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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Titanium nanoparticles inhalation induces renal fibrosis in mice via an oxidative stress-up-regulated transforming growth factor-? pathway.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Nano-TiO2) are gradually extensively used in the clinical, industry and daily life. Accumulation studies showed that Nano-TiO2 exposure is able to cause injuries in various animal organs, including lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. However, it remains unclear whether exposure of Nano-TiO2 by inhalation causes renal fibrosis. Here, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-related signalling molecules in the chronic renal damage after Nano-TiO2 inhalation in mice. Mice were treated with Nano-TiO2 (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/week) or microparticle-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) by non-surgical intratracheal instillation for 4 weeks. The results showed that Nano-TiO2 inhalation increased renal pathological changes in a dose-dependent manner. No renal pathological changes were observed in microparticle-TiO2-instilled mice. Nano-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) possessed the ability to precipitate in the kidneys determined by transmission electron microscopy and increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen. The expressions of markers of ROS/RNS and renal fibrosis markers, including nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-? (TGF?), and collagen I determined by immunohistochemical staining were increased in the kidneys. Furthermore, Nano-TiO2-induced renal injury could be mitigated by iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine treatment in transcription level. The in vitro experiments showed that Nano-TiO2 significantly and dose-dependently increased the ROS production and the expressions of HIF-1??and TGF? in human renal proximal tubular cells, which could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine treatment. Taken together, these results suggest Nano-TiO2 inhalation might induce the renal fibrosis through a ROS/RNS-related HIF-1?-up-regulated TGF-? signalling pathway.
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[Correlation analysis of survival period and CD4+ Tcell-iATP levels in liver transplant recipients].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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To analyze the correlation between survival time after liver transplantation and the intracellular (i)ATP levels of CD4+ T cells.
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Tissue transglutaminase promotes serotonin-induced AKT signaling and mitogenesis in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme that cross-links proteins with monoamines such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) via a transglutamidation reaction, and is associated with pathophysiologic vascular responses. 5-HT is a mitogen for pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) that has been linked to pulmonary vascular remodeling underlying pulmonary hypertension development. We previously reported that 5-HT-induced PASMC proliferation is inhibited by the TG2 inhibitor monodansylcadaverine (MDC); however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study we hypothesized that TG2 contributes to 5-HT-induced signaling pathways of PASMCs. Pre-treatment of bovine distal PASMCs with varying concentrations of the inhibitor MDC led to differential inhibition of 5-HT-stimulated AKT and ROCK activation, while p-P38 was unaffected. Concentration response studies showed significant inhibition of AKT activation at 50?M MDC, along with inhibition of the AKT downstream targets mTOR, p-S6 kinase and p-S6. Furthermore, TG2 depletion by siRNA led to reduced 5-HT-induced AKT activation. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that 5-HT treatment led to increased levels of serotonylated AKT and increased TG2-AKT complex formations which were inhibited by MDC. Overexpression of TG2 point mutant cDNAs in PASMCs showed that the TG2 C277V transamidation mutant blunted 5-HT-induced AKT activation and 5-HT-induced PASMC mitogenesis. Finally, 5-HT-induced AKT activation was blunted in SERT genetic knock-out rat cells, but not in their wild-type counterpart. The SERT inhibitor imipramine similarly blocked AKT activation. These results indicate that TG2 contributes to 5-HT-induced distal PASMC proliferation via promotion of AKT signaling, likely via its serotonylation. Taken together, these results provide new insight into how TG2 may participate in vascular smooth muscle remodeling.
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Fabrication of bright and small size semiconducting polymer nanoparticles for cellular labelling and single particle tracking.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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In this work, we demonstrate a convenient and robust strategy for efficient fabrication of high fluorescence quantum yield (QY, 49.8 ± 3%) semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs), with size comparable with semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots). The SPNs were synthesized by co-precipitation of hydrophobic semiconducting polymer together with amphiphilic multidentate polymer. Comprehensive spectroscopic and microscopic characterizations showed that the SPNs possess superior photophysical performance, with excellent fluorescence brightness and reduced photoblinking in contrast with Qdots, as well as good photostability compared to a fluorescent protein of a similar size, phycoerythrin. More importantly, by conjugating membrane biomarkers onto the surface of SPNs, it was found that they were not only suitable for specific cellular labelling but also for single particle tracking because of the improved optical performance.
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Salvage liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after primary liver resection.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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To evaluate the clinical efficacy and prognostic factors for salvage liver transplantation (SLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after primary liver resection.
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A dual-fixed neutrophil substrate improves interpretation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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To determine whether the addition of a formalin-fixed neutrophil substrate could improve interpretation and prediction of autoantigenic specificity in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) testing.
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Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against human telomerase reverse transcriptase inhibits the proliferation of Eca-109 esophageal carcinoma cells.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Previous studies have demonstrated that the growth of tumor cells may be inhibited by antisense oligonucleotides (ASODNs) targeted against human telomerase (hTR) or human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), resulting in antitumor activity in a wide variety of tumors. However, few studies have investigated the effect of hTERT gene-targeted ASODNs on telomerase activity and cell proliferation in human esophageal cancer. In the present study, an MTT assay was used to determine the growth inhibition rate of Eca-109 cells treated with a hTERT-targeted phosphorothioate-ASODN (PS-ASODN). An inverted microscope was used to observe the morphologic changes of the cells following treatment with 5 ?M PS-ASODN for 10 days. Telomerase activity was detected using the silver staining semi-quantitative telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Following treatment with the PS-ASODN (1-5 ?mol/l), the proliferation of the Eca-109 cells was inhibited. The differences in inhibition rate between the PS-ASODN and blank control groups were statistically significant (P<0.05) when the concentration of the PS-ASODN was ?2 ?mol/l, whereas no statistically significant difference was identified between the non-specific-ASODN and blank control groups. The inhibition rate increased gradually as the concentration of the PS-ASODN increased and with time, suggesting that the PS-ASODN inhibited the growth of Eca-109 cells in a concentration-dependent, time-dependent and sequence-specific manner. The growth rate of the cells incubated with the PS-ASODN was reduced compared with that of the control cells. Cells treated with the PS-ASODN became round, suspended and reduced in size. The PS-ASODN was also found to inhibit telomerase activity. The ability of the PS-ASODN to inhibit the telomerase activity and cell proliferation of the Eca-109 cell line suggests that ASODNs have the potential to be novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of esophageal cancer.
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Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Sleep apnea (SA) is characterized by apnea during sleep and is associated with cardiovascular diseases and an increase in all-cause mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem that has placed a substantial burden on healthcare resources. However, the relationship between SA and the incidence of CKD is not clear. This study aimed to determine whether SA is an independent risk factor for the development of CKD.
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Low-temperature sputtered nickel oxide compact thin film as effective electron blocking layer for mesoscopic NiO/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite heterojunction solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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We introduce the use of low temperature sputtered NiOx thin film, which substitutes the PEDOT-PSS and solution-processed NiOx as an effective electron blocking layer for mesoscopic NiO/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. The influences of film thickness and oxygen doping on the photovoltaic performances are scrutinized. The cell efficiency has been improved from 9.51 to 10.7% for devices using NiOx fabricated under pure argon atmosphere. With adequate doping under 10% oxygen flow ratio, we achieved power conversion efficiency of 11.6%. The procedure is large area scalable and has the advantage for cost-effective perovskite-based photovoltaics.
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Tempo-spatially resolved cellular dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus transacting activator of transcription (Tat) peptide-modified nanocargos in living cells.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Understanding the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular fate of nanocarriers in living cells is of great importance for the rational design of efficient drug delivery cargos as well as the development of robust biomedical diagnostic probes. In present study, with a dual wavelength view darkfield microscope (DWVD), the tempo-spatially resolved dynamics of Tat peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (TGNPs, with size similar to viruses) in living HeLa cells were extensively explored. It was found that energy-dependent endocytosis (both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated processes were involved) was the prevailing pathway for the cellular uptake of TGNPs. The time-correlated dynamic spatial distribution information revealed that TGNPs could not actively target the cell nuclei, which is contrary to previous observations based on fixed cell results. More importantly, the inheritance of TGNPs to the daughter cells through mitosis was found to be the major route to metabolize TGNPs by HeLa cells. These understandings on the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular fate of nanocargos in living cells would provide deep insight on how to improve and controllably manipulate their translocation efficiency for targeted drug delivery.
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Risk of Parkinson's disease following severe constipation: A nationwide population-based cohort study.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Constipation is a non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the association between the severity of constipation and subsequent risk of PD in a population-based sample.
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Visual improvement and pain resolution in traumatic optic nerve sheath meningocele treated by optic nerve sheath fenestration.
Restor. Neurol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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There is no consensus as to the optimum treatment for traumatic optic neuropathy (TON). The decision to intervene medically or surgically, or simply observe was recommended to be on an individual basis. The purpose of this study is to test whether optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) could improve vision in patients with traumatic optic nerve sheath meningocele, although it was reported to be effective in patients with traumatic optic nerve sheath hematoma.
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A high performance quasi-solid-state self-powered UV photodetector based on TiO2 nanorod arrays.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Self-powered UV photodetectors based on TiO2 and ZnO nanorod arrays have attracted lots of attention in recent years due to their various advantages. Impressive performances were observed in photochemical cell based UV detectors. However, liquid electrolytes are not ideal for long-term operation and are inconvenient for practical applications. Hence there is an urgent demand for replacing liquid electrolytes with solid-state hole transfer materials. Herein we report a nanostructured quasi-solid-state UV photodetector fabricated using a liquid crystal (LC)-embedded electrolyte with a light-trapping scheme. Vertical rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide conductive glass were used as the active photoanode. A high incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 29% at 383 nm and a quick response time of less than 0.03 s were observed. In addition, it was revealed that the quasi-solid-state UV photodetector showed visible-blind, high responsivity, fast time response and good photosensitivity linearity in a wide light intensity range. The LC-embedded electrolyte with a light-trapping scheme enhanced the light absorption and thus improved the photodetecting performance. This self-powered device is a promising candidate for application in high-sensitivity and high-speed UV light photodetectors.
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Increased risk of hip fractures in patients with dementia: a nationwide population-based study.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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BackgroundDementia has been associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. However, little research has been conducted on the impact of dementia on wrist or vertebral fracture development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dementia is a risk factor for different types of fracture in Taiwan.MethodsThe study sample was drawn from Taiwan¿s National Health Insurance Research Database of reimbursement claims, and comprised 1408 patients who visited ambulatory care centers or were hospitalized with a diagnosis of dementia. The comparison group consisted of 7040 randomly selected individuals. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to examine associations between dementia and the risk of different types of fracture.ResultsDuring a 3-year follow-up period, 264 patients with dementia (18.75%) and 1098 patients without dementia (15.60%) developed fractures. Dementia was independently associated with increased risk of hip fracture [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.92, 95% CI 1.48¿2.49]. Patients with dementia and osteoporosis had the highest risk of developing hip fracture (adjusted HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.28¿4.01). Dementia did not increase wrist fracture or vertebral fracture risk when compared to the control group, even in patients with osteoporosis.ConclusionsIndividuals with dementia are at greater risk of developing hip fracture, particularly if they also have osteoporosis. Early mental screening programs and health education should be initiated to decrease disability and dependence in patients with dementia.
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Association of Gly972Arg variant of insulin receptor subtrate-1 and Gly1057Asp variant of insulin receptor subtrate-2 with polycystic ovary syndrome in the Chinese population.
J Ovarian Res
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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ObjectivePolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinologic disease in women. In the present study, we examined the relationship of the IRS-1 Gly972Arg and IRS-2 Gly1057Asp polymorphisms to PCOS and phenotypic features of PCOS in a Chinese population from Taiwan.Materials and methodsA total of three hundred and forty genetically unrelated women with age from 18 to 45 years, including two hundred and forty-eight PCOS patients and ninety-two control subjects, were recruited. The hormone and biochemical measurements were evaluated for each woman. Genotyping of the IRS-1 gene Gly972Arg variant and IRS-2 gene Gly1057Asp variant were performed by using direct sequencing.ResultsWe found significant difference in the genotypic distribution of IRS-2 gene Gly1057Asp between the PCOS group and the control group (p¿=¿0.004). The carriers of homozygous IRS-2 Asp had an increased risk of PCOS compared with the carriers of Gly/Gly (OR 4.08, 95% C.I. 1.60-10.41, p¿=¿0.003). No significant difference in genotype frequencies of IRS-1 Gly972Arg was observed between two groups. We further investigated the effect of interaction of IRS-1 Gly972Arg and IRS-2 Gly1057Asp on the risk of PCOS and found that women carried IRS-1 Gly/Arg or IRS-2 Asp/Asp or carried both IRS-1 Gly/Arg and IRS-2 Asp/Asp had a much higher risk of PCOS compared with their counterpart, respectively (OR 2.49, 95% C.I. 1.16-5.37, p¿=¿0.019; OR 11.87, 95% C.I. 1.21-116.84, p¿=¿0.034). We further found, the non-obese PCOS patients carried significantly higher frequency of IRS-2 Asp/Asp as compared with the control group (p¿=¿0.004). A significant effect of interaction of carrying both IRS-1 Gly/Arg and IRS-2 Asp/Asp was also observed in the non-obese PCOS patients (p¿=¿0.003), but not in the obese PCOS patients.ConclusionsIn this study, we found significant association of the variant of IRS-2 gene as well as the interaction of IRS-1 and IRS-2 genes with PCOS, especially in non-obese women. Women with IRS-2 homozygous Asp variant may be considered as a risk factor for PCOS that needs early detection to prevent further complication in the Chinese population from Taiwan.
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Total syntheses of (-)-spirooliganones A and B.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The enantioselective syntheses of (-)-spirooliganones A and B have been accomplished in eight steps from commercially available starting materials. Noteworthy transformations include a three-component hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition to construct the tetracyclic core of spirooliganones, a Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation, and a tandem oxidative dearomatization/cyclization to build the oxa-spiro cyclohexadienone skeleton. The straightforward syntheses were performed without protecting groups.
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A MyD88-JAK1-STAT1 complex directly induces SOCS-1 expression in macrophages infected with Group A Streptococcus.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Some pathogens can use host suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1), an important negative-feedback molecule, as the main mode of immune evasion. Here we found that group A Streptococcus (GAS) is capable of inducing SOCS-1 expression in RAW264.7 and BMDM macrophages. IFN-? plays a role in GAS-induced SOCS-1 expression in macrophages following the induction of cytokine expression by GAS, representing the classical pathway of SOCS-1 expression. However, GAS also induced STAT1 activation and SOCS-1 expression when GAS-infected cells were incubated with anti-IFN-? monoclonal antibody in this study. Moreover, upon comparing TLR4(-/-) BMDM macrophages with wild-type (WT) cells, we found that TLR4 also plays an essential role in the induction of SOCS-1. MyD88, which is an adaptor protein for TLR4, contributes to STAT1 activation and phosphorylation by forming a complex with Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in macrophages. GAS-stimulated expression of STAT1 was severely impaired in MyD88(-/-) macrophages, whereas expression of JAK1 was unaffected, suggesting that MyD88 was involved in STAT1 expression and phosphorylation. Together, these data demonstrated that in addition to IFN-? signaling and MyD88 complex formation, JAK1 and STAT1 act in a novel pathway to directly induce SOCS-1 expression in GAS-infected macrophages, which may be more conducive to rapid bacterial infection.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 17 November 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.107.
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The hMLH1 -93G>A Promoter Polymorphism is Associates with Outcomes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of hMLH1 polymorphisms on treatment outcomes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
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Total synthesis of (±)-przewalskin B.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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A concise total synthesis of przewalskin B was accomplished from readily available diene 7. Key features of the synthesis involved a Diels-Alder reaction to install the A ring, a Claisen-Johnson rearrangement to establish the spiro-quaternary center, and a ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of a sterically crowded system to construct the cyclic enone moiety.
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Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway decreases innate resistance to lipopolysaccharide toxicity in TLR4 deficient mice.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, activation of both the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways serves to balance proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Although the antagonist to TLR4 represents an emerging promising target for the treatment of sepsis; however, the role of the PI3K pathway under TLR4-null conditions is not well understood. This goal of this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of PI3K on innate resistance to LPS toxicity in a murine model.
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Cancer incidence in a Nationwide HIV/AIDS patient cohort in Taiwan in 1998-2009.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The aims of this study were to investigate the cancer incidence and risk in HIV/AIDS patients relative to the general population in Taiwan.
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Promoting positive psychology using social networking sites: a study of new college entrants on Facebook.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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This study explores the potential of promoting college students' positive psychological development using popular online social networks. Online social networks have dramatically changed the ways college students manage their social relationships. Social network activities, such as checking Facebook posts dominates students' Internet time and has the potential to assist students' positive development. Positive psychology is a scientific study of how ordinary individuals can apply their strength effectively when facing objective difficulties and how this capability can be cultivated with certain approaches. A positive message delivery approach was designed for a group of new college entrants. A series of positive messages was edited by university counselors and delivered by students to their Facebook social groups. Responses from each posted positive messages were collected and analyzed by researchers. The responses indicated that: (1) relationships of individual engagement and social influence in this study can partially explain the observed student behavior; (2) using class-based social groups can promote a positive atmosphere to enhance strong-tie relationships in both the physical and virtual environments, and (3) promoting student's positive attitudes can substantially impact adolescents' future developments, and many positive attitudes can be cultivated by emotional events and social influence.
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CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on nano-branched TiO2 arrays.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Nano-branched rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were grown on F:SnO2 conductive glass (FTO) by a facile, two-step wet chemical synthesis process at low temperature. The length of the nanobranches was tailored by controlling the growth time, after which CdS quantum dots were deposited on the nano-branched TiO2 arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The photovoltaic properties of the CdS-sensitized nano-branched TiO2 solar cells were studied systematically. A short-circuit current intensity of approximately 7 mA/cm2 and a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 0.95% were recorded for cells based on optimized nano-branched TiO2 arrays, indicating an increase of 138% compared to those based on unbranched TiO2 nanorod arrays. The improved performance is attributed to a markedly enlarged surface area provided by the nanobranches and better electron conductivity in the one-dimensional, well-aligned TiO2 nanorod trunks.
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Controlled vapor phase growth of single crystalline, two-dimensional GaSe crystals with high photoresponse.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Compared with their bulk counterparts, atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals exhibit new physical properties, and have the potential to enable next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, controlled synthesis of large uniform monolayer and multi-layer 2D crystals is still challenging. Here, we report the controlled synthesis of 2D GaSe crystals on SiO2/Si substrates using a vapor phase deposition method. For the first time, uniform, large (up to ~60 ?m in lateral size), single-crystalline, triangular monolayer GaSe crystals were obtained and their structure and orientation were characterized from atomic scale to micrometer scale. The size, density, shape, thickness, and uniformity of the 2D GaSe crystals were shown to be controllable by growth duration, growth region, growth temperature, and argon carrier gas flow rate. The theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition and progressive confinement-induced bandgap shifts for 2D GaSe crystals. The 2D GaSe crystals show p-type semiconductor characteristics and high photoresponsivity (~1.7 A/W under white light illumination) comparable to exfoliated GaSe nanosheets. These 2D GaSe crystals are potentially useful for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices such as photodetectors and field-effect transistors.
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Folate and TAT Peptide Co-Modified Liposomes Exhibit Receptor-Dependent Highly Efficient Intracellular Transport of Payload In Vitro and In Vivo.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Using different chain lengths of PEG as linkers to develop a novel folate (FA) and TAT peptide co-modified doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded liposome (FA/TAT-LP-DOX) and evaluate its potential for tumor targeted intracellular drug delivery.
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Prevalence and associated factors of comorbid skin diseases in patients with schizophrenia: a clinical survey and national health database study.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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To examine the epidemiology of and possible risk factors for skin diseases in patients with schizophrenia.
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Newly diagnosed dementia and increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke: A nationwide population-based study.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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This retrospective cohort study was designed to assess whether there is an association between newly diagnosed dementia and the risk of stroke.
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Benzodiazepine-associated hepatic encephalopathy significantly increased healthcare utilization and medical costs of Chinese cirrhotic patients: 7-year experience.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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In cirrhosis, hypersensitivity to benzodiazepines (BZD) and precipitating hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, economic impact and modifiable factors that are associated with the excess risk of BZD-associated HE in cirrhotic patients.
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Acquired factor V inhibitor after liver transplantation.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Acquired inhibitors against coagulation factor V (FV) occur rarely, the clinical symptoms vary to a great extent, from asymptomatic laboratory abnormalities to life-threatening bleeding. Coagulation factor V (FV) is a plasma-cofactor mostly existing in the plasma, and approximately 20-25% (Tracy et al. (1982), Kane (2006)) of FV exist in platelet granules. Patients' reaction is the prolonging of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), but there is no exact reason, and that can not be corrected after normal plasma transfusion (Morris and Curris (2009), Lucia and Aguilar (2005)). We report here a case of the occurrence of FV inhibitors after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). With gastrointestinal bleeding, patient's haemostatic response was not achieved after using fresh frozenplasma (FFP), platelet concentrates (PC), prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) or recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa). After using high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and change of immunosuppressant from tacrolimus (FK506) to cyclosporine, the bleeding stopped and better laboratory examination results was achieved thereafter.
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Hospital-based school for children with chronic illness in Taiwan.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To provide educational support and avoid unwanted damage that may impede learning for children with chronic illness, the learning environment should be friendly and safe. There is a need to establish schools inside hospitals, however, which may be neglected in a highly efficient health care system. A study was conducted to identify hospital-based schools for sick children in Taiwan, and to explore the barriers for implementation.
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Activating mutations in PTPN3 promote cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation and migration and are associated with tumor recurrence in patients.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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The pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the second most common hepatic cancer, is poorly understood, and the incidence of ICC is increasing worldwide. We searched for mutations in human ICC tumor samples and investigated how they affect ICC cell function.
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Application of microRNA and mRNA expression profiling on prognostic biomarker discovery for hepatocellular carcinoma.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most highly malignant and lethal cancers of the world. Its pathogenesis has been reported to be multi-factorial, and the molecular carcinogenesis of HCC can not be attributed to just a few individual genes. Based on the microRNA and mRNA expression profiling of normal liver tissues, pericancerous hepatocellular tissues and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, we attempted to find prognosis related gene sets for HCC patients.
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ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved titanium wire for CdS-sensitized solar cells.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Ordered ZnO nanosheet arrays were grown on weaved titanium wires by a low-temperature hydrothermal method. CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the ZnO nanosheet arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode. Nanoparticle-sensitized solar cells were assembled using these CdS/ZnO nanostructured photoanodes, and their photovoltaic performance was studied systematically. The best light-to-electricity conversion efficiency was obtained to be 2.17% under 100 mW/cm2 illumination, and a remarkable short-circuit photocurrent density of approximately 20.1 mA/cm2 was recorded, which could attribute to the relatively direct pathways for transportation of electrons provided by ZnO nanosheet arrays as well as the direct contact between ZnO and weaved titanium wires. These results indicate that CdS/ZnO nanostructures on weaved titanium wires would open a novel possibility for applications of low-cost solar cells.
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High-performance self-powered UV photodetectors based on TiO2 nano-branched arrays.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Nano-branched TiO2 arrays were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a facile two-step chemical synthesis process. Self-powered UV photodetectors based on photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) were assembled using these TiO2 nano-branched arrays as photoanodes. These visible-blind self-powered UV photodetectors exhibit high sensitivity and high-speed photoresponse. Compared with photodetectors based on bare TiO2 nanorod arrays, TiO2 nano-branched arrays show drastically improved photodetecting performance as photoanodes. The photosensitivity increases from 0.03 to 0.22 A W(-1) when optimized nano-branched TiO2 arrays are used, corresponding to an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency higher than 77%. The UV photodetectors also exhibit excellent spectral selectivity and fast response (0.05 s decay time). The improved performance is attributed to a markedly enlarged TiO2/electrolyte contact area and good electron conductivity in the one-dimensional, well-aligned TiO2 nanorod trunk.
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FbaA- and M protein-based multi-epitope vaccine elicits strong protective immune responses against group A streptococcus in mouse model.
Microbes Infect.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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We report the construction of a recombinant multivalent vaccine against group A streptococcus (GAS), designated F7M5. It contains seven predominant epitopes of FbaA identified by phage display technology, five non-tissue cross-reactive M protein fragments expressed on four selected serotypes prevalent in China, a Trojan antigen (TA) and a poly-alanine DR epitope (PADRE). BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with F7M5 formulated with Freund's adjuvant, using recombinant FbaA and M protein in parallel as control. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), mouse immune sera were assayed for IgG titers, IgG subclasses, and binding of F7M5 with M1GAS. Results indicated that the multivalent vaccine was highly immunogenic and elicited a balanced IgG1/IgG2a response. We also tested the reactivity of F7M5 to antistreptolysin O (ASO) antibodies in sera of GAS-infected patients and found a 95.8% positive rate, indicating that the epitopes of the vaccine were widely expressed in the prevalent serotypes of GAS. More importantly, the F7M5 vaccine elicited strong protective immune responses against lethal-dose challenge with a survival rate of 90%, but induced no cross-reactions or pathological lesions in mouse model, suggesting that F7M5 can be further developed as an effective and safe anti-GAS vaccine.
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The role of angiopoietins as potential therapeutic targets in renal cell carcinoma.
Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) is a secreted glycoprotein upregulated at sites of angiogenesis and has been implicated in cancer neovascularization. Recent studies have suggested efficacy of combined Ang and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibition for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We measured Ang2 expression in human tissue and plasma, and tested the effect of dual Ang1/2 (trebananib; AMG386) or Ang2 alone (L1-7) inhibition with VEGFR inhibition on murine RCC growth and blood flow. Ang2 levels were higher in human tumors than normal tissues with RCC ranking highest for Ang2 expression across all tumor types tested. Plasma Ang2 was significantly higher in patients with mRCC compared to controls or patients with stage I disease. Plasma Ang2 decreased with sunitinib treatment and increased at time of disease progression. In the RCC mouse, dual Ang1/2 and Ang2 inhibition improved the activity of sunitinib. Combined Ang1/2 and VEGFR inhibition prevented the resumption of blood flow associated with sunitinib resistance. Thus, Ang2 inhibition, independent of Ang1 inhibition, improves the activity of sunitinib and plasma Ang2 increases in the setting of progression on sunitinib possibly contributing to resistance. Further, arterial spin-labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging might be a non-invasive marker of the antiangiogenic activity of Ang inhibitors.
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Prognostic value of semiquantification NP-59 SPECT/CT in primary aldosteronism patients after adrenalectomy.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Primary aldosteronism (PA), characterized by an excessive production of aldosterone, affects 5-13 % of patients with hypertension. Accurate strategies are needed for the timely diagnosis of PA to allow curability and prevention of excessive cardiovascular events and related damage. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of semiquantification of (131)I-6?-iodomethyl-norcholesterol (NP-59) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT in differentiating aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) from idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IAH) and in predicting clinical outcomes after adrenalectomy.
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Photodynamic therapy with the novel photosensitizer chlorophyllin f induces apoptosis and autophagy in human bladder cancer cells.
Lasers Surg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Our group recently synthesized a new, low-cost photosensitizer, chlorophyllin f. In this study, the effects of chlorophyllin f-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) and its potential mechanisms were examined in human bladder cancer cells.
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Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes.
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Association of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphism with Primary Dysmenorrhea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), the most prevalent menstrual cycle-related problem in women of reproductive age, is associated with negative moods. Whether the menstrual pain and negative moods have a genetic basis remains unknown. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the production of central sensitization and contributes to chronic pain conditions. BDNF has also been implicated in stress-related mood disorders. We screened and genotyped the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) in 99 Taiwanese (Asian) PDMs (20-30 years old) and 101 age-matched healthy female controls. We found that there was a significantly higher frequency of the Met allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in the PDM group. Furthermore, BDNF Met/Met homozygosity had a significantly stronger association with PDM compared with Val carrier status. Subsequent behavioral/hormonal assessments of sub-groups (PDMs?=?78, controls?=?81; eligible for longitudinal multimodal neuroimaging battery studies) revealed that the BDNF Met/Met homozygous PDMs exhibited a higher menstrual pain score (sensory dimension) and a more anxious mood than the Val carrier PDMs during the menstrual phase. Although preliminary, our study suggests that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with PDM in Taiwanese (Asian) people, and BDNF Met/Met homozygosity may be associated with an increased risk of PDM. Our data also suggest the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism as a possible regulator of menstrual pain and pain-related emotions in PDM. Absence of thermal hypersensitivity may connote an ethnic attribution. The presentation of our findings calls for further genetic and neuroscientific investigations of PDM.
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Role of the exogenous HCV core protein in the interaction of human hepatocyte proliferation and macrophage sub-populations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is found in the cytoplasm and nuclei of infected cells, including hepatocytes and other cells in the liver. The core protein could be secreted as well. Resident liver macrophages are dependent on the tissue micro-environment and external stimuli to differentiate M1 and M2 hypotypes with distinct functions, and increased expression of the nuclear transcription factor STAT3 was seen in M2-polarized macrophages. In contrast to proinflammatory M1 macrophages, M2 macrophages serve beneficial roles in chronic inflammation, immunosuppression, and tumorigenesis.
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Integrated analysis of mutation data from various sources identifies key genes and signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recently, a number of studies have performed genome or exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identified hundreds or even thousands of mutations in protein-coding genes. However, these studies have only focused on a limited number of candidate genes, and many important mutation resources remain to be explored.
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Cathelicidins from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana provides novel template for peptide antibiotic design.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cathelicidins, a class of gene-encoded effector molecules of vertebrate innate immunity, provide a first line of defense against microbial invasions. Although cathelicidins from mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes have been extensively studied, little is known about cathelicidins from amphibians. Here we report the identification and characterization of two cathelicidins (cathelicidin-RC1 and cathelicidin-RC2) from the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. The cDNA sequences (677 and 700 bp, respectively) encoding the two peptides were successfully cloned from the constructed lung cDNA library of R. catesbeiana. And the deduced mature peptides are composed of 28 and 33 residues, respectively. Structural analysis indicated that cathelicidin-RC1 mainly assumes an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation, while cathelicidin-RC2 could not form stable amphipathic structure. Antimicrobial and bacterial killing kinetic analysis indicated that the synthetic cathelicidin-RC1 possesses potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial potency, while cathelicidin-RC2 exhibited very weak antimicrobial activity. Besides, the antimicrobial activity of cathelicidin-RC1 is salt-independent and highly stable. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that cathelicidin-RC1 kills microorganisms through the disruption of microbial membrane. Moreover, cathelicidin-RC1 exhibited low cytotoxic activity against mammalian normal or tumor cell lines, and low hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. The potent, broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial activity combined with the salt-independence, high stability, low cytotoxic and hemolytic activities make cathelicidin-RC1 an ideal template for the development of novel peptide antibiotics.
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MicroRNA-146a and Ets-1 gene polymorphisms are associated with pediatric uveitis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) was a key negative regulator of autoimmunity. V-Ets oncogene homolog 1 (Ets-1) was demonstrated to bind to the miR-146a promoter region and markedly affects miR-146a promoter activity. This study aimed to investigate the association of miR-146a and Ets-1 gene polymorphisms with pediatric uveitis in a Han Chinese population.
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Roles of autophagy in MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in vivo: the involvement of mitochondria and ?-synuclein aggregation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Macroautophagy (also known as autophagy) is an intracellular self-eating mechanism and has been proposed as both neuroprotective and neurodestructive in the central nervous system (CNS) neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, the role of autophagy involving mitochondria and ?-synuclein was investigated in MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium)-induced oxidative injury in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats in vivo. The oxidative mechanism underlying MPP+-induced neurotoxicity was identified by elevated lipid peroxidation and heme oxygenase-1 levels, a redox-regulated protein in MPP+-infused substantia nigra (SN). At the same time, MPP+ significantly increased LC3-II levels, a hallmark protein of autophagy. To block MPP+-induced autophagy in rat brain, Atg7siRNA was intranigrally infused 4 d prior to MPP+ infusion. Western blot assay showed that in vivo Atg7siRNA transfection not only reduced Atg7 levels in the MPP+-infused SN but attenuated MPP+-induced elevation in LC3-II levels, activation of caspase 9 and reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase levels, indicating that autophagy is pro-death. The immunostaining study demonstrated co-localization of LC3 and succinate dehydrogenase (a mitochondrial complex II) as well as LC3 and ?-synuclein, suggesting that autophagy may engulf mitochondria and ?-synuclein. Indeed, in vivo Atg7siRNA transfection mitigated MPP+-induced reduction in cytochrome c oxidase. In addition, MPP+-induced autophagy differentially altered the ?-synuclein aggregates in the infused SN. In conclusion, autophagy plays a prodeath role in the MPP+-induced oxidative injury by sequestering mitochondria in the rat brain. Moreover, our data suggest that the benefits of autophagy depend on the levels of ?-synuclein aggregates in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of the rat brain.
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GE11-modified liposomes for non-small cell lung cancer targeting: preparation, ex vitro and in vivo evaluation.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a serious threat to human health, and 40%-80% of NSCLCs express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). GE11 is a novel peptide and exhibits high affinity for EGFR binding. The aim of this study was to construct and evaluate GE11-modified liposomes for targeted drug delivery to EGFR-positive NSCLC. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum antitumor agent, was chosen as the payload. GE11 was conjugated to the distal end of DSPE-PEG2000-Mal by an addition reaction with a conjugation efficiency above 90%. Doxorubicin-loaded liposomes containing GE11 (GE11-LP/DOX) at densities ranging from 0% to 15% were prepared by combination of a thin film hydration method and a post insertion method. Irrespective of GE11 density, the physicochemical properties of these targeted liposomes, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug entrapment efficiency, were nearly identical. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of the liposomes on A549 tumor cells was closely related to GE11 density, and liposomes with 10% GE11 had the highest tumor cell killing activity and a 2.6-fold lower half maximal inhibitory concentration than that of the nontargeted counterpart (PEG-LP/DOX). Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis revealed that GE11 significantly increased cellular uptake of the liposomes, which could be ascribed to specific EGFR-mediated endocytosis. It was found that multiple endocytic pathways were involved in entry of GE11-LP/DOX into cells, but GE11 assisted in cellular internalization mainly via the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Importantly, the GE11-modified liposomes showed enhanced accumulation and prolonged retention in tumor tissue, as evidenced by a 2.2-fold stronger mean fluorescence intensity in tumor tissue than the unmodified liposomes at 24 hours. In summary, GE11-modified liposomes may be a promising platform for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in NSCLC.
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Transcriptome analysis of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. by Illumina paired-end RNA sequencing and SSR marker discovery.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is an important traditional medical herb in China and other Asian countries, with high medicinal and economic value. However, a lack of available genomic information has become a limitation for research on this species. Thus, we carried out high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing of H. cordata to generate an enormous transcriptome sequence dataset for gene discovery and molecular marker development.
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Large and giant medial sphenoid wing meningiomas involving vascular structures: clinical features and management experience in 53 patients.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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Large and giant medial sphenoid wing meningiomas that are located deeply in the skull base where they are closely bounded by cavernous sinus, optic nerve, and internal carotid artery make the gross resection hard to achieve. Also, this kind of meningiomas is often accompanied by a series of severe complications. Therefore, it was regarded as a formidable challenge to even the most experienced neurosurgeons. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features and management experience of patients with large and giant medial sphenoid wing meningiomas.
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Angle-multiplexed spatial-spectral interferometry for simultaneous measurement of spectral phase and polarization state.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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A novel method to simultaneously extract the polarization state and relative spectral phase of an ultrashort laser pulse from an angle-multiplexed spatial-spectral interferometric measurement is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Spectral interference is produced between an arbitrary polarized signal pulse and two orthogonal linearly polarized reference pulses. The accuracy of this technique has been verified by reconstructing the known relative spectral phase arising from material dispersion and the known elliptical polarization state. Measurement of the relative spectral phase and the spatially variable polarization state of a radially polarized pulse is also demonstrated. An additional independent measurement of the spectral phase of reference pulses provides absolute spectral and temporal characteristics of the signal pulse.
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Hypoxic mesenchymal stem cells engraft and ameliorate limb ischaemia in allogeneic recipients.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Local injection of stem cells or endothelial progenitors directly into the ischaemic tissue remains an option for the management of arterial occlusion. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising alternative autologous cell source for ischaemic limb cell therapy. However, methods for applying MSCs in allogeneic transplantation remain to be developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of MSCs cultured under a different environment in ameliorating limb ischaemia in allogeneic recipients.
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A novel antimicrobial peptide from skin secretions of the tree frog Theloderma kwangsiensis.
Zool. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Most of amphibians belonging to family Rhacophoridae live in arboreal habitats. A large number of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified from amphibian skins. No antimicrobial peptide from Rhacophoridae amphibians has been reported. In this study, we purified and characterized a novel antimicrobial peptide, pleurain-a1-thel from skin secretions of the tree frog, Theloderma kwangsiensis. Its amino acid sequence was determined as RILTMTKRVKMPQLYKQIVCRLFKTC by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis and cDNA cloning. There are two cysteines, which form an intra-molecular disulfide bridge, in the sequence of pleurain-a1-thel. Pleurain-a1-thel exerted potential antimicrobial activities against wide spectrum of microorganisms, including Gram-negative and -positive bacteria and fungi. It exerted little hemolytic activity in human or rabbit red cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of antimicrobial peptide from Rhacophoridae amphibians.
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The fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) questionnaire in Taiwanese infertile couples.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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To characterize the fertility quality of life (QoL) in Taiwanese infertile couples using an objective measurement tool-the FertiQoL questionnaire, and establish a reference level of QoL for clinical applications and future studies.
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The two-edged sword: vasculitis associated with HIV and Hepatitis C coinfection.
Int J STD AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Vasculitis has long been associated with chronic viral infections, thus the twin perils of the infection and the immune response against it that bedevils the specialties of infection and immunity. After HIV was identified, it too, became associated with vasculitic syndromes. Later, Hepatitis C virus was also isolated, identified and described with its own spectrum of vasculitic diseases, including Hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinaemia. With the increasing prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C virus coinfection, there has come an increasing recognition of the range of vasculitides that can occur in this population leading to significant morbidity, diagnostic and treatment challenges. In this review, we examine the epidemiology, pathogenesis and general principles of treatment of these systemic diseases in HIV/Hepatitis C virus coinfected individuals.
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Clean unzipping by steam etching to synthesize graphene nanoribbons.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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A simple, clean method of steam etching carbon nanotubes is reported for the synthesis of graphene nanoribbons. The chemical mechanism of carbon nanotube unzipping is also discussed. As an anode catalyst, as-prepared graphene nanoribbons combined with Pt exhibit quite a high catalytic activity for ethanol electro-oxidation in fuel cells.
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Purification and characterization of a tachykinin-like peptide from skin secretions of the tree frog, Theloderma kwangsiensis.
Zool. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Most amphibians belonging to Rhacophoridae have an arboreal life. A large amount of bioactive peptides have been identified from amphibian skin, but none from amphibians belonging to Rhacophoridae have been reported to date. A tachykinin-like peptide, tachykinin-Thel, was purified and characterized from skin secretions of the tree frog, Theloderma kwangsiensis. Its primary structure was determined as KPSPDRFYGLM-NH2 by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry analysis. cDNA sequence encoding the precursor of tachykinin-Thel was cloned from the skin cDNA library. Tachykinin-Thel induced the contraction of isolated ileum smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner. The current work reported a bioactive peptide, tachykinin-Thel, from Rhacophoridae amphibians and confirmed the presence of tachykinin-like peptide in the skin of the tree frog, which may facilitate their arboreal life.
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Profiling circulating microRNA expression in a mouse model of nerve allotransplantation.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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The lack of noninvasive biomarkers of rejection remains a challenge in the accurate monitoring of deeply buried nerve allografts and precludes optimization of therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to establish the expression profile of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) during nerve allotransplantation with or without immunosuppression.
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ZnO nanoneedle/H2O solid-liquid heterojunction-based self-powered ultraviolet detector.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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ZnO nanoneedle arrays were grown vertically on a fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass by hydrothermal method at a relatively low temperature. A self-powered photoelectrochemical cell-type UV detector was fabricated using the ZnO nanoneedles as the active photoanode and H2O as the electrolyte. This solid-liquid heterojunction offers an enlarged ZnO/water contact area and a direct pathway for electron transport simultaneously. By connecting this UV photodetector to an ammeter, the intensity of UV light can be quantified using the output short-circuit photocurrent without a power source. High photosensitivity, excellent spectral selectivity, and fast photoresponse at zero bias are observed in this UV detector. The self-powered behavior can be well explained by the formation of a space charge layer near the interface of the solid-liquid heterojunction, which results in a built-in potential and makes the solid-liquid heterojunction work in photovoltaic mode.
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Combined platelet count with sCD163 and genetic variants optimizes esophageal varices prediction in cirrhotic patients.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Endoscopic screening for esophageal varices (EVs) is expensive and invasive. Besides traditional noninvasive markers, we explore additional candidate markers including portal hypertension serum marker-soluble CD136 (sCD163) and genetic variants of splanchnic vasodilatation and revascularization pathways for prediction of EVs in cirrhotic patients.
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TNF receptor-associated factor 5 gene confers genetic predisposition to acute anterior uveitis and pediatric uveitis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 5 (TRAF5) has been shown to be associated with autoimmune disease. The current study sought to investigate the potential association of TRAF5 with acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and pediatric uveitis in Han Chinese.
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Increased Th17 cells in the tumor microenvironment is mediated by IL-23 via tumor-secreted prostaglandin E2.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Tumor cell-derived molecules such as cytokines and lipid mediators play a critical role in inducing chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. We found that Th17 cells were increased in the peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor tissues of mammary gland tumor-bearing mice. The Th17 cell survival factor, IL-23, was also overexpressed in tumor tissues isolated from mice and human breast cancer patients. Soluble molecules secreted from breast tumor cells, but not normal breast epithelial cells, induced IL-23 protein secretion in dendritic cells via induction of p19 mRNA expression. Our data further indicate that tumor-secreted PGE2 through EP2 and EP4 receptors enhanced IL-23 p19 gene transcription through binding to the cAMP-response element in the p19 promoter. Blocking PGE2 synthesis by NS398, a COX2 inhibitor, abrogated the enhancement of p19 expression both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, blocking protein kinase A (PKA) by H89 completely abrogated the inductive effects of tumor-conditioned medium and PGE2 on p19 transcription, whereas the cAMP active analog, Forskolin, mimics the PGE2 effect. Taken together, our results indicate that tumor-secreted PGE2 induces IL-23, but not IL-12, production in the tumor microenvironment, leading to Th17 cell expansion. This inductive effect of PGE2 on IL-23 p19 transcription is mediated through cAMP/PKA signaling transduction pathway.
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Frozen translational and rotational motion of human immunodeficiency virus transacting activator of transcription peptide-modified nanocargo on neutral lipid bilayer.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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With time-resolved high-precision single-particle tracking methodologies, we explored the adsorption and thermal motion of transacting activator of transcription (TAT) peptide-modified nanocargo on a model lipid bilayer in the nonelectrostatic domain. We found that the lateral and rotational motion of TAT peptide-modified nanocargo could be effectively suppressed on the surface of neutral lipid membrane, a feature that cannot be explained by existing hypotheses. A semiquantitative association activation energy analysis revealed that multiple weak bonds were required for the initial adsorption process. As a result, the localized multiple TAT peptides on the surface of the nanocargo can provide a pathway for the creation of a net of peptide-lipid complexes (e.g., lipid domain). The dragging forces caused by these complexes effectively confined the thermal motion of the nanocargo on the fluid membrane that cannot be achieved by individual peptides with random spatial and conformational distributions. These interesting findings could provide insightful information for the better understanding of the intracellular internalization mechanism of TAT peptide-modified nanocargo and might shed new light on the development of highly efficient intracellular carriers for site-specific delivery of drugs and genes.
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Structure and function of a potent lipopolysaccharide-binding antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptide.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play pivotal roles in the innate defense of vertebrates. A novel AMP (cathelicidin-PY) has been identified from the skin secretions of the frog Paa yunnanensis . Cathelicidin-PY has an amino acid sequence of RKCNFLCKLKEKLRTVITSHIDKVLRPQG. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analysis revealed that cathelicidin-PY adopts a tertiary structure with a mostly positively charged surface containing a helix (Thr15-Ser19). It possesses strong antimicrobial activity, low hemolytic activity, low cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells, and strong anti-inflammatory activity. The action of antimicrobial activity of cathelicidin-PY is through the destruction of the cell membrane. Moreover, cathelicidin-PY exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Cathelicidin-PY inhibits the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inflammatory response pathways induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The NMR titration experiments indicated that cathelicidin-PY can bind to LPS. In conclusion, we have identified a novel potent peptide antibiotic with both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities and laid the groundwork for future research and development.
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Association of brain serotonin transporter availability and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in models of serotonin transporter genotypes in healthy subjects.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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The S-allele of functional polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene has been demonstrated to have lower transcriptional activity compared with the L-allele, which shows low expression of SERT in the brain. However, this finding cannot be consistently replicated in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine the availability of SERT based on SERT genotype. We also examined the relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the availability of SERT. Sixty-two healthy subjects were recruited. Each subject underwent single-photon emission computed tomography with I-ADAM (I-labeled 2-([2-({dimethylamino}methyl)phenyl]thio)-5-iodophenylamine) for imaging SERT in the brain. The specific uptake ratio was measured, and venous blood was drawn when the subject underwent single-photon emission computed tomography to evaluate BDNF levels and SERT genotype. All subjects expressed SERT genotypes that were consistent with a biallelic model, and 26 subjects had SERT genotypes that were consistent with a triallelic model. No differences in specific uptake ratio were detected in the midbrain, putamen, caudate, and thalamus based on the SERT genotype using the biallelic and triallelic models. Interestingly, The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a positive correlation between BDNF and SERT availability. In particular, this relationship was observed in homozygous S-allele expression and a genotype with low functional expression (SaSa/SaLg) in the biallelic and triallelic models of SERT genotypes, respectively. This finding might explain why the SS genotype of SERT did not increase the risk of major depressive disorder in Asian populations and implicate an important role of BDNF in the patients, who has the SS genotype of the SERT gene.
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Improved carrier mobility in few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors with ionic-liquid gating.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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We report the fabrication of ionic liquid (IL)-gated field-effect transistors (FETs) consisting of bilayer and few-layer MoS2. Our transport measurements indicate that the electron mobility ? ? 60 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 250 K in IL-gated devices exceeds significantly that of comparable back-gated devices. IL-FETs display a mobility increase from ? 100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 180 K to ? 220 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 77 K in good agreement with the true channel mobility determined from four-terminal measurements, ambipolar behavior with a high ON/OFF ratio >10(7) (10(4)) for electrons (holes), and a near ideal subthreshold swing of ? 50 mV/dec at 250 K. We attribute the observed performance enhancement, specifically the increased carrier mobility that is limited by phonons, to the reduction of the Schottky barrier at the source and drain electrode by band bending caused by the ultrathin IL dielectric layer.
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A mycobacteriophage-derived trehalose-6,6-dimycolate-binding peptide containing both antimycobacterial and anti-inflammatory abilities.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Bacteriophages, the viruses of eubacteria, have developed unique mechanisms to interact with their host bacteria. They have been viewed as potential antibacterial therapeutics. Mycobacteriophage-derived compounds may interact with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and/or its components, such as the cord factor, trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM), which is the most abundant glycolipid produced on the surface of MTB. TDM emulsion injected intravenously into mice induces lung immunopathology that mimics many aspects of MTB infection. Thus, TDM is an important target for anti-MTB agent development. On the basis of genomics information of mycobacteriophages, 200 peptides were synthesized. Their effects on MTB, their interactions with TDM, and anti-inflammatory activities were tested. One of them (PK34) showed MTB-killing activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 50 ?g/ml and TDM-binding ability. In a mouse model, PK34 showed comparable ability to clear MTB as rifampin did in vivo. It also exerted strong activity to inhibit MTB or TDM-induced inflammation in vivo. PK34 significantly inhibited inflammatory cytokines secretions by inactivating MAPK and PKB signals while it maintained certain proinflammatory cytokine production. It is possible to prospect for TDM-binding and/or anti-MTB peptides by mining the mycobacteriophages genome. In addition to its direct MTB-killing ability, PK34 might be a useful adjunct in the treatment of granulomatous inflammation occurring during mycobacterial infection or a template for developing antituberculosis (TB) agents because of its immunoregulative effects. As a TDM-binding peptide, PK34 may be a promising tool to study TDMs interactions with corresponding receptors and signal pathways.
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Outcomes in children with biliary atresia following liver transplantation.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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Congenital biliary atresia is a rare condition characterized by idiopathic dysgenesis of the bile ducts. If untreated, congenital biliary atresia leads to liver cirrhosis, liver failure and premature death. The present study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of orthotopic liver transplantation in children with biliary atresia.
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Application of computer-assisted three-dimensional quantitative assessment and a surgical planning tool for living donor liver transplantation.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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Precise evaluation of the live donors liver is the most important factor for the donors safety and the recipients prognosis in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Our study assessed the clinical value of computer-assisted three-dimensional quantitative assessment and a surgical planning tool for donor evaluation in LDLT.
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A functional variant of pre-miRNA-196a2 confers risk for Behcets disease but not for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome or AAU in ankylosing spondylitis.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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This study aimed to investigate the predisposition of common pre-miRNA SNPs with Behcets disease (BD), Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome and acute anterior uveitis (AAU) associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A two-stage association study was carried out in 859 BD, 400 VKH syndrome, 209 AAU(+)AS(+) patients and 1,685 controls all belonging to a Chinese Han population. Genotyping, the expression of miR-196a and Bach1 (the target gene of miR-196a), cell proliferation, cytokine production were examined by PCR-RFLP, real-time PCR, CCK8 and ELISA. In the first stage study, the results showed significantly increased frequencies of the miR-196a2/rs11614913 TT genotype and T allele in BD patients (adjusted P(c) = 0.024, OR = 1.63; adjusted P(c) = 5.4 × 10(-3), OR = 1.45, respectively). However, no significant association of the tested SNPs with VKH and AAU(+)AS(+) patients was observed. The second stage and combined studies confirmed the association of rs11614913 with BD (TT genotype: adjusted P(c) = 6×10(-5), OR = 1.53; T allele: adjusted P(c) = 8×10(-6), OR = 1.35; CC genotype: adjusted P(c) = 0.024, OR = 0.68). A stratified analysis showed an association of the rs11614913 TT genotype and T allele with the arthritis subgroup of BD (P(c) = 5.3 × 10(-3), OR = 1.89; P(c) = 0.015, OR = 1.56, respectively). Functional experiments showed a decreased miR-196a expression, an increased Bach1 expression and an increased production of IL-1? and MCP-1 in TT cases compared to CC cases (P = 0.023, P = 0.0073, P = 0.012, P = 0.002, respectively). This study shows that a functional variant of miR-196a2 confers risk for BD but not for VKH syndrome or AAU(+)AS(+) by modulating the miR-196a gene expression and by regulating pro-inflammatory IL-1? and MCP-1 production.
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Increased risk of acute myocardial infarction in systemic sclerosis: a nationwide population-based study.
Am. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Systemic sclerosis is a life-threatening autoimmune disease characterized by vasculopathy, which results in myocardial involvement in an extremely high percentage of patients. Nevertheless, there have been no large-scale epidemiological studies about the risk of acute myocardial infarction in patients with systemic sclerosis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the hazard ratio (HR) and risk factors of acute myocardial infarction in patients with systemic sclerosis, as well as to compare the risks of acute myocardial infarction among systemic sclerosis patients taking different immunosuppressors.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.