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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of BRCA1- and BRCA2-related mutations on ovarian and breast cancer survival: a meta-analysis.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Purpose: To estimate the effects of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations on ovarian cancer and breast cancer survival. Experimental Design: We searched PUBMED and EMBASE for studies that evaluated the associations between BRCA mutations and ovarian or breast cancer survival. Meta-analysis was conducted to generate combined hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Results: From 1201 unique citations, we identified 27 articles that compared prognosis between BRCA mutation carriers and non-carriers in ovarian or breast cancer patients. Fourteen studies examined ovarian cancer survival and 13 studies examined breast cancer survival. For ovarian cancer, meta-analysis demonstrated that both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers had better OS (HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.70-0.83 for BRCA1 mutation carriers; HR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.50-0.66 for BRCA2 mutation carriers) and PFS (HR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.52-0.81 for BRCA1 mutation carriers; HR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.47-0.80 for BRCA2 mutation carriers) compared to non-carriers, regardless of tumor stage, grade, or histologic subtype. Among breast cancer patients, BRCA1 mutation carriers had worse OS (HR: 1.50, 95%CI: 1.11-2.04) than non-carriers, but were not significantly different from non-carriers in PFS. BRCA2 mutation was not associated with breast cancer prognosis. Conclusions: Our analyses suggest that BRCA mutations are robust predictors of outcomes in both ovarian and breast cancer and these mutations should be taken into account when devising appropriate therapeutic strategies.
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Pain beliefs and readiness to change among adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and their parents before an initial pain clinic evaluation.
Clin J Pain
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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To understand relationships between pain-related beliefs and readiness to change among treatment-seeking adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and their parents.
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Treatment expectations among adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and their parents before an initial pain clinic evaluation.
Clin J Pain
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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To understand expectations regarding treatment recommendations among treatment-seeking adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and their parents.
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Diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex of the United States medical oncology physician workforce over the past quarter century.
J Oncol Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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To assess the medical oncology (MO) physician workforce diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex, with attention to trainees.
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Factors influencing the length of stay after radical cystectomy: implications for cancer care and perioperative management.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Although radical cystectomy (RC) is the gold standard treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer it is associated with perioperative complications, readmissions, and a prolonged length of hospital stay (PLOS). We explored the perioperative factors associated with a PLOS after RC and subsequent long-term outcomes.
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Placental site nodule (PSN): an uncommon diagnosis with a common presentation.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Placental site nodule (PSN) is a rare benign lesion of the intermediate trophoblast which is thought to represent incomplete involution of the placental implantation site. PSN usually presents as menorrhagia, intermenstrual bleeding or an abnormal Pap smear. PSN is benign, but it is important to distinguish it from the other benign and malignant lesions like decidua, placental polyp, exaggerated placental site and placental site trophoblastic tumour. Follow-ups of typical PSNs do not show recurrence or malignant potential. PSN is an uncommon condition which should be suspected in cases of abnormal bleeding, especially following uterine surgical procedures preceding last pregnancy. Timely diagnosis and treatment is necessary to differentiate it from potentially malignant placental lesions with a similar presentation.
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Diagnosis of pernicious anemia and the risk of pancreatic cancer.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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A number of studies have demonstrated a trophic effect of gastrin on pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Pernicious anemia (PA) is a clinical condition characterized by chronic hypergastrinemia. The aim of this study was to determine if PA is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer.
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Gene editing of CCR5 in autologous CD4 T cells of persons infected with HIV.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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CCR5 is the major coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We investigated whether site-specific modification of the gene ("gene editing")--in this case, the infusion of autologous CD4 T cells in which the CCR5 gene was rendered permanently dysfunctional by a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)--is safe.
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MicroRNA-146a directs the symmetric division of Snail-dominant colorectal cancer stem cells.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Asymmetrical cell division (ACD) maintains the proper number of stem cells to ensure self-renewal. In cancer cells, the deregulation of ACD disrupts the homeostasis of the stem cell pool and promotes tumour growth. However, this mechanism is unclear. Here, we show a reduction of ACD in spheroid-derived colorectal cancer stem cells (CRCSCs) compared with differentiated cancer cells. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer Snail is responsible for the ACD-to-symmetrical cell division (SCD) switch in CRCSCs. Mechanistically, Snail induces the expression of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) through the ?-catenin-TCF4 complex. miR-146a targets Numb to stabilize ?-catenin, which forms a feedback circuit to maintain Wnt activity and directs SCD. Interference with the Snail-miR-146a–?-catenin loop by inhibiting the MEK or Wnt activity reduces the symmetrical division of CRCSCs and attenuates tumorigenicity. In colorectal cancer patients, the Snail(High)Numb(Low) profile is correlated with cetuximab resistance and a poorer prognosis. This study elucidates a unique mechanism of EMT-induced CRCSC expansion.
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Acculturative family distancing: psychometric analysis with the extended two-tier item response theory.
Psychol Assess
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The acculturative family distancing (AFD) rating questionnaire measures the distancing that occurs between immigrant parents and their children, which is caused by breakdowns in communication and cultural value differences. The items included in the AFD questionnaire are indicators for more proximal and problem-focused aspects of the acculturation gap. In this study, a psychometric analysis is performed on the data gathered with the AFD instrument. One hundred twenty-three Chinese American families (112 mothers, 85 fathers, and 120 children for a total of 317) completed the questionnaire. In addition, the specifications for an extended 2-tier item factor analysis model within a Bayesian multidimensional item response theory framework are provided to psychometrically analyze the AFD data. Results suggest that the original 2 dimensions of Communication Difficulties and Cultural Values Incongruency can be further refined into 4 clinically relevant dimensions (i.e., Verbal Communication Difficulties, Nonverbal Communication Difficulties, General Cultural Values Incongruency, and Family Values Incongruency). Moreover, reducing the number of items can improve AFD estimates and reduce assessment burden.
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Potential-dependent restructuring and chemical noise at Au-Ag-Au atomic scale junctions.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The effect of electrochemical potential on the behavior of electrochemically deposited Au-Ag-Au bimetallic atomic scale junctions (ASJs) is addressed here. A common strategy for ASJ production begins with overgrown nanojunctions and uses electromigration to back-thin the junction. Here, these steps are carried out with the entire junction under electrochemical potential control, and the relationship between junction stability and applied potential is characterized. The control of electrochemical potential provides a reliable method of regulating the size of nanojunctions. In general, more anodic potentials decrease junction stability and increase the rate at which conductance decays. Conductance behavior under these labile conditions is principally determined by Ag oxidation potential, electrochemical potential-induced surface stress, and the nature of the adsorbate. Junctions fabricated at more cathodic potentials experience only slight changes in conductance, likely due to surface atom diffusion and stress-induced structural rearrangement. Electrochemical potential also plays a significant role in determining adsorption-desorption kinetics of surface pyridine at steady state at Au-Ag-Au ASJs, as revealed through fluctuation spectroscopy. Average cutoff frequencies increase at more anodic potentials, as does the width of the cutoff frequency distribution measured over 80 independent runs. Three reversible reactions--pyridine adsorption, Ag atom desorption, and Ag-pyridine complex dissolution--can occur on the surface, and the combination of the three can explain the observed results.
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Temsirolimus enhances the efficacy of cetuximab in colon cancer through a CIP2A-dependent mechanism.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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A dozen clinical trials examining a combination of temsirolimus and cetuximab in treating metastatic colon cancer are currently underway. We investigated the role of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) in the synergism between temsirolimus and cetuximab in colon cancer.
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Assessing interpersonal and communication skills in radiation oncology residents: a pilot standardized patient program.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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There is a lack of data for the structured development and evaluation of communication skills in radiation oncology residency training programs. Effective communication skills are increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and are critical for a successful clinical practice. We present the design of a novel, pilot standardized patient (SP) program and the evaluation of communication skills among radiation oncology residents.
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Designing a parallel evolutionary algorithm for inferring gene networks on the cloud computing environment.
BMC Syst Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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To improve the tedious task of reconstructing gene networks through testing experimentally the possible interactions between genes, it becomes a trend to adopt the automated reverse engineering procedure instead. Some evolutionary algorithms have been suggested for deriving network parameters. However, to infer large networks by the evolutionary algorithm, it is necessary to address two important issues: premature convergence and high computational cost. To tackle the former problem and to enhance the performance of traditional evolutionary algorithms, it is advisable to use parallel model evolutionary algorithms. To overcome the latter and to speed up the computation, it is advocated to adopt the mechanism of cloud computing as a promising solution: most popular is the method of MapReduce programming model, a fault-tolerant framework to implement parallel algorithms for inferring large gene networks.
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Optimizing bladder cancer locoregional failure risk stratification after radical cystectomy using SWOG 8710.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Clinical trials of radiation after radical cystectomy (RC) and chemotherapy for bladder cancer are in development, but inclusion and stratification factors have not been clearly established. In this study, the authors evaluated and refined a published risk stratification for locoregional failure (LF) by applying it to a multicenter patient cohort.
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma in Taiwan shows a frequent gain of ITK gene.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is an aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) of follicular helper T-cell origin and is rare in Taiwan. There are overlapping features of AITL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a follicular growth pattern (PTCL-F). Around one fifth of PTCL-F exhibits t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK chromosomal translocation, which is essentially absent in AITL. We retrospectively investigated 35 cases of AITL from Taiwan with histopathology review, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK and correlated the results with overall survival. Twenty-six cases of not otherwise specified PTCL (PTCL-NOS) were also examined by FISH for comparison. Most AITL patients were male (69%) and elderly (median age at 67 years) with frequent bone marrow involvement (53%), high Ann Arbor stages (77%), and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (68%). Most cases (80%) showed a typical CD4+/CD8- phenotype and in 90% cases there were scattered EBV-positive B-cells (less than 10% cells). None of these cases showed t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK translocation by FISH. Gain of ITK and SYK gene was identified in 38% and 14% tumors, respectively, but both were not associated with overall survival. Performance status < 2 was associated with a better outcome but not the other clinicopathological factors. All PTCL-NOS cases were negative for ITK-SYK translocation with similar rates (38% and 12%, respectively) of gains at ITK and SYK loci as that of AITL. In this so far the largest series of AITL from Taiwan, we reported the clinicopathological features and FISH findings on ITK and SYK genes. We confirmed the absence of t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK translocation, which may serve as an additional differential diagnostic tool from PTCL-F when present. PTCL-NOS shared a similar pattern of ITK and SYK gains with AITL. More studies are warranted to elucidate the roles of SYK and ITK and other genes in the lymphomagenesis of AITL in Taiwan.
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High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Characterization of the Neuroligin-3 Knock-in Mouse Model Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise an etiologically heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders. Neuroligin-3 (NL-3) is a cell adhesion protein that mediates synapse development and has been implicated in ASD. We performed ex-vivo high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and behavioral (social approach and zero maze) tests at 3 different time points (30, 50 and 70 days-of-age) on NL-3 and wild-type littermates to assess developmental brain abnormalities in NL-3 mice. MRI data were segmented in 39 different gray and white matter regions. Volumetric measurements, along with DTI indices from these segmented regions were also performed. After controlling for age and gender, the NL-3 knock-in animals demonstrated significantly reduced sociability and lower anxiety-related behavior in comparison to their wild type littermates. Significantly reduced volume of several white and gray matter regions in the NL-3 knock-in mice were also observed after considering age, gender and time point as covariates. These findings suggest that structural changes in the brain of NL-3 mice are induced by the mutation in the NL-3 gene. No significant differences in DTI indices were observed, which suggests that the NL-3 mutation may not have a profound effect on water diffusion as detected by DTI. The volumetric and DTI studies aid in understanding the biology of disrupting function on an ASD risk model and may assist in the development of imaging biomarkers for ASD.
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Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in adolescents and young adults in Taiwan.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus usually infecting B-cells but may occasionally infect T- or natural killer (NK)-cells. EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferations represent a continuous spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic infection, infectious mononucleosis (IM), to clonal and malignant lymphoproliferations including systemic EBV-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) of childhood and hydroa-vacciniforme-like lymphoma of the skin. The clonal diseases are more prevalent in East Asia and exhibit overlapping clinical and pathological features with chronic active EBV infection. Here we report our experience on 10 cases of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation from Taiwan including five males and five females with a median age of 18 years old (range, 15-28). The most common clinical symptoms were fever, neck mass and hepatosplenomegaly. Eight of these patients showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase level and half of the patients had cytopenia. All patients had either elevated EBV antibody titers or increased serum EBV DNA levels. Five cases were clinically IM-like with polyclonal (3 cases) or clonal (2 cases) T-cell lymphoproliferation. Two patients each had chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). One patient had both CAEBV and HLH. One of the HLH patients with marrow infiltration by intra-sinusoidal large atypical lymphocytes experienced a fulminant course. In a median follow-up time of 21.5 months, seven patients were free of disease, one was alive with disease, and two died of disease in 31 and 3 months, respectively, despite chemotherapy. We confirmed a wide clinicopathological range of EVB-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation in Taiwan. Furthermore, monomorphic LPD and the single case with fulminant course as defined by Ohshima et al (Pathol Int 2018) as categories A3 and B, respectively, died of disease despite chemotherapy. Our report, the largest series in the recent decade from Taiwan, adds to the understanding of these rare diseases with variable clinical and histopathological presentations.
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Current status of diversity by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex in diagnostic radiology.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Purpose To assess the diversity of the U.S. diagnostic radiology physician workforce by race, Hispanic ethnicity, and sex in the context of the available pipeline of medical students. Materials and Methods Institutional review board evaluation and exemption were granted for the study, as primary data were obtained from publicly available registry sources, with no identifiable private or protected information. Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and U.S. census registries were used to assess differences for 2010 among diagnostic radiology practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, subspecialty trainees, residency applicants, medical school graduates, and U.S. population by using binomial tests; with adjustment for multiple comparisons among different groups, differences with P < .001 were considered significant. Significant differences in diagnostic radiology resident representation were evaluated for academic years 2003-2004 to 2010-2011 and for 2010, compared among the 20 largest residency training programs. Results Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM)-blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaskan Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AI/AN/NH/PI)-are underrepresented as practicing physicians (23.5% and 6.5%, respectively), faculty (26.1%, 5.9%), and diagnostic radiology residents (27.8%, 8.3%), compared with the U.S. population (50.8%, 30.0%) (all P < .001). Although they are increased in percentage as residents compared with practicing physicians, females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level, compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.3%, respectively). During the past 8 years, there was no significant increase in female or URM resident (all P > .01) representation, suggesting no dramatic change in future representation as practicing physicians. Moreover, diagnostic radiology ranks 17th in female and 20th in URM representation among the 20 largest residency training specialties. Conclusion Females and URM remain underrepresented in the diagnostic radiology physician workforce despite an available medical student pipeline. Given prevalent health care disparities and an increasingly diverse society, future research and training efforts should address increasing resident diversity with program directors and department chairs. © RSNA, 2013.
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Aromatase Inhibitor Associated Musculoskeletal Symptoms are associated with Reduced Physical Activity among Breast Cancer Survivors.
Breast J
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Physical activity (PA) has numerous health benefits for breast cancer survivors. Recent data suggest that some breast cancer survivors treated with aromatase inhibitors may experience aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms. It is unknown whether aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms are associated with reduced PA and what other risk factors are associated with such PA reductions. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a large university-based breast cancer clinic among breast cancer survivors prescribed an aromatase inhibitor. At routine follow-up, we surveyed participants about aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms, as well as pre-aromatase inhibitor, and current, PA levels. Among 300 participants, 90 (30%) reported a reduction of PA since the initiation of aromatase inhibitor therapy. Those with aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms were more likely to report decreased PA (62% versus 38%, p = 0.001) compared with those without aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms. In multivariate analyses, aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-3.86]), and body mass index (OR = 1.06 [95% CI: 1.02-1.12]) were associated with reductions in PA. In subgroup analysis among breast cancer survivors with aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms, self-reported lower extremity joint pain (OR = 1.23 [95% CI: 1.00-1.50]) and impaired lower extremity physical function (OR = 1.07 [95% CI: 1.01-1.14]) were associated with reductions in PA. Breast cancer survivors with aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms were more likely to report reductions in PA since initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy compared with those without aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms. Our findings suggest that tailored interventions targeting lower extremity functional limitations are needed to enable breast cancer survivors with aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms to participate in PA.
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Metformin and survival in pancreatic cancer: a retrospective cohort study.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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Our aim was to determine the effect of metformin exposure on survival in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC).
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A postmarketing surveillance study on erbitux (cetuximab) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to irinotecan-containing treatment.
J. Investig. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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This postmarketing surveillance study evaluated the safety and efficacy of cetuximab therapy in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in Taiwan.
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SECTM1 Produced by Tumor Cells Attracts Human Monocytes via CD7-Mediated Activation of the PI3K Pathway.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have essential roles in tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor cells recruit myeloid progenitors and monocytes to the tumor site, where they differentiate into TAMs; however, this process is not well studied in humans. Here we show that human CD7, a T-cell and NK cell receptor, is highly expressed by monocytes and macrophages. Expression of CD7 decreases in M-CSF-differentiated macrophages and in melanoma-conditioned medium-induced macrophages (MCMI/M?) in comparison to monocytes. A ligand for CD7, SECTM1 (secreted and transmembrane protein 1), is highly expressed in many tumors, including melanoma cells. We show that SECTM1 binds to CD7 and significantly increases monocyte migration by activation of the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) pathway. In human melanoma tissues, tumor-infiltrating macrophages expressing CD7 are present. These melanomas, with CD7-positive inflammatory cell infiltrations, frequently highly express SECTM1, including an N-terminal, soluble form, which can be detected in the sera of metastatic melanoma patients but not in normal sera. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CD7 is present on monocytes and tumor macrophages and that its ligand, SECTM1, is frequently expressed in corresponding melanoma tissues, possibly acting as a chemoattractant for monocytes to modulate the melanoma microenvironment.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 21 November 2013; doi:10.1038/jid.2013.437.
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Proactive enteral tube feeding in pediatric patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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To determine feasibility and safety of proactive enteral tube feeding (ETF) in pediatric oncology patients.
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The immigrant paradox among Asian American women: are disparities in the burden of depression and anxiety paradoxical or explicable?
J Consult Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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We evaluated potential explanations for advantaged mental health status among immigrant Asian American women compared to U.S.-born Asian American women.
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Adolescent pain catastrophizing mediates the relationship between protective parental responses to pain and disability over time.
J Pediatr Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Examine whether the relation between protective parenting responses to pain and functional disability is mediated by pain catastrophizing in adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and their parents over time.
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Chemical noise produced by equilibrium adsorption/desorption of surface pyridine at Au-Ag-Au bimetallic atom-scale junctions studied by fluctuation spectroscopy.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The chemical noise contained in conductance fluctuations resulting from adsorption and desorption of pyridine at Au-Ag-Au bimetallic atom-scale junctions (ASJs) exhibiting ballistic electron transport is studied using fluctuation spectroscopy. ASJs are fabricated by electrochemical Ag deposition in a Au nanogap to produce a high-conductance Ag quantum wire, followed by electromigration-induced thinning in pyridine solution to create stable ASJs. The conductance behavior of the resulting ASJs is analyzed by sequential autocorrelation and Fourier transform of the current-time data to yield the power spectral density (PSD). In these experiments the PSDs from Ag ASJs in pyridine exhibit two main frequency regions: 1/f noise originating from resistance fluctuations of the junction itself at low frequencies, and a Lorentzian noise component arising from molecular adsorption/desorption fluctuations at higher frequencies. The characteristic cutoff frequency of the Lorentzian noise component determines the relaxation time of molecular fluctuations, which, in turn, is sensitive to the kinetics of the adsorption/desorption process. The kinetics are found to depend on concentration and on the adsorption binding energy. The junction size (<5G0), on the other hand, does not affect the kinetics, as the cutoff frequency remains unchanged. Concentration-dependent adsorption free energies are interpreted as arising from a distribution of binding energies, N(E(b)), on the Ag ASJ. Other observations, such as long lifetime ASJs and two-level fluctuations in conductance, provide additional evidence for the integral role of the adsorbate in determining ASJ reorganization dynamics.
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Evaluation of AJCC tumor staging for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and a proposed alternative tumor staging system.
JAMA Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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This study proposes an alternative tumor staging system for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) that more precisely defines the small subset of tumors with a high risk of metastasis and death.
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Daily living skills in school-age children with and without anxiety disorders.
Br J Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Anxiety may interfere with school-age childrens independent behaviour and hence, their daily living skills (DLS). Nonetheless, this has not been tested in previous studies of children with clinical anxiety.
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Regular breakfast consumption is associated with increased IQ in kindergarten children.
Early Hum. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Studies have documented a positive relationship between regular breakfast consumption and cognitive outcomes in youth. However, most of these studies have emphasized specific measures of cognition rather than cognitive performance as a broad construct (e.g., IQ test scores) and have been limited to Western samples of school-age children and adolescents. This study aims to extend the literature on breakfast consumption and cognition by examining these constructs in a sample of Chinese kindergarten-age children.
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Lymphatic invasion is independently prognostic of metastasis in primary cutaneous melanoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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Lymphatic invasion (LI) in primary cutaneous melanomas was recently found to be common. In this study, we evaluated LI as an independent prognostic factor.
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Improving balance skills in patients who had stroke through virtual reality treadmill training.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of virtual reality (VR) treadmill training on the balance skills of patients who have had a stroke.
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Cultural Adaptations: A Complex Interplay between Clinical and Cultural Issues.
Clin Psychol (New York)
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall et al. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differences between the East and West. Below, I provide an overview of the complexities involved in adapting treatments for diverse clients. I also discuss the importance of deconstructing stereotypes and understanding the complex interplay between clinical and cultural issues. Individualization of treatment for diverse clients can be achieved through culturally formed practice.
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Robust Au-Ag-Au bimetallic atom-scale junctions fabricated by self-limited Ag electrodeposition at Au nanogaps.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Atom-scale junctions (ASJs) exhibit quantum conductance behavior and have potential both for fundamental studies of adsorbate-mediated conductance in mesoscopic conductors and as chemical sensors. Electrochemically fabricated ASJs, in particular, show the stability needed for molecular detection applications. However, achieving physically robust ASJs at high yield is a challenge because it is difficult to control the direction and kinetics of metal deposition. In this work, a novel electrochemical approach is reported, in which Au-Ag-Au bimetallic ASJs are reproducibly fabricated from an initially prepared Au nanogap by sequential overgrowth and self-limited thinning. Applying a potential across specially prepared Au nanoelectrodes in the presence of aqueous Ag(I) leads to preferential galvanic reactions resulting in the deposition of Ag and the formation of an atom-scale junction between the electrodes. An external resistor is added in series with the ASJ to control self-termination, and adjusting solution chemical potential (concentration) is used to mediate self-thinning of junctions. The result is long-lived, mechanically stable ASJs that, unlike previous constructions, are stable in flowing solution, as well as to changes in solution media. These bimetallic ASJs exhibit a number of behaviors characteristic of quantum structures, including long-lived fractional conductance states, that are interpreted to arise from two or more quantized ASJs in series.
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Multidrug resistance protein (MRP) 4 attenuates benzo[a]pyrene-mediated DNA-adduct formation in human bronchoalveolar H358 cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2011
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Multi-drug resistance protein (MRP) 4, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, has broad substrate specificity. It facilitates the transport of bile salt conjugates, conjugated steroids, nucleoside analogs, eicosanoids, and cardiovascular drugs. Recent studies in liver carcinoma cells and hepatocytes showed that MRP4 expression is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The AhR has particular importance in the lung and is most commonly associated with the up-regulation of cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) to reactive intermediates. Treatment of H358, human bronchoalveolar, cells with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or (-)-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydro-7,8-diol (B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol), the proximate carcinogen of B[a]P, revealed that MRP4 expression was increased compared to control. This suggested that MRP4 expression might contribute to the paradoxical decrease in (+)-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene-2-deoxyguanosine ((+)-anti-trans-B[a]PDE-dGuo) DNA-adducts observed in TCDD-treated H358 cells. We have now found that decreased MRP4 expression induced by a short hairpin RNA (shRNA), or chemical inhibition with probenecid, increased (+)-anti-trans-B[a]PDE-dGuo formation in cells treated with (-)-B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol, but not the ultimate carcinogen (+)-anti-trans-B[a]PDE. Thus, up-regulation of MRP4 increased cellular efflux of (-)-B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol, which attenuated DNA-adduct formation. This is the first report identifying a specific MRP efflux transporter that decreases DNA damage arising from an environmental carcinogen.
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Therapy-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(4;11)(q21;q23) masqueraded as marrow lymphocytosis in a patient with breast cancer.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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Therapy-related acute leukemia develops in patients after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for a prior cancer, and most cases are acute myeloid leukemia with a much lower frequency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). One unique feature of these therapy-related ALL (t-ALL) is an increased incidence of chromosome band 11q23 aberrations as compared with de novo ALL. In adult female patients, breast cancer is the most common primary cancer. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old Taiwanese lady who developed t-ALL with t(4;11)(q21;q23) 16 months after cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy for her breast cancer. The unusual feature is that the t-ALL was heralded 4 months ago by marrow lymphocytosis comprising atypical small lymphocytes with condensed chromatin mimicking a B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorder. Retrospective studies using additional antibodies for immunophenotyping and PCR-based clonality study for immunoglobulin gene rearrangement showed that these atypical small lymphocytes shared similar features with the leukemic blasts at the frank leukemic stage. Our results suggest that these atypical small lymphocytes are lymphoblasts in disguise and that the clinicopathological correlations with ancillary pathological studies are important to reach a definitive diagnosis of such an unusual case.
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Polymerase chain reaction detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in suboptimally preserved vectors and comparative infection rates 2007-2010 in Escondido, Southern California.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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We investigate the effect of specimen preservation on reliable detection of infection rates of the Chagas disease agent Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in the Californian endemic vector Triatoma protracta (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) by using polymerase chain reaction. Infection rates in suboptimally preserved specimens (dry or low-percentage ethanol) were found to be not significantly different from optimally preserved samples. Based on our samples, the infection rate of vectors in one population in Escondido, San Diego County, has not changed significantly between 2007 and 2010.
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Tissue-based immune monitoring II: multiple tumor sites reveal immunologic homogeneity in serous ovarian carcinoma.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in epithelial ovarian cancer indicates a host antitumor response and is associated with improved survival. We wished to determine the extent to which TIL density differs from site to site within a given patient. We initially studied multiple paired metastases from serous ovarian carcinoma obtained at the time of primary debulking. The expression of genes in specific immune-related pathways was profiled on a pilot set of five patients. We then used immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR to estimate the density of CD3+, CD8+, and FoxP3+ TILs in these same tumors. To extend the findings to a larger cohort, we semiquantitatively measured intraepithelial and stromal TILs in a tissue microarray (TMA) containing both primary tumors and metastases from 50 patients. In the pilot group, genes related to antimicrobial signaling and TGF-beta signaling showed between-site heterogeneity, whereas cytokines and antigen presentation transcripts were more homogeneous in any given patient. IHC and qPCR for T cell markers were concordant. In the TMA cohort, 2-way ANOVA showed that TIL heterogeneity between sites was present in some but not all patients. The stroma of extra-ovarian metastases showed significantly greater TIL infiltration than ovarian sites. A simulation showed that at clinically meaningful levels of precision, up to 3% of patients will be misclassified for intraepithelial TILs by a single biopsy. In conclusion, between-site heterogeneity exists in some patients with metastatic serous ovarian cancer. The predictive value of biopsies should be considered in clinical trial design.
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Electroacupuncture attenuates mechanical and warm allodynia through suppression of spinal glial activation in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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Neuropathic pain remains one of the most difficult clinical pain syndromes to treat. It is traditionally viewed as being mediated solely by neurons; however, glial cells have recently been implicated as powerful modulators of pain. It is known that the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) are mediated by descending pain inhibitory systems, which mainly involve spinal opioid, adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic receptors. However, studies investigating the suppressive effects of EA on spinal glial activation are rare. In the present study, we assessed the cumulative analgesic effects of EA on mechanical and warm allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain. We investigated the clinical efficacy of EA as long-term therapy and examined its effects on spinal glia, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/MMP-2, proinflammatory cytokines and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: the operation group (OP), operation with EA-non acupoint (EA-NA), operation with EA-ST36 acupoint (EA-ST36), and sham operation (shamOP). Following neuropathic or sham surgery, repeated EA was performed every other day after the behavioral test. On day 53 after the behavioral test, rats were perfused for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis to observe quantitative changes in spinal glial markers such as OX-42, astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), MMP-9/MMP-2, and proinflammatory cytokines. Allodynia and OX-42/GFAP/MMP-9/MMP-2/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?/interleukin (IL)-1? activity in the EA-ST36 group was significantly reduced, compared to the OP and EA-NA groups, and IgG in EA-ST36 rats significantly increased. Our results suggest that the analgesic effect of EA may be partly mediated via inhibition of inflammation and glial activation and repeated EA stimulation may be useful for treating chronic pain clinically.
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Prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating T cells in ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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The presence of T cells within the epithelial component of tumors, as histologic evidence of anti-tumor immunity, has been associated with a survival advantage in multiple studies across diverse patient cohorts. We performed a meta-analysis of studies evaluating the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) on survival among women with ovarian cancer and to investigate factors associated with variations in this effect, including patient characteristics, surgical outcomes, tumor histology, and study protocols.
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Gene expression of TRK neurotrophin receptors in advanced neuroblastomas in Singapore--a pilot study.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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The clinical hallmark of neuroblastoma is heterogeneity. Biologically, ploidy and N-Myc amplification are currently the only 2 features used to define risk group and to determine therapy. Tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors (Trks, including TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC) are important in the clinical and biological behavior of neuroblastomas. The authors aim to study Trks gene expression in their local population of advanced neuroblastoma patients. Multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay on the expression of TrkA, TrkB, TrkB-truncated, and TrkC was performed on a total of 19 advanced neuroblastoma archival tumors, diagnosed in KK Womens and Childrens Hospital between 2003 and 2007. Of the 19 tumors investigated, Trks expression was present in 14 (73.6%) cases. Of these cases, 8 (42.1%), 10 (52.6%), 7 (36.8%), and 6 (31.6%) expressed TrkA, TrkB, TrkB-truncated, and TrkC receptor mRNAs, respectively. Subsequently, the authors compared Trks expression with N-Myc amplification status of the 19 patients. N-Myc was amplified in 5 (26.3%) of the cases. Within the non-N-Myc-amplified group, Trks expression was present in 9 (64%) of the 14 cases. The significant expression of Trk isoforms among advanced neuroblastoma cases as evident from this study support their role as possible risk assessment tools alongside N-Myc amplification status.
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The impact of re-excision and residual disease on local recurrence after breast conservation treatment for patients with early stage breast cancer.
Clin. Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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The current study examined the impact of re-excision and residual disease on local recurrence after breast conservation treatment for patients with negative margins. Patients with residual disease on re-excision had a higher local recurrence rate than other patients. However, with reasonably low local recurrence rates in all subgroups, neither re-excision nor residual disease on re-excision are contraindications for breast conservation treatment.
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Screening for psychosocial risk at pediatric cancer diagnosis: the psychosocial assessment tool.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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To investigate the feasibility of integrating an evidence-based screening tool of psychosocial risk in pediatric cancer care at diagnosis.
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Nicotine exposure and metabolizer phenotypes from analysis of urinary nicotine and its 15 metabolites by LC-MS.
Bioanalysis
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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Smokers who inhale less deeply are exposed to lower amounts of the toxic substances present in tobacco smoke. In order to more rigorously assess tobacco smoke exposure, it is necessary to have an accurate method for quantifying nicotine and all of its known metabolites.
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Comparative toxicity and dosimetric profile of whole-pelvis versus prostate bed-only intensity-modulated radiation therapy after prostatectomy.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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To assess whether whole-pelvis (WP) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer (PCa) after prostatectomy is associated with increased toxicity compared to prostate-bed only (PB) IMRT.
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Association of psychosocial risk screening in pediatric cancer with psychosocial services provided.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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How screening for psychosocial risk in pediatric oncology may relate to the number and type of psychosocial services provided is a critical step in linking screening with treatment. We predicted that screening at diagnosis would be associated with the delivery of more psychosocial services over 8 weeks and that these services would be consistent with Universal, Targeted, or Clinical psychosocial risk level based on the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM).
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SNAIL regulates interleukin-8 expression, stem cell-like activity, and tumorigenicity of human colorectal carcinoma cells.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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Some cancer cells have activities that are similar to those of stem cells from normal tissues, and cell dedifferentiation correlates with poor prognosis. Little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the stem cell-like features of cancer cells; we investigated genes associated with stem cell-like features of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells.
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Triweekly reduced-dose docetaxel combined with cisplatin in recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a multicenter phase II study.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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To test the efficacy and safety of a triweekly reduced-dose docetaxel (60 mg/m(2)) regimen combined with a standard dose of cisplatin in patients with recurrent/metastatic (R/M) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
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High lymphatic vessel density and lymphatic invasion underlie the adverse prognostic effect of radial growth phase regression in melanoma.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Regression in the radial growth phase (RGP) of primary cutaneous melanomas is common and has been shown to be an adverse prognostic factor. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We performed dual immunohistochemical staining of podoplanin and S-100 on paraffin tissues from 321 patients with vertical growth phase primary melanomas, who had 10 years or more of follow-up. Lymphatic vessel density (LD) and lymphatic invasion (LI) were quantified and documented. The time to first metastasis and melanoma-specific death (MSD) from the date of definite treatment were analyzed using univariate and multivariate Cox models. Among the 116 vertical growth phase melanomas that had regression in the adjacent RGP, 75 (23%) were classified as complete and 41 (13%) were classified as partial. LD was significantly higher (P<0.001) in the 75 lesions with complete regression (mean±SD, 23.7±12.3/mm²) compared with the 41 lesions with partial regression (15.5±7.1/mm²) and was lower in 155 areas of the adjacent normal dermis (7.3±3.5/mm²) and 69 areas of the distant normal dermis (5.5±2.6/mm²). Patients whose lesions had areas of complete regression with LI and either high or low LD or had no LI with high LD, had shorter time to first metastasis (hazard ratio=2.5, 3.8, and 2.5, respectively) and increased risk of melanoma-specific death (hazard ratio=3.1, 1.3 and 3.0, respectively) than those with no LI, and low LD or those without areas of complete regression. These data indicate that complete RGP regression is associated with significantly increased LD. In addition, the adverse prognostic effect of RGP regression is at least partially mediated through lymphangiogenesis and LI in this area.
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Infection rates of Triatoma protracta (Uhler) with Trypanosoma cruzi in Southern California and molecular identification of trypanosomes.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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We report Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates of the native kissing bug Triatoma protracta in southern California. The rates are within the historically reported range, but differ significantly between the two sites (19% in Escondido and 36% in Glendora). Identification of T. cruzi in T. protracta was conducted for the first time by using partial 18S ribosomal RNA and 24S? ribosomal RNA sequences. Incongruence of 24S? ribosomal RNA phylogeny with current T. cruzi genotype classification supports non-clonality of some T. cruzi genotypes.
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Upper aerodigestive tract lymphoma in Taiwan.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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To better understand the spectrum of primary lymphomas in the upper aerodigestive tract, a common site of extranodal lymphoma.
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Acculturative family distancing (AFD) and depression in Chinese American families.
J Consult Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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Knowledge of acculturative processes and their impact on immigrant families remains quite limited. Acculturative family distancing (AFD) is the distancing that occurs between immigrant parents and their children and is caused by breakdowns in communication and cultural value differences. It is a more proximal and problem-focused formulation of the acculturation gap and is hypothesized to increase depression via family conflict.
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Head-circumference distribution in a large primary care network differs from CDC and WHO curves.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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To compare currently available head-circumference growth curves to curves constructed from clinical measurements from patients in a large US primary care network (PCN).
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Hepatitis C virus infection is significantly associated with malignant lymphoma in Taiwan, particularly with nodal and splenic marginal zone lymphomas.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2010
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic and lymphotropic RNA virus causally linked to lymphoma with a strong geographic variation. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HCV and lymphoma in Taiwan, in which HCV is endemic.
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The Relationship among Hypoxia, Proliferation, and Outcome in Patients with De Novo Glioblastoma: A Pilot Study.
Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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The hypoxia and proliferation index increase with grade in human glial tumors, but there is no agreement whether either has prognostic importance in glioblastomas. We evaluated these end points individually and together in 16 de novo human glioblastomas using antibodies against the 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia detection agent EF5 and the proliferation detection agent Ki-67. Frozen tumor tissue sections were fluorescence-stained for nuclei (Hoechst 33342), hypoxia (anti-EF5 antibodies), and proliferation (anti-Ki-67 antibodies). EF5 binding adjacent to Ki-67+ cells, overall EF5 binding, the ratio of these values, and the proliferation index were evaluated. Patients were classified using recursive partitioning analysis and followed up until recurrence and/or death. Recursive partitioning analysis was statistically significant for survival (P = .0026). Overall EF5 binding, EF5 binding near Ki-67+ cells, and proliferation index did not predict recurrence. Two additional survival analyses based on ratios of the overall EF5 binding to EF5 binding near Ki-67+ cells were performed. High and low ratio values were determined by two cutoff points: (a) the 50% value for the ratio [EF5/Ki-67(Binding)]/[Tumor(binding)] = Ratio(EF5 50%) and (b) the median EF5 value (75.6%) of the ratio [EF5/Ki-67(Binding)]/[Tumor(binding)] = Ratio(patients median). On the basis of the Ratio(EF5 50%), recurrence (P = .0074) and survival (P = .0196) could be predicted. Using the Ratio(patients median), only survival could be predicted (P = .0291). In summary, patients had a worse prognosis if the [EF5/Ki-67(Binding)]/[Tumor(binding)] ratio was high. A hypothesis for the mechanisms and translational significance of these findings is discussed.
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Long-term clinical and cosmetic outcomes after breast conservation treatment for women with early-stage breast carcinoma according to the type of breast boost.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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The present study was performed to compare outcomes after breast conservation treatment with iridium-192 implant boost vs. electron boost.
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Clinical toxicities and dosimetric parameters after whole-pelvis versus prostate-only intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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To assess whether whole-pelvis (WP) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is associated with increased toxicity compared with prostate-only (PO) IMRT.
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Role of anemia prior to radiation treatment in local recurrence and survival after breast conservation treatment for early-stage breast cancer.
Clin. Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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Anemia is common among patients with newly diagnosed cancer, may be exacerbated by cancer therapies, and leads to radioresistance by lowering oxygen levels in the tumor microenvironment. Herein, the effect of breast irradiation on hemoglobin levels and outcomes in breast conservation therapy is reported.
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Defining the position of the deep inguinal ring using findings at laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.
Surg Radiol Anat
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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We aim to establish the surface marking of the deep inguinal ring by laparoscopy and investigate if the patients build influences it.
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The generation of GLP-grade human embryonic stem cell banks from four clinical-grade cell lines for preclinical research.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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The Singapore Stem Cell Bank has generated human embryonic stem cell banks from clinical-grade cell lines ESI-017, ESI-035, ESI-049, and ESI-053. All banks were prepared and characterized according to principles of Good Laboratory Practice for quality assurance. Importantly, each cell line has clearly documented and approved ethical provenance and meets recognized standards for performance and safety. The banks are intended to facilitate the translation of stem cell research to clinical medicine by enabling early phase research and development with high-quality, low-cost cells that are also available as clinical-grade stocks.
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Derivation and characterization of human fetal MSCs: an alternative cell source for large-scale production of cardioprotective microparticles.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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The therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation are increasingly thought to be mediated by MSC secretion. We have previously demonstrated that human ESC-derived MSCs (hESC-MSCs) produce cardioprotective microparticles in pig model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. As the safety and availability of clinical grade human ESCs remain a concern, MSCs from fetal tissue sources were evaluated as alternatives. Here we derived five MSC cultures from limb, kidney and liver tissues of three first trimester aborted fetuses and like our previously described hESC-derived MSCs; they were highly expandable and had similar telomerase activities. Each line has the potential to generate at least 10(16-19) cells or 10(7-10) doses of cardioprotective secretion for a pig model of MI/R injury. Unlike previously described fetal MSCs, they did not express pluripotency-associated markers such as Oct4, Nanog or Tra1-60. They displayed a typical MSC surface antigen profile and differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes in vitro. Global gene expression analysis by microarray and qRT-PCR revealed a typical MSC gene expression profile that was highly correlated among the five fetal MSC cultures and with that of hESC-MSCs (r(2)>0.90). Like hESC-MSCs, they produced secretion that was cardioprotective in a mouse model of MI/R injury. HPLC analysis of the secretion revealed the presence of a population of microparticles with a hydrodynamic radius of 50-65 nm. This purified population of microparticles was cardioprotective at approximately 1/10 dosage of the crude secretion.
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Conducting a randomized clinical trial of an psychological intervention for parents/caregivers of children with cancer shortly after diagnosis.
J Pediatr Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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To report acceptability, feasibility, and outcome data from a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of a brief intervention for caregivers of children newly diagnosed with cancer.
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The Formative Method for Adapting Psychotherapy (FMAP): A community-based developmental approach to culturally adapting therapy.
Prof Psychol Res Pr
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
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How do we culturally adapt psychotherapy for ethnic minorities? Although there has been growing interest in doing so, few therapy adaptation frameworks have been developed. The majority of these frameworks take a top-down theoretical approach to adapting psychotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a community-based developmental approach to modifying psychotherapy for ethnic minorities. The Formative Method for Adapting Psychotherapy (FMAP) is a bottom-up approach that involves collaborating with consumers to generate and support ideas for therapy adaptation. It involves 5-phases that target developing, testing, and reformulating therapy modifications. These phases include: (a) generating knowledge and collaborating with stakeholders (b) integrating generated information with theory and empirical and clinical knowledge, (c) reviewing the initial culturally adapted clinical intervention with stakeholders and revising the culturally adapted intervention, (d) testing the culturally adapted intervention, and (e) finalizing the culturally adapted intervention. Application of the FMAP is illustrated using examples from a study adapting psychotherapy for Chinese Americans, but can also be readily applied to modify therapy for other ethnic groups.
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Family psychosocial risk, distress, and service utilization in pediatric cancer: predictive validity of the Psychosocial Assessment Tool.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2009
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The way families negotiate diagnosis and early treatment for pediatric cancer sets the stage for their adaptation throughout treatment and survivorship. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent-report screener capable of systematically identifying families at risk for problems of adaptation. The current study evaluated stability and predictive validity of PAT psychosocial risk classification with regard to distress, family functioning, and the use of psychosocial services over the first 4 months of treatment.
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Changes in the Body Image and Relationship Scale following a one-year strength training trial for breast cancer survivors with or at risk for lymphedema.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a twice-weekly strength training intervention on perceptions of body image in 234 breast cancer survivors (112 with lymphedema) who participated in the Physical Activity and Lymphedema (PAL) trial. The study population included two hundred and thirty-four women randomly assigned to twice-weekly strength training or control group that completed the 32-item Body Image and Relationships Scale (BIRS) at baseline and 12 months. Percent change in baseline to 12-month BIRS total and subscale scores, upper and lower body strength, and general quality of life (QOL) were compared by intervention status. A series of multiple linear regression models including indicator variables for subgroups based on age, marital status, race, education, BMI, and strength change were used to examine differential intervention impact by subgroup. Strength and QOL variables were assessed as mediators of the intervention effect on BIRS. Results: Baseline BIRS scores were similar across intervention and lymphedema status. Significantly greater improvement in BIRS total score was observed from baseline to 12 months in treatment vs. control participants (12.0 vs. 2.0%; P < 0.0001). A differential impact of the intervention on the Strength and Health subscale was observed for older women (>50 years old) in the treatment group (P = 0.03). Significantly greater improvement was observed in bench and leg press among treatment group when compared to control group participants, regardless of lymphedema. Observed intervention effects were independent of observed strength and QOL changes. Twice-weekly strength training positively impacted self-perceptions of appearance, health, physical strength, sexuality, relationships, and social functioning. Evidence suggests the intervention was beneficial regardless of prior diagnosis of lymphedema. Strength and QOL improvements did not mediate the observed intervention effects.
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Lymphohistiocytic anaplastic large cell lymphoma involving skin: a diagnostic challenge.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) involving the skin should be differentiated from primary cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. The lymphohistiocytic variant of ALCL (LH-ALCL) is rich in reactive histiocytes with relatively few neoplastic cells, which pose a diagnostic challenge. We present a case of LH-ALCL involving skin mimicking granulomatous inflammation. A 30-year-old woman presented with cervical lymphadenopathy and multiple non-tender, non-itching, erythematous papules over the neck, chest, and abdomen. Biopsy of the cervical lymph node showed LH-ALCL with null cell phenotype. Microscopically, the cutaneous lesion was located predominately around the hair follicle, with numerous reactive histiocytes and scanty medium-sized lymphoma cells expressing CD30 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein. Furthermore, an ALK gene rearrangement was demonstrated by locus-specific interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization, confirming cutaneous involvement with LH-ALCL. LH-ALCL involving the skin is a rare event, and the numerous reactive histiocytes may mask scanty tumor cells. In addition to B-and T-cell markers, (dermato) pathologists must be aware of this entity in cutaneous lymphohistiocytic proliferations and perform immunostaining for CD30 and ALK to reach a correct diagnosis.
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Brief report: effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on parent-reported autism symptoms in school-age children with high-functioning autism.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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This pilot study tested the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on parent-reported autism symptoms. Nineteen children with autism spectrum disorders and an anxiety disorder (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or a waitlist condition. The CBT program emphasized in vivo exposure supported by parent training and school consultation to promote social communication and emotion regulation skills. Parents completed a standardized autism symptom checklist at baseline and posttreatment/postwaitlist and 3-month follow-up assessments. CBT outperformed the waitlist condition at posttreatment/postwaitlist on total parent-reported autism symptoms (Cohens d effect size = .77). Treatment gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Further investigation of this intervention modality with larger samples and broader outcome measures appears to be indicated.
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Vascular regeneration by local growth factor release is self-limited by microvascular clearance.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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The challenge of angiogenesis science is that stable sustained vascular regeneration in humans has not been realized despite promising preclinical findings. We hypothesized that angiogenic therapies powerfully self-regulate by dynamically altering tissue characteristics. Induced neocapillaries increase drug clearance and limit tissue retention and subsequent angiogenesis even in the face of sustained delivery.
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Acculturative family distancing: links with self-reported symptomatology among Asian Americans and Latinos.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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Our knowledge of how acculturative processes affect families remains quite limited. This article tests whether acculturative family distancing (AFD), a more proximal and problem-oriented measure of the acculturation gap, influences the mental health status of Asian American and Latino college students. AFD occurs along two dimensions: communication difficulties and cultural value incongruence.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.