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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Effect of hypothermia on TLR2/MyD88 signal pathway in lung tissue in rats with acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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To investigate the effect of hypothermia on the expression Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor-?Bp65 (NF-?Bp65), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the TLR2/MyD88 pathway in rats with acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation.
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[Determination of sodium, magnesium, calcium, lithium and strontium in natural mineral drinking water by microwave plasma torch spectrometer with nebulization sample introduction system].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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The microwave plasma torch (MPT) was used as the emission light source. Aqueous samples were introduced with a nebulizer and a desolvation system. A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in natural mineral drinking water by argon microwave plasma torch spectrometer (ArMPT spectrometer) was established. The effects of microwave power, flow rate of carrier gas and support gas were investigated in detail and these parameters were optimized. Under the optimized condition, the experiments for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in 11 kinds of bottled mineral drinking water were carried out by ArMPT spectrometer. The limit-of-detection (LOD) of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr was found to be 4.4, 21, 56, 11 and 84 ?g x mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (n = 6) was in the range of 1.30%-5.45% and standard addition recoveries were in the range of 84.6%-98.5%. MPT spectrometer was simpler, more convenient and of lower cost as compared to ICP unit. MPT spectrometer demonstrated its rapid analysis speed, accuracy, sensitivity and simultaneous multi element analysis ability during the analysis process. The results showed that MPT spectrometer was suitable for metal elements detection for natural mineral drinking water. This approach provides not only one way for resisting the illegal dealings, but also a security for the quality of drinking water. Moreover, the usability of MPT spectrometer in the field of food security; drug safety; clinical diagnostic is promised.
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Perceptual Span Depends on Font Size During the Reading of Chinese Sentences.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The present study explored the perceptual span (i.e., the physical extent of an area from which useful visual information is extracted during a single fixation) during the reading of Chinese sentences in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested whether the rightward span can go beyond 3 characters when visually similar masks were used. Results showed that Chinese readers needed at least 4 characters to the right of fixation to maintain a normal reading behavior when visually similar masks were used and when characters were displayed in small fonts, indicating that the span is dynamically influenced by masking materials. In Experiments 2 and 3, we asked whether the perceptual span varies as a function of font size in spaced (German) and unspaced (Chinese) scripts. Results clearly suggest perceptual span depends on font size in Chinese, but we failed to find such evidence for German. We propose that the perceptual span in Chinese is flexible; it is strongly constrained by its language-specific properties such as high information density and lack of word spacing. Implications for saccade-target selection during the reading of Chinese sentences are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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A Rod-Packing Microporous Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Framework for Highly Selective Separation of C2 H2 /CO2 at Room Temperature.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Self-assembly of a trigonal building subunit with diaminotriazines (DAT) functional groups leads to a unique rod-packing 3D microporous hydrogen-bonded organic framework (HOF-3). This material shows permanent porosity and demonstrates highly selective separation of C2 H2 /CO2 at ambient temperature and pressure.
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Hypoglycemia incidence and risk factors assessment in hospitalized neonates.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Abstract Objective: To assess the incidence and risk factors of hypoglycemia in hospitalized neonates in China. Methods: Blood glucose level in hospitalized neonates was monitored routinely. Also, in high-risk newborns and neonates with abnormal blood glucose levels in initial detection, the blood sugar level was monitored daily until it was back to normal and stable. Results: Hypoglycemia was detected in 113 out of 668 hospitalized neonates, and the incidence of hypoglycemia was 16.9%. The statistical analysis also showed that hypoglycemia always occurred within one week after birth, especially within three days after birth. Conclusion: Neonates with premature birth, low birth weight and perinatal asphyxia were susceptible to hypoglycemia. Active and continuous monitoring of blood glucose level should be performed in the early newborns, especially in high-risk children, and attention should be paid to timely feeding for the early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia to reduce its impact on the newborns.
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A novel systems pharmacology model for herbal medicine injection: a case using reduning injection.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Compared with the traditional oral administration form, injection administration is basically superior in terms of both biological availability and therapeutic effects. However, few researches have focused on the traditional Chinese medicinal injection due to the complicated constituents and the intricate mechanism of action.
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[Effects of "reinforcing Qi and activating blood" on stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To study the clinical effects of "Reinforcing Qi and Activating Blood" in the treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Qi Deficiency and Blood Stasis Syndrome).
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Identification of Cytolytic Vaginosis Versus Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.
J Low Genit Tract Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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This study aimed to observe the morphological characteristic of vaginal discharge in patients with cytolytic vaginosis (CV) under the microscope and to identify it in patients with CV and in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).
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Intra- and post-operational changes in pupils induced by local application of cisternal papaverine during cerebral aneurysm operations.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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To investigate the effect of locally administered intracisternal papaverine on the pupils during cerebral aneurysm clipping.
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Cartilage Regeneration of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in the TGF-?1-Immobilized PLGA-Gelatin Scaffold.
Stem Cell Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Articular cartilage has restricted self-regenerative capacity; therefore, treatment of cartilage lesions is a great challenge in the field of orthopedics. In the present study, we evaluate the enhancing effect of a transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1)-immobilized scaffold, fabricated by incorporating TGF-?1-loaded gelatin microspheres into PLGA framework, on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into chondrocytes. Significant increase in cell proliferation was observed in the TGF-?1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold, as compared with the ASC-seeded non-TGF-?1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold. When chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs was evaluated for both constructs, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content was significantly higher in the TGF-?1-immobilized scaffold. This study showed that ASCs containing the TGF-?1-immobilized scaffold better promoted cartilage regeneration in defective articular cartilage, which is assessed by histological observation. Based on the above results, we conclude that TGF-?1-immobilized PLGA-gelatin scaffold seeded with ASCs considerably enhances the quality of the tissue-engineered cartilage, therefore, advancing the field of cartilage tissue engineering.
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Enantioselective Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Click Cycloaddition to Desymmetrization of Maleimide-Based Bis(alkynes).
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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A copper catalyst system derived from TaoPhos and CuF2 was used successfully for catalytic asymmetric Huisgen [3+2] cycloaddition of azides and alkynes to give optically pure products containing succinimide- and triazole-substituted quaternary carbon stereogenic centers. The desired products were obtained in good yields (60-80?%) and 85:15 to >99:1 enantiomeric ratio (e.r.) in this click cycloaddition reaction.
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Rare V180I mutation in PRNP gene of a Chinese patient with Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease.
Prion
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Here we reported a Chinese case of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) with a rare mutation in the prion protein gene (PRNP) leading to an exchange of amino acid from valine (V) to isoleucine (I) at codon 180 (V180I). The 72 year-old Chinese women started with gradual memory loss. On admission, she did not present special abnormality during clinical examinations except bradykinesia in her lower extremities. Myoclonic jerks and increased muscle tone were noticed three months after the onset. No periodic activity was recorded at electroencephalography (EEG) and 14-3-3 protein was negative in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample. Brain diffusion weighted images (DWI) demonstrated high signal intensities in bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices, especially on the left hemisphere and high signal intensities were also seen in the left caudate nucleus and the putamen. The patient had no family history of similar symptoms. Her general condition was deteriorative gradually, but the patient was still alive when we performed the follow-up 12 months after onset.
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Facile Synthesis of Hierarchical Porous TiO2 Ceramics with Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance for Micropolluted Pesticide Degradation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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In this research, hierarchical porous TiO2 ceramics were successfully synthesized through a camphene-based freeze-drying route. The well-dispersed TiO2 slurries were first frozen and dried at room temperature, followed by high-temperature sintering. The ceramics were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results indicated that the obtained TiO2 ceramics could inhibit undesirable anatase-to-rutile phase transformation and grain growth even at temperatures as high as 800 °C. In this experiment, optimal compressive strength and porosity of the TiO2 ceramics were produced with the initial TiO2 slurry content of ?15 wt %. The resultant TiO2 ceramics performed excellently in the photodegradation of atrazine and thiobencarb, and the total organic carbon removal efficiency was up to 95.7% and 96.7%, respectively. More importantly, the TiO2 ceramics were easily recyclable. No obvious changes of the photocatalytic performance were observed after six cycles. Furthermore, the ceramics also effectively degraded other pesticides such as dimethoate, lindane, dipterex, malathion, and bentazone. These hierarchical porous TiO2 ceramics have potential applications in environmental cleanup.
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Graphene/polydopamine-modified polytetrafluoroethylene microtube for the sensitive determination of three active components in Fructus Psoraleae by online solid-phase microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Determination of bioactive compounds in traditional Chinese medicines and biological samples is usually interfered with by coexisting components in matrices. In this work, we prepared novel multilayer functional graphene/polydopamine-modified polytetrafluoroethylene microtube for selective solid-phase microextraction of three bioactive compounds in Fructus Psoraleae. Functional graphene/polydopamine-modified polytetrafluoroethylene microtube showed good extraction efficiency toward bavachin, isobavachalcone, and bavachinin; enrichment from 357- to 737-fold was obtained for these compounds. For qualitative analysis, an online solid-phase microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed, which showed low limits of detection of 0.02 ng/mL by using UV detection, which is significantly more sensitive than previously reported methods. The proposed method has been used to determine bavachin, isobavachalcone, and bavachinin in Fructus Psoraleae, the contents of three compounds were quantified to be 64.0, 324.0, and 384.5 ?g/g; recoveries were 93.4-101.1%. The proposed method has also been applied to determine bavachin, isobavachalcone, and bavachinin in rat plasma samples after oral administration of Fructus Psoraleae.
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Analysis on the Interaction Domain of VirG and Apyrase by Pull-Down Assay.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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VirG is outer membrane protein of Shigella and affects the spread of Shigella. Recently it has been reported that apyrase influences the location of VirG, although the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. The site of interaction between apyrase and VirG is the focus of our research. First we constructed recombinant plasmid pHIS-phoN2 and pS-(v1-1102, v53-758, v759-1102, v53-319, v320-507, v507-758) by denaturation-renaturation, the phoN2:kan mutant of Shigella flexneri 5a M90T by a modified version of the lambda red recombination protocol originally described by Datsenko and Wanner and the complemented strain M90T?phoN2/pET24a(PhisphoN2). Second, the recombinant plasmid pHIS-phoN2 and the pS-(v1-1102, v53-758, v759-1102, v53-319, v320-507, v507-758) were transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) and induced to express the fusion proteins. Third, the fusion proteins were purified and the interaction of VirG and apyrase was identified by pull-down. Fourth, VirG was divided and the interaction site of apyrase and VirG was determined. Finally, how apyrase affects the function of VirG was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Accordingly, the results provided the data supporting the fact that apyrase combines with the ?-domain of VirG to influence the function of VirG.
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[Effect of three aging challenges on the bonding stability of resin-dentin interface using an etch-and-rinse adhesive].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To systematically investigate the aging effect of thermocycling, water storage and bacteria aggression on the stability of resin-dentin bonds.
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Design and utilization of macrophage and vascular smooth muscle cell co-culture systems in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease investigation.
Vasc Med
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has been acknowledged as a chronic inflammatory condition. Monocytes and macrophages lead the inflammatory pathology of atherosclerosis whereas changes in atheromatous plaque thickness and matrix composition are attributed to vascular smooth muscle cells. Because these cell types are key players in atherosclerosis progression, it is crucial to utilize a reliable system to investigate their interaction. In vitro co-culture systems are useful platforms to study specific molecular mechanisms between cells. This review aims to summarize the various co-culture models that have been developed to investigate vascular smooth muscle cell and monocyte/macrophage interactions, focusing on the monocyte/macrophage effects on vascular smooth muscle cell function.
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Characterization and plasmid elimination of NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter calcoaceticus from China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The presence of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens in the environment poses a serious threat to public health. The opportunistic Acinetobacter spp. are among the most prevalent causes of nosocomial infections. Here, we performed complete genome sequencing of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain XM1570, which was originally cultivated from the sputum of a patient diagnosed with pneumonia in Xiamen in 2010. We identified carbapenem resistance associated gene bla(NDM-1) located on a 47.3-kb plasmid. Three methods--natural reproduction, sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment and nalidixic acid treatment--were used to eliminate the bla(NDM-1)-encoding plasmid, which achieved elimination rates of 3.32% (10/301), 83.78% (278/332), and 84.17% (298/354), respectively. Plasmid elimination dramatically increased antibiotic sensitivity, reducing the minimum bacteriostatic concentration of meropenem from 256 µg/ml in the clinical strain to 0.125 µg/ml in the plasmid-eliminated strain. Conjugation transfer assays showed that the bla(NDM-1)-containing plasmid could be transferred into Escherichia coli DH5?:pBR322 in vitro as well as in vivo in mice. The bla(NDM-1) genetic environment was in accordance with that of other bla(NDM-1) genes identified from India, Japan, and Hong-Kong. The multilocus sequence type of the isolate was identified as ST-70. Two novel genes encoding intrinsic OXA and ADC were identified and named as OXA-417 and ADC-72. The finding of bla(NDM-1) in species like A. calcoaceticus demonstrates the wide spread of this gene in gram-negative bacteria which is possible by conjugative plasmid transfer. The results of this study may help in the development of a treatment strategy for controlling NDM-1 bacterial infection and transmission.
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Room-temperature photoconductivity far below the semiconductor bandgap.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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A concept to stimulate photoconductivity in a semiconductor well below its bandgap in a metal-semiconductor-metal structure with sub-wavelength spacing is proposed. A potential well is induced in the semiconductor by external electromagnetic radiation to trap carriers from the metals. This opens an avenue to generate carriers by photons without adequate excitation energy and is expected to have great significance in modern materials.
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Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus X-ray source.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten K?1 line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.
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Successful treatment of aberrant splenic artery aneurysm with a combination of coils embolization and covered stents.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Aneurysms of an aberrant splenic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) are extremely rare; however, they are clinically important because possible rupture could be catastrophic. The methods of treatment for this condition include surgical resection, minimally invasive techniques (include laparoscopic technique) and endovascular therapy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of coils embolization combined with covered stents to treat aberrant splenic artery aneurysm (SAA).
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Salvianolic acids T and U: a pair of atropisomeric trimeric caffeic acids derivatives from root of Salvia miltiorrhiza.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Two new trimeric caffeic acids, named salvianolic acids T and U (1 and 2), were isolated from the underground part of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Their structures, consisting of three caffeic acid units, were determined based on extensive 1D- and 2D-spectroscopic analyses and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations.
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Synthesis, thermal behavior, and dehydrogenation kinetics study of lithiated ethylenediamine.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The lithiation of ethylenediamine by LiH is a stepwise process to form the partially lithiated intermediates LiN(H)CH2 CH2 NH2 and [LiN(H)CH2 CH2 NH2 ][LiN(H)CH2 CH2 N(H)Li]2 prior to the formation of dilithiated ethylenediamine LiN(H)CH2 CH2 N(H)Li. A reversible phase transformation between the partial and dilithiated species was observed. One dimensional {Lin Nn } ladders and three-dimensional network structures were found in the crystal structures of LiN(H)CH2 CH2 NH2 and LiN(H)CH2 CH2 N(H)Li, respectively. LiN(H)CH2 CH2 N(H)Li undergoes dehydrogenation with an activation energy of 181±8?kJ?mol(-1) , whereas the partially lithiated ethylenediamine compounds were polymerized and released ammonia at elevated temperatures. The dynamical dehydrogenation mechanism of the dilithiated ethylenediamine compounds was investigated by using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation.
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[Effects of AS1411 on the apoptosis of taxol-resistant lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To explore the effects of AS1411 on the apoptosis of taxol-resistant lung adenocarinoma A549 cell (A549/T cell).
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Decreased BMP2 signal in GIT1 knockout mice slows bone healing.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Endochondral ossification, an important stage of fracture healing, is regulated by a variety of signaling pathways. Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) superfamily plays important roles and comprises TGF?s, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth differentiation factors. TGF?s primarily regulate cartilage formation and endochondral ossification. BMP2 shows diverse efficacy, from the formation of skeleton and extraskeletal organs to the osteogenesis and remodeling of bone. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-interacting protein-1 (GIT1), a shuttle protein in osteoblasts, facilitates fracture healing by promoting bone formation and increasing the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor. Our study examined whether GIT1 regulates fracture healing through the BMP2 signaling pathway and/or through the TGF? signaling pathway. GIT1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited delayed fracture healing, chondrocyte accumulation in the fracture area, and reduced staining intensity of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 (pSmad1/5/8) and Runx2. Endochondral mineralization diminished while the staining intensity of phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) showed no significant change. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells extracted from GIT1 KO mice showed a decline of pSmad1/5/8 levels and of pSmad1/5/8 translocated into the cell nucleus after BMP2 stimulus. We detected no significant change in the pSmad2/3 level after TGF?1 stimulus. Data obtained from reporter gene analysis of C3H10T1/2 cells cultured in vitro confirmed these findings. GIT1-siRNA inhibited transcription in the cell nucleus via pSmad1/5/8 after BMP2 stimulus but had no significant effect on transcription via pSmad2/3 after TGF?1 stimulus. Our results indicate that GIT1 regulates Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and mediates BMP2 regulation of Runx2 expression, thus affecting endochondral ossification at the fracture site.
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A genome-wide detection of copy number variation using SNP genotyping arrays in Beijing-You chickens.
Genetica
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Copy number variation (CNV) has been recently examined in many species and is recognized as being a source of genetic variability, especially for disease-related phenotypes. In this study, the PennCNV software, a genome-wide CNV detection system based on the 60 K SNP BeadChip was used on a total sample size of 1,310 Beijing-You chickens (a Chinese local breed). After quality control, 137 high confidence CNVRs covering 27.31 Mb of the chicken genome and corresponding to 2.61 % of the whole chicken genome. Within these regions, 131 known genes or coding sequences were involved. Q-PCR was applied to verify some of the genes related to disease development. Results showed that copy number of genes such as, phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase II alpha, PHD finger protein 14, RHACD8 (a CD8?- like messenger RNA), MHC B-G, zinc finger protein, sarcosine dehydrogenase and ficolin 2 varied between individual chickens, which also supports the reliability of chip-detection of the CNVs. As one source of genomic variation, CNVs may provide new insight into the relationship between the genome and phenotypic characteristics.
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Reading proficiency modulates parafoveal processing efficiency: evidence from reading Chinese as a second language.
Acta Psychol (Amst)
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how native Korean readers who learned Chinese as a second language make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that, only identical and orthographically similar previews facilitated processing of the target words when they were subsequently fixated. More critically, more parafoveal information was obtained by subjects with higher reading proficiency. These results suggest that, mainly low-level features of the parafoveal words are obtained by the non-native Chinese readers and less attentional resources are available for the readers with lower reading proficiency, thereby causing a reduction of the perceptual span.
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Inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer promote directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells into functional neurons.
Hear. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Intact spiral ganglion neurons are required for cochlear implantation or conventional hearing amplification as an intervention for sensorineural hearing loss. Treatment strategies to replace the loss of spiral ganglion neurons are needed. Recent reports have suggested that amniotic fluid-derived stem cells are capable of differentiating into neuron-like cells in response to cytokines and are not tumorigenic. Amniotic fluid stem cells represent a potential resource for cellular therapy of neural deafness due to spiral ganglion pathology. However, the directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells is undetermined in the absence of cytokines and the consequence of inner ear supporting cells from the mouse cochlea organ of Corti on the differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells remains to be defined. In an effort to circumvent these limitations, we investigated the effect of inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer on amniotic fluid stem cells differentiation in vitro. An inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer direct contact system was established to induce differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells. Our results showed that inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer successfully promoted directional differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells into neurons with characteristics of functionality. Furthermore, we showed that Wnt signaling may play an essential role in triggering neurogenesis. These findings indicate the potential use of inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer as a nerve-regenerative scaffold. A reliable and effective amniotic fluid stem cell differentiation support structure provided by inner ear stem cells derived feeder layer should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic.
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Sonographic findings of localized Castleman disease of the abdomen and pelvis.
J Clin Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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The purpose of this study was to sonographically evaluate the diagnosis of localized Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis.
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A genome-wide identification of genes undergoing recombination and positive selection in Neisseria.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Currently, there is particular interest in the molecular mechanisms of adaptive evolution in bacteria. Neisseria is a genus of gram negative bacteria, and there has recently been considerable focus on its two human pathogenic species N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. Until now, no genome-wide studies have attempted to scan for the genes related to adaptive evolution. For this reason, we selected 18 Neisseria genomes (14 N. meningitidis, 3 N. gonorrhoeae and 1 commensal N. lactamics) to conduct a comparative genome analysis to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the roles of natural selection and homologous recombination throughout the history of adaptive evolution. Among the 1012 core orthologous genes, we identified 635 genes with recombination signals and 10 genes that showed significant evidence of positive selection. Further functional analyses revealed that no functional bias was found in the recombined genes. Positively selected genes are prone to DNA processing and iron uptake, which are essential for the fundamental life cycle. Overall, the results indicate that both recombination and positive selection play crucial roles in the adaptive evolution of Neisseria genomes. The positively selected genes and the corresponding amino acid sites provide us with valuable targets for further research into the detailed mechanisms of adaptive evolution in Neisseria.
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Upregulation of CRMP4, a new prostate cancer metastasis suppressor gene, inhibits tumor growth in a nude mouse intratibial injection model.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Prostate cancer, the most commonly diagnosed male cancer in North America, has a high incidence of bone metastasis. Our previous study showed collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) gene inhibited prostate cancer migration and invasion. In this study, we investigated whether overexpression of CRMP4 gene in prostate cancer cells inhibit tumor bone metastasis. The stable prostate cancer cells overexpressing the CRMP4 gene were constructed using lentivirus infection. Prostate cancer bone metastasis nude mouse model was built though orthotopic prostate implantation, intracardiac injection and intratibial injection with CRMP4 overexpress and control cancer cells. Small animal PET/CT scanning results showed no difference of bone metastatic capacity in orthotopic and intracardiac injection models between CRMP4 overexpression and control group, while CRMP4 overexpression inhibited tumor growth in the intratibial injection model. Moreover, our in vitro study showed CRMP4 overexpression downregulates the Neuropilin1 (NRP1) expression and upregulate the Noggin expression. Immunohistochemical staining of the hind limbs of intratibial injection model was confirmed with cytological experiments. Taken together, our research indicated CRMP4 inhibits prostate cancer cells growth in the nude mouse bone microenvironment and this effect may relate with regulation of NRP1 and Noggin expression.
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Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Hyperoside in Human Endothelial Cells and in Mice.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was recently shown to be an important extracellular mediator of systemic inflammation, and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) has been shown to be involved in vascular inflammation. Hyperoside is an active compound isolated from Rhododendron brachycarpum G. Don (Ericaceae) that was reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-cancer, and anti-coagulant activities. Here, we show, for the first time, the anti-septic effects of hyperoside in HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses and on the shedding of EPCR in vitro and in vivo. The data showed that hyperoside posttreatment suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated release of HMGB1 and HMGB1-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangement. Hyperoside also inhibited HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability and leukocyte migration in septic mice and phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced EPCR shedding. In addition, hyperoside inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and the HMGB1-mediated activation of Akt, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in HUVECs. Hyperoside also reduced the CLP-induced release of HMGB1, the production of interleukin (IL)-1?, and septic mortality. Collectively, these results suggest hyperoside as a candidate therapeutic agent for the treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases via inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.
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A cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) gene encoding a NAC transcription factor is involved in negative regulation of plant xylem development.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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NAC proteins that compose of one large family of plant specific transcription factors (TF) play the important roles in many biological processes (such as morphogenesis, development, senescence and stress signal transduction). In this study, a gene (designated as GhXND1) encoding a NAC transcription factor was identified in cotton. Sequence analysis indicated that GhXND1 gene contains two introns inserted in its open reading frame (ORF). GhXND1 protein is localized in the cell nucleus, and displays the transactivation activity. GhXND1 transcripts were mainly detected in cotyledons, petals, roots, hypocotyls and stems, but little or no signals of GhXND1 expression were found in the other tissues. Ectopic expression of GhXND1 in Arabidopsis resulted in a reduction in number of xylem vessel cells and cell wall thickness of interfascicular fibers in the transgenic plants, compared with those of wild type. And expression of some cell wall biosynthesis-related genes was down-regulated in the GhXND1 transgenic plants. Collectively, the data presented in this study suggested that GhXND1 may be involved in regulation of plant xylem development.
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[Diagnosis and treatment of vascular complications of external iliac arteries after kidney transplantation: a report of 6 cases].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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To explore the characteristics of external iliac artery vascular complications after renal transplantation and the diagnosis and treatment.
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Adsorptive behavior and solid-phase microextraction of bare stainless steel sample loop in high performance liquid chromatography.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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In this work, we interestingly happened to observe the adsorption of stainless steel sample loop of HPLC. The adsorptive behaviors of the stainless steel loop toward different kinds of compounds were studied, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), halogeno benzenes, aniline derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, phenols, benzoic acid ethyl ester, benzaldehyde, 1-phenyl-ethanone and phenethyl alcohol. The adsorptive mechanism was probably related to hydrophobic interaction, electron-rich element-metal interaction and hydrogen bond. Universal adsorption of stainless steels was also testified. Inspired by its strong adsorptive capability, bare stainless steel loop was developed as a modification-free in-tube device for solid-phase microextraction (SPME), which served as both the substrate and sorbent and possessed ultra-high strength and stability. Great extraction efficiency toward PAHs was obtained by stainless steel loop without any modification, with enrichment factors of 651-834. By connecting the stainless steel loop onto a six-port valve, an online SPME-HPLC system was set up and an SPME-HPLC method has been validated for determination of PAHs. The method has exceptionally low limits of detection of 0.2-2pg/mL, which is significantly lower than that of reported methods with different kinds of sorbents. Wide linear range (0.5-500 and 2-1000pg/mL), good linearity (R(2)?0.9987) and good reproducibility (RSD?2.9%) were also obtained. The proposed method has been applied to determine PAHs in environmental samples. Good recoveries were obtained, ranging from 88.5% to 93.8%.
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Structure and mechanism of the phycobiliprotein lyase CpcT.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Pigmentation of light-harvesting phycobiliproteins of cyanobacteria requires covalent attachment of open-chain tetrapyrroles, bilins, to the apoproteins. Thioether formation via addition of a cysteine residue to the 3-ethylidene substituent of bilins is mediated by lyases. T-type lyases are responsible for attachment to Cys-155 of phycobiliprotein ?-subunits. We present crystal structures of CpcT (All5339) from Nostoc (Anabaena) sp. PCC 7120 and its complex with phycocyanobilin at 1.95 and 2.50 Å resolution, respectively. CpcT forms a dimer and adopts a calyx-shaped ?-barrel fold. Although the overall structure of CpcT is largely retained upon chromophore binding, arginine residues at the opening of the binding pocket undergo major rotameric rearrangements anchoring the propionate groups of phycocyanobilin. Based on the structure and mutational analysis, a reaction mechanism is proposed that accounts for chromophore stabilization and regio- and stereospecificity of the addition reaction. At the dimer interface, a loop extending from one subunit partially shields the opening of the phycocyanobilin binding pocket in the other subunit. Deletion of the loop or disruptions of the dimer interface significantly reduce CpcT lyase activity, suggesting functional relevance of the dimer. Dimerization is further enhanced by chromophore binding. The chromophore is largely buried in the dimer, but in the monomer, the 3-ethylidene group is accessible for the apophycobiliprotein, preferentially from the chromophore ?-side. Asp-163 and Tyr-65 at the ?- and ?-face near the E-configured ethylidene group, respectively, support the acid-catalyzed nucleophilic Michael addition of cysteine 155 of the apoprotein to an N-acylimmonium intermediate proposed by Grubmayr and Wagner (Grubmayr, K., and Wagner, U. G. (1988) Monatsh. Chem. 119, 965-983).
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[BiOBr promoted the photocatalytic degradation of beta-cypermethrin under visible light].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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As a visible light photocatalyst, bismuth oxide bromide (BiOBr) was used to catalyze the degradation of beta-cypermethrin (beta-CP). The photocatalytic degradation of beta-CP was studied with gas chromatography. The effects of pH and catalyst dose on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency were discussed. The oxidization and mineralization of beta-CP were detected by chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyzer. The results showed that beta-CP could be effectively degraded under visible light irradiation using BiOBr as the catalyst. At given experimental conditions, the degradation rate of beta-CP reached 94. 68% after 10 h and the COD removal rate reached 67. 99% after 36 h. With the increase of catalyst dose and pH value, the degradation rate was improved. The photocatalytic oxidation species was determined by peroxidase method and terephthalic acid fluorescence method. These results suggested that the photocatalytic degradation process mainly referred to hydroxyl radical ( OH) mechanism.
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HMGB1 gene polymorphism is associated with hypertension in Han Chinese population.
Clin. Exp. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Abstract Background: High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) acts as a proinflammatory cytokine by activating pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the receptor of AGE (AGER) with oxidative injury. Animal study proved that HMGB1 contributed to the pathogenesis of experimental pulmonary hypertension (HT) via activation of TLR4. The aim of this study is to test whether HMGB1 harbor genetic susceptibility to HT in a Chinese population. Methods: A case-control study comprising 2012 HT cases and 2210 controls was used to evaluate the association of three tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (tagSNPs) in HMGB1 gene with HT and blood pressure. Logistic regression model was used to adjust confounding factor for HT and general linear model (GLM) was applied to compare blood pressure levels between genotypes in cases and controls. Results: Single locus analysis showed that there was no statistical association of three tagSNPs with HT after adjustment for the covariates. Further stratification analysis found that rs2249825 was significantly associated with HT in ?55 years groups, ORs (95% CI) of additive model and dominant model were 1.208 (1.029-1.417) and 1.212 (1.020-1.441), and p values were 0.021 and 0.029, respectively. Quantitative trait analysis indicated that DBP had a linear decrease with the variations of rs2249825 in both untreated HT group (p?=?0.002) and control group (p?=?0.034) respectively. Conclusions: Our finding suggests that rs2249825 of HMGB1 genetic polymorphisms are significantly associated with HT and diastolic blood pressure, and the genetic effect on HT is modulated by age.
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Effect analysis of mineral salt concentrations on nosiheptide production by Streptomyces actuosus Z-10 using response surface methodology.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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The objective of this study was to develop an optimal combination of mineral salts in the fermentation medium for nosiheptide (Nsh) production using statistical methodologies. A Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the impacts of eight mineral salts on Nsh production. The results showed that among the no-significant factors, CaCO3, and K2HPO4·3H2O had positive effects, whereas FeSO4·7H2O, CuSO4·5H2O, and ZnSO4·7H2O had negative effects on Nsh production. The other three significant factors (Na2SO4, MnSO4·H2O, and MgSO4·7H2O) were further optimized by using a five-level three-factor central composite design (CCD). Experimental data were fitted to a quadratic polynomial model, which provided an effective way to determine the interactive effect of metal salts on Nsh production. The optimal values were determined to be 2.63, 0.21, and 3.37 g/L, respectively. The model also ensured a good fitting of scale-up Nsh batch fermentation with a maximum production of 1501 mg/L, representing a 1.56-fold increase compared to the original standard condition. All these results revealed that statistical optimization methodology had the potential to achieve comprehensive optimization in Nsh fermentation behaviors, which indicates a possibility to establish economical large-scale production of Nsh.
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Fast and automatic imaging of immunoenzyme-stained neuronal circuits in the whole brain of Drosophila.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Knowledge of neuronal wiring and morphogenesis in Drosophila is essential to understand brain function and dysfunction. The immunoenzyme method based on horseradish peroxidase/diaminobenzidine (HRP/DAB) provides high-contrast images to resolve details underlying neuronal architecture. However, the poor staining penetration and a lack of corresponding three-dimensional imaging methodology limit its application. Herein, we modified the HRP/DAB method to stain neuronal circuits in the whole brain of Drosophila. Furthermore, we found that imaging with the micro-optical sectioning tomography system provided a fast and automatic method that could dissect cell-specific neuroanatomical architecture at a submicron voxel resolution.
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Identifying hierarchical and overlapping protein complexes based on essential protein-protein interactions and "seed-expanding" method.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Many evidences have demonstrated that protein complexes are overlapping and hierarchically organized in PPI networks. Meanwhile, the large size of PPI network wants complex detection methods have low time complexity. Up to now, few methods can identify overlapping and hierarchical protein complexes in a PPI network quickly. In this paper, a novel method, called MCSE, is proposed based on ?-module and "seed-expanding." First, it chooses seeds as essential PPIs or edges with high edge clustering values. Then, it identifies protein complexes by expanding each seed to a ?-module. MCSE is suitable for large PPI networks because of its low time complexity. MCSE can identify overlapping protein complexes naturally because a protein can be visited by different seeds. MCSE uses the parameter ?_th to control the range of seed expanding and can detect a hierarchical organization of protein complexes by tuning the value of ?_th. Experimental results of S. cerevisiae show that this hierarchical organization is similar to that of known complexes in MIPS database. The experimental results also show that MCSE outperforms other previous competing algorithms, such as CPM, CMC, Core-Attachment, Dpclus, HC-PIN, MCL, and NFC, in terms of the functional enrichment and matching with known protein complexes.
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Significance of "Deqi" response in acupuncture treatment: myth or reality.
J Acupunct Meridian Stud
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Acupuncture has been practiced in China for over 2000 years to treat a variety of diseases based on the "meridian theory," as described in the "Yellow Emperor's Classics of Internal Medicine." Deqi refers to the excitation of qi or vital energy inside meridians by acupuncture needle stimulation. Patients often experience multidimensional and intense needling sensations such as numbness, soreness, distention, heaviness, dull pain, and sharp pain during acupuncture stimulation. Deqi is considered as an important parameter in the process of achieving therapeutic effectiveness in acupuncture treatment. Understanding this phenomenon from neurophysiological aspects is important for clinical practice and enables practitioners to perform quantitative acupuncture evaluation to obtain a reliable prognosis of acupuncture treatment. This review paper describes our current knowledge and understanding of Deqi from a physiological aspect.
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Effects and mechanisms of acupuncture based on the principle of meridians.
J Acupunct Meridian Stud
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Acupuncture has been practiced in China for over 2000 years to treat a variety of diseases based on the "meridian theory" as described in the Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine. To this date, the meridian theory continues to be an important guide for traditional Chinese medicine practitioners to diagnose and treat patients. Although the meridians have not been identified reliably as actual anatomical structures, they appear to serve as a road map to identify the location of various acupoints. Research has shown that acupoints overlie major neuronal bundles. The meridians extensively studied in the cardiovascular realm are the pericardial meridians (P) 5, 6, which overlie the deep median nerve. Meridians involved with gastrointestinal processes are (St) 36, 37, which overlie the deep peroneal nerve. Acupuncture needles, either manipulated manually or stimulated using a low current and frequency, have been documented to be a neurophysiological basis for modulating the activity of peripheral and central neural pathways. This review describes our current understanding of acupoints and meridians from a physiological aspect.
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Lycopene attenuates inflammation and apoptosis in post?myocardial infarction remodeling by inhibiting the nuclear factor??B signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Inflammatory response and cardiomyocyte apoptosis are important processes in ventricular remodeling post?myocardial infarction (MI) and may form the basic mechanisms in the development of chronic heart failure. The nuclear factor ?B (NF??B) signaling pathway could promote inflammation and apoptosis and it has been demonstrated that lycopene inhibits cigarette smoke extract?mediated NF??B activation. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the NF??B signaling pathway may be a key target of lycopene in the reversal of ventricular remodeling post MI. An MI model was established by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation in mice. Following ligation, the mice were administered with lycopene (10 mg/kg/day) or saline. The mice underwent echocardiography and were sacrificed after 4 weeks. The mRNA expression of fibrosis markers transforming growth factor??1 (TGF??1), collagen I and III and inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??) and interleukin?1? (IL?1?) were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of apoptotic markers, including caspase?3, ?8, ?9 and activation of the NF??B signaling pathway were analyzed by western blotting. Lycopene reduced the expression of TGF??1, collagen I, collagen III, TNF??, IL?1?, caspase?3, ?8 and ?9 and inhibited the activation of the NF??B signaling pathway. The level of ventricular remodeling post?MI was also attenuated following treatment with lycopene. Lycopene may inhibit the NF??B signaling pathway thereby reducing the inflammatory response and cardiomyocyte apoptosis post?MI, which could be a key mechanism of lycopene in attenuating ventricular remodeling.
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Clinical features and genetic analysis of 20 Chinese patients with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome.
J Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is one type of primary immunodeficiency diseases, resulting from defects in the CD40 ligand/CD40 signaling pathways. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and molecular features of 20 Chinese patients diagnosed and followed up in hospitals affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from 1999 to 2013. The median onset age of these patients was 8.5 months (range: 20 days-21 months). Half of them had positive family histories, with a shorter diagnosis lag. The most common symptoms were recurrent sinopulmonary infections (18 patients, 90%), neutropenia (14 patients, 70%), oral ulcer (13 patients, 65%), and protracted diarrhea (13 patients, 65%). Six patients had BCGitis. Six patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplantations and four of them had immune reconstructions and clinical remissions. Eighteen unique mutations in CD40L gene were identified in these 20 patients from 19 unrelated families, with 12 novel mutations. We compared with reported mutation results and used bioinformatics software to predict the effects of mutations on the target protein. These mutations reflected the heterogeneity of CD40L gene and expanded our understanding of XHIGM.
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Isolation and identification of aromatic compounds in Lion's Mane Mushroom and their anticancer activities.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Lion's Mane Mushroom (Hericium erinaceum) is a traditional edible mushroom widely used in culinary applications and as an herbal medicine in East Asian countries. In the present study, two new aromatic compounds, hericerin A (1) and isohericenone J (5), along with five known compounds, isoericerin (2), hericerin (3), N-De phenylethyl isohericerin (4), hericenone J (6), and 4-[3',7'-dimethyl-2',6'-octadienyl]-2-formyl-3-hydroxy-5-methyoxybenzylalcohol (7), were isolated from a methanol extract of the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceum. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined from mass spectra and 1D- and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The anticancer effects of the isolated compounds were examined in HL-60 human acute promyelocytic leukaemia cells. Hericerin A (1) and hericerin (3) significantly reduced cell proliferation with IC50 values of 3.06 and 5.47?M, respectively. These same compounds also induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells, accompanied by time-dependent down-regulation of p-AKT and c-myc levels. These data suggest that compounds 1 and 3 from H. erinaceum are suitable for use in potential cancer treatments.
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Vibrational, electronic and structural properties of wurtzite GaAs nanowires under hydrostatic pressure.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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The structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of GaAs nanowires have been studied in the metastable wurtzite phase via Resonant Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements in diamond anvil cells under hydrostatic conditions between 0 and 23 GPa. The direct band gap E0 and the crystal field split-off gap E0 + ? of wurtzite GaAs increase with pressure and their values become close to those of zinc-blende GaAs at 5 GPa, while being reported slightly larger at lower pressures. Above 21 GPa, a complete structural transition from the wurtzite to an orthorhombic phase is observed in both Raman and X-ray diffraction experiments.
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Resveratrol inhibits proliferation in human colorectal carcinoma cells by inducing G1/S?phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through caspase/cyclin?CDK pathways.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The present study compared the effect of resveratrol on HCT116 and Caco-2 human colon cancer cells. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, MTT assay and western blot analysis revealed that resveratrol induced cycle arrest in the two cell lines, which was evidenced by cell cycle analysis and changes in the expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4, cyclin D1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and P21. Furthermore, resveratrol was found to have a strong apoptosis-inducing effect, which was evidenced through the high percentage of annexin V positive cells and high protein expression of cleaved?caspase?7, cleaved?caspase?9 and cleaved?poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in the resveratrol-treated cancer cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that resveratrol had greater growth inhibitory and cell cycle arrest effects on Caco-2 cells than HCT116 cells, through caspase-dependent and cyclin-CDK pathways.
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A retrospective study: the prevalence and prognostic value of anemia in patients undergoing radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The relationship between anemia and outcomes after radiotherapy has not been systematically addressed. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and prognostic value of anemia in patients receiving primary radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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A universal and facile way for the development of superior bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions utilizing the synergistic effect.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Increasing energy demands have stimulated intense research activities on reversible electrochemical conversion and storage systems with high efficiency, low cost, and environmental benignity. It is highly challenging but desirable to develop efficient bifunctional catalysts for both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). A universal and facile method for the development of bifunctional electrocatalysts with outstanding electrocatalytic activity for both the ORR and OER in alkaline medium is reported. A mixture of Pt/C catalyst with superior ORR activity and a perovskite oxide based catalyst with outstanding OER activity was employed in appropriate ratios, and prepared by simple ultrasonic mixing. Nanosized platinum particles with a wide range of platinum to oxide mass ratios was realized easily in this way. The as-formed Pt/C-oxide composites showed better ORR activity than a single Pt/C catalyst and better OER activity than a single oxide to bring about much improved bifunctionality (?E is only ?0.8?V for Pt/C-BSCF; BSCF=Ba0.5 Sr0.5 Co0.8 Fe0.2 O3-? ), due to the synergistic effect. The electronic transfer mechanism and the rate-determining step and spillover mechanism were two possible origins of such a synergistic effect. Additionally, the phenomenon was found to be universal, although the best performance could be reached at different platinum to oxide mass ratios for different oxide catalysts. This work thus provides an innovative strategy for the development of new bifunctional electrocatalysts with wide application potentials in high-energy and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion.
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PAK1 mediates pancreatic cancer cell migration and resistance to MET inhibition.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a major unmet medical need and a deeper understanding of molecular drivers is needed to advance therapeutic options for patients. We report here that p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is a central node in PDAC cells downstream of multiple growth factor signalling pathways, including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and MET receptor tyrosine kinase. PAK1 inhibition blocks signalling to cytoskeletal effectors and tumour cell motility driven by HGF/MET. MET antagonists, such as onartuzumab and crizotinib, are currently in clinical development. Given that even highly effective therapies have resistance mechanisms, we show that combination with PAK1 inhibition overcomes potential resistance mechanisms mediated either by activation of parallel growth factor pathways or by direct amplification of PAK1. Inhibition of PAK1 attenuated in vivo tumour growth and metastasis in a model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In human tissues, PAK1 is highly expressed in a proportion of PDACs (33% IHC score 2 or 3; n = 304) and its expression is significantly associated with MET positivity (p < 0.0001) and linked to a widespread metastatic pattern in patients (p = 0.067). Taken together, our results provide evidence for a functional role of MET/PAK1 signalling in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and support further characterization of therapeutic inhibitors in this indication. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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A Prospective Evaluation of Utilizing IVUS during Percutaneous Superficial Femoral Artery Interventions.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The outcomes of endovascular interventions of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are variable. Completion angiography is typically performed to confirm satisfactory outcomes following SFA angioplasty and/or stenting. However, two-dimensional angiography may not accurately reflect the extent of residual stenosis. We sought to determine whether intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can help with residual disease assessment and procedure outcome.
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Dihydromyricetin induces mouse hepatoma Hepal?6 cell apoptosis via the transforming growth factor?? pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is a flavonoid compound which possesses potent antitumor activity. In the present study, it was demonstrated that DHM significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma Hepal?6 cells. Transforming growth factor ? (TGF??) is recognized as a major profibrogenic cytokine and is therefore a common target for drugs in the treatment of liver disease. The present study aimed to investigate whether TGF?? was involved in DHM?triggered cell?viability inhibition and apoptosis induction. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the viability of Hepal?6 cells following DHM treatment. TGF?? signalling is mediated by Smads and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4) is a crucial regulator of reactive oxygen species ROS production. TGF??, Smad3, phosphorylated (p)?Smad2/3 and NOX4 protein expression levels were evaluated by western blot analysis. TGF?? and NOX4 gene expression levels were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that DHM downregulated TGF??, Smad3, p?Smad2/3 and NOX4 in a concentration?dependent manner. A cell counting assay indicated that DHM also inhibited Hepal?6 cell growth in a concentration?dependent manner. TGF?? expression was significantly decreased following DHM treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study defined and supported a novel function for DHM, indicating that it induced cell apoptosis by downregulating ROS production via the TGF??/Smad3 signaling pathway in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma Hepal?6 cells.
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In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Resin-Based Pulp Capping Material Containing the Quaternary Ammonium Salt MAE-DB and Portland Cement.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to bacterial infection. The objectives of this study were to synthesize a novel, light-cured composite material containing bioactive calcium-silicate (Portland cement, PC) and the antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salt monomer 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB) and to evaluate its effects on Streptococcus mutans growth in vitro.
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Trichonomas vaginalis Metalloproteinase Induces Apoptosis of SiHa Cells through Disrupting the Mcl-1/Bim and Bcl-xL/Bim Complexes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To elucidate the roles of metalloproteinases and the Bcl-2 family of proteins in Trichovaginalis. vaginalis-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells (SiHa cells) and vaginal epithelial cells (MS74 cells), SiHa cells and MS74 cells were incubated with live T. vaginalis, T. vaginalis excretory and secretory products (ESP), and T. vaginalis lysates, either with or without the specific metalloproteinase inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-PT), and examined apoptotic events and Bcl-2 signaling. The live T. vaginalis and the T. vaginalis ESP induced the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the cleavage of PARP. Additionally, the live T. vaginalis, but not the T. vaginalis lysate, induced the cleavage of the proapoptotic Bim protein. The live T. vaginalis and the T. vaginalis ESP, but not the T. vaginalis lysate, induced the dose-dependent cleavage of the antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 proteins and decreased the association levels of Bcl-xL/Bim and Mcl-1/Bim complexes. We performed gelatin zymography and casein-hydrolysis assays on the live T. vaginalis and the T. vaginalis ESP to identify the apoptosis-inducing factor. Both the live T. vaginalis and the ESP contained high levels of metalloproteinases, of which activities were significantly inhibited by 1,10-PT treatment. Furthermore, the 1,10-PT blocked the cleavage of Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, PARP, caspase-3, and caspase-9, as well as the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and it significantly increased the association levels of the Bcl-xL/Bim and Mcl-1/Bim protein complexes, returning them to normal levels. Our results demonstrate that T. vaginalis induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in SiHa cells through the dissociation of Bcl-xL/Bim and Mcl-1/Bim complexes and that the apoptosis is blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitor 1,10-PT. These results expand our understanding of the role of metalloproteinases in T. vaginalis-induced apoptosis and the signaling pathway in trichomoniasis of the cervicovaginal epithelial cells.
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Study on the main components interaction from Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae and their dissolution in vitro and intestinal absorption in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple is the basic components of Chinese herbal preparations (Shuang-Huang-Lian tablet, Yin-Qiao-Jie-Du tablet and Fufang Qin-Lan oral liquid), and its pharmacological effects were significantly higher than that in Flos Lonicerae or Fructus Forsythiae, but the reasons remained unknown. In the present study, pattern recognition analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA)) combined with UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap MS system were performed to study the chemical constitution difference between co-decoction and mixed decoction in the term of chemistry. Besides, the pharmacokinetics in vivo and intestinal absorption in vitro combined with pattern recognition analysis were used to reveal the discrepancy between herb couple and single herbs in the view of biology. The observation from the chemical view in vitro showed that there was significant difference in quantity between co-decoction and mixed decoction by HCA, and the exposure level of isoforsythoside and 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in co-decoction, higher than that in mixed decoction, directly resulted in the discrepancy between co-decoction and mixed decoction using both PCA and HCA. The observation from the pharmacokinetics displayed that the exposure level in vivo of neochlorogenic acid, 3, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isoforsythoside and forsythoside A, higher than that in single herbs, was the main factor contributing to the difference by both PCA and HCA, interestingly consistent with the results obtained from Caco-2 cells in vitro, which indicated that it was because of intestinal absorption improvement of neochlorogenic acid, 3, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isoforsythoside and forsythoside A that resulted in a better efficacy of herb couple than that of single herbs from the perspective of biology. The results above illustrated that caffeic acid derivatives in Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple could be considered as chemical markers for quality control of its preparations.
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High-performance binder-free supercapacitor electrode by direct growth of cobalt-manganese composite oxide nansostructures on nickel foam.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A facile approach composed of hydrothermal process and annealing treatment is proposed to directly grow cobalt-manganese composite oxide ((Co,Mn)3O4) nanostructures on three-dimensional (3D) conductive nickel (Ni) foam for a supercapacitor electrode. The as-fabricated porous electrode exhibits excellent rate capability and high specific capacitance of 840.2 F g(-1) at the current density of 10 A g(-1), and the electrode also shows excellent cycling performance, which retains 102% of its initial discharge capacitance after 7,000 cycles. The fabricated binder-free hierarchical composite electrode with superior electrochemical performance is a promising candidate for high-performance supercapacitors.
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Changes in poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation patterns in workers exposed to BTX.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Occupational exposure to (benzene, toluene and xylene, BTX is common in the Chinese workplace. Chronic occupational exposure to benzene is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study investigates changes in poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and DNA methylation in subjects occupationally exposed to a BTX. Blood DNA samples and exposure data were obtained from subjects with different levels of exposure, including 132 decorators, 129 painters, and 130 unexposed referents in a container-manufacturing factory in Shenzhen, China. Occupational exposure assessment included personal monitoring of airborne benzene, toluene and xylene. Hematological parameters were measured and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was used to detect DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) including DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2(MBD2). PARP1 assay was used to measure PARP activity. Airborne levels of benzene, toluene and xylene in the two exposed groups were significantly higher than those of controls (P<0.001). The two exposed groups (decorators, painters) showed decreased PARP1, DNMTs and MBD2 expression relative to controls (P<0.05), and PARP activity was also decreased (P<0.05). Decreased PARP1, DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b and MBD2 mRNA expression was correlated with increased airborne BTX (Pearson's r: -0.587, -0.314, -0.636, -0.567 and -0.592 respectively, P<0.001). No significant differences in hematological parameters and CBMN were found among the three groups. Together, these results suggest that decreased DNMTs, MBD2 and PARP1 might be involved in the global hypomethylation associated with BTX exposure, and the imbalance of PARP/PARG might participate in the down-regulation of DNMTs. This is the first human study to link altered poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation patterns, which reproduce the aberrant epigenetic patterns found in benzene-treated cells, to chronic occupational exposure to BTX.
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Modified Yupingfeng formula for the treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is a very common disease of respiratory system. An increasing number of clinical trials on Yupingfeng formula in the management of stable COPD have been performed. However, the evidence base for it remains unknown. This review aims at assessing the efficacy, and safety of modified Yupingfeng formula in the treatment of stable COPD through a systematic review of all available randomized controlled trials.
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[Investigation of non-ionizing radiationhazards fromphysiotherapy equipment in 16 medical institutions].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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To investigate the non-ionizing radiation hazards from physiotherapy equipment in medical institutions and to explore feasible control measures for occupational diseases.
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FACS selection of valuable mutant mouse round spermatids and strain rescue via round spermatid injection.
Zygote
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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Summary Round spermatid injection (ROSI) into mammalian oocytes can result in the development of viable embryos and offspring. One current limitation to this technique is the identification of suitable round spermatids. In the current paper, round spermatids were selected from testicular cells with phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and ROSI was performed in two strains of mice. The rates of fertilization, embryonic development and offspring achieved were the same in all strains. Significantly, round spermatids selected by PCM and FACS were effectively used to rescue the infertile Pten-null mouse. The current results indicate that FACS selection of round spermatids can not only provide high-purity and viable round spermatids for use in ROSI, but also has no harmful effects on the developmental capacity of subsequently fertilized embryos. It was concluded that round spermatids selected by FACS are useful for mouse strain rederivation and rescue of infertile males; ROSI should be considered as a powerful addition to the armamentarium of assisted reproduction techniques applicable in the mouse.
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Anterolateral acromial approach in locking plate fixation of proximal humerus fractures in elderly patients.
Acta Orthop Belg
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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We describe our experience with a two-incision anterolateral acromial approach in locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures in older adults. Mean time between injury and surgery was 3.08 +/- 1.24 days. A proximal anterolateral transverse incision and a more distal longitudinal incision were used. A locking plate was inserted along the lateral side of the humerus from the proximal incision to the distal fragment of the humerus. Mean operation time was 62.37 +/- 19.05 minutes. There were no instances of axillary nerve paralysis or infection. Postoperative imaging results were satisfactory in all cases. Three obese patients experienced fat liquefaction at the incision site. Mean total Neer score one year after surgery was 88.16 +/- 5.05. We conclude that the two-incision anterolateral acromial approach with use of locking plates appears to be an effective means to treat proximal humeral fractures in older adults.
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Gender and Outcomes of Carotid Artery Interventions.
Vasc Endovascular Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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The benefits of carotid artery revascularization in women have been debated since the publication of large randomized clinical trials comparing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) to medical therapy. Institutional series have historically had an underrepresentation of women and/or have lacked power for adequate analysis. Recent evidence from large databases reveals possible gender-based differences in outcomes of carotid artery stenting versus CEA. In this review, we evaluated clinical articles from 1991 to 2012, using Pubmed and Web of Science, which addressed gender and outcomes of carotid artery revascularization procedures. Our goal was to determine whether gender is associated with adverse outcomes following carotid artery interventions in patients with carotid artery disease.
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The -159C/T polymorphism in the CD14 gene and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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The -159C/T polymorphism in the cluster of differentiation (CD)14 gene has been extensively studied for an association with cancer; however, results from replication studies have been inconclusive. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive assessment of the possible association between the -159C/T polymorphism in the CD14 gene and cancer risk, by meta-analysis.
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[Clinical efficacy observation on abdominal acupuncture for cyclomastopathy].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To verify clinical efficacy of abdominal acupuncture for cyclomastopathy.
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Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis and microsurgical treatment of cavernous sinus hemangiomas.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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Objective To summarize the magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)features and microsurgical treatment of cavernous sinus hemangiomas(CSH). Methods Twenty-three patients with surgically and pathologically verified CSH were reviewed. All patients underwent computed tomography(CT)and MR scan, 19 cases underwent MR diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI)and 7 underwent single voxel (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy((1)HMRS)before operation. The microsurgery through modified pterional approach was performed in 11 cases and 12 cases removal was achieved in combined fronto-temporal preauricular subtemporal approach. Ninteen cases with large tumors were treated by Leksell Gamma knife(LGK)before operation. Results CSHs were single, large, and spherical/lie gourd-shaped tumors across the inside and outside the sella. CSH showed equal or slightly low signal on T1WI, high signal on T2WI and FLAIR, homogeneous or heterogeneous great enhancement on MR enhancement scan 19 cases showed equal or slightly low signal on DWI, 7 cases showed no NAA, Cr, and Cho peak, and 6 cases showed Lip peak on (1)HMRS. In 23 cases, the tumors were totally removed in 18, subtotally removed in 3, and partially removed in 2. No perioperative death was reported. The postoperative symptoms were improved in 17 cases but remained unchanged in 4 cases two patients suffered from new nervous symptoms after the surgery, which were improved or cured after three weeks of treatment. In 5 patients who had received subtotal or partial removal of the lesions, LGK was peformed postoperatively, which resulted in smaller residual tumors in 4 cases and unchanged tumor in one patient. Conclusions CSH has some unique MRI features, and therefore MRI is helpful to improve the preoperative localization and qualitative diagnosis. The microsurgery through modified pterional approach combined with fronto-temporal preauricular subtemporal approach is an effective procedure for CSH.
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The reproductive strategy of a pollinator-limited Himalayan plant, Incarvillea mairei (Bignoniaceae).
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Plants may adapt to alpine habitats by specialization in the reproductive strategy and functional aspects of their flowers and pollination systems. Alpine habitats reduce the opportunities for cross-pollination in a relatively high proportion of alpine plant species, and self-pollination may be favored in these adverse conditions. Here, we investigated the mating system and pollination of Incarvillea mairei, a perennial Himalayan herb typically found at altitudes between 3000 and 4500 m.
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Efficacy and safety of Changfu peritoneal dialysis solution: a multi-center prospective randomized controlled trial.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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A multi-center large scale study is needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of domestic peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions. Some researchers believe that 6 L/d is enough for adequate dialysis, but there is no multi-center prospective study on Chinese population to confirm this. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of domestic PD solution (Changfu) and its difference between 6 L and 8 L dosage.
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Comparison of fine-needle aspiration and fine-needle capillary sampling of thyroid nodules: A prospective study with emphasis on the influence of nodule size.
Cancer Cytopathol
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
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The objective of this study was to compare the sampling efficiency of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and fine-needle capillary (FNC) sampling in thyroid nodules, in which the authors specifically analyzed the influence of nodule size.
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