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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Comparison of different calibration approaches for chloramphenicol quantification in chicken muscle by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Matrix-dependent signal suppression often occurs in quantitative analysis by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). In this study, we investigated three calibration methods for compensation of signal suppression on chloramphenicol (CAP) quantification in chicken muscle. The data showed that the spiking recoveries by solvent standard calibration with a stable isotope labelled internal standard (SIL-IS) and matrix-matched standard calibration with a SIL-IS were significantly higher than by external matrix-matched standard calibration (P < 0.05). When the SIL-IS was used, standards prepared in the mobile phase solvent showed no significant difference as those prepared in the matrix (P > 0.05). The limit of detection (LOD) for external matrix matched standard calibration was 0.1 ?g kg(-1), and that for SIL-IS calibration (including matrix matched and solvent dissolved standard) was 0.03 ?g kg(-1).
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Integrative self-sorting: a versatile strategy for the construction of complex supramolecular architecture.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Large protein-sized synthetic supramolecular architecture is rare and certainly has not yet achieved the structural and functional complexity of biomolecules. As multiple, identical copies of a few building blocks are repetitively used, a highly symmetrical architecture results with limitations in function. In marked contrast, functional structures in nature are often assembled with high geometric precision from many different building blocks. They cooperate in a complex way realizing energy conversion, mechanical motion or transport phenomena. Beyond self-assembly, the structurally and functionally complex biomolecular machines rely on self-sorting to correctly position all subunits through orthogonal recognition sites. Mimicking such self-sorting processes is a promising strategy for supramolecular synthesis - resulting in higher structural complexity and promising access to a more sophisticated function. The term "integrative self-sorting" was coined to describe the strategy to form well-defined assemblies with well-controlled subunit positions. The key process is the incorporation of two or more orthogonal binding motifs into at least some of the subunits. Modularity and programmability based on orthogonal yet similar binding motifs generate diversity and complexity. Integrative self-sorting is thus inherently related to systems chemistry. Depending on the individual binding motifs, (multi-)stimuli responsiveness can be achieved. When different recognition events en route to the final assembly occur on significantly different time scales, kinetic pathway selection is observed. In this account, we review the modularity, programmability, and emergent properties of integrative self-sorting, emphasizing its utility and perspective for complex supramolecular architectures.
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Blockade and reversal of spinal morphine tolerance by P2X3 receptor antagonist.
Behav Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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In recent years, studies have substantiated the view that P2X3 receptors play a part in the generation and transmission of purinergic signals in inflammatory and chronic neuropathic pain. Data have also been presented to suggest that the process of P2X3 receptor antagonism inhibits inflammatory hyperalgesia, involving the spinal opioid system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the selective P2X3 receptor antagonist A-317491 on the development of antinociceptive tolerance to chronic morphine administration in mice. Daily systemic injection of A-317491 attenuated the morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance to von Frey and thermal stimuli. Repeated morphine injections alone led to a significant rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve compared with that with A-317491. A single dose of A-317491 also showed a reversal effect in morphine-tolerant mice. In a withdrawal test, co-administration of A-317491 and morphine also reduced the naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms compared with the morphine-alone group. Thus, we propose that the P2X3 receptor is involved in the process of morphine antinociceptive tolerance and may be a new therapeutic target in the prevention of tolerance to morphine-induced antinociception.
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MUC1 Promoter-driven DTA as a Targeted Therapeutic Strategy against Pancreatic Cancer.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Mucin1 (MUC1) is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and is associated with tumor aggressiveness, suggesting that MUC1 is a promising therapeutic target for promoterdriven diphtheria toxin A (DTA). Endogenous MUC1 transcript levels were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in multiple PDA cells (Capan1, HPAFII, Su.86.86, Capan2, Hs766T, MiaPaCa2, and Panc1). Expression levels were correlated with luciferase activity and cell death after transfection with MUC1 promoter-driven luciferase and DTA constructs. MUC1-positive (+) cells had significantly elevated MUC1 mRNA expression compared to MUC1-negative (-) cells. Luciferase activity was significantly higher in MUC1+ cells when transfected with MUC1 promoter-driven luciferase and MUC1+ cells underwent enhanced cell death after transfection with a single dose of MUC1 promoter-driven DTA. Interferon gamma (IFN-?) pre-treatment enhanced MUC1 expression in MUC1- cells and induced sensitivity to MUC1-DTA therapy. Matched primary and metastatic tumor lesions from clinical specimens revealed similar MUC1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) labeling patterns, and a tissue microarray of human PDA biopsies revealed increased immunolabeling with a combination of MUC1 and mesothelin (MSLN) antibodies, compared to either antibody alone. Combining MUC1 with MSLN targeted DTA enhanced drug efficacy in an in vitro model of heterogeneous PDA. These data demonstrate that MUC1 promoter-driven DTA preferentially kills MUC1-expressing PDA cells and drugs that enhance MUC1 expression sensitize PDA cells with low MUC1 expression. Implications: MUC1 expression in primary and metastatic lesions provides a rational for the development of a systemic MUC1 promoter-driven DTA therapy that may be further enhanced by combination with other promoter driven DTA constructs.
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Distal tourniquet-facilitated radial arterial cannulation in adults-a double-blinded, prospective, randomized and controlled study.
J Vasc Access
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Relatively small radial artery may be challenging for cannulation. We investigated whether a distal tourniquet would inflate the proximal radial artery and therefore facilitate cannulation in adults.
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Sensitive detection of transcription factors using an Ag(+)-stabilized self-assembly triplex DNA molecular switch.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Based on a Ag(+)-stabilized self-assembly triplex DNA molecular switch (Ag(+)-STDMS), a simple, enzyme-free and sensitive new fluorescent strategy for detection of transcription factors was developed, achieving high sensitivity towards purified targets and real biological samples.
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Dopamine release from transplanted neural stem cells in Parkinsonian rat striatum in vivo.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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Embryonic stem cell-based therapies exhibit great potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) because they can significantly rescue PD-like behaviors. However, whether the transplanted cells themselves release dopamine in vivo remains elusive. We and others have recently induced human embryonic stem cells into primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) that are self-renewable for massive/transplantable production and can efficiently differentiate into dopamine-like neurons (pNSC-DAn) in culture. Here, we showed that after the striatal transplantation of pNSC-DAn, (i) pNSC-DAn retained tyrosine hydroxylase expression and reduced PD-like asymmetric rotation; (ii) depolarization-evoked dopamine release and reuptake were significantly rescued in the striatum both in vitro (brain slices) and in vivo, as determined jointly by microdialysis-based HPLC and electrochemical carbon fiber electrodes; and (iii) the rescued dopamine was released directly from the grafted pNSC-DAn (and not from injured original cells). Thus, pNSC-DAn grafts release and reuptake dopamine in the striatum in vivo and alleviate PD symptoms in rats, providing proof-of-concept for human clinical translation.
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Interaction of NS2 with AIMP2 Facilitates the Switch from Ubiquitination to SUMOylation of M1 in Influenza A Virus-Infected Cells.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Influenza A viruses (IAVs) rely on host factors to support their life cycle as viral proteins could "hijack" or interact with cellular proteins to execute their functions. Identification and understanding of these factors would increase the knowledge of molecular mechanisms manipulated by the viruses. In this study, we searched for novel binding partners of influenza NS2 protein, the nuclear export protein responsible for overcoming host-range restriction, by a yeast two-hybrid screening, GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, and identified AIMP2, a potent tumor suppressor that usually functions to regulate protein stability, as one of the major NS2-binding candidates. We found that the presence of NS2 protected AIMP2 from ubiquitin-mediated degradation in NS2-transfected cells and AIMP2 functioned as a positive regulator for IAV replication. Interestingly, AIMP2 had no significant effect on NS2 but enhanced stability of the matrix protein M1. We further provided evidence that AIMP2 recruitment switched the modification of M1 from ubiquitination to SUMOylation occurring on the same attachment site K242 on M1, and thereby promoted M1-mediated vRNPs nuclear export to increase viral replication. Collectively, our results reveal a new mechanism of AIMP2 in mediating influenza virus replication.
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Minocycline can delay the development of morphine tolerance but cannot reverse existing tolerance in the maintenance period of neuropathic pain in rats.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Neuropathic pain is a challenge for physicians and basic science researchers because it often does not respond to routine treatment. The administration of morphine has been considered one of the effective recommended treatments, but its wide application is limited because of the development of antinociceptive tolerance. In general, basic science studies focus on neuropathic pain and morphine tolerance separately. However, we tried to investigate the effect of microglial activation on morphine tolerance in spinal nerve ligation (SNL) rats during the maintenance period of neuropathic pain. This study produced the following results. First, the repeated administration of morphine induces the development of antinociceptive tolerance during the maintenance period of neuropathic pain. Second, during the development of morphine tolerance, microglial activation, which is related to the analgesic effect of morphine, decreases in the first few days, but this pattern is reversed in the following days with the development of morphine tolerance. Third, the repeated administration of minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor, does not influence the antinociceptive effect of a single dose of morphine. Fourth, the pre-administration of minocycline can delay the development of morphine tolerance, but repeated minocycline administration cannot reverse existing morphine tolerance. We concluded that microglial activation contributes to the morphine tolerance of SNL rats in the maintenance period of neuropathic pain and that minocycline delays the development of morphine tolerance but does not reverse existing morphine tolerance during the maintenance period of neuropathic pain in rats. These findings might be useful for clinical pain management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Sex Differences in monocytes and TLR4 associated immune responses; implications for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
J Immunother Appl
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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It has been shown that TLR7 and TLR9 signaling play a role in SLE pathogenesis. Our recent study revealed that estrogen receptor ? knockout mice have impaired inflammatory responses to TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 ligand stimulation in DCs, B cells and whole spleen cells. These findings indicate that estrogen receptor mediated signaling may impact universal TLR responsiveness. Whether estrogen has a direct or indirect effect on TLR responsiveness by immune cells is not clear. There is evidence of a role of TLR4 in SLE disease pathogenesis, such as the kidney damage, the induction of CD40 and autoantibodies, the suppression of regulatory T cells, and the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?) in SLE pathogenesis that can be induced by TLR4-mediated monocyte activation, suggesting that TLR4 and TLR4 responsiveness are also important for SLE disease. This review will focus on TLR4 responses and monocytes, which are understudied in systemic autoimmune diseases such as SLE.
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Preparation of D-limonene Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsion from an Optimum Formulation.
J Oleo Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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D-limonene in water nanoemulsion is prepared from an optimum formulation by low energy process at room temperature. The phase behavior of d-limonene/isotridecanol ethoxylate-6/ isopropyl alcohol /water system is systematically investigated to identify the optimum formulation. The microstructure of intermediate phases has been characterized by optical microscope and small angle X-ray diffraction. The microstructure of formulation concentrate has been further determined by means of electrical conductivity. The droplet size of nanoemulsion has been determined by light scattering and correlated with their microstructure. The results show that d-limonene nanoemulsion with droplet size of ca. 40 nm is obtained via the addition of the optimum formulation, which is a microemulsion, directly into water. This process involves composition change from a bicontinuous structure.
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Laterally Expanded Rylene Diimides with Uniform Branched Side Chains for Solution-Processed Air Stable n-Channel Thin Film Transistors.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Molecular packing motifs in solid states is the dominant factor affecting the n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). However, few systematic researches were performed in the different extensions of ?-conjugated molecules with the uniform substitution effecting the molecular packing motifs. In this manuscript, OFET devices based on three latterally expanded rylene diimides end-functionalized with uniform 3-hexylundecyl substitution on the imide positions were systematically studied on the relationship of molecular stacking, film microstructure, and charge transport. As the ?-conjugated systems expanded from doubly linked perylene diimide dimer (d-4CldiPDI, 1), triply linked perylene diimide dimer (t-4CldiPDI, 2), to hybrid array (NDI-PDI-NDI, 3), their corresponding molecular packing motifs exhibited a divide: the optimized molecular configuration became more planar and d (001) spacing distances became larger, which resulted in a larger ?-? overlapping. Thus, an enhanced electron mobility was obtained. A typical n-channel field-effect characteristic was observed in thin film devices based on these molecules under ambient conditions. Especially, the hybrid system (3) with more planar and ?-expanded aromatic backbone exhibited superior electron mobility approaching 0.44 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and on/off ratio of 10(6) after optimal annealing in this study.
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[HPLC fingerprints of tibetan medicinal herb "songdi" (Saxifraga umbellulata var. pectinata)].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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The research was carried out to establish HPLC fingerprints of Tibetan medicinal herb "Songdi" (Saxifraga umbellulata var. pectinata), and to provide reference for identification an quality control of it. It was performed on an Amethyst-C18-P (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column with the mobile phase of methanol-0.4% formic acid in a linear gradient mode at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature was 30 degrees C, and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The software for chromatographic fingerprint was applied to analyse the pattern analysis, the common peaks and similarity. Cluster analysis was done based on the common peaks data of 33 samples from different plant species and sources by SPSS software. Ten common chromatographic peaks were identified by fingerprint, showing a low similarity in constituent and variety. Flavonoids and saponins were the principal components. The number and area of peaks were affected by the collection sources and method. The high similarity are showed by the samples derived from the same area with high accuracy and high purity. The method is so simple, exclusive, stable and high repeatable that it can provide reference for identification and quality assessment of "Songdi" (S. umbellulata var. pectinata).
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Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on expressions of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and Ki-67 in breast cancer.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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This study was designed in an attempt to determine the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2), and Ki-67 expressions in patients with breast cancer.
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Tailor-Made Rylene Arrays for High Performance n-Channel Semiconductors.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Conspectus Rylene dyes, made up of naphthalene units linked in peri-positions, are emerging as promising key building blocks to create ?-functional materials. Chemists have found uses for these ribbonlike structures in a wide range of applications of optoelectronic devices. Because their structure combines two sets of six-membered electron-withdrawing dicarboxylic imide rings, rylene diimides exhibit enhanced solubility, excellent chemical and thermal stabilities, high electron affinities, and remarkable electron-transporting properties. Among them, perylene diimide (PDI) and naphthalene diimide (NDI) derivatives are important representatives improving the performance of electron-transporting technologies, relative to their p-channel counterparts. Pioneering works by Müllen and Langhals have inspired chemists to extend the ?-conjugation along the peri-positions of rylene diimides, which generally results in impressive bathochromic shifts and a nearly linear increase in the extinction coefficient. In addition, in the past years, researchers have focused on ?-expansion of NDI or PDI systems through bay-functionalization with carbocyclic and heterocyclic rings annulated onto the skeleton. However, chemists have rarely investigated lateral expansion via both bay- and nonbay-functionalization to construct homologous series of rylene arrays with different electronic delocalization and fine-tuned flexible linkage. This is probably due to the lack of effective procedures for the (multi) carbon-carbon formation and annulation of electron-deficient rylene imide units. In this Account, we discuss our recent progress in the design and synthesis of laterally expanded rylene dyes based on homocoupling and cross-coupling reactions of core-functionalized PDIs and NDIs to achieve novel high performance n-channel organic semiconducting materials. These new achievements offer us opportunities to learn fundamental issues about how chemical and physical properties alter with incremental changes in structure. We highlight synthetic methodology of transition-metal mediated coupling reactions (and/or C-H transformation) for singly linked, doubly linked, and fully conjugated triply linked oligoPDIs, and further for the construction of hybrid rylene arrays via bay- and/or nonbay-functionalization. In addition, we summarize the informative correlations between the molecular structures and their optoelectronic properties, especially the modulation of progressively red-shifted absorption maxima and positive shifts in the redox potentials. This decreases the energy gaps and increases the electron-accepting abilities through expansion of ?-system, which has direct impacts on the compounds' potential applications in optoelectronic devices. Finally, we introduce the promising applications of these laterally expanded rylene dyes as exceptional high performance n-channel semiconductors in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and competitive candidates for non-fullerene acceptors in high efficient organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs).
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Ideal Bipolar Host Materials with Bis-benzimidazole Unit for Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Green Electrophosphorescent Devices.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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An ideal host material with high triplet energy, suitable HOMO energy level, excellent thermal and electrochemical stability, and bipolar charge carrier transport ability was synthesized. A high external quantum efficiency of 13.7% and a luminance efficiency of 48.2 cd A(-1) with low efficiency roll-off were achieved in solution-processed green electrophosphorescent devices.
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Amantadine alleviates postoperative cognitive dysfunction possibly by increasing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in rats.
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a clinical entity that is associated with poor outcome. We determined the effectiveness of amantadine in reducing surgery-induced cognitive impairment and the role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in this effect.
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Toll-Like Receptor-Triggered Calcium Mobilization Protects Mice against Bacterial Infection through Extracellular ATP Release.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Extracellular ATP (eATP), released as a "danger signal" by injured or stressed cells, plays an important role in the regulation of immune responses, but the relationship between ATP release and innate immune responses is still uncertain. In this study, we demonstrated that ATP was released through Toll-like receptor (TLR)-associated signaling in both Escherichia coli-infected mice and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or Pam3CSK4-treated macrophages. This ATP release could be blocked completely only by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), not by carbenoxolone (CBX), flufenamic acid (FFA), or probenecid, suggesting the key role of exocytosis in this process. Furthermore, LPS-induced ATP release could also be reduced dramatically through suppressing calcium mobilization by use of U73122, caffeine, and thapsigargin (TG). In addition, the secretion of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and CCL-2 was enhanced significantly by ATP, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of bacteria was also promoted significantly by ATP stimulation. Furthermore, extracellular ATP reduced the number of invading bacteria and protected mice from peritonitis by activating purinergic receptors. Mechanistically, phosphorylation of AKT and ERK was overtly increased by ATP in antibacterial immune responses. Accordingly, if we blocked the P2X- and P2Y-associated signaling pathway by using suramin and pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo(benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid), tetrasodium salt (PPADS), the ATP-enhanced immune response was restrained significantly. Taken together, our findings reveal an internal relationship between danger signals and TLR signaling in innate immune responses, which suggests a potential therapeutic significance of calcium mobilization-mediated ATP release in infectious diseases.
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Identification of reference miRNAs in human tumors by TCGA miRNA-seq data.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Although the accuracy of detecting the expression of miRNAs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is highly dependent on reliable reference miRNAs, many commonly used reference miRNAs are not stably expressed and as such are not suitable for quantification and normalization of qRT-PCR data. To solve this problem, we analyzed the global expression profiles of thousands of samples in 14 types of common human tumors released by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and identified the most stably and highly expressed miRNAs as candidate reference miRNAs in each type of tumor. We found that miR-361-5p and let-7i-5p were the most recommended candidate reference miRNAs in nine and eight types of tumors, respectively, followed by let-7a-5p, mir-28-5p and miR-99b-5p. Our results are of important value to those researchers focused on miRNA; however, these candidate reference miRNAs still need to be validated prior to their use in qRT-PCR studies.
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The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system development. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system development and related diseases.
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660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efficiencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600-1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this study, the migration and colonization of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation were detected using Transwell assay. The results showed that, after a 40-hour irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm(2), an increasing number of green fluorescence-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrated towards hypoxic-ischemic damaged primary neurons. Meanwhile, neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 10(6) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, followed by irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm(2) for 7 successive days. Shuttle box test results showed that, after phototherapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, the active avoidance response rate of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats was significantly increased, which was higher than that after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation alone. Experimental findings indicate that 660 nm red light emitting diode irradiation promotes the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thereby enhancing the contribution of cell transplantation in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.
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Halomonas shantousis sp. nov., a novel biogenic amines degrading bacterium isolated from Chinese fermented fish sauce.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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A Gram-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium, designated SWA25(T), was isolated from Chinese fermented fish sauce in Shantou, Guangdong Province, China. Strain SWA25(T) was moderately halophilic, formed colourless colonies and grew at 10-45 °C (optimum, 37 °C) and pH 4-9 (optimum, 6-7) in the presence of 0.5-22.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3 %). The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were identified as C18:1 ?7C, C16:0, C16:1 ?7c, and C19:0 cyclo ?8c, and the predominant respiratory ubiquinone was Q-9. The genomic DNA G+C content was 61.3 ± 2.1 mol %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SWA25(T) belonged to the genus Halomonas in the family Halomonadaceae. The closest relatives were Halomonas xianhensis A-1(T) (96.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), H. lutea DSM 23508(T) (96.5 %) and H. muralis LMG 20969(T) (96.1 %). DNA-DNA hybridization assays showed 30.7 ± 2.6 % relatedness between strain SWA25(T) and H. xianhensis A-1(T), and 39.4 ± 4.1 % between strain SWA25(T) and H. lutea DSM 23508(T). On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic features, strain SWA25(T) should be placed in the genus Halomonas as a representative of a novel species. The name Halomonas shantousis sp. nov. is proposed, with SWA25(T)(=CCTCC AB 2013151(T) = JCM 19368(T)) as the type strain.
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Chronic morphine treatment increased the expression of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 in rat spinal cord.
J. Integr. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Chronic morphine exposure leads to tolerance, which limits the clinical use of this potent analgesic in the treatment of severe and chronic pain. Compelling evidence suggest that neuro-immune activation (pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF) as well as neuro-inflammation have been shown to mediate the development of morphine analgesic tolerance. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR-4, have also been reported to contribute to the development of morphine analgesic tolerance. Besides, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; especially p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase), as well as nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) modulate the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance. Hence, we hypothesis the possible involvement of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88), a key adaptor protein for the TLR and IL-1R families, in the development of tolerance to morphine-induced analgesia. Our study demonstrated that chronic intrathecal morphine injection led to a robust increase of MyD88 expression in rat spinal cord. Sustained elevation of MyD88 may play a role in modulating the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance.
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Ultralong cylindrical micelles precisely located with semiconductor nanorods by solvent evaporation-driven self-assembly.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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We demonstrate the efficient incorporation of PS-tethered cadmium sulfide nanorods (PS-CdS NRs) into polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) ultralong cylindrical micelles by solvent evaporation-driven self-assembly. The hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as the surfactant in chloroform-in-water emulsions. It is a prerequisite to improve the enthalpic compatibility between the CdS NRs and the PS block of PS-b-PEO to accomplish their cooperative assembly. We investigated the effects including the concentration of CTAB in the aqueous solution ([CTAB]), the weight fraction of CdS NRs (f), the volume ratio of the organic solvent to water and the magnetic stirring rate on the cooperative assembly behaviors. The different morphologies of hybrid assemblies formed at varied [CTAB] were rationalized in view of the adsorption of the aqueous surfactant and block copolymer at the oil-water interfaces, thereby leading to the disparate mechanisms by which the organic-water interfacial instabilities proceeded. This work presents an extremely precise location of the CdS NRs in the centers of the cylindrical micelles, i.e. 95.2% of the CdS NRs were distributed in the central ca. 4 vol% regions of the cylinders and all of them were dispersed in the central ca. 38% radial spans. The length of the hybrid cylindrical micelles can reach tens of micrometers. The ultralong cylindrical micelles functionalized by the CdS NRs in the central cores can lower the toxicity of the CdS NRs and improve the biocompatibility, which have potential applications in fluorescence probes, labels and many others.
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Analysis and identification of essential genes in humans using topological properties and biological information.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Genes that are indispensable for survival are termed essential genes. The analysis and identification of essential genes are very important for understanding the minimal requirements of cellular survival and for practical purposes. Proteins do not exert their function in isolation of one another but rather interact together in PPI networks. A global analysis of protein interaction networks provides an effective way to elucidate the relationships between proteins. With the recent large-scale identifications of essential genes and the production of large amounts of PPIs in humans, we are able to investigate the topological properties and biological properties of essential genes. However, until recently, no one has ever investigated human essential genes using topological and biological properties. In this study, for the first time, 28 topological properties and 22 biological properties were used to investigate the characteristics of essential and non-essential genes in humans. Most of the properties were statistically discriminative between essential and non-essential genes. The F-score was used to estimate the essentiality of each property. The GO-enrichment analysis was performed to investigate the functions of the essential and non-essential genes. Finally, based on the topological features and the biological characteristics, a machine-learning classifier was constructed to predict the essential genes. The results of the jackknife test and 10-fold cross validation test are encouraging, indicating that our classifier is an effective human essential gene discovery method.
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Optimal interval for hot water immersion tail-flick test in rats.
Acta Neuropsychiatr
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The hot water tail-flick test is widely used to measure the degree of nociception experienced by laboratory animals. This study was carried out to optimise interval times for the hot water immersion tail-flick tests in rats.
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Assembly and architecture of the EBV B cell entry triggering complex.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the gammaherpesvirinae sub-family that predominantly infects humans through epithelial cells and B cells. Three EBV glycoproteins, gH, gL and gp42, form a complex that targets EBV infection of B cells. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules expressed on B cells serve as the receptor for gp42, triggering membrane fusion and virus entry. The mechanistic role of gHgL in herpesvirus entry has been largely unresolved, but it is thought to regulate the activation of the virally-encoded gB protein, which acts as the primary fusogen. Here we study the assembly and function of the reconstituted B cell entry complex comprised of gHgL, gp42 and HLA class II. The structure from negative-stain electron microscopy provides a detailed snapshot of an intermediate state in EBV entry and highlights the potential for the triggering complex to bring the two membrane bilayers into proximity. Furthermore, gHgL interacts with a previously identified, functionally important hydrophobic pocket on gp42, defining the overall architecture of the complex and playing a critical role in membrane fusion activation. We propose a macroscopic model of the initiating events in EBV B cell fusion centered on the formation of the triggering complex in the context of both viral and host membranes. This model suggests how the triggering complex may bridge the two membrane bilayers, orienting critical regions of the N- and C- terminal ends of gHgL to promote the activation of gB and efficient membrane fusion.
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Gene expression profiling in human lung development: an abundant resource for lung adenocarcinoma prognosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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A tumor can be viewed as a special "organ" that undergoes aberrant and poorly regulated organogenesis. Progress in cancer prognosis and therapy might be facilitated by re-examining distinctive processes that operate during normal development, to elucidate the intrinsic features of cancer that are significantly obscured by its heterogeneity. The global gene expression signatures of 44 human lung tissues at four development stages from Asian descent and 69 lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) tissue samples from ethnic Chinese patients were profiled using microarrays. All of the genes were classified into 27 distinct groups based on their expression patterns (named as PTN1 to PTN27) during the developmental process. In lung ADC, genes whose expression levels decreased steadily during lung development (genes in PTN1) generally had their expression reactivated, while those with uniformly increasing expression levels (genes in PTN27) had their expression suppressed. The genes in PTN1 contain many n-gene signatures that are of prognostic value for lung ADC. The prognostic relevance of a 12-gene demonstrator for patient survival was characterized in five cohorts of healthy and ADC patients [ADC_CICAMS (n = 69, p = 0.007), ADC_PNAS (n = 125, p = 0.0063), ADC_GSE13213 (n = 117, p = 0.0027), ADC_GSE8894 (n =? 2, p = 0.01), and ADC_NCI (n = 282, p = 0.045)] and in four groups of stage I patients [ADC_CICAMS (n = 22, p = 0.017), ADC_PNAS (n = 76, p = 0.018), ADC_GSE13213 (n = 79, p = 0.02), and ADC_qPCR (n = 62, p = 0.006)]. In conclusion, by comparison of gene expression profiles during human lung developmental process and lung ADC progression, we revealed that the genes with a uniformly decreasing expression pattern during lung development are of enormous prognostic value for lung ADC.
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Positive feedback loop of autocrine BDNF from microglia causes prolonged microglia activation.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Microglia, which represent the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), have long been a subject of study in CNS disease research. Substantial evidence indicates that microglial activation functions as a strong neuro-inflammatory response in neuropathic pain, promoting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. In addition, activated microglia release brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which acts as a powerful cytokine. In this study, we performed a series of in vitro experiments to examine whether a positive autocrine feedback loop existed between microglia-derived BDNF and subsequent microglial activation as well as the mechanisms underlying this positive feedback loop.
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[Degumming of kenaf fibers by combining steam explosion with ultrasonic treatment].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Kenaf has a high content of gum that is difficult to remove. Traditional chemical degumming process causes serious environmental pollution. To solve the problem, we developed a new method to degum kenaf. We pretreated the kenaf with steam explosion followed by ultrasonic treatment. We chose the single factor tests to select the ultrasonic frequency, sodium hydroxide concentration and processing time. Combined with orthogonal tests, we found that the optimum conditions were as follows: ultrasonic frequency was 28 kHz, sodium hydroxide concentration was 2%, and processing time was 60 min. Under these conditions, the residual gum of kenaf fiber was 9.72% and the fineness was 139.45 N(m). Steam explosion combined with ultrasonic method is effective in degumming of kenaf.
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Should genes with missing data be excluded from phylogenetic analyses?
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Phylogeneticists often design their studies to maximize the number of genes included but minimize the overall amount of missing data. However, few studies have addressed the costs and benefits of adding characters with missing data, especially for likelihood analyses of multiple loci. In this paper, we address this topic using two empirical data sets (in yeast and plants) with well-resolved phylogenies. We introduce varying amounts of missing data into varying numbers of genes and test whether the benefits of excluding genes with missing data outweigh the costs of excluding the non-missing data that are associated with them. We also test if there is a proportion of missing data in the incomplete genes at which they cease to be beneficial or harmful, and whether missing data consistently bias branch length estimates. Our results indicate that adding incomplete genes generally increases the accuracy of phylogenetic analyses relative to excluding them, especially when there is a high proportion of incomplete genes in the overall dataset (and thus few complete genes). Detailed analyses suggest that adding incomplete genes is especially helpful for resolving poorly supported nodes. Given that we find that excluding genes with missing data often decreases accuracy relative to including these genes (and that decreases are generally of greater magnitude than increases), there is little basis for assuming that excluding these genes is necessarily the safer or more conservative approach. We also find no evidence that missing data consistently bias branch length estimates.
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RNA viruses promote activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome through a RIP1-RIP3-DRP1 signaling pathway.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The NLRP3 inflammasome functions as a crucial component of the innate immune system in recognizing viral infection, but the mechanism by which viruses activate this inflammasome remains unclear. Here we found that inhibition of the serine-threonine kinases RIP1 (RIPK1) or RIP3 (RIPK3) suppressed RNA virus-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Infection with an RNA virus initiated assembly of the RIP1-RIP3 complex, which promoted activation of the GTPase DRP1 and its translocation to mitochondria to drive mitochondrial damage and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Notably, the RIP1-RIP3 complex drove the NLRP3 inflammasome independently of MLKL, an essential downstream effector of RIP1-RIP3-dependent necrosis. Together our results reveal a specific role for the RIP1-RIP3-DRP1 pathway in RNA virus-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and establish a direct link between inflammation and cell-death signaling pathways.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of red frog crab Ranina ranina (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Raninidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Abstract Although the brachyuran nature of Raninoidea is widely accepted, there is no consensus over the precise position of the Raninoidea within Brachyura. Long PCR and primer walking methods are employed to determine the first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of raninoidian crab, Ranina ranina. It is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 15,563 base pairs (bp) in length with a standard set of 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) as well as a putative non-coding control region. The gene order is substantially consistent with that of the pancrustacean ground pattern with the tRNA(His) gene rearrangement. The basal placement of R. ranina in the phylogenetic tree integrated with a similar genomic organization to ancestral pancrustacea confirmed the primitive position of R. ranina in the Brachyura.
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The MHC class II cofactor HLA-DM interacts with Ig in B cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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B cells internalize extracellular Ag into endosomes using the Ig component of the BCR. In endosomes, Ag-derived peptides are loaded onto MHC class II proteins. How these pathways intersect remains unclear. We find that HLA-DM (DM), a catalyst for MHC class II peptide loading, coprecipitates with Ig in lysates from human tonsillar B cells and B cell lines. The molecules in the Ig/DM complexes have mature glycans, and the complexes colocalize with endosomal markers in intact cells. A larger fraction of Ig precipitates with DM after BCR crosslinking, implying that complexes can form when DM meets endocytosed Ig. In vitro, in the endosomal pH range, soluble DM directly binds the Ig Fab domain and increases levels of free Ag released from immune complexes. Taken together, these results argue that DM and Ig intersect in the endocytic pathway of B cells with potential functional consequences.
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An efficient plate heater with uniform surface temperature engineered with effective thermal materials.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Extended from its electromagnetic counterpart, transformation thermodynamics applied to thermal conduction equations can map a virtual geometry into a physical thermal medium, realizing the manipulation of heat flux with almost arbitrarily desired diffusion paths, which provides unprecedented opportunities to create thermal devices unconceivable or deemed impossible before. In this work we employ this technique to design an efficient plate heater that can transiently achieve a large surface of uniform temperature powered by a small thermal source. As opposed to the traditional approach of relying on the deployment of a resistor network, our approach fully takes advantage of an advanced functional material system to guide the heat flux to achieve the desired temperature heating profile. A different set of material parameters for the transformed device has been developed, offering the parametric freedom for practical applications. As a proof of concept, the proposed devices are implemented with engineered thermal materials and show desired heating behaviors consistent with numerical simulations. Unique applications for these devices can be envisioned where stringent temperature uniformity and a compact heat source are both demanded.
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Hotspot mutations in common oncogenes are infrequent in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Oncogene mutations contribute to carcinogenesis and can provide potential therapeutic targets for clinical anticancer management. However, oncogene mutation patterns in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have yet to be fully elucidated. To gain insight into mutation patterns in NPC, a high-throughput OncoCarta panel assay was used to determine 238 hotspot mutations across 19 common oncogenes in 8 NPC cell lines and 160 NPC patient samples from southern China. Statistical analyses were further conducted to identify associations between oncogene mutations and selected clinicopathological characteristics. In total, we identified 24 mutations across 11 oncogenes in 17 (10.6%) NPC patients. Four patients exhibited mutations in at least one oncogene. We also identified a PIK3CA H1047R mutant in 7 NPC cell lines. In addition, oncogene mutations showed no correlation with either risk habits (smoking and drinking) or other clinical characteristics except for TNM stage. KIT mutations were associated with poorer overall and relapse-free survival. Furthermore, KIT mutations together with age and N stage were independent prognostic factors in NPC. Taken together, the present study is the first report on mutations in multiple oncogenes in NPC. We found that hotspot oncogene mutations are infrequent in NPC patients from southern China. The lack of hotspot mutations requires a comprehensive characterization of gene mutations in NPC for developing new therapeutic targets in the future.
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Multihost Experimental Evolution of the Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum Unveils Genes Involved in Adaptation to Plants.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of a lethal bacterial wilt plant disease, infects an unusually wide range of hosts. These hosts can further be split into plants where R. solanacearum is known to cause disease (original hosts) and those where this bacterium can grow asymptomatically (distant hosts). Moreover, this pathogen is able to adapt to many plants as supported by field observations reporting emergence of strains with enlarged pathogenic properties. To investigate the genetic bases of host adaptation, we conducted evolution experiments by serial passages of a single clone of the pathogen on three original and two distant hosts over 300 bacterial generations and then analyzed the whole-genome of nine evolved clones. Phenotypic analysis of the evolved clones showed that the pathogen can increase its fitness on both original and distant hosts although the magnitude of fitness increase was greater on distant hosts. Only few genomic modifications were detected in evolved clones compared with the ancestor but parallel evolutionary changes in two genes were observed in independent evolved populations. Independent mutations in the regulatory gene efpR were selected for in three populations evolved on beans, a distant host. Reverse genetic approaches confirmed that these mutations were associated with fitness gain on bean plants. This work provides a first step toward understanding the within-host evolutionary dynamics of R. solanacearum during infection and identifying bacterial genes subjected to in planta selection. The discovery of EfpR as a determinant conditioning host adaptation of the pathogen illustrates how experimental evolution coupled with whole-genome sequencing is a potent tool to identify novel molecular players involved in central life-history traits.
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Enhanced struvite recovery from wastewater using a novel cone-inserted fluidized bed reactor.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The feasibility of struvite recovery at low (12.5 mg/L) and high (120 mg/L) phosphorus concentrations was studied by constructing a novel fluidized bed reactor with cones (FBRwc) and without cones (FBRwoc). The crystallization process was continuously operated for 133 days under different hydraulic retention times (HRT = 1-10 hr), pH (7.5-10), and molar ratios of Mg/P (0.75-1.75), N/P (1-10) and Ca/Mg (0-2). The optimum operating conditions of HRT, pH, Mg/P and N/P molar ratios were found to be 2 hr, 9, 1.25, and 7.5, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the phosphorus precipitation efficiencies of FBRwc were 93% for low and 98% for high phosphorus influent; however, the efficiencies were 78% and 81% for FBRwoc, respectively. Due to crystal losses at each junction (17%-31%), the crystal recovery efficiency of FBRwoc was relatively low (47%-65%) for both influent concentrations. However, the losses were minimal in FBRwc, which showed 75% and 92% crystal recovery for low and high phosphorus concentrations, respectively. At low calcium concentration, crystal chemical analysis showed the product to be pure struvite (> 99%). The scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction results further confirmed that the crystal recovered from FBRwc contained pure struvite, which could be considered a high quality fertilizer. Except HRT, all parameters (pH, Mg/P, N/P and Ca/Mg) were found to be influencing factors for FBRwc performance. Overall, inserting cones in each part of the reactor played a significant role in enhancing struvite recovery from a wide range of phosphorus-containing wastewater.
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Chrysin Protects against Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice through Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Inflammation and oxidative stress play an important part in the pathogenesis of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, resulting in neuronal death. The signaling pathways involved and the underlying mechanisms of these events are not fully understood. Chrysin, which is a naturally occurring flavonoid, exhibits various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective properties of chrysin in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). To this end, male C57/BL6 mice were pretreated with chrysin once a day for seven days and were then subjected to 1 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Our data show that chrysin successfully decreased neurological deficit scores and infarct volumes, compared with the vehicle group. The increases in glial cell numbers and proinflammatory cytokine secretion usually caused by ischemia/reperfusion were significantly ameliorated by chrysin pretreatment. Moreover, chrysin also inhibited the MCAO-induced up-regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), compared with the vehicle. These results suggest that chrysin could be a potential prophylactic agent for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury mediated by its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.
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Association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor? gene Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms with cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance hemodialysis patients.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) have been shown to be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis. It remains unclear whether these two polymorphisms are associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Therefore, the PPAR? genotypes in 99 HD patients and 149 controls were determined, and clinical characteristics among the different genotypes were compared. We found that the frequency of the Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms in HD patients was similar to that in healthy controls, but C161T polymorphism and T allele frequencies in HD patients with CVD were lower than that in HD patients without CVD. Carotid artery plaque (CAP) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in HD patients with CT + TT or Pro12Ala genotypes were also less than that in patients with CCor Pro12Pro genotypes, respectively. HD patients with CT + TT genotype had lower serum C reactive protein (CRP) levels, as well as higher triceps skin fold (TSF) thickness, mid arm circumference (MAC) and mean mid arm circumference (MMAC) than HD patients with CC genotype (P < 0.05). Moreover, CIMT of the Pro12Ala-CT161 subgroup was less than the Pro12Pro-CC161 and Pro12Pro-CT161 subgroup, and, CAP amounts of the Pro12Ala-CT161 subgroup was less than the Pro12Pro-CC161 subgroup. Our results indicate that the Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms were associated with some important risk factors for CVD in HD patients in the Han Chinese population.
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Plasmacytoid dendritic cells mediate synergistic effects of HIV and lipopolysaccharide on CD27+ IgD- memory B cell apoptosis.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The effects of heightened microbial translocation on B cells during HIV infection are unknown. We examined the in vitro effects of HIV and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on apoptosis of CD27+ IgD- memory B (mB) cells from healthy controls. In vivo analysis was conducted on a cohort of 82 HIV+ donors and 60 healthy controls. In vitro exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to LPS and HIV led to mB cell death via the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathway. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produced FasL in response to HIV via binding to CD4 and chemokine coreceptors. HIV and LPS increased Fas expression on mB cells in PBMCs, which was dependent on the presence of pDCs and monocytes. Furthermore, mB cells purified from PBMCs and pretreated with both HIV and LPS were more sensitive to apoptosis when cocultured with HIV-treated pDCs. Blocking the interferon receptor (IFNR) prevented HIV-stimulated FasL production in pDCs, HIV-plus-LPS-induced Fas expression, and apoptosis of mB cells. In vivo or ex vivo, HIV+ donors have higher levels of plasma LPS, Fas expression on mB cells, and mB cell apoptosis than controls. Correspondingly, in HIV+ donors, but not in controls, a positive correlation was found between plasma FasL and HIV RNA levels and between Fas expression on mB cells and plasma LPS levels. This work reveals a novel mechanism of mB cell apoptosis mediated by LPS and HIV through the Fas/FasL pathway, with key involvement of pDCs and type I IFN, suggesting a role for microbial translocation in HIV pathogenesis.
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Asymmetric vesicle constructed by AB/CB diblock copolymer mixture and its behavior: a Monte Carlo study.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Asymmetric vesicles constructed from AB/CB diblock copolymer mixture in a selective solvent for A and C blocks are studied using Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of the mixed ratio of the two diblock copolymers, the solution pH, and the hydrophilic chain length on the distributions of hydrophilic blocks on the surfaces of asymmetric vesicles are studied systematically. The simulation results show that asymmetric vesicle, in which the inner and outer surfaces are constructed from different hydrophilic blocks, can be obtained from AB/CB diblock copolymer mixture. The formation of ABC or CBA three-layer asymmetric vesicle depends on the composition of the mixture, the chain length of hydrophilic block, and the solution pH. The hydrophilic block with the same charge (induced by the solution pH), or longer chain length, or lower content in the mixture is more likely to distribute on the outer surface of the vesicle. Moreover, the transition from ABC to CBA three-layer asymmetric vesicle in which blocks C are charged can occur by adjusting the composition of the mixture. On the other hand, the investigations of the interfacial energy density of asymmetric vesicles elucidate the distribution regularity of hydrophilic blocks. When the hydrophilic chain lengths are equal, the difference between the outer and inner interfacial energies is the main factor that determines the asymmetric vesicle structures; that is, the distributions of different hydrophilic blocks on asymmetric vesicles always tend to gain the largest difference between the outer and inner interfacial energies. However, when the hydrophilic chain lengths are different, the chain conformational entropy becomes the main driving force for determining the distribution of hydrophilic blocks on asymmetric vesicles.
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Transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor through platelet-activating factor/receptor in ovarian cancer cells.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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BackgroundWe previously identified platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) as being overexpressed in ovarian cancer and found that its ligand PAF evoked EGFR phosphorylation using the phospho-antibody microarray. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are also overexpressed in ovarian cancer and contribute to the growth of ovarian cancer cells. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of crosstalk between PAFR and EGFR signaling in ovarian cancer cells to further determine whether the interaction between PAFR and EGFR synergistic contribute to the progression of ovarian cancer.MethodsExpression and localization of PAFR in several ovarian cancer cell lines were assessed by Western blot, realtime-PCR and immunofluorescence. The ovarian cancer cells were stimulated with PAF or PAF and in some experiments also pharmacological inhibitors. Phosphorylation of proteins in signaling pathways were measured by Western blot. HB-EGF concentrations of the supernatant from stimulated ovarian cancer cells were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.ResultsOur data show that PAF increases EGFR phosphorylation through PAFR in a time- and dose- dependent manner in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. This transactivation is dependent on phospholipase C-ß and intracellular calcium signaling. This pathway is also Src tyrosine kinase- and metalloproteinase- dependent. PAF triggers EGFR activation through the increased heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) release in metalloprotease-dependent manner. Several studies involving EGFR transactivation through G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) have demonstrated EGFR-dependent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Yet in SKOV-3 cells, PAF treatment also increases ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a EGFR-independent manner.ConclusionsThe results suggest that in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells, PAF transactivates EGFR and downstream ERK pathways, thus diversifying the GPCR-mediated signal. The crosstalk between PAFR and EGFR suggests a potentially important signaling linkage between inflammatory and growth factor signaling in ovarian cancer cells.
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Phylogeography of Chinese house mice (Mus musculus musculus/castaneus): distribution, routes of colonization and geographic regions of hybridization.
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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House mice (Mus musculus) are human commensals and have served as a primary model in biomedical, ecological and evolutionary research. Although there is detailed knowledge of the biogeography of house mice in Europe, little is known of the history of house mice in China, despite the fact that China encompasses an enormous portion of their range. In the present study, 535 house mice caught from 29 localities in China were studied by sequencing the mitochondrial D-loop and genotyping 10 nuclear microsatellite markers distributed on 10 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two evolutionary lineages corresponding to Mus musculus castaneus and Mus musculus musculus in the south and north, respectively, with the Yangtze River approximately representing the boundary. More detailed analyses combining published sequence data from mice sampled in neighbouring countries revealed the migration routes of the two subspecies into China: M. m. castaneus appeared to have migrated through a southern route (Yunnan and Guangxi), whereas M. m. musculus entered China from Kazakhstan through the north-west border (Xinjiang). Bayesian analysis of mitochondrial sequences indicated rapid population expansions in both subspecies, approximately 4650-9300 and 7150-14 300 years ago for M. m. castaneus and M. m. musculus, respectively. Interestingly, the migration routes of Chinese house mice coincide with the colonization routes of modern humans into China, and the expansion times of house mice are consistent with the development of agriculture in southern and northern China, respectively. Finally, our study confirmed the existence of a hybrid zone between M. m. castaneus and M. m. musculus in China. Further study of this hybrid zone will provide a useful counterpart to the well-studied hybrid zone between M. m. musculus and Mus musculus domesticus in central Europe.
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A novel serine hydroxymethyltransferase from Arthrobacter nicotianae : characterization and improving catalytic efficiency by rational design.
BMC Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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BackgroundSerine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is the key enzyme in L-serine enzymatic production, suggesting the importance of obtaining a SHMT with high activity.ResultsHere, a novel SHMT gene, glyA, was obtained through degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR and encoded a novel SHMT with 54.3% similarity to the known SHMT from Escherichia coli. The obtained protein AnSHMT showed the optimal activity at 40°C and pH 7.5, and was more stable in weakly alkali conditions (pH 6.5-8.5) than Hyphomicrobium methylovorum¿s SHMT (pH 6.0-7.5), In order to improve the catalytic efficiency of the wild type, the site-directed mutagenesis based on sequences alignment and bioinformatics prediction, was used and the catalytic efficiency of the mutant I249L was found to be 2.78-fold higher than that of the wild-type, with the replacement of isoleucine by leucine at the 249 position.ConclusionsThis research provides useful information about the interesting site, and the application of DOP-PCR in cloning a novel glyA gene.
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Downregulation of VGLL4 in the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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VGLL4, a member of the Vestigial-like (VGLL) proteins, has been reported to be dysregulated in several cancer types. However, its function in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains poorly understood. Here, it was found that the expression level of VGLL4 was decreased in ESCC tissues. Moreover, forced expression of VGLL4 in ESCC cells inhibited cell growth and migration, while knockdown of VGLL4 expression promoted the tumorigenecity of ESCC cells. Mechanistically, VGLL4 regulated the growth and motility of ESCC cells through downregulating the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a known oncogene in the progression of ESCC. Taken together, our study suggested that downregulation of VGLL4 was very important in the progression of ESCC, and restoring the function of VGLL4 might be a promising therapeutic strategy for ESCC.
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Antioxidative dietary compounds modulate gene expression associated with apoptosis, DNA repair, inhibition of cell proliferation and migration.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair.
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In vitro differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into endometrial epithelial cells in mouse: a proteomic analysis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated to differentiate into female endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) in vivo. Our previous studies demonstrated that BMSCs can differentiate in the direction of EECs when co-cultured with endometrial stromal cells in vitro. Here, we obtain and analyse differential proteins and their relevant pathways in the process of BMSCs differentiating into EECs by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis.
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3, 3'-diindolylmethane alleviates steatosis and the progression of NASH partly through shifting the imbalance of Treg/Th17 cells to Treg dominance.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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This study was designed to discuss the effects of 3, 3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) on methionine-choline-deficient (MCD)-diet induced mouse nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the potential mechanisms. NASH mice were administrated with or without DIM at different concentrations for 8weeks. Both the in-vivo and in-vitro effects of DIM on Treg/Th17 imbalance during NASH progression were analyzed. The in-vivo blocking of CD25 or IL-17 was performed to respectively deplete respective function of Treg or Th17 subset. Besides, with the assistance of AhR antagonist CH223191 and anti-TLR4 neutralizing antibody, we designed the in-vitro DIM-incubation experiments to discuss the roles of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) (CYP1A1, CYP1B1) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on DIM's effects when shifting Treg/Th17 imbalance. Notably, in NASH mouse models, DIM alleviated hepatic steatosis and inflammation, and shifted the Treg/Th17 imbalance from MCD diet-induced Th17 dominance to Treg dominance. In-vitro, DIM not only significantly up-regulated the mRNAs of Foxp3 (Treg-specific) in purified spleen CD4(+) T cells, but also enhanced the immunosuppressive function of these Treg cells. Besides, DIM significantly up-regulated the proteins of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 whereas down-regulated those of TLR4 on CD4(+) T cells from MCD-diet mice. Moreover, blocking AhR attenuated while blocking TLR4 enhanced the effects of DIM when regulating Treg/Th17 imbalance. Conclusively, DIM could be used as a potential therapeutic candidate to treat NASH based on its dramatic induction of Treg dominance to alleviate intra-hepatic inflammation, suggesting us a clue that the dietary cruciferous vegetables (containing abundant DIM) might exist as a protective factor for patients with NASH-related liver diseases.
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Invasive procedures in the elderly after stage IV cancer diagnosis.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Invasive procedures are resource intense and may be associated with substantial morbidity. These harms must be carefully balanced with the benefits gained in life expectancy and quality of life. Prior research has demonstrated an increasing aggressiveness of care in cancer patients at the end-of-life. To better characterize surgical care in this setting, we sought to examine trends in the use of invasive procedures in patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer on presentation.
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All-trans retinoic acid suppresses apoptosis in PC12 cells injured by oxygen and glucose deprivation via the retinoic acid receptor ? signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Vitamin A (VA) has a number of important biological functions in human growth and development. Previous studies by our group demonstrated that the normal VA levels improved recovery of learning and memory function and decreased apoptosis in rats with hypoxic?ischemic brain damage (HIBD). However, it has not been fully elucidated how VA regulates the apoptosis of neuronal cells. To investigate the anti?apoptotic effect of VA, an in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) model in PC12 cells was treated with four concentrations of all?trans?retinoic acid (ATRA), an active in vivo product of VA. Following in vitro OGD injury in PC12 cells, the percentage of apoptosis and the fluorescence intensity of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were increased in the cells, and the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-associated X (Bax) were enhanced. ATRA treatment at 2?4 µmol/l for 24 h decreased the percentage of apoptosis and the MMP of the PC12 cells injured by OGD. ATRA at 4 µmol/l also reduced the expression levels of Bax and enhanced the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2. Furthermore, RNA interference with retinoic acid receptor ? (RAR?) reversed the observed effect in PC12 cells following ATRA treatment at 4 µmol/l alone. In conclusion, the present study suggested that treatment with ATRA at 4 µmol/l suppressed apoptosis of PC12 cells following OGD injury, potentially through regulation of the RAR? signaling pathway.
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Near infrared spectroscopy calibration for wood chemistry: which chemometric technique is best for prediction and interpretation?
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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This paper addresses the precision in factor loadings during partial least squares (PLS) and principal components regression (PCR) of wood chemistry content from near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra. The precision of the loadings is considered important because these estimates are often utilized to interpret chemometric models or selection of meaningful wavenumbers. Standard laboratory chemistry methods were employed on a mixed genus/species hardwood sample set. PLS and PCR, before and after 1st derivative pretreatment, was utilized for model building and loadings investigation. As demonstrated by others, PLS was found to provide better predictive diagnostics. However, PCR exhibited a more precise estimate of loading peaks which makes PCR better for interpretation. Application of the 1st derivative appeared to assist in improving both PCR and PLS loading precision, but due to the small sample size, the two chemometric methods could not be compared statistically. This work is important because to date most research works have committed to PLS because it yields better predictive performance. But this research suggests there is a tradeoff between better prediction and model interpretation. Future work is needed to compare PLS and PCR for a suite of spectral pretreatment techniques.
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MicroRNA-21 Attenuates Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via Targeting Caspase Signaling in Mice.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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MicroRNAs (miR) have come into focus as powerful regulators of gene expression and potential diagnostic tools during renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular regulation and function of miR-21, and to analyze the relationship between caspases and miR-21 expression levels in an experimental model of renal IRI.
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Quantifying the expression of tumor marker genes in lung squamous cell cancer with RNA sequencing.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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We measured the expression of some commonly used tumor markers with RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify any that might be useful for the evaluation of squamous cell lung cancer and identify possible correlations between these tumor markers and any clinical characteristics.
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Direct common gram-negative bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottles by SELDI-TOF MS.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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A protein database was constructed and validated with identification rate over 90% for the 4 most common Gram-negative bacteria on agar plates. By protein masses comparison, 120 bacteria of the 4 species from blood culture bottles were identified. The concordance was high (Kappa=0.906) between our method and conventional approach.
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WNT7A and PAX6 define corneal epithelium homeostasis and pathogenesis.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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The surface of the cornea consists of a unique type of non-keratinized epithelial cells arranged in an orderly fashion, and this is essential for vision by maintaining transparency for light transmission. Cornea epithelial cells (CECs) undergo continuous renewal from limbal stem or progenitor cells (LSCs), and deficiency in LSCs or corneal epithelium--which turns cornea into a non-transparent, keratinized skin-like epithelium--causes corneal surface disease that leads to blindness in millions of people worldwide. How LSCs are maintained and differentiated into corneal epithelium in healthy individuals and which key molecular events are defective in patients have been largely unknown. Here we report establishment of an in vitro feeder-cell-free LSC expansion and three-dimensional corneal differentiation protocol in which we found that the transcription factors p63 (tumour protein 63) and PAX6 (paired box protein PAX6) act together to specify LSCs, and WNT7A controls corneal epithelium differentiation through PAX6. Loss of WNT7A or PAX6 induces LSCs into skin-like epithelium, a critical defect tightly linked to common human corneal diseases. Notably, transduction of PAX6 in skin epithelial stem cells is sufficient to convert them to LSC-like cells, and upon transplantation onto eyes in a rabbit corneal injury model, these reprogrammed cells are able to replenish CECs and repair damaged corneal surface. These findings suggest a central role of the WNT7A-PAX6 axis in corneal epithelial cell fate determination, and point to a new strategy for treating corneal surface diseases.
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Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the uterus confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization in a 29-year-old Chinese female: A case report and published work review.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/pPNET) are a group of small round cell sarcomas that show varying degrees of neuroectodermal differentiation characterized by translocation involving the EWS gene. Uterine ES/pPNET is a rare entity. A 29-year-old Chinese female who presented with abdominal swelling and pain was diagnosed with a primary uterine ES/pPNET on the basis of clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data. She was given a multimodal treatment, including neoadjuvant, 95% cytoreductive, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is currently alive with persistent disease after 18?months of follow-up. We emphasized the crucial role of molecular techniques in the differential diagnosis of small round cell tumors in this unusual location. Multimodal therapy may improve the outcomes of patients.
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Biogenic amines in commercially produced Yulu, a Chinese fermented fish sauce.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Seven biogenic amines were determined in 35 commercially produced Yulu samples from three provinces of China by pre-column derivatisation with dansyl chloride (Dns-Cl) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were the major biogenic amines (more than 100 mg kg(-1)), while tryptamine, spermidine and spermine were regarded as minor biogenic amines (less than 25 mg kg(-1)). Twenty samples contained more than 50 mg kg(-1) histamine (the limit for histamine in seafood products as suggested by the Food and Drug Administration). Twenty-one samples contained more than 100 mg kg(-1) tyramine and 10 contained more than 1000 mg kg(-1) total biogenic amines. This study provided data on biogenic amine levels in Chinese fermented fish sauce. The results suggested that biogenic amine content should be monitored in commercially produced Yulu.
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Facile preparation of a pH-sensitive nano-magnetic targeted system to deliver doxorubicin to tumor tissues.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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We have developed a drug-loaded, pH-sensitive, nano-magnetic targeted system (DPNTS) for delivering doxorubicin (DOX) to tumor tissues through a facile route. Iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were used as magnetically-responsive carriers, polyethyleneglycol (PEG) as the surface-modifying agent, and polyethyleneimine (PEI) as the drug-loading site whose primary amine reacts with the 13-carbonyl of DOX. The prepared DPNTS was within 20 nm and had good stability in dispersion and superparamagnetic properties. DOX was grafted to PEG/PEI@Fe3O4 at up to 85 %. During in vitro release studies, nearly 81 % DOX was released from DPNTS within 72 h at pH 4.5, compared with only 28 % at pH 7.4.
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RFT2 is overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and promotes tumorigenesis by sustaining cell proliferation and protecting against cell death.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Human riboflavin transporter 2 (RFT2, also termed as SLC52A3) was recently identified as a susceptibility gene to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), however, its expression and biologic function has remained unclear in ESCC. In this study, we demonstrated that RFT2 was frequently overexpressed in tumor samples compared with normal adjacent tissue in ESCC patients. Knockdown of RFT2 in ESCC cells resulted in decreases of intracellular flavin status, mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP levels, and inhibitions of cell proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth. Knockdown of RFT2 increased p21 and p27 protein levels, decreased their downstream targets cyclin E1 and Cdk2 protein levels and caused pRb hypophosphorylation, leading to cell cycle arrest at G1-G1/S. Knockdown of RFT2 also reduced anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and survivin levels, caused activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis. In contrast, ectopic overexpression of RFT2 in ESCC cells promoted cell proliferation under restricted conditions (soft agar), conferred resistance to cisplatin, and enhanced tumorigenicity in nude mice. These results suggest that RFT2 contributes to ESCC tumorigenesis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target.
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Abnormal platelet kinetics are detected before the occurrence of thrombocytopaenia in HBV-related liver disease.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Thrombocytopaenia is a frequent feature in patients with HBV-related liver disease. Its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Multiple factors might contribute to the development of thrombocytopaenia. In this study, we investigated the reticulated platelets (RP), glycocalicin (GC), serum thrombopoietin (TPO) and platelet glycoprotein (GP) in different stages of the disease.
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Formation of ethyl carbamate and changes during fermentation and storage of yellow rice wine.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Ethyl carbamate (EC) was analyzed during yellow rice wine production and storage. EC increased slowly during fermentation and rapidly after frying and sterilization. Less amount of EC was formed when cooled rapidly to 30 °C than when cooled naturally. High temperature and long storage time increased EC formation. After 400 days storage, EC increased from 74.0 to 84.2, 131.8 and 509.4 ?g/kg at 4 °C, room temperature and 37 °C, respectively, and there was significantly difference between the fried wine and the wine on sale from 2011 (p<0.01). Urea increased during yellow rice wine fermentation and was above 20 mg/kg after the wine was fried; urea contributed to EC formation when the fried wine was cooled slowly. These results indicate that it is necessary for industry to optimize the wine frying conditions, such as temperature, time and cooling process in order to decrease EC formation.
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Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future.
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Sex Differences in Platelet Reactivity and Cardiovascular and Psychological Response to Mental Stress in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: Insights From the REMIT Study.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Although emotional stress is associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and related clinical events, sex-specific differences in the psychobiological response to mental stress have not been clearly identified.
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Elevated Soluble CD163 Plasma Levels Are Associated with Disease Severity in Patients with Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hantaan virus is a major zoonotic pathogen that causesing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Although HFRS pathogenesis has not been entirely elucidated, the importance of host-related immune responses in HFRS pathogenesis has been widely recognized. CD163, a monocyte and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor that plays a vital function in the hosts can reduce inflammation, is shed during activation as soluble CD163 (sCD163). The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological significance of sCD163 in patients with HFRS.
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A tri-modality image fusion method for target delineation of brain tumors in radiotherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To develop a tri-modality image fusion method for better target delineation in image-guided radiotherapy for patients with brain tumors.
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Hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma with an unusual pathologic appearance: expanding the morphologic spectrum.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare lesion that is characteristically composed of a predominant or exclusive population of epithelioid cells coexpressing melanocytic and myogenic markers. The cystic variant of epithelioid AML is exceedingly uncommon. In this study, we present the clinicopathological features of a case of hepatic epithelioid AML with remarkable cystic degeneration in a 34-year-old female as well as with a literature review. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a well-defined 30 cm × 25 cm hepatic mass. Sectioning of the well-defined mass revealed a non-encapsulated tumor that was multiloculated with amorphous necrotic tissue and hemorrhagic fluid. The inner cystic wall was rough and brownish-black in color. Microscopically, the tumor largely consisted of epithelioid cells that comprised approximately 95% of the total neoplastic components but also contained some spindle myoid cells, mature fat, and a thick-walled vasculature. Both intracellular and extracellular hyaline globules were frequently identified. Necrosis and invasive growth patterns were also present. By immunohistochemistry, spindle-epithelioid neoplastic cells were variably positive for Melan-A, HMB45, and SMA but were uniformly negative for epithelial and hepatocytic markers. This is the third report of a cystic AML in liver. The patient was followed for 71 months without any evidence of metastasis or recurrence.
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Genotypes and Transmitted Drug Resistance among Treatment-Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients in a Northwestern Province, China: Trends from 2003 to 2013.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) reduces the efficacy of initial antiretroviral treatment and has become a public health concern. Little information is available regarding the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and the prevalence of TDR among treatment-naïve patients in a northwestern province of China since the implementation of national free antiretroviral therapy (ART).
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Transcriptome analysis of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) by 454 deep sequencing: assembly, annotation, and marker discovery.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, we reported the characterization of the first transcriptome of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain). Pooled cDNAs of four tissue types from twelve wild individuals were sequenced using the Roche 454 FLX platform. Analysis performed included de novo assembly of transcriptome sequences, functional annotation, and molecular marker discovery. A total of 1,314,101 high quality reads with an average length of 411 bp were generated by 454 sequencing on a mixed cDNA library. De novo assembly of these 1,314,101 reads produced 76,778 contigs (consisting of 818,154 reads) with 5.4-fold average sequencing coverage. The remaining 495,947 reads were singletons. A total of 78,268 unigenes were identified based on sequence similarity with known proteins (E?0.00001) in UniProt and non-redundant protein databases. Meanwhile, 44,433 sequences were identified (E?0.00001) using a BLASTN search against the NCBI nucleotide database. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that biosynthetic process, cell part, and ion binding were the most abundant terms in biological process, cellular component, and molecular function categories, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that 4,878 unigenes distributed in 281 different pathways. In addition, 19,011 microsatellites and 37,063 potential single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected from the transcriptome of S. paramamosain. Finally, thirty polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and used to assess genetic diversity of a wild population of S. paramamosain. So far, existing sequence resources for S. paramamosain are extremely limited. The present study provides a characterization of transcriptome from multiple tissues and individuals, as well as an assessment of genetic diversity of a wild population. These sequence resources will facilitate the investigation of population genetic diversity, the development of genetic maps, and the conduct of molecular marker-assisted breeding in S. paramamosain and related crab species.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.