing Shen, Min Shen, Sanjay Shete, Kouya Shiraishi, Xiao-Ou Shu, Afshan Siddiq, Luis Sierrasesúmaga, Sabina Sierri, Alan Dart Loon Sihoe, Debra T Silverman, Matthias Simon, Melissa C Southey, Logan Spector, Margaret Spitz, Meir Stampfer, Pär Stattin, Mariana C Stern, Victoria L Stevens, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Daniel O Stram, Sara S Strom, Wu-Chou Su, Malin Sund, Sook Whan Sung, Anthony Swerdlow, Wen Tan, Hideo Tanaka, Wei Tang, Ze-Zhang Tang, Adonina Tardón, Evelyn Tay, Philip R Taylor, Yao Tettey, David M Thomas, Roberto Tirabosco, Anne Tjonneland, Geoffrey S Tobias, Jorge R Toro, Ruth C Travis, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Rebecca Troisi, Ann Truelove, Ying-Huang Tsai, Margaret A Tucker, Rosario Tumino, David Van Den Berg, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Kala Visvanathan, Ulla Vogel, Chaoyu Wang, Chengfeng Wang, Junwen Wang, Sophia S Wang, Elisabete Weiderpass, Stephanie J Weinstein, Nicolas Wentzensen, William Wheeler, Emily White, John K Wiencke, Alicja Wolk, Brian M Wolpin, Maria Pik Wong, Margaret Wrensch, Chen Wu, Tangchun Wu, Xifeng Wu, Yi-Long Wu, Jay S Wunder, Yong-Bing Xiang, Jun Xu, Hannah P Yang, Pan-Chyr Yang, Yasushi Yatabe, Yuanqing Ye, Edward D Yeboah, Zhihua Yin, Chen Ying, Chong-Jen Yu, Kai Yu, Jian-Min Yuan, Krista A Zanetti, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Wei Zheng, Baosen Zhou, Lisa Mirabello, Sharon A Savage, Peter Kraft, Stephen J Chanock, Meredith Yeager, Maria Terese Landi, Jianxin Shi, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Laufey T Amundadottir.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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The defects of cholangiocyte primary cilia in patients with graft cholangiopathies.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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To observe the morphologic changes in intrahepatic bile ducts and the defects of cholangiocyte primary cilia in patients with graft cholangiopathies.
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Chitin accelerates activation of a novel haloarchaeal serine protease that deproteinizes chitin-containing biomass.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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The haloarchaeon Natrinema sp. strain J7-2 has the ability to degrade chitin, and its genome harbors a chitin metabolism-related gene cluster that contains a halolysin gene, sptC. The sptC gene encodes a precursor composed of a signal peptide, an N-terminal propeptide consisting of a core domain (N*) and a linker peptide, a subtilisin-like catalytic domain, a polycystic kidney disease domain (PkdD), and a chitin-binding domain (ChBD). Here we report that the autocatalytic maturation of SptC is initiated by cis-processing of N* to yield an autoprocessed complex (N*-I(WT)), followed by trans-processing/degradation of the linker peptide, the ChBD, and N*. The resulting mature form (M(WT)) containing the catalytic domain and the PkdD showed optimum azocaseinolytic activity at 3 to 3.5 M NaCl, demonstrating salt-dependent stability. Deletion analysis revealed that the PkdD did not confer extra stability on the enzyme but did contribute to enzymatic activity. The ChBD exhibited salt-dependent chitin-binding capacity and mediated the binding of N*-I(WT) to chitin. ChBD-mediated chitin binding enhances SptC maturation by promoting activation of the autoprocessed complex. Our results also demonstrate that SptC is capable of removing proteins from shrimp shell powder (SSP) at high salt concentrations. Interestingly, N*-I(WT) released soluble peptides from SSP faster than did M(WT). Most likely, ChBD-mediated binding of the autoprocessed complex to chitin in SSP not only accelerates enzyme activation but also facilitates the deproteinization process by increasing the local protease concentration around the substrate. By virtue of these properties, SptC is highly attractive for use in preparation of chitin from chitin-containing biomass.
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High-level expression and characterization of carboxypeptidase Y from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Pichia pastoris GS115.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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Carboxypeptidase Y is widely used in peptide sequencing and mass spectrometry. PRC1 coding for proteinase C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 as procarboxypeptidase Y with a yield of ~605 mg/l in shake-flasks after 168 h induction with 1 % (v/v) methanol. This precursor of carboxypeptidase Y was cleaved by endogenous proteinases of P. pastoris and released into the fermentation broth as active carboxypeptidase Y within 2 weeks at 10 °C, which facilitated the preparation of mature carboxypeptidase Y. The recombinant enzyme was purified. It was optimally active at 30 °C and pH 6.0, with an optimal activity of ~305 U/mg using benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine as substrate. This is the first report about high-level expression and activation of carboxypeptidase Y in P. pastoris.
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Production and characterization of high efficiency bioflocculant isolated from Klebsiella sp. ZZ-3.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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In this study, a new bioflocculant (ZZ-3) is isolated and evaluated. This novel flocculant was derived Klebsiella, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as well as biochemical and physiological analyses. The composition of ZZ-3 was found to be 84.6% polysaccharides and 6.1% protein. More specifically, the amount (moles) of the polysaccharides rhamnose, mannose, and galactose were found to be 6.48, 2.47, and 1.74 greater than glucose, respectively. Results show ZZ-3 has a relatively high molecular weight (603-1820 kDa) and contains many functional groups (hydroxyl, amide, carboxyl, and methoxyl) that likely contribute to flocculation. The results of microscopic observation, zeta potential measurements, and ZZ-3 bioflocculant structure suggested that bridging was the main mechanism for flocculation with kaolin. Based on a high flocculation efficiency, thermal stability, pH tolerance and the ability to flocculate without additional cations, ZZ-3 shows potential for industrial application.
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Determination of trace acrylamide in starchy foodstuffs by HPLC using a novel mixed-mode functionalized calixarene sorbent for solid-phase extraction cleanup.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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In this paper, a rapid and effective HPLC method, using tetraazacalix[2]arene[2]triazine-modified silica gel (NCSi) as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, was developed for the purification and determination of trace acrylamide in starchy foodstuffs. The main influence factors of SPE including amount of NCSi sorbent, sample flow rate, and volume and composition of washing solution were investigated and evaluated in the sample pretreatment step. The optimized purification effect was achieved at the sample flow rate of 3 mL/min with 100 mg of NCSi and 2 mL of washing solution (water, 100%). The HPLC separation was carried out on a C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d., 5 ?m) with a mobile phase of methanol/water (10:90, v/v). The linear range of the calibration curve was 4-4000 ng/mL with s correlation coefficient of >0.9999. The intraday and interday RSDs (n=5) of peak areas of acrylamide were 0.22 and 0.90% and the intraday and interday RSDs (n=5) of retention times were 0.50 and 1.63%, respectively. In addition, overall recoveries through the extraction and NCSi-SPE purification ranged from 73.13 to 98%. Compared with the commercial SPE sorbents, NCSi featured excellent selectivity to retain polar and nonpolar interferences in the sample matrices. The improved method was simple, rapid, accurate, and promising for the determination of trace acrylamide in starchy foods with a complex matrix.
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[Risk factors of bronchial asthma among people aged over 14 years in China].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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To survey the risk factors of asthma among the people aged over 14 years in China.
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Association of the three common SNPs of cyclooxygenase-2 gene (rs20417, rs689466, and rs5275) with the susceptibility of breast cancer: an updated meta-analysis involving 34,590 subjects.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) genes (e.g., -765 G>C (rs20417), -1195G>A (rs689466), and 8473 C>T (rs5275)). The association of these SNPs with the risk of different cancer types is still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the correlation between these SNPs and breast cancer risk in different ethnic groups. We have searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Embase for relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of the associations. A total of 13 studies (15,330 cases and 19,260 controls) were eligible for meta-analysis. This meta-analysis showed that COX-2 rs20417 polymorphism was correlated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Caucasians, while rs689466 was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in Caucasians. The rs5275 polymorphism had no association with breast cancer risk.
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Discovering novel anti-HCV compounds with inhibitory activities toward HCV NS3/4A protease.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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To discover novel hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibitors and elucidate the mechanism of action of the active compounds.
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Ameloblastic carcinoma: An analysis of 12 cases with a review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The diagnosis of ameloblastic carcinoma is often difficult and the optimal treatment methods remain controversial. The current study retrospectively investigated the optimal diagnosis and treatment methods of 12 ameloblastic carcinoma patients at the West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University (Chengdu, China), and 20 patients selected from the PubMed database, were reviewed. The clinical features, diagnosis and outcome of the different treatments were evaluated. Ameloblastic carcinoma occurred in 12 out of a total of 538 ameloblastoma patients; the majority were of the primary type. Of the 538 ameloblastoma patients, 294 were male, 244 were female with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. The predilection age is 20-30 years, which accounts for 40% of the total. In total, 461 cases were in the mandible and 77 were located in the maxilla. The cure rate of the primary type and the recurrence rate of the secondary type tumors were higher in the patients from the West China Hospital of Stomatology compared with those reported in the literature. In particular, a case with a long-term survival of 30 years is presented, which is considered to be relatively rare. The evolution of the clinical course has experienced three stages: Ameloblastoma (1978) followed by metastatic ameloblastoma (2000) and finally ameloblastic carcinoma (2008). To avoid recurrence, wide local excision with postoperative radiation therapy is required. While novel therapeutic regimens should also be considered as appropriate, including carbon ion therapy and Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery. However, controlled studies with larger groups of patients are required to increase the accuracy of results.
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Comparative proteomic analyses reveal that the regulators of G-protein signaling proteins regulate amino acid metabolism of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae encodes eight regulators of G-protein (GTP-binding protein) signaling (RGS) proteins MoRgs1-MoRgs8 that orchestrate the growth, asexual/sexual production, appressorium differentiation, and pathogenicity. To address the mechanisms by which MoRgs proteins function, we conducted a 2DE proteome study and identified 82 differentially expressed proteins by comparing five ?Morgs mutants with wild-type Guy11 strain. We found that the abundances of eight amino acid (AA) biosynthesis or degradation associated proteins were markedly altered in five ?Morgs mutants, indicating one of the main collective roles for the MoRgs proteins is to influence AA metabolism. We showed that MoRgs proteins have distinct roles in AA metabolism and nutrient responses from growth assays. In addition, we characterized MoLys20 (Lys is lysine), a homocitrate synthase, whose abundance was significantly decreased in the ?Morgs mutants. The ?Molys20 mutant is auxotrophic for lys and exogenous lys could partially rescue its auxotrophic defects. Deletion of MoLYS20 resulted in defects in conidiation and infection, as well as pathogenicity on rice. Overall, our results indicate that one of the critical roles for MoRgs proteins is to regulate AA metabolism, and that MoLys20 may be directly or indirectly regulated by MoRgs and participated in lys biosynthesis, thereby affecting fungal development and pathogenicity.
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Systematic review of high-dose and standard-dose chemotherapies in the treatment of primary well-differentiated osteosarcoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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The objective of this study is to evaluate whether high-dose chemotherapy is more efficacious than standard-dose chemotherapy in the treatment of primary well-differentiated osteosarcoma. The Cochrane systematic evaluation method was adopted. A database search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, OVID, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database and the Chinese Biomedical Literature CD-ROM Database. The quality of the included studies was jointly evaluated by two reviewers, and homogeneous studies were included for meta-analysis. A total of five studies were included in this meta-analysis, with 1,415 subjects with primary, nonmetastatic, well-differentiated osteosarcoma in the limbs. No statistically significant differences were found between the high-dose chemotherapy group and the low-dose group in 5-year event-free survival [RR 1.04, 95 %CI (0.95, 1.13)], 5-year overall survival [RR 1.02, 95 %CI (0.95, 1.10)], local recurrence rate [RR 0.90, 95 %CI (0.59, 1.39)], proportion of subjects with good histological response [RR 0.93, 95 %CI (0.81, 1.07)], or limb salvage rate [RR 0.97, 95 %CI (0.92, 1.02)]. A statistically significant difference was observed in the 5-year event-free survival between the subjects with good histological response to preoperative chemotherapy and the subjects with poor histological response [RR 1.55, 95 %CI (1.19, 2.00), P?
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Threonine deaminase MoIlv1 is important for conidiogenesis and pathogenesis in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Threonine deaminase is the first critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which catalyzes threonine into NH2 and ketobutyrate acid. Previously, we identified and characterized two acetolactate synthases MoIlv2 and MoIlv6 that are involved in the second step of BCAA biosynthesis. Deletion of MoILV2 and MoILV6 resulted in auxotrophy for leucine, isoleucine, and valine and defects in conidiation, appressorial penetration, and pathogenicity. Here, we identified a threonine dehydratase, named MoIlv1, from M. oryzae. MoIlv1 is a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ilv1p, which has an important role in the biosynthesis of isoleucine. To characterize the function of MoIlv1, a ?Moilv1 knock-out mutant was generated and analyzed. Disruption of MoILV1 resulted in abnormal conidial morphology, reduced conidiation, limited appressorium-mediated penetration, and attenuated virulence on both barley and rice seedlings. Further analysis by domain-specific deletion revealed that the PALP domain is indispensable for MoIlv1 function. Our study indicates that MoIlv1 is a protein involved in isoleucine biosynthesis that underlies the complex process governing morphogenesis, appressorium formation, invasive hyphae growth, and pathogenicity.
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Assessment of CSF A?42 as an aid to discriminating Alzheimer's disease from other dementias and mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis of 50 studies.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) is usually difficult to differentiate from other dementias or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical importance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ?-amyloid 42 (A?42) in MCI, AD and other dementias, more specifically: frontotemporal dementia (FTD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease (PD) with dementia (PDD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Fifty eligible articles were identified by search of databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Elsevier, Springer Link and the Cochrane Library, from January 1990 to May 2014. The random effects model was used to calculate the standardized mean difference (SMD) with corresponding 95% CI by STATA 9.0 software. The subgroup analyses were made on the method (ELISA, xMAP). We found that CSF A?42 concentrations were significantly lower in AD compared to MCI (SMD: -0.68, 95% CI: [-0.80, -0.56], z=11.34, P<0.001), FTD (SMD: -1.09, 95% CI: [-1.41, -0.76], z=6.62, P<0.001), PDD (SMD: -0.75, 95% CI: [-1.39, -0.10], z=2.27, P=0.023), VaD (SMD: -0.95, 95% CI: [-1.30, -0.61], z=5.43, P<0.001). In addition, compared to DLB, A?42 concentrations are moderately lower in AD (SMD: -0.27, 95% CI: [-0.51, -0.03], z=2.20, P=0.028). Results from this meta-analysis hinted that CSF A?42 is a good biomarker for discriminating Alzheimer's disease from other dementias and MCI.
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The association between serum uric acid and residual ? -cell function in type 2 diabetes.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum uric acid (sUA) with residual ? -cell function in type 2 diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed on 1021 type 2 diabetes patients. The ratio of area under curve of insulin to glucose during 0 to 30?min and 0 to 120?min of the OGTT was calculated as indices of insulin secretion function. The products of insulin secretion indices multiplied by Matsuda insulin sensitivity index were used as disposition indices. After correlation and multiple linear regression analysis, sUA was significantly associated with insulin secretion and disposition indices in male, female, and total groups adjusted for confounding factors (including metabolic indicators like sex, age, course of the disease, blood glucose, blood pressure, serum lipids, and so on). Superficially steeper time-dependent decline of insulin secretion function was found in patients with sUA above the median than those below it. In conclusion, our results suggest an independent positive association between sUA and residual ? -cell function in type 2 diabetes. Patients with higher sUA have greater insulin secretion ability than those with lower sUA at the early stage of disease, but their residual ? -cell function seems to decay more rapidly.
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A Novel Approach of INTRABEAM Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy With Breast Reconstruction.
Clin. Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Despite the advancement and increasing use of breast-conserving surgery, mastectomies, including nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM), are still carried out in a portion of breast cancer patients. However, the role of NSM is still controversial, mainly because of concern about the oncologic safety of the nipple-areola complex (NAC). INTRABEAM (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) is the most widely used mobile intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) device to date. This pilot study aims to broaden the application of the INTRABEAM system for breast cancer, investigating the feasibility of INTRABEAM IORT in NSM with breast reconstruction.
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Screening and identification of inhibitors against influenza A virus from a US drug collection of 1280 drugs.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Infection with influenza A virus is still a global concern since it causes significant mortality, morbidity and economic loss. New burst pandemics and rapid emergence of drug-resistance strains in recent years call for novel antiviral therapies. One promising way to overcome this problem is searching new inhibitors among thousands of drugs approved in the clinic for the treatment of different diseases or approved to be safe by clinical trials. In the present work, a collection of 1280 compounds, most of which have been clinically used in human or animal, were screened for anti-influenza activity and 41 hits (SI>4.0) were obtained. Next the 18 hit compounds with SI >10.0 were tested for antiviral activity against 7 other influenza virus strains in canine-originated MDCK cells, 9 compounds exhibited broad antiviral spectrum. The antiviral effects of the 9 compounds were also confirmed in human-originated A549 cells and chicken-originated DF1 cells, by infectious virus yield reduction assay and indirect immunofluorescent assay. Results from the time of addition assay showed that the 9 candidates impaired different stages of influenza virus life cycle, indicating they are novel inhibitors with different mechanisms compared with the existing M2 ion-channel blockers or neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors. Taken together, our findings provide 9 novel drug candidates for the treatment of influenza virus infection. Further mechanism of action study of these inhibitors may lead to the discovery of new anti-influenza targets and structure-activity relationship (SAR) study can be initiated to improve the efficacy of these new classes of influenza inhibitors.
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Inhibition of KL-6/MUC1 glycosylation limits aggressive progression of pancreatic cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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To evaluate the significance of KL-6/MUC1 (a type of MUC1) glycosylation in pancreatic cancer progression.
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Whole-exome and targeted gene sequencing of gallbladder carcinoma identifies recurrent mutations in the ErbB pathway.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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Individuals with gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), the most aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract, have a poor prognosis. Here we report the identification of somatic mutations for GBC in 57 tumor-normal pairs through a combination of exome sequencing and ultra-deep sequencing of cancer-related genes. The mutation pattern is defined by a dominant prevalence of C>T mutations at TCN sites. Genes with a significant frequency (false discovery rate (FDR)<0.05) of non-silent mutations include TP53 (47.1%), KRAS (7.8%) and ERBB3 (11.8%). Moreover, ErbB signaling (including EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, ERBB4 and their downstream genes) is the most extensively mutated pathway, affecting 36.8% (21/57) of the GBC samples. Multivariate analyses further show that cases with ErbB pathway mutations have a worse outcome (P=0.001). These findings provide insight into the somatic mutational landscape in GBC and highlight the key role of the ErbB signaling pathway in GBC pathogenesis.
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Expression of CD39 mRNA is altered in the peripheral blood of patients with allergic asthma.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The ectoenzyme CD39 hydrolyzes extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), which possesses pro-inflammatory properties. However, the role of CD39 in allergic asthma has not been fully elucidated. A total of 18 patients with persistent asthma who were allergic to house dust mites and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The expression of CD39, GATA3, RAR-related orphan receptor ? (ROR-?t) and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was determined by SYBR-Green I quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-17A, transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and DP.sIgE were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our data demonstrated that the expression of CD39 mRNA in PBMCs from asthmatic patients was significantly lower compared to that in normal controls [(1.49±0.59)×10(-3) vs. (2.17±0.77)×10(-3), respectively; P<0.01]. CD39 mRNA was negatively correlated with serum IL-4, IL-17A and GATA3 expression (r=-0.468, P<0.05; r=-0.550, P<0.05; and r=-0.424, P<0.01, respectively) and positively correlated with FoxP3 and TGF-? expression (r=0.373, P<0.05; and r=0.425, P<0.05, respectively). There was no obvious correlation between CD39 and ROR-?t expression (r=-0.259, P=0.122). These data suggested that CD39 mRNA expression was downregulated in allergic asthma, which was positively correlated with serum IL-4, IL-17A and GATA3 expression and negatively correlated with serum TGF-? and FoxP3 expression, whereas there was no correlation with ROR-?t. Therefore, it was hypothesized that CD39 may participate in the occurrence and progression of allergic asthma.
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Role of Nrf2 in chronic liver disease.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a central regulator of antioxidative response elements-mediated gene expression. It has a significant role in adaptive responses to oxidative stress by interacting with the antioxidant response element, which induces the expression of a variety of downstream targets aimed at cytoprotection. Previous studies suggested oxidative stress and associated damage could represent a common link between different forms of diseases. Oxidative stress has been implicated in various liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease and drug-induced liver injury. Nrf2 activation is initiated by oxidative or electrophilic stress, and aids in the detoxification and elimination of potentially harmful exogenous chemicals and their metabolites. The expression of Nrf2 has been observed throughout human tissue, with high expression in detoxification organs, especially the liver. Thus, Nrf2 may serve as a major regulator of several cellular defense associated pathways by which hepatic cells combat oxidative stress. We review the relevant literature concerning the crucial role of Nrf2 and its signaling pathways against oxidative stress to protect hepatic cell from oxidative damage during development of common chronic liver diseases. We also review the use of Nrf2 as a therapeutic target to prevent and treat liver diseases.
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Growth factor progranulin contributes to cervical cancer cell proliferation and transformation in vivo and in vitro.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The growth factor progranulin (PGRN) is overexpressed in a number of tumors. We aimed to investigate the expression and role of PGRN in cervical cancer tumorigenesis.
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Mechanism of Cu(II) adsorption inhibition on biochar by its aging process.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Biochar exposed in the environment may experience a series of surface changes, which is called biochar aging. In order to study the effects of biochar aging on Cu(II) adsorption, we analyzed the surface properties before and after biochar aging with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), and then explored the influence of the aging process on Cu(II) adsorption by batch experiments. After the aging process, the oxygen concentration, phenolic hydroxyl groups, aromatic ethers and other oxygen-containing functional groups on the biochar surface increased, while carboxyl groups slightly decreased. Thus, over a range of pH, the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and adsorption capacity of Cu(II) on the aged biochar were smaller than those of new biochar, indicating that when biochar is incubated at constant temperature and water holding capacity in the dark, the aging process may inhibit Cu(II) adsorption. Meanwhile, the dissociation characteristics of oxygen-containing functional groups changed through the aging process, which may be the mechanism by which the biochar aging process inhibits the Cu(II) adsorption. Carboxyl groups became more easily dissociated at low pH (3.3-5.0), and the variation of maximum adsorption capability (qm) of Cu(II) on the old biochar was enlarged. Phenolic hydroxyl groups increased after the aging, making them and carboxyl groups more difficult to dissociate at high pH (5.0-6.8), and the variation of qm of Cu(II) on the aged biochar was reduced.
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Clinicopathological utility of sialoglycoconjugates in diagnosing and treating colorectal cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Aberrant expression of glycoconjugates occurs during malignant transformation of cancer cells. Overexpression of sialoglycoconjugates in particular may play an important role in the progression, i.e., invasion or metastasis, of cancer. Various types of sialoglycoconjugates have been investigated to clarify their biological significance and clinical utility in diagnosing and treating colorectal cancer. This review focuses specifically on expression of mucin (MUC) 1 and it suggests that MUC1 with the specific structure of a sialo-oligosaccharide has biological significance in determining the metastatic potential of colorectal cancer cells and clinicopathological utility in evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and the prognosis for patients with colorectal cancer. Further studies are expected to contribute to the expanded use of cancer-associated sialoglycoconjugates in cancer diagnosis and therapy.
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Resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in an Asia minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax) population in China.
Pestic Biochem Physiol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Asia minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax) is a common annual grass weed of winter crops distributed across China. We conducted a study on the resistance level and the mechanism of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in a P. fugax population from China. Whole-plant dose-response experiments in greenhouse showed that the resistant P. fugax population was 1991, 364, 269, 157, and 8-fold resistant to clodinafop-propargyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, haloxyfop-R-methyl, quizalofop-p-ethyl and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl relative to the reference susceptible population, which was susceptible to all the five AOPP herbicides. Much lower R/S values of 3.5, 2.4 and 3.5, respectively, were detected for clethodim, sethoxydim and pinoxaden. Molecular analysis of resistance confirmed that the Ile2041 to Asn mutation in the resistant population conferred resistance to AOPP herbicides, but not to CHD and DEN herbicides. This is the first report of a target site mutation that corresponded to resistance to AOPP herbicides in P. fugax. Proper resistance management practices are necessary to prevent ACCase-inhibiting herbicides from becoming ineffective over wide areas.
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Integrative genomic analyses of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine and its role in cancer prediction.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), also termed osteonectin or basement?membrane?40 (BM?40), is a matrix?associated protein that elicits changes in cell shape, inhibits cell?cycle progression and affects the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM). The final mature SPARC protein has 286 amino acids with three distinct domains, including an NH2?terminal acidic domain (NT), follistatin?like domain (FS) and C terminus domain (EC). The present study identified SPARC genes from 14 vertebrate genomes and revealed that SPARC existed in all types of vertebrates, including fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. In total, 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) causing missense mutations were identified, which may affect the formation of the truncated form of the SPARC protein. The human SPARC gene was found to be expressed in numerous tissues or organs, including in the bone marrow, whole blood, lymph node, thymus, brain, cerebellum, retina, heart, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, spinal cord, intestine, colon, adipocyte, kidney, liver, pancreas, thyroid, salivary gland, skin, ovary, uterus, placenta, cervix and prostate. When searched in the PrognoScan database, the human SPARC gene was also found to be expressed in bladder, blood, breast, glioma, esophagus, colorectal, head and neck, ovarian, lung and skin cancer tissues. It was revealed that the association between the expression of SPARC and prognosis varied in different types of cancer, and even in the same cancer from different databases. It implied that the function of SPARC in these tumors may be multidimensional, functioning not just as a tumor suppressor or oncogene.
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Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase in phospholipid-templated titania and its applications in phenolic compounds and dye removal.
Enzyme Microb. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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In this study, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was encapsulated in phospholipid-templated titania particles through the biomimetic titanification process and used for the treatment of wastewater polluted with phenolic compounds and dye. The encapsulated HRP exhibited improved thermal stability, a wide range of pH stability and high tolerance against inactivating agents. It was observed an increase in Km value for the encapsulated HRP (8.21 mM) when compared with its free counterpart. For practical applications in the removal of phenolic compounds and dye by the encapsulated HRP, the removal efficiency for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, Direct Black-38 were 92.99%, 87.97%, and 79.72%, respectively, in the first treatment cycle. Additionally, the encapsulated HRP showed better removal efficiency than free HRP and a moderately good capability of reutilization.
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A new surgical approach to treat medial or low condylar fractures: the minor parotid anterior approach.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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A new surgical approach, denoted as the minor parotid anterior approach, was designed to treat medial or low mandibular condylar fractures.
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The transcription factor Pou3f1 promotes neural fate commitment via activation of neural lineage genes and inhibition of external signaling pathways.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The neural fate commitment of pluripotent stem cells requires the repression of extrinsic inhibitory signals and the activation of intrinsic positive transcription factors. However, how these two events are integrated to ensure appropriate neural conversion remains unclear. In this study, we showed that Pou3f1 is essential for the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), specifically during the transition from epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) to neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Chimeric analysis showed that Pou3f1 knockdown leads to a markedly decreased incorporation of ESCs in the neuroectoderm. By contrast, Pou3f1-overexpressing ESC derivatives preferentially contribute to the neuroectoderm. Genome-wide ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analyses indicated that Pou3f1 is an upstream activator of neural lineage genes, and also is a repressor of BMP and Wnt signaling. Our results established that Pou3f1 promotes the neural fate commitment of pluripotent stem cells through a dual role, activating internal neural induction programs and antagonizing extrinsic neural inhibitory signals.
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Photostimulable near-infrared persistent luminescent nanoprobes for ultrasensitive and longitudinal deep-tissue bio-imaging.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In vivo fluorescence imaging suffers from suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio and shallow detection depth, which is caused by the strong tissue autofluorescence under constant external excitation and the scattering and absorption of short-wavelength light in tissues. Here we address these limitations by using a novel type of optical nanoprobes, photostimulable LiGa5O8:Cr(3+) near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence nanoparticles, which, with very-long-lasting NIR persistent luminescence and unique photo-stimulated persistent luminescence (PSPL) capability, allow optical imaging to be performed in an excitation-free and hence, autofluorescence-free manner. LiGa5O8:Cr(3+) nanoparticles pre-charged by ultraviolet light can be repeatedly (>20 times) stimulated in vivo, even in deep tissues, by short-illumination (~15 seconds) with a white light-emitting-diode flashlight, giving rise to multiple NIR PSPL that expands the tracking window from several hours to more than 10 days. Our studies reveal promising potential of these nanoprobes in cell tracking and tumor targeting, exhibiting exceptional sensitivity and penetration that far exceed those afforded by conventional fluorescence imaging.
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Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF6 gene is essential in viral lytic replication.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with Kaposis's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV encodes at least 8 open reading frames (ORFs) that play important roles in its lytic DNA replication. Among which, ORF6 of KSHV encodes an ssDNA binding protein that has been proved to participate in origin-dependent DNA replication in transient assays. To define further the function of ORF6 in the virus life cycle, we constructed a recombinant virus genome with a large deletion within the ORF6 locus by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system. Stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 (wild type) and BAC?6 genomes were generated. When monolayers of 293T-BAC36 and 293T-BAC?6 cells were induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate, infectious virus was detected from the 293T-BAC36 cell supernatants only and not from the 293T- BAC?6 cell supernatants. DNA synthesis was defective in 293T-BAC?6 cells. Expression of ORF6 in trans in BAC?6-containing cells was able to rescue both defects. Our results provide genetic evidence that ORF6 is essential for KSHV lytic replication. The stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 and BAC?6 genomes could be used as tools to investigate the detailed functions of ORF6 in the lytic replication of KSHV.
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Proteomic analysis of bladder cancer indicates Prx-I as a key molecule in BI-TK/GCV treatment system.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of Bifidobacterium infantis thymidine kinase/nucleoside analogue ganciclovir (BI-TK/GCV) treatment system which was proven to exhibit sustainable anti-tumor growth activity and induce apoptosis in bladder cancer, a proteomic approach of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used. 192 down-regulated and 210 up-regulated proteins were identified after treatment with BI-TK/GCV system in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that Peroxiredoxin-I (Prx-I) was significantly down-regulated in bladder cancer after treatment. Prx-I silencing by transfection of Prx-I shRNA significantly suppressed growth, promoted apoptosis and regulated the cell cycle in T24 cells and reduced the phospho-NF-?B p50 and p65 protein expression which revealed the links between Prx-I and NF-?B pathway implied by Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). These findings yield new insights into the therapy of bladder cancer, revealing Prx-I as a new therapeutic target and indicating BI-TK/GCV system as a prospective therapy by down-regulation of Prx-I through NF-?B signaling pathway.
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IFNL4-?G Genotype is Associated with Slower Viral Clearance in Hepatitis C, Genotype-1 Patients Treated with Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Response to pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin (IFN?/RBV) treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is influenced by host genetic factors, but their role for IFN?-free directly acting antiviral (DAA) regimens is unclear. An exonic deletion allele (IFNL4-?G) bolsters the established association with IFN?/RBV therapy treatment outcome of another IFNL4 variant, rs12979860, located upstream of IFNL3 (IL28B). We report that in patients treated with the DAA sofosbuvir with RBV, IFNL4-?G is associated with slower early viral decay, due to slower loss of free virus (p=0.039) and decreased drug efficacy (p=0.048), suggesting functional relevance of IFN-?4 in IFN?-free DAA therapies.
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Amlodipine Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes and Roles of CYP3A4/5 in the Dihydropyridine Dehydrogenation.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Amlodipine is a commonly prescribed calcium channel blocker for the treatment of hypertension and ischemic heart disease. The drug is slowly cleared in humans primarily via dehydrogenation of its dihydropyridine moiety to a pyridine derivative (M9). Results from clinical drug-drug interaction studies suggest that CYP3A4/5 mediate metabolism of amlodipine. However, attempts to identify a role of CYP3A5 in amlodipine metabolism in humans based on its pharmacokinetic differences between CYP3A5 expressers and nonexpressers failed. Objectives of this study were to determine the metabolite profile of amlodipine (a racemic mixture and S-isomer) in human liver microsomes (HLM), and to identify the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in the M9 formation. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis showed that amlodipine was mainly converted to M9 in HLM incubation. M9 underwent further O-demethylation, O-dealkylation, and oxidative deamination to various pyridine derivatives. This observation is consistent with amlodipine metabolism in humans. Incubations of amlodipine with HLM in the presence of selective P450 inhibitors showed that both ketoconazole (an inhibitor of CYP3A4/5) and CYP3cide (an inhibitor of CYP3A4) completely blocked the M9 formation, whereas chemical inhibitors of other P450 enzymes had little effect. Furthermore, metabolism of amlodipine in expressed human P450 enzymes showed that only CYP3A4 had significant activity in amlodipine dehydrogenation. Metabolite profiles and P450 reaction phenotyping data of a racemic mixture and S-isomer of amlodipine were very similar. The results from this study suggest that CYP3A4, rather than CYP3A5, plays a key role in metabolic clearance of amlodipine in humans.
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Gold catalyzed nickel disilicide formation: a new solid-liquid-solid phase growth mechanism.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is the predominate growth mechanism for semiconductor nanowires (NWs). We report here a new solid-liquid-solid (SLS) growth mechanism of a silicide phase in Si NWs using in situ transmission electron microcopy (TEM). The new SLS mechanism is analogous to the VLS one in relying on a liquid-mediating growth seed, but it is fundamentally different in terms of nucleation and mass transport. In SLS growth of Ni disilicide, the Ni atoms are supplied from remote Ni particles by interstitial diffusion through a Si NW to the pre-existing Au-Si liquid alloy drop at the tip of the NW. Upon supersaturation of both Ni and Si in Au, an octahedral nucleus of Ni disilicide (NiSi2) forms at the center of the Au liquid alloy, which thereafter sweeps through the Si NW and transforms Si into NiSi2. The dissolution of Si by the Au alloy liquid mediating layer proceeds with contact angle oscillation at the triple point where Si, oxide of Si, and the Au alloy meet, whereas NiSi2 is grown from the liquid mediating layer in an atomic stepwise manner. By using in situ quenching experiments, we are able to measure the solubility of Ni and Si in the Au-Ni-Si ternary alloy. The Au-catalyzed mechanism can lower the formation temperature of NiSi2 by 100 °C compared with an all solid state reaction.
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Continuous Time Level Crossing Sampling ADC for Bio-Potential Recording Systems.
IEEE Trans Circuits Syst I Regul Pap
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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In this paper we present a fixed window level crossing sampling analog to digital convertor for bio-potential recording sensors. This is the first proposed and fully implemented fixed window level crossing ADC without local DACs and clocks. The circuit is designed to reduce data size, power, and silicon area in future wireless neurophysiological sensor systems. We built a testing system to measure bio-potential signals and used it to evaluate the performance of the circuit. The bio-potential amplifier offers a gain of 53 dB within a bandwidth of 200 Hz-20 kHz. The input-referred rms noise is 2.8 µV. In the asynchronous level crossing ADC, the minimum delta resolution is 4 mV. The input signal frequency of the ADC is up to 5 kHz. The system was fabricated using the AMI 0.5 µm CMOS process. The chip size is 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm. The power consumption of the 4-channel system from a 3.3 V supply is 118.8 µW in the static state and 501.6 µW with a 240 kS/s sampling rate. The conversion efficiency is 1.6 nJ/conversion.
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Biomarkers: Evaluation of Screening for and Early Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Japan and China.
Liver Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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Over the past few decades, the screening for and early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has attracted attention worldwide, and especially in Asian countries such as Japan and China. Such approaches can help detecting HCC at an earlier stage when curable interventions can be offered to achieve long-term disease-free survival for patients. Biomarkers have been used to screen for and diagnose HCC in various countries. In Japan, the combined tests of des-?-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) and ?-fetoprotein (AFP) or Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3) have been shown to achieve a high level of sensitivity and specificity. These tests have routinely been used to screen for HCC and are covered by Japans national health insurance. Due to the routine practice of screening for HCC among high-risk patients, HCC nodules have been detected in the early stages in more than 60% of patients in Japan. In contrast, although several remarkable advances in the management of HCC have been made in China over the past few decades, most HCC patients still present with advanced-stage disease. AFP is the only serum biomarker that has widely been used to screen for and diagnose HCC in China. In recent years, several molecular biological studies have further investigated the clinical usefulness of DCP, and they have found that it may facilitate the screening for and diagnosis of HCC and assist with the assessment of HCC progression. DCP can serve as a biomarker to detect HCC in an early stage and facilitate definitive treatment. The wide implementation of DCP is expected, especially in China where 55% of HCC cases worldwide live.
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Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with bladder cancer risk.
Jonine D Figueroa, Yuanqing Ye, Afshan Siddiq, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Victoria K Cortessis, Charles Kooperberg, Olivier Cussenot, Simone Benhamou, Jennifer Prescott, Stefano Porru, Colin P Dinney, Nuria Malats, Dalsu Baris, Mark Purdue, Eric J Jacobs, Demetrius Albanes, Zhaoming Wang, Xiang Deng, Charles C Chung, Wei Tang, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Börje Ljungberg, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Elisabete Weiderpass, Vittorio Krogh, Miren Dorronsoro, Ruth Travis, Anne Tjønneland, Paul Brenan, Jenny Chang-Claude, Elio Riboli, David Conti, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Mariana C Stern, Malcolm C Pike, David Van Den Berg, Jian-Min Yuan, Chancellor Hohensee, Rebecca Rodabough, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Morgan Rouprêt, Eva Compérat, Constance Chen, Immaculata De Vivo, Edward Giovannucci, David J Hunter, Peter Kraft, Sara Lindstrom, Angela Carta, Sofia Pavanello, Cecilia Arici, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Ashish M Kamat, Seth P Lerner, H Barton Grossman, Jie Lin, Jian Gu, Xia Pu, Amy Hutchinson, Laurie Burdette, William Wheeler, Manolis Kogevinas, Adonina Tardón, Consol Serra, Alfredo Carrato, Reina Garcia-Closas, Josep Lloreta, Molly Schwenn, Margaret R Karagas, Alison Johnson, Alan Schned, Karla R Armenti, G M Hosain, Gerald Andriole, Robert Grubb, Amanda Black, W Ryan Diver, Susan M Gapstur, Stephanie J Weinstein, Jarmo Virtamo, Chris A Haiman, Maria T Landi, Neil Caporaso, Joseph F Fraumeni, Paolo Vineis, Xifeng Wu, Debra T Silverman, Stephen Chanock, Nathaniel Rothman.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 independent susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer risk. To discover additional risk variants, we conducted a new GWAS of 2422 bladder cancer cases and 5751 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with two independently published bladder cancer GWAS, resulting in a combined analysis of 6911 cases and 11 814 controls of European descent. TaqMan genotyping of 13 promising single nucleotide polymorphisms with P < 1 × 10(-5) was pursued in a follow-up set of 801 cases and 1307 controls. Two new loci achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs10936599 on 3q26.2 (P = 4.53 × 10(-9)) and rs907611 on 11p15.5 (P = 4.11 × 10(-8)). Two notable loci were also identified that approached genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 on 20p12.2 (P = 7.13 × 10(-7)) and rs4510656 on 6p22.3 (P = 6.98 × 10(-7)); these require further studies for confirmation. In conclusion, our study has identified new susceptibility alleles for bladder cancer risk that require fine-mapping and laboratory investigation, which could further understanding into the biological underpinnings of bladder carcinogenesis.
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Fe5 C2 Nanoparticles with High MRI Contrast Enhancement for Tumor Imaging.
Small
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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An ancient material for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging: For the first time, Fe5 C2 is prepared as colloidal stable nanoparticles with good aqueous stability. The nanoparticles boast strong magnetization, excellent chemical inertness, low toxicity, and one of the highest r2 relaxivities reported to date. These nanoparticles hold great potential in MR imaging as well as in other biomedical areas.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.