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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
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Draft Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant New Delhi Metallo-?-Lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-Producing Escherichia coli Isolate Obtained in Singapore.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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We report the draft genome sequence of a New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-positive Escherichia coli isolate obtained from a surgical patient. The assembled data indicate the presence of 3 multidrug resistance plasmids, 1 of which shares 100% identity with an NDM-1 plasmid isolated previously from a nearby hospital, suggesting possible local transmission.
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Genetic Signatures of HIV-1 Envelope Mediated Bystander Apoptosis.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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The Envelope (Env) glycoprotein of HIV is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence support the role of HIV-1 Env in inducing bystander apoptosis that may be a contributing factor in CD4+ T cell loss. However, most of the studies testing this phenomenon have been conducted with lab adapted HIV-1 isolates. This raises the question whether primary Envs derived from HIV infected patients are capable of inducing bystander apoptosis and whether specific Env signatures are associated with this phenomenon. We developed a high throughput assay to determine the bystander apoptosis inducing activity of a panel of primary Envs. We tested 38 different Envs for bystander apoptosis, virion infectivity, neutralizing antibody sensitivity, Putative N-linked Glycosylation Sites (PNGS) along with a comprehensive sequence analysis to determine if specific sequence signatures within the viral Env are associated with bystander apoptosis. Our studies show that primary Envs vary considerably in their bystander apoptosis inducing potential, a phenomenon that correlates inversely with PNGS and positively with virion infectivity. By use of a novel phylogenetic analysis that avoids subtype bias coupled with structural considerations, we found specific residues like R476 and N425 that were associated with differences in bystander apoptosis induction. A specific role of these residues was also confirmed experimentally. These data demonstrate for the first time the potential of primary R5 Envs to mediate bystander apoptosis in CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, we identify specific genetic signatures within the Env that may be associated with bystander apoptosis inducing phenotype.
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High prevalence of CXCR4 usage among treatment-naive CRF01_AE and CRF51_01B-infected HIV-1 subjects in Singapore.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Recent studies suggest HIV-1 inter-subtype differences in co-receptor usage. We examined the correlation between HIV-1 subtype and co-receptor usage among treatment-naïve HIV-1 subjects in Singapore. Additionally, we investigated whether the subtype co-receptor association was influenced by stage of infection.
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Phylodynamic Profile of HIV-1 Subtype B, CRF01_AE and the Recently Emerging CRF51_01B among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Singapore.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE are the predominant infecting subtypes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. The genetic history, population dynamics and pattern of transmission networks of these genotypes remain largely unknown. We delineated the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and the recently characterized CRF51_01B strains circulating among the MSM population in Singapore. A total of 105 (49.5%) newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve MSM were recruited between February 2008 and August 2009. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the protease gene (HXB2: 2239 - 2629), gp120 (HXB2: 6942 - 7577) and gp41 (HXB2: 7803 - 8276) of the env gene uncovered five monophyletic transmission networks (two each within subtype B and CRF01_AE and one within CRF51_01B lineages) of different sizes (involving 3 - 23 MSM subjects, supported by posterior probability measure of 1.0). Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the emergence and dissemination of multiple sub-epidemic networks occurred between 1995 and 2005, driven largely by subtype B and later followed by CRF01_AE. Exponential increase in effective population size for both subtype B and CRF01_AE occurred between 2002 to 2007 and 2005 to 2007, respectively. Genealogical estimates suggested that the novel CRF51_01B lineages were probably generated through series of recombination events involving CRF01_AE and multiple subtype B ancestors. Our study provides the first insight on the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and CRF51_01B viral strains circulating among MSM in Singapore.
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A non-mouse-adapted enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain exhibits neurotropism, causing neurological manifestations in a novel mouse model of EV71 infection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that has been consistently associated with the severe neurological forms of hand, foot, and mouth disease. The lack of a relevant animal model has hampered our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, in particular the route and mode of viral dissemination. It has also hindered the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic approaches, making EV71 one of the most pressing public health concerns in Southeast Asia. Here we report a novel mouse model of EV71 infection. We demonstrate that 2-week-old and younger immunodeficient AG129 mice, which lack type I and II interferon receptors, are susceptible to infection with a non-mouse-adapted EV71 strain via both the intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral routes of inoculation. The infected mice displayed progressive limb paralysis prior to death. The dissemination of the virus was dependent on the route of inoculation but eventually resulted in virus accumulation in the central nervous systems of both animal groups, indicating a clear neurotropism of the virus. Histopathological examination revealed massive damage in the limb muscles, brainstem, and anterior horn areas. However, the minute amount of infectious viral particles in the limbs from orally infected animals argues against a direct viral cytopathic effect in this tissue and suggests that limb paralysis is a consequence of EV71 neuroinvasion. Together, our observations support that young AG129 mice display polio-like neuropathogenesis upon infection with a non-mouse-adapted EV71 strain, making this mouse model relevant for EV71 pathogenesis studies and an attractive platform for EV71 vaccine and drug testing.
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Sustained high levels of interleukin-6 contribute to the pathogenesis of enterovirus 71 in a neonate mouse model.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children and has been consistently associated with the most severe complications of the disease, including central nervous system inflammation and pulmonary edema. Increasing frequency and amplitude of EV71 outbreaks have raised awareness and concerns worldwide. Previous reports proposed that overwhelming virus replication combined with the induction of massive proinflammatory cytokines is responsible for the pathogenicity of EV71. Specifically, elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were observed consistently in patients and strongly correlated with disease severity. In this study, we show in the neonate mouse model that sustained high levels of IL-6 produced upon EV71 infection lead to severe tissue damage and eventually death of the animals. Administration of anti-IL-6 neutralizing antibodies after the onset of the clinical symptoms successfully improved the survival rates and clinical scores of the infected hosts. Compared to untreated infected controls, anti-IL-6-treated mice displayed reduced tissue damage, absence of splenic atrophy, and increased immune cell activation. In addition, markedly elevated systemic levels of IL-10 were measured in the protected animals. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in virus titers between anti-IL-6-treated mice and untreated mice, indicating that the anti-IL-6 antibody-mediated protection is independent of the virus load. Our findings thus demonstrate that IL-6 plays a major role in EV71-induced immunopathogenesis. As there is still neither vaccine nor treatment available against EV71, anti-IL-6 antibody treatment represents a potential therapeutic approach to providing protection from the most severe complications of the disease.
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Clinical evaluation of an in-house human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genotyping assay for the detection of drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 infected patients in Singapore.
Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotyping resistance test (GRT) is essential for monitoring HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs). High cost and HIV-1 genetic variability are challenges to assay availability in Singapore. An in-house Sanger sequencing-based GRT method was developed at the Communicable Disease Centre (CDC), Singapores HIV national treatment reference centre for both subtype B and non-subtype B HIV-1.
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Characterization of an isotype-dependent monoclonal antibody against linear neutralizing epitope effective for prophylaxis of enterovirus 71 infection.
PLoS ONE
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of Hand, Foot and Mouth disease (HFMD) and is associated with severe neurologic complications and mortalities. At present, there is no vaccine or therapeutic available for treatment.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.