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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
In situ observation of facet-dependent oxidation of graphene on platinum in an environmental TEM.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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We performed a direct observation of a crystal facet-dependent oxidation of graphene layers on platinum nanocrystals at atomic resolution in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Combined with density functional theory calculations, our work provides a novel approach for the dynamical exploration of the facet-dependent reactions at the atomic level.
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Theoretical role of adjunctive implant positional support in stress distribution of distal-extension mandibular removable partial dentures.
Int J Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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This preliminary study evaluated the adjunctive supporting role of diverse implant positions on stress distribution in a Class I removable partial denture (RPD) design. Nine three-dimensional finite element models were prepared to simulate mandibular RPD designs with three different loading conditions applied. Implantsupported designs demonstrated lower stress value concentrations and mucosal displacement.
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Association of selenoprotein S gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke in a Chinese case-control study.
Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Previous studies showed that selenoprotein S (SELS) was associated with a range of inflammatory markers, and its gene expression was influenced by a polymorphism in the promoter region. The genetic basis of the ischemic stroke has now been largely determined, so the aim of the study was to examine the role of SELS genetic variants in the ischemic stroke risk in a Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study with 239 ischemic stroke patients and 240 controls. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SELS genes were analyzed for association with the risk of ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population. No evidence of ischemic stroke association was observed with the SNP rs34713741. Interestingly, the strongest evidence showed that SELS SNP rs4965814 was associated with ischemic stroke (P?
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Study on the Anti-Gout Activity of Chlorogenic Acid: Improvement on Hyperuricemia and Gouty Inflammation.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Gout is a metabolic disorder associated with hyperuricemia resulting in the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints and tissues. Lowering serum uric acid (Sur) levels and anti-inflammation are highly essential in treating gout. Chlorogenic acid (CA), as one of the most abundant polyphenols in the Chinese medicines, has been rarely reported to have an anti-gout effect. The model of potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemia in mice and MSU crystal-induced inflammation in rats has been established in this study. The potential beneficial effects and mechanisms of CA on hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis were elucidated. The results demonstrated that CA significantly decreased the Sur level by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity but not increasing the urinary uric acid (Uur) level. In addition, CA also exhibited the effect of suppressing paw swelling. Further investigation indicated that CA improved the symptoms of inflammation induced by MSU crystals by inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). The present study suggests that CA may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application.
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A flux-gradient system for simultaneous measurement of the CH4, CO2 and H2O fluxes at a lake-air interface.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Inland lakes play important roles in water and greenhouse gas cycling in the environment. This study aims to test the performance of a flux-gradient system for simultaneous measurement of the fluxes of water vapor, CO2 and CH4 at a lake-air interface. The concentration gradients over the water surface were measured with an analyzer based on the wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy technology and the eddy diffusivity was measured with a sonic anemometer. Results of a zero-gradient test indicate a flux measurement precision of 4.8 W m(-2) for water vapor, 0.010 mg m(-2) s(-1) for CO2 and 0.029 ?g m(-2) s(-1) for CH4. During the 620 d measurement period, 97%, 69% and 67% of H2O, CO2 and CH4 hourly fluxes were higher in magnitude than the measurement precision, confirming that the flux-gradient system had adequate precision for the measurement of the lake-air exchanges. This study illustrates four strengths of the flux-gradient method: (1) ability to simultaneously measure the flux of H2O, CO2 and CH4; (2) negligibly small density corrections; (3) the ability to resolve small CH4 gradient and flux; and (4) continuous and noninvasive operation. The annual mean CH4 flux (1.8 g CH4 m(-2) year(-1)) at this hyper-eutrophic lake was close to the median value for inland lakes in the world (1.6 g CH4 m(-2) year(-1)). The system has adequate precision for CH4 flux for broad applications but requires further improvement to resolve small CO2 flux in many lakes.
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Effects and safety of iron-based phosphate binders in dialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Abstract Aim: To assess the effects and safety of iron-based phosphate binders in adult patients receiving dialysis. Methods: We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CBM for randomized controlled trials about iron-based phosphate binders in adult dialysis patients. Study quality was assessed using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of intervention. Meta-analysis was conducted by RevMan 5.3. Results: Eight studies with 2018 participants were eligible for our meta-analysis. Iron-based phosphate binders were superior to placebo (MD?=?-2.43?mg/dL, 95% CI: -3.18 to -1.68, p?
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Assessment of laser induction of Bruch's membrane disruption in monkey by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Laser-induced choroidal neovascularisation is a widely used model for age-related macular degeneration. The success rates of induction have been relatively low in large animals such as monkeys. Our study aimed to investigate the laser-induced damages to the Bruch's membrane of monkeys using the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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A novel systems pharmacology model for herbal medicine injection: a case using reduning injection.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Compared with the traditional oral administration form, injection administration is basically superior in terms of both biological availability and therapeutic effects. However, few researches have focused on the traditional Chinese medicinal injection due to the complicated constituents and the intricate mechanism of action.
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[Application of quantitative fingerprint to amino acids composition analysis of Xingnao Tongluo injection].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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To control the quality of the product, quantitative fingerprint was used to evaluate the composition of the amino acids in the Xingnao Tongluo injection.
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[Lignans isolated from stems of Sambucus williamsii and their proliferation effects on UMR106 cells].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The present study aims to investigate the lignan constituents from Sambucus williamsii and their proliferation effects on osteoblast-like UMR106 cells. Seven compounds were isolated and purified by macroporous resin D101, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, Toyopearl HW-40, ODS column chromatographies and Preparative HPLC(C-18). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods as threo-guaiacylglycerol-beta-0-4'-conifery ether (1), lirioresinol A (2), 1-hydroxypinoresinol (3), 5-methoxybalanophonin (4), balanophonin (5), 5-methoxy-trans-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (6), and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (7). Compounds 3-7 were obtained from this genus for the first time. The proliferation effects of all isolated compounds on osteoblast-like UMR106 cells were determined. Compounds 1-7 (1 x 10(-12)-1 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1)) increased UMR106 cell proliferation to some extent.
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[Influence of different processing methods on Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from Donghai cultivation base in Jiangsu province].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To study the impact of five different origin processing methods, namely natural drying, drying in baking shop, drying by microwave heating, drying in drum and drying with sulphur fumigation, on the quality of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from Donghai cultivation base in Jiangsu Province, with the contents of chlorogenic acid and galuteolin and the similarity in HPLC fingerprints as the evaluation indicators. The results showed that different origin processing methods had significant impact on the content of chlorogenic acid and the similarity in HPLC fingerprints, but with no significant difference on the content of galuteolin. By means of drying by microwave heating and drying in drum, the samples showed higher contents of chlorogenic acid, respectively 3.67% and 3.39%. The similarities of HPLC fingerprints were 0.815 and 0.793, respectively. By means of the drying in baking shop and the drying with sulphur fumigation, the contents of chlorogenic acid in the samples were 2. 87% and 2. 53% , respectively. The similarities of HPLC fingerprints were 0.964 and 0.765, respectively. The lowest content of chlorogenic acid in naturally dried samples was 1.92%. The similarity of HPLC fingerprints was 0.940. According to the findings as well as the internal control standards for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos herbs of Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co. , Ltd. , the optimum processing method for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from Donghai cultivation base was the drying in baking shop. This study provided a theoretical basis for determining the processing method for Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from Donghai cultivation base of Jiangsu Province.
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UBC13, an E2 enzyme for Lys63-linked ubiquitination, functions in root development by affecting auxin signaling and Aux/IAA protein stability.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Unlike conventional lysine (K) 48-linked polyubiquitination, K63-linked polyubiquitination plays signaling roles in yeast and animals. Thus far, UBC13 is the only known ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) specialized in K63-linked polyubiquitination. Previous identification of Arabidopsis genes encoding UBC13 as well as its interacting partner UEV1 indicates that the UBC13-mediated ubiquitination pathway is conserved in plants; however, little is known about functions and signaling mediated through K63-linked polyubiquitination in plants. To address the functions of UBC13-mediated ubiquitination in plants, we created Arabidopsis ubc13 null mutant lines in which the two UBC13 genes were disrupted. The double mutant displayed altered root development, including shorter primary root, fewer lateral roots and only a few short root hairs in comparison with the wild type and single mutant plants, indicating that UBC13 activity is critical for all major aspects of root development. The double mutant plants were insensitive to auxin treatments, suggesting that the strong root phenotypes do not simply result from a reduced level of auxin. Instead, the ubc13 mutant had a reduced auxin response, as indicated by the expression of an auxin-responsive DR5 promoter-GFP. Furthermore, both the enzymatic activity and protein level of an AXR3/IAA17-GUS reporter were greatly increased in the ubc13 mutant, whereas the induction of many auxin-responsive genes was suppressed. Collectively, these results suggest that Aux/IAA proteins accumulate in the ubc13 mutant, resulting in a reduced auxin response and defective root development. Hence, this study provides possible mechanistic links between UBC13-mediated protein ubiquitination, root development and auxin signaling.
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Screening and Identification of Multi-Components in Re Du Ning Injections Using LC/TOF-MS Coupled with UV-Irradiation.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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A high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-UV-irradiation (HPLC-QTOF-MS-UV) method was established for rapid separation and structural identification of the constituents in Re Du Ning Injections (RDNI). A total of 20 potentially bioactive compounds including 10 caffeoylquinic acids and 10 iridoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized in RDNI by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of authentic standards or literature data. In particular, UV-irradiation was employed in the identification of the cis/trans isomers of caffeoylquinic acids. Furthermore, each compound was assigned to the individual raw materials (Artemisia annua L., Lonicera japonica Thunb. or Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) present in RDNI. This is the first time that an HPLC-QTOF-MS-UV analytical method has been used for the identification of caffeoylquinic acids in RDNI.
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Chemical "top-down" synthesis of amphiphilic superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanobelts from exfoliated FeOCl layers.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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A novel chemical "top-down" method has been employed to prepare tiny Fe3O4 nanobelts. Uniform Fe3O4 nanobelts were obtained by solvothermal reduction of exfoliated FeOCl layers with the assistance of high polar solvents and a PEO-PPO-PEO stabilizer. We also studied the superparamagnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanobelts, which exhibit a magnetic saturation value as high as ?53 emu g(-1) at room temperature and a magnetic anisotropy constant up to 6.6 × 10(4) erg cm(-3). Furthermore the as-obtained product, which is amphiphilic and exhibits excellent dispersibility and redispersibility in most of the common solvents, could be readily used in various realms of biomedicine and biotechnology.
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An animal model of obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnea syndrome corrected by mandibular advancement device.
Eur J Orthod
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Summary OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to establish a stable animal model of obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and assess the effectiveness of a mandibular advancement device (MAD).
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[Stability of akebia saponin D in gastrointestinal contents of rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In order to study the stability of akebia saponin D (ASD) in biological fluids in vitro, the determination methods of ASD were established in this study. Akebia saponin D was dissolved in artificial gastric juice, intestinal juice and gastrointestinal contents of rats, respectively, then thermostatically maintained at 37 degrees C. At time intervals after degradation, samples were withdrawn and the concentrations of ASD were determined by HPLC, from which stability of it at different biological specimen was evaluated. As a result, ASD was totally degraded in large intestinal contents of rats in 8 hours. ASD was very stable in artificial gastric juice, intestinal juice and gastric contents of rats. All of the above data proved that ASD was easily degraded by coliform bacteria but stable in acid environment and with the presence of digestive enzyme.
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Pseudogene PTENP1 functions as a competing endogenous RNA to suppress clear cell renal cell carcinoma progression.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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PTENP1 is a pseudogene of the PTEN tumor suppression gene (TSG). The functions of PTENP1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have not yet been studied. We found that PTENP1 is down-regulated in ccRCC tissues and cells due to methylation. PTENP1 and PTEN are direct targets of microRNA miR-21 and their expression is suppressed by miR-21 in ccRCC cell lines. miR-21 expression promotes ccRCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion in vitro and tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Overexpression of PTENP1 in cells expressing miR-21 reduces cell proliferation, invasion, tumor growth and metastasis, recapitulating the phenotypes induced by PTEN expression. Overexpression of PTENP1 in ccRCC cells sensitizes these cells to cisplatin and gemcitabine treatments in vitro and in vivo. In clinical samples, the expression of PTENP1 and PTEN is correlated, and both expressions are inversely correlated with miR-21 expression. ccRCC patients with no PTENP1 expression have a lower survival rate. These results suggest that PTENP1 functions as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) in ccRCC to suppress cancer progression.
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Insights into the inhibition and mechanism of compounds against LPS-induced PGE2 production: a pathway network-based approach and molecular dynamics simulations.
Integr Biol (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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In comparison to the current target-based screening approach, it is increasingly evident that active lead compounds based on disease-related phenotypes are more likely to be translated to clinical trials during drug development. That is, because human diseases are in essence the outcome of the abnormal function of multiple genes, especially in complex diseases. Therefore, as a conventional technology in the early phase of active lead compound discovery, computational methods that can connect molecular interactions and disease-related phenotypes to evaluate the efficacy of compounds are in urgently required. In this work, a computational approach that integrates molecular docking and pathway network analysis (network efficiency and network flux) was developed to evaluate the efficacy of a compound against LPS-induced Prostaglandin E2(PGE2) production. The predicted results were then validated in vitro, and a correlation with the experimental results was analyzed using linear regression. In addition, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to explore the molecular mechanism of the most potent compounds. There were 12 hits out of 28 predicted ingredients separated from Reduning injection (RDN). The predicted results have a good agreement with the experimental inhibitory potency (IC50) (correlation coefficient = 0.80). The most potent compounds could target several proteins to regulate the pathway network. This might partly interpret the molecular mechanism of RDN on fever. Meanwhile, the good correlation of the computational model with the wet experimental results might bridge the gap between molecule-target interactions and phenotypic response, especially for multi-target compounds. Therefore, it would be helpful for active lead compound discovery, the understanding of the multiple targets and synergic essence of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
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Acupuncture/electroacupuncture enhances anti-depressant effect of Seroxat: the Symptom Checklist-90 scores.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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ONE HUNDRED AND FIVE PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION WERE RANDOMLY DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS: drug group (Seroxat administration), acupuncture group (Seroxat plus acupuncture), and electroacupuncture group (Seroxat plus acupuncture plus electroacupuncture). Patients' symptoms were evaluated using a psychometric questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90, before intervention and after 2, 4, 6 and 10 weeks of treatment. The individual factor scores and the total score from the Symptom Checklist-90 reduced in all three groups as treatment progressed. In the acupuncture and electroacupuncture groups, the total score and the factor scores for obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety were significantly lower than those in the drug group. There was no significant difference in the factor scores or total scores between the acupuncture and electroacupuncture groups. Some factor scores in the electroacupuncture group, such as somatization, depression, hostility, and phobic anxiety, were increased at 10 weeks compared with the respective score immediately after the course of electroacupuncture at 6 weeks. Our findings indicate that administration of Seroxat alone or in combination with acupuncture/electroacupuncture can produce a significant effect in patients with primary unipolar depression. Furthermore, acupuncture/electroacupuncture has a rapid onset of therapeutic effect and produces a noticeable improvement in obsessive-compulsive, depressive and anxiety symptoms.
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A Novel Method HPLC-DAD Analysis of the Contentsof Moutan Cortexand Paeoniae Radix Alba with Similar Constituents-Monoterpene Glycosides in Guizhi Fuling Wan.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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A variety of traditional Chinese medical formulations contain two or more herbs from the same genus or family. Although these herbs may have a similar appearance and constituents, they usually have different pharmacodynamic actions. A series of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods are developed to determine one or more compounds for quality control of medicine. As far as we know, no method has been found to determine the real ratio of the two herbs along with the prescription. In this study, we used HPLC-DAD as a way to determine the content of Moutan cortex (M) and Paeoniae radix alba (P) in GuizhiFuling Wan (GZFLW). An effective, accurate and reliable HPLC-DAD method was developed for detecting the content of M and P in GZFLW through the analysis of four monoterpeneglycosides, namely, galloylpaeoniflorin (1), paeoniflorin (2), mudanpioside C (3) and benzoylpaeoniflorin (4). Due to the different UV characteristics of the compounds, the detection wavelength was 270 nm for 1 and 2, while 3 and 4 were monitored at 254 nm and 230 nm, respectively. Four equations were put forward to describe the relationship between content of M as well as P and the four monoterpene glycosides in GZFLW. After validation, all the accuracies of the M and P contents in GZFLW were within 10%. The result showed that the method could be successfully applied to analyze the contents of M and P in GZFLW. Moreover, our method may be more widely used to control the quality of proprietary Chinese medicines, especially for those containing the same genus or family herbs, in industrial GMP production.
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Influence of Sulfur Fumigation on the Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Buds of Lonicera japonica.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Lonicera japonica flos is widely used as a pharmaceutical resource and a commonly-employed ingredient in healthy food, soft beverages and cosmetics in China. Sometimes, sulfur fumigation is used during post-harvest handling. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the chemical profile between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated samples was conducted by HPLC fingerprints and simultaneous quantification of nine constituents, including secologanic acid, along with another eight usually-analyzed markers. Secologanic acid was destroyed, and its sulfonates were generated, whereas caffeoylquinic acids were protected from being oxidized. The residual sulfur dioxide in sulfur-fumigated samples was significantly higher than that in sun-dried samples, which might increase the potential incidence of toxicity to humans. Meanwhile, compared with sun-dried samples, sulfur-fumigated samples have significantly stronger antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the joint effect of protected phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as newly-generated iridoid sulfonates.
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The activity-integrated method for quality assessment of reduning injection by on-line DPPH-CE-DAD.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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A sensitive on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was developed and validated for both screening and determining the concentration of seven antioxidants of Reduning injection. The pH and concentrations of buffer solution, SDS, ?-CD and organic modifier were studied for the detection of DPPH and seven antioxidants. By on-line mixing DPPH and sample solution, a DPPH-CE method for testing the antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully established and used to screen the antioxidant components of Reduning injection. Then, antioxidant components including caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid C, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were quantified by the newly established CE-DAD method. Finally, the total antioxidant activity and the multiple active components were selected as markers to evaluate the quality of Reduning injection. The results demonstrated that the on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was reagent-saving, rapid and feasible for on-line simultaneous determination of total pharmacological activity and contents of multi-components samples. It was also a powerful method for evaluating the quality control and mechanism of action of TCM injection.
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Polyamine Depletion Attenuates Isoproterenol-Induced Hypertrophy and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Cardiomyocytes.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Background/Aim: Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) play an essential role in cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in polyamine synthesis and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in cardiomyocytes. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the molecular interactions between polyamines, ERS and cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Myocardial hypertrophy was simulated by incubating cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in 100 nM isoproterenol (ISO). Polyamine deletion was achieved using 0.5 mM difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). Hypertrophy was estimated using cell surface area measurements, total protein concentrations and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene expression. Apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. Expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) were analyzed via real-time PCR and Western blotting. Protein expression of ERS and apoptosis factors were analyzed using Western blotting. Results: DFMO (0.5 mM and 2 mM) treatments significantly attenuated hypertrophy and apoptosis induced by ISO in cardiomyocytes. DFMO also decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the culture medium. In addition, DFMO (0.5 mM) down regulated the expression of ODC, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), cleaved caspase-12, and Bax and up regulated the expression of SSAT and Bcl-2. Finally, these changes were partly reversed by the addition of exogenous putrescine (0.5 mM). Conclusion: The data presented here suggest that polyamine depletion could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis, which is closely related to the ERS pathway. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Prolonged neuroinflammation after lipopolysaccharide exposure in aged rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Inflammation is a hallmark of several disease states ranging from neurodegeneration to sepsis but is also implicated in physiological processes like ageing. Non-resolving inflammation and prolonged neuroinflammation are unclear processes implicated in several conditions, including ageing. In this study we studied the long-term effects of endotoxemia, as systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, focusing on the role of astrocyte activation and cytokine release in the brain of aged rats. A single dose of LPS (2 mg/kg) or 0.9% saline was injected intraperitoneally in aged rats. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF? and IL-1?) and NF-?B p65 activation were measured systemically and in hippocampal tissue. Astrocytes and cytokines release in the CNS were detected via double immunofluorescence staining at different time-points up to day 30. Serum levels of TNF? and IL-1? were significantly increased acutely after 30 minutes (p<0.001) and up to 6 hours (p<0.001) following LPS-injection. Centrally, LPS-treated rats showed up-regulated mRNA expression and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus. These changes associated with astrogliosis in the hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG), IL-1? immunoreactivity and elevated NF-?B p65 expression up to day 30 post LPS exposure. Overall, these data demonstrate that LPS induces prolonged neuroinflammation and astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of aged rats. Hippocampal NF-?B p65 and excessive astrocytes-derived IL-1? release may play a pivotal role in regulating long-lasting neuroinflammation.
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Paeonol attenuates advanced oxidation protein product-induced oxidative stress injury in THP-1 macrophages.
Pharmacology
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone) is thought to possess a broad range of clinically curative effects that are likely mediated by its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.
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Characterization of the microbial community in different types of Daqu samples as revealed by 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA gene clone libraries.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Daqu is a fermentative saccharification agent that is used to initiate fermentation in the production of Chinese liquor and vinegar. Different types of Daqu can be distinguished based on the maximum fermentation temperature, location of production, and raw materials used. We aimed to characterize and distinguish the different types of Daqu using a culture-independent cloning method. The lowest microbial diversity was found in Daqu produced at high-temperature. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to compare the bacterial composition of Daqu from different regions (i.e., northern Daqu and southern Daqu). Staphylococcus gallinarum and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were found in southern Daqu, and were absent in northern Daqu. The fungi Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Lichtheimia ramosa dominated in low/medium-temperature Daqu, whereas Thermomyces lanuginosus occurred in high-temperature Daqu. Our study identified potential biomarkers for the different types of Daqu, which can be useful for quality control and technology development of liquor or vinegar production.
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Ulcerative colitis combined with acute interstitial lung disease and airway disease: A case report and literature review.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features of ulcerative colitis (UC) combined with acute interstitial lung disease (ILD). One case with acute UC combined with ILD and airway disease was reported, and the pathological diagnosis of previous cases of UC combined with ILD was retrospectively analyzed according to the corresponding literature. The present case concerned a male patient with UC who presented with dry cough and progressive dyspnea. The chest computed tomography (CT) images showed as normal on the seventh day; diffuse ground-glass shadows were observed on the 11th day and diffuse reticular, patchy, nodular shadows and lung cysts were observed on the 21st day. The results of an open lung biopsy on the 23rd day indicated pleural adhesions, and the pathologies were pulmonary fibrosis and airway inflammation. Glucocorticoid therapy was ineffective in the patient, but cyclophosphamide combined with ? globulin rapidly caused the disease to remit. A total of 24 cases with UC combined with ILD and two cases of UC combined with acute ILD were retrieved through PubMed. UC combined with acute ILD was rare in clinical practice. Patients with dry cough, progressive dyspnea and diffuse ground-glass shadows in pulmonary CT images should be closely monitored. Glucocorticoid therapy should be carefully selected and precautions should be taken against opportunistic infections of the lung. Cyclophosphamide combined with ? globulin may be an effective treatment strategy.
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Prognosis in very young women with triple-negative breast cancer: retrospective study of 216 cases.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The aim of this investigation was to compare clinical pathological characteristics and prognosis of very young and older triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients in order to assess their relevance to TNBC in an younger population. Data of TNBC patients diagnosed between 2002 and 2007 were retrospectively analyzed by computer based chart information. Baseline tumor characteristics, biological markers, and patients' prognosis were compared between very young (?35 years) and older (>35 years) TNBC patients. In the 216 cases of operable TNBC patients, 48 (22.2 %) were ?35 years and 168 (77.8 %) were >35 years. Very young TNBC patients had showed a high clinical stage, more positive lymph nodes, Ck5/6 and/or EGFR expression (P = 0.049, 0.006, and 0.011, respectively). Compared to older TNBC patients, very young TNBC patients have short disease-free survival (P = 0.031), while no significant difference was found in overall survival (OS) (P = 0.075). In multivariate analysis, lymph node metastatic status was a significant predictor of OS. TNBC of very young patients is an aggressive breast cancer subtype, but the overall survival of both young and older TNBC patients did not have significant differences.
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Chemical Profiling of an Antimigraine Herbal Preparation, Tianshu Capsule, Based on the Combination of HPLC, LC-DAD-MS (n) , and LC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF/MS Analyses.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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Chemical profiling is always the first task in the standardization and modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine. HPLC and LC-MS were employed to find out the common chromatographic peaks in various batches of Tianshu Capsule (TSC) and the contribution of the characteristic peaks from individual herbs to the whole chromatographic profile of TSC sample. A total of 38 constituents were identified in TSC sample based on the comparison of retention time and UV spectra with authentic compounds as well as by summarized MS fragmentation rules and matching of empirical molecular formula with those of published components. This is the first systematic report on the chemical profiling of the commercial TSC product, which provides the sufficiently chemical evidence for the global quality evaluation of TSC products.
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Incorporation of heterostructured Sn/SnO nanoparticles in crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets for application as anodes in lithium-ion batteries.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Sn/SnO nanoparticles are incorporated in crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets by a simple melting diffusion method. The resulting composite exhibits large specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and high rate capability as an anode for lithium-ion batteries.
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In vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of strictosamide from Nauclea officinalis.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Abstract Context: Strictosamide is the main representative constituent of Nauclea officinalis Pierre ex Pitard (Rubiaceae), which has been used for a long time in China to treat diseases related to infection and inflammation, but its pharmacological activities are not well studied.
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Efficacy and safety of lanthanum carbonate versus calcium-based phosphate binders in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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We conducted this review to assess the relative efficacy and safety of lanthanum carbonate versus calcium-based phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.
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Simultaneous quantification of Akebia saponin D and its five metabolites in human intestinal bacteria using ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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A rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ/MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantification of Akebia saponin D (ASD) and its five metabolites in intestinal mixtures of bacteria from human feces. After protein precipitation, the analytes and internal standard (IS), glycyrrhetinic acid, were determined in selected ion recording (SIR) mode with negative ion ESI source. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7?m) using gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of solvents A (acetonitrile) and B (0.1% aqueous formic acid) at the flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Each sample was chromatographed within 10.5min including equilibration time. The linearity ranged from 0.1 to 100?g/mL for ASD, and 2-1000ng/mL for five metabolites, Dipsacus saponin A (M1), HN-saponin F (M2), hederagenin-28-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (M3), Akebia saponin PA (M4), hederagenin (M5). The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.41, 0.59, 0.61, 0.55, 0.52 and 0.31ng/mL for ASD, M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was all within 11.1% and accuracy ranged from -8.33% to 12.47%. The conversion rate of five metabolites was 41.21% in 24h. The method was validated and successfully applied to quantification of ASD and its five metabolites in human intestinal bacteria.
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Dihydrochalcones and homoisoflavanes from the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Chinese dragon's blood).
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Two new dihydrochalcones, 4-hydroxy-2,4'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (1) and 3,4'-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (2), and a new homoisoflavane, 7,3'-dihydroxy-8,4'-dimethoxyhomoisoflavane (3), along with 12 known compounds (4-15), were isolated from the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Chinese dragon's blood). Their structures were assigned by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Diversity of cleavage pathways were proposed for dihydrochalcones and homoisoflavanes based on the mass spectroscopic behaviors of those identified compounds using hybrid ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. All the compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, and compound 9 exhibited mild inhibition of NO production in this assay with IC50 value of 50.3?M.
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Photochemically Engineering the Metal-Semiconductor Interface for Room-Temperature Transfer Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes with Formic Acid.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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A mild photochemical approach was applied to construct highly coupled metal-semiconductor dyads, which were found to efficiently facilitate the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. Aniline was produced in excellent yield (>99?%, TOF: 1183) using formic acid as hydrogen source and water as solvent at room temperature. This general and green catalytic process is applicable to a wide range of nitroarenes without the involvement of high-pressure gases or sacrificial additives.
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Growth and bending-sensitive photoluminescence of a flexible PbTiO?/ZnO nanocomposite.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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A brushlike PbTiO3 (PTO)/ZnO nanocomposite with ZnO nanowires (NWs) grown epitaxially on the surface of single-crystal ferroelectric tetragonal PTO NWs is successfully fabricated onto a flexible substrate via a two-step hydrothermal process. In this nanocomposite, a ZnO NW grew along [0001] on the (101) plane of the core PTO NW with a lattice mismatch of 1.06% to form an effective ferroelectric/semiconductor interface. It is found that the ultraviolet photoluminescence emission of the nanocomposite could be easily tuned by its bending curvatures at room temperature. This intriguing phenomenon can be understood by the bending-induced polarization field from the PTO NW, which could reduce the bending degree of the energy band of the ZnO NWs through the interface. Throughthe design of an effective interface, this kind of ferroelectric/semiconductor nanocomposite may find potential applications in sensor and piezophotonic nanodevices.
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Fibulin-1 is epigenetically down-regulated and related with bladder cancer recurrence.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Fibulin-1, a multi-functional extracellular matrix protein, has been demonstrated to be involved in many kinds of cancers, while its function in bladder cancer remains unclear. So here we investigated the expression and function of fibulin-1 in Bladder cancer.
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Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a single ascending dose of baicalein chewable tablets in healthy subjects.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammation, fever, cough, dysentery, and hypertension. Baicalein is a flavonoid isolated from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and is a novel neuroprotective agent under development for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of baicalein and its main metabolite, bacalin, after single-dose administration in healthy Chinese subjects. The safety and tolerability of baicalein were also assessed.
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Anti-C1q autoantibodies from active lupus nephritis patients could inhibit the clearance of apoptotic cells and complement classical pathway activation mediated by C1q in vitro.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Anti-C1q antibodies are prevalent in patients with active lupus nephritis and were found to be closely associated with renal involvement and predictive for a flare of nephritis. However, the pathogenesis of anti-C1q antibodies involved in human lupus nephritis remains unclear. C1q, which plays a key role in apoptotic cell and immune complex removal, is a very important functional molecule in the pathogenesis of SLE. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of anti-C1q autoantibodies from active lupus nephritis patients on the bio-functions of C1q in vitro. We purified IgG autoantibodies against C1q from lupus nephritis patients, and found that they could recognize C1q bound on early apoptotic cells at 30?g/ml, and could significantly decrease the phagocytosis by macrophages of early apoptotic cells opsonized by 50?g/ml C1q in comparison with normal IgG. Levels of circulating immune complexes of the ten patients were measured by a circulating immune complexes (CIC)-C1q Enzyme Immunoassay Kit. Anti-C1q autoantibodies affinity purified by microtiter plates could significantly inhibit the deposition of C3c on CIC-C1q in a dose dependent manner in comparison with IgG from 10 healthy blood donors. The binding of opsonized immune complexes to RBCs was significantly inhibited by anti-C1q autoantibodies purified by microtiter plates in a dose dependent manner. Our observations suggest that serum anti-C1q autoantibodies from active lupus nephritis patients could interfere with some biological function of C1q in vitro.
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Octahedral-shaped perovskite nanocrystals and their visible-light photocatalytic activity.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Octahedral-shaped perovskite PbTiO3 nanocrystals (PT OCT) with well-defined {111} facets exposed have been successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method by using LiNO3 as an ion surfactant. The Li-O bond on the surface of PT OCT nanocrystals is essential to the stability of such nanocrystals and also results in a dramatic high visible-light photocatalytic activity.
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Activation of integrin ?1 mediates the increased malignant potential of ovarian cancer cells exerted by inflammatory cytokines.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a highly lethal gynecological malignancy since it could not be discovered until at late stage. Identifying the molecular phenotype alteration during the development and progression of ovarian cancer is an urgent demand for the targeted intervention therapy. Recently, inflammation and Integrin beta 1(ITGB1), a subunit of heterodimeric transmembrane receptors family, had been pointed out to be involved in promoting ovarian tumorigenesis and cancer progression, respectively. However, the relationship between ITGB1 and the inflammatory mediators in ovarian cancer progression remains obscure. In the present study, ITGB1 was observed to be frequently upregulated in ovarian cancer, overexpression of ITGB1 led to a more invasive and mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, our results also provided evidence concerning the role of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TGF-?1 and SDF-1) in ITGB1 expression as well as in the malignant potential of ovarian cancer cells. Consistently, sh-RNA mediated knocking down of ITGB1 evidently reduced tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination in in vivo Nod-scid SKOV3 orthotopic xenograft mice. Overall, the present data suggested that ITGB1 upregulation was involved in the regulation of tumorigenesis and disease exacerbation exerted by inflammatory cytokines as IL-6, TGF-?1 and SDF-1, and suggested that targeting ITGB1 and the underlying inflammatory modulator was an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention during ovarian carcinogenesis.
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Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres for optical measurement of ultra trace nonfluorescent cyhalothrin in honey.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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In this study, we first present a general protocol for making fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres via precipitation polymerisation. We first prepared the fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres upon copolymerisation of acrylamide with a small quantity of allyl fluorescein in the presence of cyhalothrin to form recognition sites without doping. The as-synthesised microspheres exhibited spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and highly selective recognition. Under optical conditions, polymer microspheres were successfully applied to selectively and sensitively detect cyhalothrin, and a linear relationship could be obtained covering the lower concentration range of 0-1.0nM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9936 described by the Stern-Volmer equation. A lower limit of detection was found to be 0.004nM. The results of practical detection suggested that the developed method was satisfactory for determination of cyhalothrin in honey samples. This study therefore demonstrated the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for detection of cyhalothrin in food.
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Impact of electrolytes on double emulsion systems (W/O/W) stabilized by an amphiphilic block copolymer.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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In this work, the block copolypeptide surfactant, poly(l-lysine·HBr)40-b-poly(racemic-leucine)20, was synthesized and characterized, then used to build water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions. Double emulsions are usually prepared by a two-step emulsification process and commonly stabilized using a combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfactants. Herein, we report a one-step phase inversion process to produce water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions stabilized by a synthetic diblock copolymer and electrolyte. It was found that the O/W ratio and the type of electrolyte had a marked effect on the formation and type of the double emulsions. Moreover, double emulsions containing an NaCl isotonic solution were stable for at least two months, whereas those using glucose as a substitute for NaCl showed a clear compartmental change. The mechanism behind this was related to the electrostatic interaction between the anion of the electrolyte and the cation of the polylysine residues, which affected the HLB value and curvature. This novel finding is very interesting in terms of both scientific research and practical applications.
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Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal-pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the first phase of fermentation. Next, lactic acid bacteria increased in relative abundance, resulting in an increase of the acidity of Daqu. At the final stages of fermentation, Bacillus spp. and thermophilic fungi became the dominant groups, possibly due to their tolerance to low water activity and high temperature. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses confirmed that Bacillus spp. were ubiquitous throughout the process. Yeast species such as Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Pichia kudriavzevii were present throughout almost the entire fermentation process, but the zygomycetous fungus Lichtheimia corymbifera proliferated only during the final stages of fermentation. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed the significance of acidity, moisture content and temperature in correlation with the composition of the microbial communities at different stages.
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Two new species of the genus Khorata (Araneae: Pholcidae) from China.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Two new species of Khorata are described from China: K. ningyuan sp. nov. and K. sancai sp. nov. Both species were collected in caves.
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A simple and sensitive surface molecularly imprinted polymers based fluorescence sensor for detection of ?-Cyhalothrin.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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In this study, surface molecularly imprinted YVO4:Eu(3+) nanoparticles with molecular recognitive optosensing activity were successfully prepared by precipitation polymerization using ?-Cyhalothrin (LC) as template molecules, methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the polymerization precursors which could complex with template molecules, and the material has been characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA and so on. Meanwhile, the as-prepared core-shell structured nanocomposite (YVO4:Eu(3+)@MIPs), which was composed of lanthanide doped YVO4:Eu(3+) as fluorescent signal and surface molecular imprinted polymers as molecular selective recognition sites, could selectively and sensitively optosense the template molecules. After the experimental conditions were optimized, two linear relationship were obtained covering the concentration range of 2.0-10.0 ?M and 10.0-90.0 ?M, and the limit of detection (LOD) for LC was found to be 1.76 ?M. Furthermore, a possible mechanism was put forward to explain the fluorescence quenching of YVO4:Eu(3+)@MIPs. More importantly, the obtained sensor was proven to be suitable for the detection of residues of LC in real examples. And the excellent performance of this sensor will facilitate future development of rapid and high-efficiency detection of LC.
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CCL2-dependent infiltrating macrophages promote angiogenesis in progressive liver fibrosis.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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In chronic liver injury, angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, may contribute to progressive hepatic fibrosis and to development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although hypoxia-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) occurs in advanced fibrosis, we hypothesised that inflammation may endorse hepatic angiogenesis already at early stages of fibrosis.
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The crystallinity effect of mesocrystalline BaZrO3 hollow nanospheres on charge separation for photocatalysis.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Highly crystalline mesocrystalline BaZrO3 hollow nanospheres offered higher photocatalytic activities. It is found that the highly crystalline sample can function as a "highway" for electron transport with less grain boundaries, resulting in better charge separation and thus photocatalytic performance.
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Pharmacological inhibition of the chemokine C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) accelerates liver fibrosis regression by suppressing Ly-6C(+) macrophage infiltration in mice.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Macrophages constitute a major proinflammatory component during chronic liver diseases and are considered a key factor in promoting hepatic fibrosis. However, there is increasing evidence that distinct monocyte and macrophage subsets exert critical functions in regression from organ fibrosis as well. Experimental mouse models of fibrosis regression have identified "restorative" macrophages as Ly-6C (Ly6C, Gr1) low-expressing, monocyte-derived cells. We investigated molecular pathways balancing proinflammatory and restorative macrophages during fibrosis regression as well as pharmacologically augmenting beneficial macrophage functionality in fibrosis resolution. Therefore, we employed a Spiegelmer-based inhibitor of the chemokine, C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2; monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), termed mNOX-E36, in the regression phase of two murine models of toxic (CCl4 ) and metabolic (methionine-choline-deficient diet) liver fibrosis. Although inflammation rapidly declined after cessation of injury, we observed a transient influx of Ly-6C(+) infiltrating monocytes (iM?), which are characterized by typical macrophage morphology, up-regulated expression of CCR2, and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in injured liver. By inhibiting the early influx of Ly-6C(+) iM? by the CCL2 inhibitor, mNOX-E36, the intrahepatic macrophage equilibration shifted toward the "restorative" Ly-6C(-) subset of iM?. Consequently, fibrosis resolution was significantly accelerated upon mNOX-E36 administration in both models. Blocking transient recruitment of infiltrating Ly-6C(+) monocytes, but not direct effects of the inhibitor on the remaining macrophages, resulted in reduced intrahepatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines.
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Proteomic analysis of the interaction of Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 with the intestine cells Caco-2 and identification of plasminogen receptors.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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To identify proteins with a potential role in the interaction of Bifidobacterium longum with intestinal epithelial cells, we profiled the protein response of B. longum NCC2705 following interaction with Caco-2 cells. Thirty-one protein spots, belonging to a total of 23 proteins, which exhibited a change in abundance of at least 3-fold were identified in B. longum NCC2705 following co-culture with Caco-2 cells, and were subsequently identified. Changes in expression were confirmed at the transcriptional level for a selection of these proteins. Enolase (Eno) and elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) were amongst the proteins that showed the most prominent increase in abundance. Interaction of these proteins with plasminogen (Plg) was analyzed by Plg overlay assays, glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pull down, and western blot analysis. The results suggested that EF-Tu and Eno serve as surface receptors for B. longum NCC2705 binding to human plasminogen. Purified GST-EF-Tu and GST-Eno inhibited adhesion of B. longum NCC2705 to Caco-2 cells. Collectively, our data suggest that Eno and EF-Tu moonlight as adhesions, and are possibly involved in the protective role played by B. longum NCC2705 in defense against enteric pathogens. Biological significance The interaction of bifidobacteria with the human host plasminogen/plasmin system confirms the existence of a new component in the molecular cross-talk between bacteria and the host. Our study analyzed proteins EF-Tu and Eno with Plg binding activity, and they can inhibit adhesion of B. longum NCC2705 to Caco-2 cells, suggesting their role in the bacterial adherent to the enterocyte surface.
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Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen-production performance of graphene-Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S composites by using an organic S source.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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In response to the increasing concerns over energy and environmental sustainability, photocatalytic water-splitting technology has attracted broad attention for its application in directly converting solar energy to valuable hydrogen (H2) energy. In this study, high-efficiency visible-light-driven photocatalytic H2 production without the assistance of precious-metal cocatalysts was achieved on graphene-Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S composites with controlled compositions. The graphene-Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S composites were for the first time fabricated by a one-step hydrothermal method with thiourea as an organic S source. It was found that thiourea facilitates heterogeneous nucleation of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S and in situ growth of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets. Such a scenario results in abundant and intimate interfacial contact between graphene and Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S nanoparticles, efficient transfer of the photogenerated charge carriers, and enhanced photocatalytic activity for H2 production. The highest H2-production rate of 1.06?mmol ?h(-1) ?g(-1) was achieved on a graphene-Zn0.5Cd0.5S composite photocatalyst with a graphene content of 0.5?wt?%, and the apparent quantum efficiency was 19.8?% at 420?nm. In comparison, the graphene-Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S composite photocatalyst prepared by using an inorganic S source such as Na2S exhibited much lower activity for photocatalytic H2 production. In this case, homogeneous nucleation of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S becomes predominant and results in insufficient and loose contact with the graphene backbone through weak van der Waals forces and a large particle size. This study highlights the significance of the choice of S source in the design and fabrication of advanced graphene-based sulfide photocatalytic materials with enhanced activity for photocatalytic H2 production.
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In situ catalytic growth of large-area multilayered graphene/MoS2 heterostructures.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Stacking various two-dimensional atomic crystals on top of each other is a feasible approach to create unique multilayered heterostructures with desired properties. Herein for the first time, we present a controlled preparation of large-area graphene/MoS2 heterostructures via a simple heating procedure on Mo-oleate complex coated sodium sulfate under N2 atmosphere. Through a direct in situ catalytic reaction, graphene layer has been uniformly grown on the MoS2 film formed by the reaction of Mo species with Species, which is from the carbothermal reduction of sodium sulfate. Due to the excellent graphene "painting" on MoS2 atomic layers, the significantly shortened lithium ion diffusion distance and the markedly enhanced electronic conductivity, these multilayered graphene/MoS2 heterostructures exhibit high specific capacity, unprecedented rate performance and outstanding cycling stability, especially at a high current density, when used as an anode material for lithium batteries. This work provides a simple but efficient route for the controlled fabrication of large-area multilayered graphene/metal sulfide heterostructures with promising applications in battery manufacture, electronics or catalysis.
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Truncated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 can alleviate cardiac injury in mice with viral myocarditis via infiltration of mononuclear cells.
Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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BALB/c mice inoculated intraperitoneally with coxsackievirus group B type 3 (CVB3) were allocated to five groups; namely, a viral myocarditis group infected with CVB3 alone (control group), an antibody intervention group that received intracardiac anti-MCP-1, an antibody intervention control group that received goat IgG, a tMCP-1 intervention group that received plasmid pVMt expressing tMCP-1, and a tMCP-1 intervention control group that received plasmid pVAX1. There was also a normal control group. The ratio of murine heart weight to body weight, pathological score of myocardial tissue, serum creatine kinase-MB titers and CVB3 loading of myocardial tissue were assessed. The cardiac lesions in mice that received 20, 40 or 60?µg pVMt (P? 0.05). There was also no difference between mice that received anti-MCP-1 antibody and those that received 40?µg pVMt in ratio of HW/BW, serum CK-MB titers and pathological score (P > 0.05). This study showed that tMCP-1 can alleviate cardiac lesions and cardiac injury in mice with viral myocarditis via infiltration of mononuclear cells. Thus, tMCP-1 may be an alternative to anti-MCP-1 antibody treatment of viral myocarditis. Further research is required.
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A Transcriptome Analysis Suggests Apoptosis-Related Signaling Pathways in Hemocytes of Spodoptera litura After Parasitization by Microplitis bicoloratus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Microplitis bicoloratus parasitism induction of apoptotic DNA fragmentation of host Spodoptera litura hemocytes has been reported. However, how M. bicoloratus parasitism regulates the host signaling pathways to induce DNA fragmentation during apoptosis remains unclear. To address this question, we performed a new RNAseq-based comparative analysis of the hemocytes transcriptomes of non-parasitized and parasitized S. litura. We were able to assemble a total of more than 11.63 Gbp sequence, to yield 20,571 unigenes. At least six main protein families encoded by M. bicoloratus bracovirus are expressed in the parasitized host hemocytes: Ankyrin-repeat, Ben domain, C-type lectin, Egf-like and Mucin-like, protein tyrosine phosphatase. The analysis indicated that during DNA fragmentation and cell death, 299 genes were up-regulated and 2,441 genes were down-regulated. Data on five signaling pathways related with cell death, the gap junctions, Ca2+, PI3K/Akt, NF-?B, ATM/p53 revealed that CypD, which is involved in forming a Permeability Transition Pore Complex (PTPC) to alter mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), was dramatically up-regulated. The qRT-PCR also provided that the key genes for cell survival were down-regulated under M. bicoloratus parasitism, including those encoding Inx1, Inx2 and Inx3 of the gap junction signaling pathway, p110 subunit of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and the p50 and p65 subunit of the NF-?B signaling pathway. These findings suggest that M. bicoloratus parasitism may regulate host mitochondria to trigger internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. This study will facilitate the identification of immunosuppression-related genes and also improves our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying polydnavirus-parasitoid-host interaction.
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The mre11-rad50-xrs2 complex is required for yeast DNA postreplication repair.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Yeast DNA postreplication repair (PRR) bypasses replication-blocking lesions to prevent damage-induced cell death. PRR employs two different mechanisms to bypass damaged DNA, namely translesion synthesis (TLS) and error-free PRR, which are regulated via sequential ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). We previously demonstrated that error-free PRR utilizes homologous recombination to facilitate template switching. To our surprise, genes encoding the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex, which are also required for homologous recombination, are epistatic to TLS mutations. Further genetic analyses indicated that two other nucleases involved in double-strand end resection, Sae2 and Exo1, are also variably required for efficient lesion bypass. The involvement of the above genes in TLS and/or error-free PRR could be distinguished by the mutagenesis assay and their differential effects on PCNA ubiquitination. Consistent with the observation that the MRX complex is required for both branches of PRR, the MRX complex was found to physically interact with Rad18 in vivo. In light of the distinct and overlapping activities of the above nucleases in the resection of double-strand breaks, we propose that the interplay between distinct single-strand nucleases dictate the preference between TLS and error-free PRR for lesion bypass.
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Beneficial effects of the Chinese herbal medicine Sanjie Zhentong Capsule on experimental endometriosis in rats.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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To analyze the composition of the Chinese herbal medicine Sanjie Zhentong Capsule (SJZTC) and test the therapeutic efficacy of each component in a rat model of endometriosis.
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Adsorption of chloro-anilines from solution by modified peanut husk in fixed-bed column.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Natural peanut husk (NPH) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as adsorbent to remove 2,5-dimethoxy-4-chloroaniline (DMCH) from solution in a fixed-bed column. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis and X-ray fluorescence of NPH and modified peanut husk (MPH) showed that CTAB had been introduced onto the surface of NPH. The effects of flow rate and bed depth on breakthrough curves were studied. The Thomas model and the Yan model were selected to fit the column adsorption data and the results showed that the Yan model was better at predicting the breakthrough curves. The adsorption quantity was up to 6.46 mg/g according to the Yan model. The bed depth service time model was used to calculate the critical bed depth from experimental data and it was directly related to flow rate. As a low-cost adsorbent, MPH is promising for the removal of DMCH from solution.
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[Study on transdermal characteristics of compound Nanxing pain-relieving cataplasm and effects of gaultherolin in prescriptions].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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To study transdermal absorption characteristics of eugenol in compound Nanxing pain-relieving cataplasm, and discuss the effect of gaultherolin on the transdermal absorption of the cataplasm.
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[Effect of meliae toosendan fructus on nerves system and its mechanism].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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To study the effect of the ethanol extract of stir-bake to yellowish Meliae Toosendan Fructus on nerve system and its mechanism.
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The p38-interacting Protein (p38IP) Regulates G2/M Progression by Promoting ?-Tubulin Acetylation via Inhibiting Ubiquitination-induced Degradation of the Acetyltransferase GCN5.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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p38-interacting protein (p38IP) is a component of the GCN5 histone acetyltransferase-containing coactivator complex (GCN5-SAGA complex). It remains unclear whether p38IP or GCN5-SAGA is involved in cell cycle regulation. Using RNA interference to knock down p38IP, we observed that cells were arrested at the G2/M phase, exhibiting accumulation of cyclins, shrunken spindles, and hypoacetylation of ?-tubulin. Further analysis revealed that knockdown of p38IP led to proteasome-dependent degradation of GCN5. GCN5 associated with and acetylated ?-tubulin, and recovering GCN5 protein levels in p38IP knockdown cells by ectopic expression of GCN5 efficiently reversed ?-tubulin hypoacetylation and G2/M arrest. During the G2/M transition, the association of ?-tubulin with GCN5 increased, and the acetylation of ?-tubulin reached a peak. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that the interaction between p38IP and GCN5 depended on the p38IP N terminus (1-381 amino acids) and GCN5 histone acetyltransferase domain and bromodomain. The p38IP N terminus could effectively reverse p38IP depletion-induced GCN5 degradation, thus recovering ?-tubulin acetylation and G2/M progression. p38IP-mediated suppression of GCN5 ubiquitination most likely occurs via nuclear sequestration of GCN5. Our data indicate that the GCN5-SAGA complex is required for G2/M progression, mainly because p38IP promotes the acetylation of ?-tubulin by preventing the degradation of GCN5, in turn facilitating the formation of the mitotic spindle.
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The human cathelicidin LL-37 enhances airway mucus production in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2013
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Airway mucus overproduction is a distinguishing feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). LL-37 is the only member of human cathelicidins family of antimicrobial peptides and plays a central role in many immune and inflammatory reactions. Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of LL-37 in the pathogenesis of COPD. Here, we investigated the effects of LL-37 on airway mucus overproduction in COPD. We observed overexpression of both LL-37 and MUC5AC mucin (a major mucin component of mucus) in airways of COPD patients and found a correlation between them. We showed in vitro that LL-37 induces MUC5AC mucin production by airway epithelial NCI-H292 cells in the absence and presence of cigarette smoke extract, with TNF-? converting enzyme (TACE)-EGFR-ERK1/2 pathway and IL-8 required for the induction. Therefore, we concluded that LL-37 enhances the mucus production in COPD airways, thus contributing to the progression of COPD.
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[Study on antipyretic effect of Reduning injection on lipopolysaccharide-induced fever rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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To observe the antipyretic effect of Reduning injection (RDN) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fever rats and its impact on centric fever medium. Rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, the model group, the Metamizole group, and high and low-dose RDN groups. Except for the blank control group, all of the rats were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (80 microg x kg(-1)) to observe their body temperature changes. The double-antibody sandwich ELSIA method was adopted to determine cAMP content in hypothalamus and MPO in lung tissues of fever peak rats. The high-dose RDN group can obviously reduce the temperature rise in fever rats, and cAMP and MPO content in hypothalamus. RDN showed significant antipyretic effect, which may be related with the reduction of cAMP content in hypothalamus and MPO in lung tissues.
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[Studies on evaluation of sustained release tablets of extracts of Ginkgo biloba releasing rate in vitro by pharmacological indicatrix].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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Using sustained release tablets of Ginkgo bibolia extract as model drug,discuss technical feasibility of using biotic index to evaluate sustained release tablets. Chosing two pharmacological indicatrix: antioxidant ability and inhibition of platelet aggregation, to investigate the influence factors on experimental result, optimize the method and experiment condition, and set up pharmacological indicatrix evaluation method. Using those methods to determinate biological effects of dissolved liquid. Drawing release curves and biological effects curves, discussing their correlation. A good correlation was observed, illustrating that pharmacological indicatrix could evaluate sustained release tablets.
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Myeloperoxidase influences the complement regulatory function of modified C-reactive protein.
Innate Immun
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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In patients with active anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic Ab (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), there are high levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP), which can inhibit the alternative complement pathway by binding factor H and triggering the classical complement pathway by binding C1q. However, the alternative, not the classical, complement pathway has been proven to play an important role in AAV. We found that both purified myeloperoxidase (MPO) and MPO released from ANCA-stimulated neutrophils could bind modified CRP (mCRP), but not pentameric CRP. Furthermore, MPO could block the binding between mCRP and factor H, as well as the binding between mCRP and C1q. Binding with mCRP did not influence the enzymatic activity of MPO. Binding with mCRP also did not influence the binding between MPO and its physical inhibitor, ceruloplasmin, as well as the binding between MPO and MPO-ANCA. The results indicated that MPO might be a complement regulator and inhibit the negative regulatory effect of CRP on the alternative complement pathway.
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[Removal of calcium and high-strength ammonia nitrogen from the wastewater of rare-earth elements hydrometallurgical process by chemical precipitation].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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A lot of high-strength ammonia nitrogen wastewater is generated in the ion-type rare-earth elements hydrometallurgical process. Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation was chosen to remove the ammonia nitrogen from the wastewater after Ca2+ was eliminated using Na2CO3 to generate CaCO3 precipitate, because the wastewater contained a lot of Ca2+, and Ca2+ was an important impact factor for MAP precipitation. Central composite design (CCD) is a principal response surface methodology (RSM) used in experimental design. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the factors in MAP precipitation, achieving the optimal conditions and the precipitates under such conditions. Two kinds of precipitates were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that when n (Ca2+): n (CO3(2-) = 1:1.05, mix rate and reaction time were 1500 r x min(-1) and 30 min, respectively, the removal ratio of Ca2+ reached 100%; the optimal condition of MAP precipitation was pH = 9.03, n (Mg): n (N) = 1.20, n (P) : n (N) = 1.1, with a reaction time of 30 min and a mix rate of 1000 r x min(-1), the removal ratio of ammonia nitrogen reached 95.40% and the residual total phosphorus concentration was 5.65 mg x L(-1). SEM and XRD analysis showed that the two kinds of precipitates were pure CaCO3 and MgNH4PO4 x 6H2O, respectively.
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[Study on saponins in shengmai injection].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To investigate the saponin in Shengmai injection.
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Abnormal fecal microbiota community and functions in patients with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis as revealed by a metagenomic approach.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Assessment and characterization of human colon microbiota is now a major research area in human diseases, including in patients with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis (HBLC).
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Electrical stimulation induces calcium-dependent neurite outgrowth and immediate early genes expressions of dorsal root ganglion neurons.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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It has been reported that electrical stimulation (ES) can promote nerve regeneration. One of the key factors leading to the promotion is calcium, which plays a vital role in the regulation on electrical activity of neurons, but the detailed mechanism is still an open question. In this study, ES was used to stimulate cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs) and weve found that ES could greatly promote neurite outgrowth, and calcium signaling was involved in the ES-induced neurite extension in our research. Detailed pharmacological tests indicated that ES-induced elevation of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)] i ) in DRGNs was realized predominately via calcium influx and calcium mobilization, both of which contributed to enhancing neurite outgrowth promoted by ES. Additionally, a calcium-triggered c-fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcription and/or translation were discovered during the ES-induced neurite outgrowth of cultured DRGNs. To our knowledge, this is the first case of detailed snapshots of studying calcium-dependent neurite outgrowth and BDNF and c-fos expressions in DRGNs induced by ES, which may provide experimental evidence for applying ES to promote regeneration of injured nerves and to enhance synthesis of c-fos and BDNF in neurons, and may also help explore the complex molecular cascades underlying the progressive pathophysiological changes in the ES-induced nerve regeneration in future.
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Investigation into the mechanism of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. based on a systems pharmacology approach.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Though Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has long been playing a significant role in the maintenance of health for people in Asia as well as many other places, the mechanism of its action still remains ambiguous for most of the plants used in TCM, such as Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., a kind of herb that is widely used to help regulate hypertension and the immune system nowadays. However, its functioning mechanism is still unknown. Thus it is necessary to exploit the mechanism of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.
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