We report the fabrication of in-line photonic microcells (PMCs) by encapsulating tapered microfibers (MFs) inside glass tubes. The encapsulation isolates MFs from external environment and makes them more suitable for real-world applications. Based on PMCs with encapsulated highly birefringent (Hi-Bi) MFs, we demonstrated pressure, temperature and refractive index (RI) sensors as well as long period grating devices. A fiber Sagnac loop interferometer incorporating a Hi-Bi microfiber PMC demonstrated RI sensitivity of 2024 nm per RI unit (nm/RIU) in gaseous environment and 21231 nm/RIU in water.
Near-infrared to ultraviolet multiphoton upconversion photoluminescence in ultrasmall Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped CaF2 nanocrystals (?6.7??nm in size) was observed and further significantly enhanced by growing an active shell of NaYF4:Yb3+. Owing to the active shell, the lanthanide emitters inside the core are effectively prevented from the surface quenchers, and the excitation energy is absorbed more efficiently via the additional luminescence sensitizer Yb3+ embedded in the shell. The details of underlying physics were investigated and discussed. The results present a good ultrasmall luminescent material system for achieving efficient multiphoton upconversion, which shows great potential in versatile industrial and biological applications.
The widespread planting of genetically engineered cotton producing the Cry1Ac toxin has led to significantly reduced pesticide applications since 1997. However, consequently, the number of green mirid bug (GMB), Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) has increased. So far the GMB, instead of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), has become the major pest in transgenic Bt cotton field and influenced cotton yield. Disproportionately, only a few studies on GMB at a molecular level have been reported. Libraries from both third instar nymph and adult were sequenced using Illumina technology, producing more than 106 million short reads and assembled into 63 029 unigenes of mean length 597 nt and N50 813 nt, ranging from 300 nt to 9771 nt. BLASTx analysis against Nr, Swissprot, GO and COG was performed to annotate these unigenes. As a result, 26 478 unigenes (42.01%) matched to known proteins and 107 immune-related, 320 digestive-related and 53 metamorphosis-related genes were detected in these annotated unigenes. Additionally, we profiled gene expression using mapping based differentially expressed genes (DEGs) strategy between the two developmental stages: nymph and adult. The results demonstrated that thousands of genes were significantly differentially expressed at different developmental stages. The transcriptome and gene expression data provided comprehensive and global gene resources of GMB. This transcriptome would improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of various underlying biological characteristics, including development, digestion and immunity in GMB. Therefore, these findings could help elucidate the intrinsic factors of the GMB resurgence, offering novel pest management targets for future transgenic cotton breeding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This paper investigates the effect of modal interference on the performance of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) gas sensors. By optimizing mode launch, using proper length of sensing HC-PBF, and applying proper wavelength modulation in combination with lock-in detection, as well as appropriate digital signal processing, an estimated lower detection limit of less than 1 part-per-million by volume (ppmv) acetylene is achieved.
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effect of tacrolimus (TAC) versus cyclosporine (CycA) in post-transplant hepatic cancer patients undergoing adriamycin hydrochloride (ADM) chemotherapy. Patients with advanced hepatic cancer who underwent liver transplant and subsequent therapy between March 2007 and March 2009 in our hospital were selected for this study. All of these patients were treated with chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin, with respect to immunosuppressant, whereas they received either TAC or CycA, and hence represented two groups, TAC and controls, respectively. The short- and long-term outcomes of two therapies, ADM + TAC and ADM + CsA, were compared. The TAC group patients showed improved remission compared to the control group (40 cases with 46.0 % versus 32 cases with 31.1 % remission, respectively). The 5-year survival in TAC group was significantly prolonged (20.7 %) compared to that of the controls (8.7 %). The short-term outcomes, such as serum levels of calcium, biomarkers of cardiac toxicity/functioning, and regulatory T lymphocytes counts (markers of immune functioning), were found to be significantly more auspicious with TAC treatment than with CycA. Our study showed that use of TAC plus ADM resulted in improved patient survival, tolerance of the graft, and remission compared to CycA combined with ADM. The serum levels of various markers in the short follow-up analysis indicated a better cardiac and immune functioning with TAC than with CycA treatment.
Non-union of the tibia complicated by osteomyelitis is one of the most challenging problems in orthopaedic surgery. There remains a significant amount of debate and controversy regarding the optimal medical management of infected tibial non-union. There are few articles which have reported the outcomes of treatment for infected non-union of tibia from single-stage reconstruction with open bone grafting plus vacuum-assisted closure (VAC).
Lithium is a renowned pharmacological treatment for mood disorders. Recent studies suggest that lithium chloride (LiCl) performs neuroprotective effects on cerebrovascular diseases. The present study is to investigate the protective effects of LiCl treatment on the hippocampus of mice with repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Mice were subjected to IR through repeated bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. LiCl (2 mmol/kg) was administered daily postoperative until the mice were sacrificed. Swimming time was prolonged and error count increased in the model group through learning and memory tests. Pathological changes such as reduction in cell count and obvious pyknosis were seen in haematoxylin-eosin staining, and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining in hippocampal CA1 regions in the model group. The model animals exhibited more phospho-Akt Ser473 and phospho-GSK3? Ser9 than the sham group when measured by Western blot. LiCl treatment mitigated the prolonged swimming time and the increased error count compared with NaCl-treated group and improved the pathological changes. Meanwhile, LiCl further up-regulated phospho-Akt Ser473 and phospho-GSK3? Ser9 expression. The highest level of diversity was at 4 weeks postoperative. Therefore, repeated IR can severely damage the hippocampus and decrease the learning and memory functions in mice. Changes in the Akt and GSK3? protein activity were involved in the IR process. LiCl treatment exerted a neuroprotective effect on learning and memory by potentiating the Akt/GSK3? cell-signaling pathway.
1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. Proinflammatory cytokines plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of RA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of synthetic peptides (HP-R1, HP-R2 and HP-R3), derived from the sequence of 65 kDa mycobacterial heat shock protein (HSP), on the proliferation of and cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from RA patients. 2. The PBMC were obtained from RA patients and collected by Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with one of the three synthetic peptides for 4 h, after which time proliferation and cytokine production were determined. The effects of the three peptides on the proliferation of PBMC were analysed by the colorimetric cell proliferation (CCK-8) assay. Cytokine production was measured in culture supernatants using specific ELISAs. 3. None of the three peptides had any significant effect on the proliferation of PBMC from healthy controls. However, the proliferation of PBMC from RA patients was inhibited by all three peptides. The production of tumour necrosis factor-? from RA patients was significantly inhibited by all three peptides. The secretion of interferon-? was significantly suppressed by HP-R1 and HP-R2. Unlike the other two peptides, HP-R2 increased the secretion of interleukin (IL)-4. None of the peptides had any significant effect on the production of IL-10. 4. The results of the present study suggest that the synthetic peptides derived from HSP65 exhibit antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activity, and support the potential use of synthetic peptides as therapeutic drugs in RA patients.
The alternative activation of M2 macrophages in the lungs has been implicated as a causative agent in pulmonary fibrosis; however, the mechanisms underlying M2 polarization are poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the ubiquitously expressed Src homology domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in this process. Shp2 inactivation augmented IL-4-mediated M2 polarization in vitro, suggesting that Shp2 regulates macrophage skewing and prevents a bias toward the M2 phenotype. Conditional removal of Shp2 in monocytes/macrophages with lysozyme M promoter-driven Cre recombinase caused an IL-4-mediated shift toward M2 polarization. Additionally, an increase in arginase activity was detected in Shp2(?/?) mice after i.p. injection of chitin, whereas Shp2-deficient macrophages showed enhanced M2 polarization and protection against schistosome egg-induced schistosomiasis. Furthermore, mutants were more sensitive than control mice to bleomycin-induced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. Shp2 was associated with IL-4R? and inhibited JAK1/STAT6 signaling through its phosphatase activity; loss of Shp2 promoted the association of JAK1 with IL-4R?, which enhanced IL-4-mediated JAK1/STAT6 activation that resulted in M2 skewing. Taken together, these findings define a role for Shp2 in alveolar macrophages and reveal that Shp2 is required to inhibit the progression of M2-associated pulmonary fibrosis.
Compact ferrule-top nanomechanical resonators with multilayer graphene (MLG) diaphragms as vibrating elements are demonstrated. The resonators comprise a suspended MLG film supported by a ceramic ferrule with a bore diameter of ?125 ?m. The mechanical resonance of the graphene film is excited and detected by an all-fiber optical interrogation system. Based on a beam-shape graphene mechanical resonator, a force sensitivity of ?3.8 fN/Hz1/2 was theoretically predicted. The integration of nanomechanical graphene film with optical fiber simplifies the excitation and interrogation of the resonator and would allow the development of practical fiber-optic sensors for force, mass, and pressure measurements.
This work reported the rapid in situ detection of ultratrace 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) solids on various substrates by a sandwiched paper-like electrochemical sensor. The sensor, prepared by a simple electroless deposition method without using special instruments, possessed a unique thin-film structure of an insulated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane in between two gold (Au) conducting layers. The resulting gold-PVDF sandwich (GPVDFS) array exhibited excellent flexibility, porosity and electrochemical performance as a highly integrated dual-electrode sensor platform. The infiltration of nonvolatile ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes containing ferrocene (Fc) into the GPVDFS array produced a paper-like electrochemical sensor, which can directly detect ultratrace DNT solids on various substrate surfaces (e.g., plant leaves, gloves and metal knives) with detection limit as low as 0.33 ng/mm(2). The critical role of Fc in the detection of DNT at this dual-electrode sensor was explored. The compensating electrochemical oxidation of Fc at the counter/reference electrode was found to be essential to the reduction of DNT at the working electrode when IL electrolytes were employed. The present work thus demonstrated the promising applications of paper-based porous electrode arrays in developing IL-based electrochemical sensors for the in situ detection of analyte solids in complicated environments.
Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) maintain immunological tolerance, and their deficiency results in fatal multiorgan autoimmunity. Although heightened signaling via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is critical for the differentiation of Treg cells, the role of TCR signaling in Treg cell function remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that inducible ablation of the TCR resulted in Treg cell dysfunction that could not be attributed to impaired expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, decreased expression of Treg cell signature genes or altered ability to sense and consume interleukin 2 (IL-2). Instead, TCR signaling was required for maintaining the expression of a limited subset of genes comprising 25% of the activated Treg cell transcriptional signature. Our results reveal a critical role for the TCR in the suppressor capacity of Treg cells.
Cripto-1 is an important embryonic gene that involved in self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency of stem cells. Overexpression of Cripto-1 has been found to be correlated with tumorigenesis and may affect tumor recurrence and metastasis. The previous studies indicate that Cripto-1 might be a potential prognostic biomarker for several malignancies. The aim of this study is to examine Cripto-1 expression pattern and clinicopathological significance in human bladder cancer patients. We investigated Cripto-1 expression in 30 paired bladder cancer tissues and corresponding noncancerous bladder tissues using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Moreover, Cripto-1 expression in 130 bladder cancer specimens and bladder cancer T24 and 5637 cells were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. The recurrence/metastasis-free survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Cox regression was also used for univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors. The results showed that Cripto-1 expression is increased in bladder cancer tissues and is significantly associated with tumor size (P?=?0.005) and tumor grade (P?=?0.035). In addition, the expression level of Cripto-1 in bladder cancer was also found to be significantly associated with SRY-related HMG-box gene 2 expression (P?=?0.003) and Ki-67 (P?=?0.001). Compared with the patients with low Cripto-1 expression, the patients with high Cripto-1 expression had significantly poorer recurrence/metastasis-free survival (P?=?0.011). Cox regression showed that Cripto-1 might be an independent prognostic factor for recurrence/metastasis-free survival (P?=?0.036). Our findings suggest that high Cripto-1 expression might be involved in the development of bladder cancer and a potentially effective prognostic marker in bladder cancer patients.
As a well-characterized master player in epigenetic regulatory network, EZH2 is widely implicated in the development of many malignancies. We previously found that EZH2 promoted Wnt/?-catenin activation through downregulation of CXXC4 expression. In this report, we demonstrated that CXXC4 inhibited MAPK signaling through binding to ERK-1/2 and abrogating the interaction of ERK 1/2 with MEK1/2. L183, the critical residue in CXXC4 ERK D domain, was found to be essential for CXXC4-ERK 1/2 interaction and the growth inhibitory effect of CXXC4 in human cancer cells. In summary, CXXC4 directly disrupted MEK1/2-ERK 1/2 interaction to inactivate MAPK signaling. L183 site is indispensable for the binding of CXXC4 to ERK1/2 and growth inhibitory effect of CXXC4. Therefore, EZH2 can activate MAPK signaling by inhibiting CXXC4 expression.
We report the first fabrication, to our knowledge, of polarization-rocking filters in highly birefringent elliptical microfibers. A rocking filter was made by periodically heating/twisting a microfiber with an ellipticity of ?0.7 and a diameter of ?2.8???m along its major axis. Strong input polarization suppression of ?20??dB was achieved at a resonant wavelength of ?1556.4??nm with a device length of ?3??mm.
The response of the commercial HC-1550-02 hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) to gas pressure applied internally to the hollow-core was experimentally investigated. The transmission spectrum of the HC-PBF was hardly affected by the pressure, while the accumulated phase of the fundamental optical mode showed a normalized pressure sensitivity of 1.044 × 10(-2) rad/(Pa?m), which is over two orders of magnitude higher than that to the external pressure. Numerical simulation showed that the observed high sensitivity to pressure is due to the pressure-induced refractive index change of air inside the hollow-core. This research could find potential applications in high sensitivity static and dynamic pressure measurement and optical phase manipulation.
The noncanonical NF-?B pathway induces processing of the NF-?B2 precursor protein p100, and thereby mediates activation of p52-containing NF-?B complexes. This pathway is crucial for B cell maturation and humoral immunity, but its role in regulating T cell function is less clear. Using mutant mice that express a nonprocessible p100, NF-?B2(lym1), we show that the noncanonical NF-?B pathway has a T cell-intrinsic role in regulating the pathogenesis of a T cell-mediated autoimmunity, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although the lym1 mutation does not interfere with naive T cell activation, it renders the Th17 cells defective in the production of inflammatory effector molecules, particularly the cytokine GM-CSF. We provide evidence that p52 binds to the promoter of the GM-CSF-encoding gene (Csf2) and cooperates with c-Rel in the transactivation of this target gene. Introduction of exogenous p52 or GM-CSF to the NF-?B2(lym1) mutant T cells partially restores their ability to induce EAE. These results suggest that the noncanonical NF-?B pathway mediates induction of EAE by regulating the effector function of inflammatory T cells.
Autonomic imbalance characterized by sympathetic predominance coinciding with diminished vagal activity is an independent risk factor in cardiovascular diseases. Several studies show that vagus nerve stimulation exerted beneficial effects on cardiac function and survival. In this study, we investigated the vagomimetic effect of pyridostigmine on left ventricular (LV) remodeling in rats after myocardial infarction. After myocardial infarction, surviving rats were treated with or without pyridostigmine (31 mg·kg?¹·d?¹) for 2 weeks, and hemodynamic parameters were measured. LV tissue was used to assess infarct size and interstitial fibrosis by Masson's trichrome and 0.1% picrosirius red staining. Protein expression of heart tissues was used to assess the efficacy of the treatment. Pyridostigmine markedly reduced myocardial infarct size and improved cardiac diastolic function. These improvements were accompanied with a significant decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and collagen deposition. Additionally, pyridostigmine inhibited both transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and TGF-?1-activated kinase expression in hearts postmyocardial infarction. Thus, pyridostigmine reduces collagen deposition, attenuates cardiac fibrosis, and improves LV diastolic function after myocardial infarction via TGF-?1/TGF-?1-activated kinase pathway inhibition.
Antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown in our previous studies to play an important role in protection against spinal cord injury (SCI) induced inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to test whether tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a novel Nrf2 activator, can protect the spinal cord against SCI-induced inflammatory damage. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to laminectomy at T8-T9 and compression with a vascular clip. Three groups were analyzed: a sham group, a SCI group, and a SCI+rhEPO group (n=16 per group). We measured Nrf2 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) binding activities by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). We also measured the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); we also measured hindlimb locomotion function by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) rating, spinal cord edema by wet/dry weight method, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. The results showed that the induction of the Nrf2 activity by tBHQ markedly decreased NF-?B activation and inflammatory cytokines production in the injured spinal cord. Administration of tBHQ also significantly attenuated SCI induced hindlimb locomotion deficits, spinal cord edema, and apoptosis. To conclude, pre-treatment with tBHQ could attenuate the spinal cord inflammatory response after SCI.
Erythropoietin has demonstrated neuroprotective effects against traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The signaling pathway of an antioxidant transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), has been shown to play an important role in protecting SCI-induced secondary spinal cord damage. This study was undertaken to explore the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway and secondary spinal cord damage in rats after SCI.
Recent randomized controlled trials have challenged the concept that increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk reduction. The causal role of HDL-C in the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. To increase precision and to minimize residual confounding, we exploited the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-TaqIB polymorphism as an instrument based on Mendelian randomization.
The novel archaea belonging to Rumen Cluster C (RCC), which may play an important role in methane production in the rumen have received increased attention. However, the present information on RCC in the rumen is limited by the unsuccessful isolation of axenic pure RCC from the rumen. In the present study, RCC grown in anaerobic fungal subcultures was identified by the molecular and culture methods.
Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used approaches in combating advanced prostate cancer, but its therapeutic efficacy is usually insufficient due to poor specificity and associated toxicity. Lack of targeted delivery to prostate cancer cells is also the primary obstacles in achieving feasible therapeutic effect of other promising agents including peptide, protein, and nucleic acid. Consequently, there remains a critical need for strategies to increase the selectivity of anti-prostate cancer agents. This review will focus on various prostate cancer-relevant antigens and enzymes that could be exploited for prostate cancer targeted drug delivery. Among various targeting strategies, active targeting is the most advanced approach to specifically deliver drugs to their designated cancer cells. In this approach, drug carriers are modified with targeting ligands that can specifically bind to prostate cancer-specific antigens. Moreover, there are several specific enzymes in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer that can be exploited for stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems. These systems can specifically release the active drug in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer, leading to enhanced tumor penetration efficiency.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease mediated by T cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of synthetic peptides (HP-R1, HP-R2 and HP-R3), derived from the sequence of 65-kD mycobacterial heat shock protein (HSP), in the treatment of RA using adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) animal model.
As the fifth most common cancer in men and the eighth most common cancer in women, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with standard chemotherapy and radiation being minimally effective in prolonging survival. Virus hepatitis, particularly HBV and HCV infection is the most prominent risk factor for HCC development. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is activated in viral hepatitis and HCC. mTOR inhibitors have been tested successfully in clinical trials for their antineoplastic potency and well tolerability. Treatment with mTOR inhibitor alone or in combination with cytotoxic drugs or targeted therapy drug scan significantly reduces HCC growth and improves clinical outcome, indicating that mTOR inhibition is a promising strategy for the clinical management of HCC.
The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of circulating microRNA-155 (miR-155) for breast cancer (BC). PubMed, Embase, EBSCO (ASP/BSP), Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched up to 30 January 2014 for eligible studies. Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) was employed to assess the quality of the included studies. Meta-analysis were performed in Meta-Disc 1.4 and Stata 12.0. Three studies with total 184 BC patients and 75 control individuals were included in this meta-analysis. All of the included studies are of high quality (QUADAS scores 12 or 13). The summary estimates revealed that the pooled sensitivity is 79% (95% confidence interval (CI): 72%-84%) and the specificity is 85% (95% CI: 75%-92%), for the diagnosis of breast cancer. In addition, the area under the summary ROC curve (AUC) is 0.9217. The current evidence suggests that circulating miR-155 has the potential diagnostic value with a high sensitivity and specificity for BC. More prospective studies on the diagnostic value of circulating miR-155 for BC are needed in the future.
A novel hybrid region-based active contour model is presented to segment medical images with intensity inhomogeneity. The energy functional for the proposed model consists of three weighted terms: global term, local term, and regularization term. The total energy is incorporated into a level set formulation with a level set regularization term, from which a curve evolution equation is derived for energy minimization. Experiments on some synthetic and real images demonstrate that our model is more efficient compared with the localizing region-based active contours (LRBAC) method, proposed by Lankton, and more robust compared with the Chan-Vese (C-V) active contour model.
The tumor suppressor p53 is widely known for its ability to induce cell cycle arrest or cell death, therefore preventing neoplastic progression. Previous studies have demonstrated novel roles for p53 in the regulation of autophagy and senescence. p53 can not only exert cell cycle?arresting and senescence?promoting or suppressing functions, but can also induce autophagic ?ux, particularly under conditions of nutrient deprivation. The present study demonstrated that p53 was capable of activating autophagy, which permits cell survival under conditions of serum starvation, and suppresses cellular senescence through inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. These results suggest that active autophagy may be a potential mechanism by which p53 suppresses cellular senescence, in response to serum starvation. The findings of the present study provide a potential mechanism for suppression of senescence by p53.
Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is known for its powerful anti-inflammatory function. Current studies in vitro suggest that LXA4 possesses novel antioxidant effect. The aim of this study is to examine whether Lipoxin A4 methyl ester (LXA4 ME) has neuroprotective effects against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and if so, whether the effects of LXA4 ME are associated with its potential antioxidant property. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) and randomly assigned into four groups: sham (sham-operated) group, vehicle (BCCAO+normal saline) group, LXA4 ME10 (BCCAO+LXA4 ME 10 ng per day) group and LXA4 ME100 (BCCAO+LXA4 ME 100 ng per day) group. LXA4 ME was administered through intracerebroventricular injection for 2 consecutive weeks. LXA4 ME significantly alleviated spatial learning and memory impairments, as assessed by Morris water maze and inhibited the loss of neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Biochemically, LXA4 ME phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and its nuclear translocation, as well as
Aerobic interval training (AIT) can favorably affect cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of AIT on post-myocardial infarction (MI)-associated mitochondrial dysfunctions remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of AIT on myocardial mitochondria in post-MI rats by focusing on mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission). Mitochondrial respiratory functions (as measured by the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and the ratio of ADP to oxygen consumption (P/O)); complex activities; dynamic proteins (mitofusin (mfn) 1/2, type 1 optic atrophy (OPA1) and dynamin-related protein1 (DRP1)); nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?); and the oxidative signaling of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and P53 were observed. Post-MI rats exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and adverse mitochondrial network dynamics (reduced fusion and increased fission), which was associated with activated ERK1/2-JNK-P53 signaling and decreased nuclear PGC-1?. After AIT, MI-associated mitochondrial dysfunction was improved (elevated RCR and P/O and enhanced complex I, III and IV activities); in addition, increased fusion (mfn2 and OPA1), decreased fission (DRP1), elevated nuclear PGC-1? and inactivation of the ERK1/2-JNK-P53 signaling were observed. These data demonstrate that AIT may restore the post-MI mitochondrial function by inhibiting dynamics pathological remodeling, which may be associated with inactivation of ERK1/2-JNK-P53 signaling and increase in nuclear PGC-1? expression.
?Loss-of-function mutations in the HCN4 gene have been shown to be associated with sinus dysfunction, but there are no reports on HCN4-mediated atrioventricular (AV) block. A novel missense HCN4 mutation G1097W was identified in a 69 year-old Japanese male with AV block, and we characterized the functional consequences of If-like channels reconstituted with the heterozygous HCN4 mutation.
The C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), in particular DC-SIGN and DCIR, likely play an important role in HIV-1 early infection. Here, we systematically compared the capture and transfer capability of DC-SIGN and DCIR using a wide range of HIV-1 isolates. Our results indicated that DC-SIGN plays a stronger role than DCIR in DC-mediated HIV-1 capture and transfer. This was further strengthened by the data from transient and stable transfectants, showing that DC-SIGN had better capability, compared with DCIR in HIV-1 capture and transfer. Following constructing and analyzing a series of soluble DC-SIGN and DCIR truncates and chimeras, we demonstrated that the neck domain, but not the CRD, renders DC-SIGN higher binding affinity to gp120 likely via the formation of tetramerization. Our findings provide insights into CLR-mediated HIV-1 capture and transfer, highlighting potential targets for intervention strategies against gp120-CLR interactions.
Deficiency or mutation in the p53 tumor suppressor gene commonly occurs in human cancer and can contribute to disease progression and chemotherapy resistance. Currently, although the pro-survival or pro-death effect of autophagy remains a controversial issue, increasing data seem to support the idea that autophagy facilitates cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy treatment. Here we report that 5-FU treatment causes aberrant autophagosome accumulation in HCT116 p53(-/-) and HT-29 cancer cells. Specific inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA, CQ or small interfering RNA treatment targeting Atg5 or Beclin 1 can potentiate the re-sensitization of these resistant cancer cells to 5-FU. In further analysis, we show that JNK activation and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 are key determinants in 5-FU-induced autophagy. Inhibition of JNK by the compound SP600125 or JNK siRNA suppressed autophagy and phosphorylation of c-Jun and Bcl-2 but increased 5-FU-induced apoptosis in both HCT116 p53(-/-) and HT29 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that JNK activation confers 5-FU resistance in HCT116 p53(-/-) and HT29 cells by promoting autophagy as a pro-survival effect, likely via inducing Bcl-2 phosphorylation. These results provide a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of 5-FU-based chemotherapy for colorectal cancer patients harboring a p53 gene mutation.
1. Aerobic interval training (AIT) exerts beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. However, its cardioprotective mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate AIT-mediated anti-oxidation by focusing on anti-oxidase and mitochondrial biogenesis in rats after myocardial infarction (MI). 2. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: (i) a sham-operated control (CON); (ii) an MI group; and (iii) an MI + AIT group. Myocardial microstructure and function, markers of oxidative stress, mitochondrial anti-oxidase, Phase II enzymes and mitochondrial biogenesis were assessed. In addition, levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and phosphorylated (p-) AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were determined. The anti-oxidative gene sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) and the prosurvival phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signalling cascade were also evaluated. 3. Compared with CON, there was noticeable microstructure injury, cardiac dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats after MI. In addition, decreased mitochondrial anti-oxidase content, Phase II enzyme (except heme oxygenase-1) expression and mitochondrial biogenesis were observed in the post-MI rats as well as reduced protein levels of the regulators Nrf2 and p-AMPK and suppression of SIRT3 levels and PI3-K/Akt signalling. These detrimental modifications were considerably ameliorated by AIT, as evidenced by increases in anti-oxidase, mitochondrial biogenesis, Nrf2 and AMPK phosphorylation, as well as SIRT3 upregulation and PI3-K/Akt signalling activation. Moreover, PI3-K inhibitor-LY294002 (20 mg/kg) treatment partly attenuated AIT-elicited increases in Nrf2 levels and AMPK phosphorylation. 4. Based on these results, we conclude that AIT effectively alleviates MI-induced oxidative injury, which may be closely correlated with activation of the anti-oxidase system and mitochondrial biosynthesis. Increased SIRT3 expression and activation of PI3-K/Akt signalling may play key roles in AIT-mediated anti-oxidation. These results open up new avenues for exercise intervention therapies for MI patients.
Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) occurs with myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease (CAD). The natriuretic peptide system has compensatory vasodilatory, natriuretic and paracrine effects on LVD and subsequent heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between natriuretic peptide polymorphisms and risk of LVD in CAD patients.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still the third most common cancer and the second most common causes of cancer-related death around the world. Metformin, a biguanide, which is widely used for treating diabetes mellitus, has recently been shown to have a suppressive effect on CRC risk and mortality, but not all laboratory studies suggest that metformin has antineoplastic activity. Here, we investigated the effect of metformin and AMPK activator AICAR on CRC cells proliferation. As a result, metformin did not inhibit cell proliferation or induce apoptosis for CRC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Different from metformin, AICAR emerged antitumor activity and sensitized anticancer effect of 5-FU on CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. In further analysis, we show that AMPK activation may be a key molecular mechanism for the additive effect of AICAR. Taken together, our results suggest that metformin has not antineoplastic activity for CRC cells as a single agent but AMPK activator AICAR can induce apoptosis and enhance the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU through AMPK activation.
It has been recognized that ecological risk assessment based on traditional endpoints of toxicity are unable to provide adequate protection because some chemicals may affect reproductive fitness of aquatic organisms at much lower concentrations. In this paper, predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for 4-nonylphenol (NP) were derived based either on endpoints of survival, development, and growth or on some nonlethal biomarkers of reproduction, biochemical and molecular biology data. The PNECs derived from reproductive lesion ranged from 0.12 to 0.60 ?g NP L(-1), which was significantly lower than those derived from other endpoints. An assessment of ecological risks posed by NP to aquatic organisms in surface waters of China was conducted based on concentration levels of NP in 16 surface waters of 4 major river basins and PNECs derived from reproductive fitness by a tiered ecological risk assessment (ERA). The results showed that 14.2% and 76.5% of surface waters in China may have ecological risks resulting from reproductive fitness if the thresholds of protection for aquatic organisms were set up as 5% (HC5) and 1% (HC1), respectively. The risks were significantly greatest in the Yangtze River Basin than in other major river basins. In comparison with the risks assessed based on traditional endpoints, such as lethality, for those chemicals causing adverse effects on reproduction due to modulation of endocrine function, to be protective of ecosystem structure and function, lesser PNECs, based on sublethal effects of reproduction, were appropriate.
To observe the clinical efficacy of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) combined intravenous injection and/or Neiguan (P6) injection with droperidol in preventing and treating post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after thyroid tumor surgery.
Owing to the severe toxicity and mobility of Cr(vi) in biological and environmental systems, it is of great importance to develop convenient and reliable methods for its detection. Here we report on a facile and effective electrochemical technique for monitoring Cr(vi) concentrations based on the utilization of Au nanoparticle-decorated titania nanotubes (TiO2NTs) grown on a titanium substrate. It was found that the electrochemical reduction of Cr(vi) at the Ti/TiO2NT/Au electrode exhibited an almost 23 fold improvement in activity as compared to a polycrystalline gold electrode, due to its nanoparticle/nanotubular heterojunction infrastructure. As a result, the Ti/TiO2NT/Au electrode demonstrated a wide linear concentration range from 0.10 ?M to 105 ?M, a low detection limit of 0.03 ?M, and a high sensitivity of 6.91 ?A ?M(-1) Cr(vi) via amperometry, satisfying the detection requirements of the World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the Ti/TiO2NT/Au electrode exhibited good resistance against interference from coexisting Cr(iii) and other metal ions, and excellent recovery for Cr(vi) detection in both tap and lake water samples. These attributes suggest that this hybrid sensor has strong potential in applications for the selective detection of Cr(vi).
Highly birefringent (Hi-Bi) microfiber-based fiber loop mirrors (FLMs) were studied for tunable comb filters and refractive index (RI) sensors. The use of two cascaded Hi-Bi microfibers instead of a single microfiber allows more flexibility in controlling the transmission/reflection characteristics of the FLM. The length of Hi-Bi microfibers is of the order of centimeters, one or even more than two orders of magnitude shorter than the conventional Hi-Bi fiber-based FLM devices. The transmission/reflection spectra are sensitive to the RI surrounding the microfibers, and RI sensitivity of 20,745 nm/RIU was experimentally demonstrated.
In our previous study, we have identified a PCBP2 siRNA that exhibits antifibrotic activity in rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by inhibition of ?CP2, a protein responsible for stabilization of the collagen ?1 (I) mRNA in alcoholic liver fibrosis. This study aims to develop a streptavidin-based nanocomplex that can efficiently deliver the PCBP2 siRNA to HSCs. Biotin-siRNA and biotin-cholesterol were mixed with streptavidin to form the streptavidin-biotin complex, which was further condensed electrostatically with positively charged protamine to form the final multicomponent siRNA nanocomplex in the size range of 150-250 nm. The siRNA nanocomplex does not induce cytotoxicity in rat HSCs as compared to commercially available transfection agents. The cellular uptake efficiency of the siRNA nanocomplex is higher in rat HSCs than other cell lines, such as Caco-2 and PC-3, indicating that receptor-mediated endocytosis mainly contributes to the cellular uptake of the siRNA nanocomplex. The siRNA nanocomplex exhibits more than 85% silencing effect on the PCBP2 mRNA in HSCs. Stability study indicates that the nanocomplex can efficiently protect siRNA from degradation in the serum. The streptavidin-based multicomponent siRNA nanocomplex provides a promising strategy to deliver the PCBP2 siRNA to HSCs. Moreover, the nanocomplex can be used as a platform for other diseases by changing the siRNA sequence and targeting ligand.
Angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress responses contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. In this study, we determined whether renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributes to the ANG II-induced hypertensive response via interaction with neurotransmitters in the PVN. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusion of ANG II or saline for 4 weeks. These rats were treated for 4 weeks through bilateral PVN infusion with either vehicle or losartan (LOS), an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist, via osmotic minipump. ANG II infusion resulted in higher levels of glutamate, norepinephrine (NE), AT1-R and pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC), and lower level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the PVN. Rats receiving ANG II also had higher levels of mean arterial pressure, plasma PIC, NE and aldosterone than control animals. PVN treatment with LOS attenuated these ANG II-induced hypertensive responses. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the RAS activation in the PVN contributes to the ANG II-induced hypertensive response via interaction with PIC and neurotransmitters (glutamate, NE and GABA) in the PVN.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of donepezil hydrochloride (DH) on the expression of the calpain I-cyclin-dependent kinase5/p25 (CDK5/p25) pathway in the hippocampal CA1 region in mice with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Mice were randomly divided and assigned to the sham operation group (SO), the model group (MG) and the DH treatment group (TG). The pathological appearance of the hippocampal CA1 region and the expression of calpain I and CDK5/p25, were observed on the 4th, 6th and 8th week of the I/R surgery. Within the same time periods, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were also determined. At each postoperative time point, the normal neuron count in the hippocampal CA1 region in the MG was significantly lower than that in the SO (P<0.05), whereas the calpain I and CDK5/p25 expression, SOD activity and MDA content in the MG were significantly higher than those in the SO (P<0.05). The normal neuron count of the hippocampal CA1 region in the TG increased significantly (P<0.05), whereas the calpain I and CDK5/p25 expression, SOD activity and MDA content in the TG were significantly lower than those in the MG (P<0.05). DH has protective effects against ischemic damage. The ability of DH to improve learning and memory in mice may be due to its ability to decrease the expression of the calpain I-CDK5/p25 pathway and reduce oxidative damage.
The Eph kinase (EPH) and ephrin (EFN) families are involved in a broad range of developmental processes. Increasing evidence is demonstrating the important roles of EPHBs and EphrinBs in the immune system. In this study on epithelial cell-specific Ephb4 knockout (KO) mice, we investigated T-cell development and function after EPHB4 deletion. KO mice presented normal thymic weight and cellularity. Their thymocyte subpopulation percentages were in the normal range. KO mice had normal T-cell numbers and percentages in the spleen, and T cells were activated and proliferated normally upon TCR ligation. Furthermore, naïve spleen CD4 cells from KO and wild type mice were capable of differentiating, in a comparable manner, into Th1, Th17 and Treg cells. In vivo, KO mice mounted effective delayed type hypersensitivity responses, indicating that thymocytes develop normally in the absence of TEC EPHB4, and T cells derived from EPHB4-deleted thymic epithelian cells (TEC) have normal function. Our data suggest that heavy redundancy and promiscuous interaction between EPHs and EFNs compensate for the missing EPHB4 in TECs, and TEC EPHB4s role in T cell development might only be revealed if multiple EPHs are ablated simultaneously. We cannot exclude the possibility that (1) some immunological parameters not examined in this study are affected by the deletion; (2) the deletion is not complete due to the leaky Cre-LoxP system, and the remaining EPHB4 in TEC is sufficient for thymocyte development; or (3) EPHB4 expression in TEC is not required for T cell development and function.
The prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the poorest among all cancers, due largely to the lack of methods for screening and early detection. New biomarkers for identifying high-risk or early-stage subjects could significantly impact PC mortality. The goal of this study was to find metabolic biomarkers associated with PC by using a comprehensive metabolomics technology to compare serum profiles of PC patients to healthy control subjects.
Acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter of vagal nerve, offers tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Given the regulation of autophagy in cardioprotection, this study was to examine the role of autophagy in ACh-elicited protection against hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR) injury.
The glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor is the final common pathway of platelet aggregation, regardless of the agonist, and thus represents an ideal therapeutic target for blocking coronary thrombosis. In this study, the anti-platelet and antithrombotic actions of Z4A5, a new glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor, were evaluated in a canine model of acute unstable angina.
Induction of broad and potent neutralizing Abs at the mucosal portals of entry remains a primary goal for most vaccines against mucosally acquired viral infections. Selection of appropriate adjuvants capable of promoting both systemic and mucosal responses will be crucial for the development of effective immunization strategies. In this study, we investigated whether plasmid codelivery of cytokines APRIL, CCL19, or CCL28 can enhance Ag-induced immune responses to HIV-1 gp140. Our results demonstrated that pCCL19 and pCCL28, but not pAPRIL, significantly enhanced Ag-specific systemic and mucosal Ab responses. gp140-specific Abs in serum enhanced by pCCL19 or pCCL28 were broadly distributed across all four IgG subclasses, of which IgG1 was predominant. The enhanced systemic and mucosal Abs showed increased neutralizing activity against both homologous and heterologous HIV-1, and potency correlated with gp140-specific serum IgG and vaginal IgA levels. Measurement of gp140-specific cytokines produced by splenocytes demonstrated that pCCL19 and pCCL28 augmented balanced Th1/Th2 responses. pCCL19 and pCCL28 also increased IgA(+) cells in colorectal mucosal tissue. pCCL19 codelivery resulted in an increase of CCR7(+) CD11c(+) cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and both CCR7(+) CD11c(+) cells and CCR7(+) CD3e(+) cells in spleen, whereas pCCL28 codelivery resulted in an augment of CCR10(+) CD19(+) cells in both spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Together, our data indicate that pCCL19 and pCCL28 can enhance HIV-1 envelope-specific systemic and mucosal Ab responses, as well as T cell responses. Such enhancements appear to be associated with mobilization of responsive immunocytes into secondary lymphoid organs and mucosal tissues through interactions with corresponding receptors.
The acoustic pressure sensitivities of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBFs) with different thicknesses of silica outer-cladding and polymer jacket were experimentally investigated. Experiment with a HC-PBF with 7 ?m-thick silica outer cladding and 100 ?m-thick Parylene C jacket demonstrated a pressure sensitivity 10 dB higher than the commercial HC-1550-02 fiber and 25 dB higher than a standard single mode fiber. The significant enhancement in sensitivity would simplify the design of fiber hydrophone arrays and increase the number of sensors that could be multiplexed in a single fiber.
Nutcracker syndrome (NCS), which is caused by compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery, leads to a series of clinical symptoms including hematuria, proteinuria, flank pain, and varicocele. The diagnosis of NCS is difficult due to variations in normal anatomy. Treatment, which ranges from observation to nephrectomy, remains controversial. We conducted a review based on the related literature and our experience with hundreds of cases. We summarize the characteristics of NCS, the different measurements used in diagnosis, and the current treatment options. We present our diagnostic criteria and recommend endovascular stenting as the primary option for NCS.
Mounting data have emerged suggesting that the Connexin37 C1019T polymorphism increases susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD). However, previous studies have yielded conflicting results. In the current study, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed to investigate whether the C1019T polymorphism is associated with CAD risk.
The occurrence, removal and bioaccumulation of steroid estrogens such as the natural estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3), as well as the synthetic 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2) were investigated in Dianchi Lake catchment, China. The results show that traditional secondary treatment processes in eight sewage treatment plants (STPs) of Kunming were not efficient enough to completely remove steroid estrogens, but ultraviolet (UV) photodegradation in advanced treatment displayed more effectively for the removal of the residual compounds. The amount of total steroid estrogens (?SEs) discharged to Dianchi Lake catchment by the eight STPs was 35.8g/day, in which STP-3 was the dominant source, accounting for 50.8%. Because of the pollution input from treated and untreated sewages, estrogens were widely detected in surface water and sediment samples collected from 21 inflow rivers of Dianchi Lake, 10 National Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites of the lake itself and its unique outflow river, with the mean concentration of ?SEs in the range of 5.3-798.2ng/L (water) and 3.7-202.4ng/g (dry weight, sediment), 1.5-39.2ng/L (water) and 2.7-20.9ng/g (sediment), and 4.2ng/L (water) and 6.6ng/g (sediment), respectively. Due to the continuous input of estrogens to Dianchi Lake from STPs and inflow rivers, present estrogen levels in various tissues of wild fish species sampled from the lake (2013) were higher than the values detected in the previous years (2009 and 2010). The bioaccumulation of steroid estrogens in wild fish species from different sampling sites was in the order of STP-5>Dianchi Lake (2013)>Dianchi Lake (2010)?Dianchi Lake (2009)?field control>laboratory control, which is mainly affected by exposure concentrations. By employing risk quotient (RQ), it is found that eco-toxicological risk of steroid estrogens in Dianchi Lake catchment was in a sequence of 22 rivers>effluents of eight STPs>Dianchi Lake (2013)>Dianchi Lake (2010), and high RQs were found in EE2, which should be controlled preferentially in this catchment.
Wild type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) is a phosphatase which belongs to protein phosphatase type 2C family, which have been predominantly linked to cell growth and to cellular stress signaling. Numerous downstream targets of Wip1 have been identified, and genetic studies confirm that some play a part in tumorigenesis. Recent evidence highlights a new role for Wip1 in the regulation of NF-?B p65, which indicated that it might play a critical role in immune system. However, its regulation role in central nervous system (CNS) remains poorly understood. To elaborate whether Wip1 was involved in CNS injury, we performed a neuroinflammatory model by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lateral-ventral injection in adult rats.Wip1 expression was strongly upregulated in active astrocytes in inflamed brain cortex. In vitro studies indicated that the upregulation of Wip1 may be involved in the subsequent astrocytic activation following LPS exposure, and knockdown of Wip1 in primary astrocytes by siRNA showed that Wip1 inhibited the synthesis of TNF-?. Collectively, these results suggested that Wip1 may be important in host defense in CNS immune response, which might provide a potent therapeutic target of neuroinflammation.
Epirubicin is widely used in osteosarcoma chemotherapy. Growing evidence indicates that the microRNA (miRNA) expression levels which are induced by chemotherapeutic agents play an important role in osteosarcoma development and progression. In this study we investigate the alterations of miRNA expression in the osteosarcoma cells after epirubicin treatment and whether miRNAs can enhance its anti-osteosarcoma effect. After epirubicin exposure, microarray shows 40 miRNAs are differentially expressed in osteosarcoma cells including 24 down-regulated miRNAs. Notably, miR-302b, which is stably low-expressed in osteosarcoma, could be induced by the epirubicin. Furthermore, we find that miR-302b can inhibit the osteosarcoma cell proliferation, promote cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest MiR-302b can activate caspase-3 and regulate the Akt/pAkt, Bcl-2, Bim expression to increase the cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, miR-302b also attenuates cyclin D1 and CDKs expression to induce cell cycle arrest. Therefore, our results suggest miR-302b can play an essential role in osteosarcoma treatment as a potential tumor suppressor.
Mitochondrial biogenesis disorders appear to play an essential role in cardiac dysfunction. Acetylcholine as a potential pharmacologic agent exerts cardioprotective effects. However, its direct action on mitochondria biogenesis in acute cardiac damage due to ischemia/reperfusion remains unclear. The present study determined the involvement of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the cardiopotection of acetylcholine in H9c2 cells subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). Our findings demonstrated that acetylcholine treatment on the beginning of reoxygenation improved cell viability in a concentration-dependent way. Consequently, acetylcholine inhibited the mitochondrial morphological abnormalities and caused a significant increase in mitochondrial density, mass, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. Accordingly, acetylcholine enhanced ATP synthesis, membrane potentials, and activities of mitochondrial complexes in contrast to H/R alone. Furthermore, acetylcholine stimulated the transcriptional activation and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1?, the central factor for mitochondrial biogenesis) and its downstream targets including nuclear respiration factors and mitochondrial transcription factor A. In addition, acetylcholine activated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which was located upstream of PGC-1?. Atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist) abolished the favorable effects of acetylcholine on mitochondria. Knockdown of PGC-1? or AMPK by siRNA blocked acetylcholine-induced stimulating effects on mtDNA copy number and against cell injury. In conclusion, we suggested, acetylcholine as a mitochondrial nutrient, protected against the deficient mitochondrial biogenesis and function induced by H/R injury in a cellular model through muscarinic receptor-mediated, AMPK/PGC-1?-associated regulatory program, which may be of significance in elucidating a novel mechanism underlying acetylcholine-induced cardioprotection.
Despite the rapid progress in the siRNA field, developing a safe and efficient delivery system of siRNA remains to be an obstacle in the therapeutical application of siRNA. The purpose of this study is to develop an efficient peptide-based siRNA delivery system for cancer therapy. To this end, cholesterol was conjugated to a series of peptides composed of lysine and histidine residues. The resultant cholesteryl peptides were characterized, and their potential for siRNA delivery was evaluated. Our results indicate that short peptides (11-21 mer) composed of various numbers of lysine and histidine residues alone are not sufficient to mediate efficient siRNA delivery. However, the amphiphilic cholesteryl peptides can self-assemble to form a micelle-like structure in aqueous solutions, which significantly promotes the siRNA condensation capability of the peptides. The cholesteryl peptides form stable complex with siRNA and effectively protect siRNA from degradation in rat serum up to three days. Furthermore, the cholesteryl peptides efficiently transfect siRNA into different cancer cells and trigger potent gene silencing effect, whereas peptides without cholesterol modification cannot deliver siRNA into the cells. In addition, one of the cholesteryl peptides Chol-H3K2s displays comparable cellular uptake and gene silencing effect but less cytotoxicity compared with branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) and Lipofectamine-2000. Our results reveal that the cholesteryl peptides possess great potential as an efficient siRNA delivery system.
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces inflammatory response that may lead to remote vascular injury. Vagal nerve elicits the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway by activating ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7nAChR). Nevertheless, the role of vagal nerve-mediated anti-inflammatory pathway in the vasculature has not been studied previously. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the potential role of vagal stimulation (VNS) in regulating remote vascular injury after myocardial I/R. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to VNS starting 15 min prior to ischemia until the end of reperfusion. VNS not only reduced infarct size and improved cardiac function, but also ameliorated myocardial I/R-induced dysfunctional vasoconstriction and vasodilatation and degradation of endothelial structure in mesenteric arteries. VNS decreased serum and vascular levels of tumor necrosis factor-? and IL-1?. Interestingly, in vivo microdialysis studies demonstrated that VNS increased ACh concentration in the mesenteric circulation. Furthermore, VNS up-regulated expressions of muscarinic ACh receptors-3 (M3AChR) and ?7nAChR in mesenteric arteries. Preserved endothelial relaxations by VNS were inhibited by atropine or methyllycaconitine, indicating that functional protection was associated with M3 and ?7nAChR activation. Finally, VNS increased STAT3 phosphorylation and inhibited NF-?B activation in mesenteric arteries, and these effects were abolished by ?7nAChR shRNA treatment, indicating VNS-mediated anti-inflammatory effect mainly involved ?7nAChR. These results demonstrated for the first time that VNS protected against remote vascular dysfunction, through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway which is dependent on ?7nAChR. Our findings represent a significant addition to the understanding of vagal nerve-mediated pathways and the potential roles they play in regulating the vasculature.
INTRODUCTION: Stretch of the atrial membrane upregulates the slow component of delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Ks)). Blockade of angiotensin II subtype 1 receptors (AT(1)R) attenuates this increase in I(Ks). The present study aimed to examine the effects of irbesartan, a selective AT(1)R blocker (ABR), on both the enhancement of I(Ks) and the shortening of action potential duration (APD) induced by stretching atrial myocytes for exploring the mechanisms underlying the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) by ABR. METHODS: Hyposmotic solution (Hypo-S) was used to stretch guinea pig atrial myocytes. I(Ks) and APD were recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: Irbesartan (1-50 ?M) attenuated the Hypo-S-induced increase in I(Ks) and shortening of APD(90). Hypo-S increased the I(Ks) by 113.4%, whereas Hypo-S + 1 ?M irbesartan and Hypo-S + 50 ?M irbesartan increased the I(Ks) by only 74.5% and 70.3%, respectively. In addition, Hypo-S shortened the APD(90) by 19.0%, whereas Hypo-S + 1 ?M irbesartan and Hypo-S + 50 ?M irbesartan shortened the APD(90) by 12.1% and 12.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The actions of irbesartan on electrical changes induced by stretching atrial myocytes are associated with blocking AT(1)R. These actions may be beneficial for treating AF.
Vascular endothelial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Statins, developed as lipid-lowering drugs, partially restore vagal activity and exhibit pleiotropic effects. This study was aimed at determining the effect of atorvastatin (ATV) on endothelial dysfunction in peripheral resistance arteries after I/R injury. After pretreatment with ATV (10 mg·kg·d) or its vehicle for 3 days, the superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 minutes and reperfusion for 90 minutes or the rats were anesthetized without being subjected to ischemia. In the ATV-treated I/R group, the increased contractions to KCl and 5-hydroxytryptamine induced by I/R were ameliorated, and attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) were normalized. The restored relaxation to ACh was abolished by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. ATV prevented the structural damage of vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, the activities of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were elevated in mesenteric arteries after ATV treatment. In addition, I/R-induced increment of endothelial cells apoptosis was also attenuated by ATV. Intriguingly, ATV also increased baroreflex sensitivity and serum ACh content after I/R. In conclusion, the endothelial protective effect of ATV in peripheral arteries is associated with the activated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway and restored vagal activity.
Recent studies have suggested that mitochondria may play important roles in the Ca(2+) homeostasis of cardiac myocytes. However, it is still unclear if mitochondrial Ca(2+) flux can regulate the generation of Ca(2+) waves (CaWs) and triggered activities in cardiac myocytes. In the present study, intracellular/cytosolic Ca(2+) (Cai (2+)) was imaged in Fluo-4-AM loaded mouse ventricular myocytes. Spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release and CaWs were induced in the presence of high (4 mM) external Ca(2+) (Cao (2+)). The protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) reversibly raised basal Cai (2+) levels even after depletion of SR Ca(2+) in the absence of Cao (2+) , suggesting Ca(2+) release from mitochondria. FCCP at 0.01 - 0.1 µM partially depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential (?? m ) and increased the frequency and amplitude of CaWs in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneous recording of cell membrane potentials showed the augmentation of delayed afterdepolarization amplitudes and frequencies, and induction of triggered action potentials. The effect of FCCP on CaWs was mimicked by antimycin A (an electron transport chain inhibitor disrupting ?? m ) or Ru360 (a mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter inhibitor), but not by oligomycin (an ATP synthase inhibitor) or iodoacetic acid (a glycolytic inhibitor), excluding the contribution of intracellular ATP levels. The effects of FCCP on CaWs were counteracted by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker cyclosporine A, or the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter activator kaempferol. Our results suggest that mitochondrial Ca(2+) release and uptake exquisitely control the local Ca(2+) level in the micro-domain near SR ryanodine receptors and play an important role in regulation of intracellular CaWs and arrhythmogenesis.
Observational and experimental studies have thus far been unable to resolve whether the CYBA C242T polymorphism is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive meta-analysis to more precisely evaluate the influence of this polymorphism on CAD and potential biases.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.