Optoelectronic diode based on PN heterostructure is one of the most fundamental device building blocks with extensive applications. Here we reported the fabrication and optoelectronic properties of GaTe/Sn : CdS nanoflake/nanowire PN heterojunction photodetectors. With high quality contacts between metal electrodes and Sn : CdS or GaTe, the electrical measurement of GaTe/Sn : CdS hybrid heterojunction under dark condition demonstrates an excellent diode characteristic with well-defined current rectification behavior. The photocurrent increases drastically under LED white light as well as red, green, UV illumination. The on-off ratio of current is about 100 for forward bias and 3000 for reverse bias, which clearly indicates the ultrahigh sensitivity of the heterostructure photodetector to white light. The responsivity and optical gain are determined to be 607 A W(-1) and (1.06-2.16) × 10(5)%, which is higher than previous reports of single GaTe or CdS nanostructures. Combination the Ids-Vds curves under different illumination power with energy band diagrams, we assign that both the light modulation effect under forward and reverse bias and the surface molecular oxygen adsorption/desorption mechanism are dominant to the electrical transport behavior of GaTe/Sn : CdS heterojunction. This heterostructure photodetector also shows good stability and fast response speed. Both the high photosensibility and fast response time described in the present study suggest strongly that the GaTe/Sn : CdS hybrid heterostructure is a promising candidate for photodetection, optical sensing and switching devices.
Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coated-Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nano-composites were synthesized through a solvothermal technique by using cheap and environmental friendly iron salts and PAA. Each nano-composite was composed of many small primary nanocrystals. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. These nano-composites showed rapid adsorption rate and super removal capacity of cation organic dye methylene blue (MB). Moreover, the MB desorption could be easily performed using methanol and acetic acid mixed solution. The reused performance of the nano-composites was also studied.
Pure and Mn-doped ZnSe nanobelts were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and corresponding element mapping, and transmission electron microscope were used to examine the morphology, phase structure, crystallinity, composition, and growth direction of as-prepared nanobelts. Raman spectra were used to confirm the effective doping of Mn2+ into ZnSe nanobelts. Micro-photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to investigate the emission property of as-prepared samples. A dominant trapped-state emission band is observed in single ZnSeMn nanobelt. However, we cannot observe the transition emission of Mn ion in this ZnSeMn nanobelt, which confirm that Mn powder act as poor dopant. There are weak near-bandgap emission and strong 4T1 ? 6A1 transition emission of Mn2+ in single ZnSeMnCl2 and ZnSeMn(CH3COO)2 nanobelt. More interesting, the 4T1 ? 6A1 transition emission in ZnSeMn(CH3COO)2 nanobelt split into multi-bands. PL mapping of individual splitted sub-bands were carried out to explore the origin of multi-bands. These doped nanobelts with novel multi-bands emission can find application in frequency convertor and wavelength-tunable light emission devices.
Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is always oxygen-deficient or non-stoichiometric under atmospheric conditions. Positively charged oxygen vacancies prefer to drift as well as electrons when the electric field is strong enough, which will alter the distribution of oxygen vacancies and then endow WO3 with memristive properties. In Au/WO3 nanowire/Au sandwich structures with two ohmic contacts, the axial distribution of oxygen vacancies and then the electrical transport properties can be more easily modulated by bias voltage. The threshold electric field for oxygen vacancy drifting in single-crystal hexagonal WO3 nanowire is about 106 V/m, one order of magnitude less than that in its granular film. At elevated temperatures, the oxygen vacancy drifts and then the memristive effect can be enhanced remarkably. When the two metallic contacts are asymmetric, the WO3 nanowire devices even demonstrate good rectifying characteristic at elevated temperatures. Based on the drift of oxygen vacancies, nanoelectronic devices such as memristor, rectifier, and two-terminal resistive random access memory can be fabricated on individual WO3 nanowires.
One-dimensional Mn-ZnSe nanostructures with high crystallite quality were synthesized by the CVD method. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the defect state, crystal lattice and growth direction of as-prepared nanostructures. Raman spectra under varied excitation wavelengths confirmed the dopant modes of Mn(II) and the inhomogeneity. The micro-photoluminescence (PL) spectra of individual nanostructures under CW laser excitation with different powers showed the dominant trapped state emission with periodic multi-peaks. The selected peak mapping indicated that there were many integrated Fabry-Perot cavities and whispering gallery mode cavities within the nanowires/nanoneedles and nanobelts, respectively, which can be accounted for by inhomogeneous optical phases in the Mn-ZnSe nanostructure. The phase may be introduced by both Mn doping and structural relaxation. The micro-PL spectra under nanosecond pulse laser excitation produce low threshold lasing lines near the band edge of Mn-ZnSe nanostructures. The lasing occurs due to the dominant interaction between bound excitons at high density, evidenced by its appearance close to the LO phonon replica. The belts show much stronger lasing emission due to larger 2D coherent space than the wires due to the inhomogeneity induced by the doping process. The different optical behavior with changing excitation pulses may find applications in future photonic devices of II-VI nanostructures.
The quite efficient adsorption of methylene blue dye from an aqueous solution by graphene oxide was studied. The favorable electrostatic attraction is the main interaction between methylene blue and graphene oxide. As graphene oxide has the special nanostructural properties and negatively charged surface, the positively charged methylene blue molecules can be easily adsorbed on it. In the aqueous solution of methylene blue at 293 K, the adsorption data could be fitted by the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption amount of 1.939 mg/mg and a Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant of 18.486 mL/mg. The adsorption amount increased with the increase of the solution pH (3-11), was not affected significantly by KCl under the examined condition and the adsorption process was exothermic in nature. The fast and considerable adsorption of graphene oxide could be regarded as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal in wastewater treatment process.
Composite structures of aligned and orientation-ordered quasi-one-dimensional CdS micro/nanostructures on CdSe substrates of different shaped nanostructures have been synthesized by using two-step thermal evaporation processes. The CdSe substrate crystalline orientations and local temperatures play their roles in the CdS nanostructure growth step, which is in some contrast with the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. Micro-photoluminescence measurements show strong luminescence responses on the six-fold symmetrical CdSe/CdS nanostructure. Controllable growth on various shaped substrates may find applications in obtaining many other aligned orientation-ordered hetero-nano/microstructure materials.
By controlling local substrate temperature in a chemical vapor deposition system, we have successfully achieved spatial composition grading covering the complete composition range of ternary alloy CdSSe nanowires on a single substrate of 1.2 cm in length. Spatial photoluminescence scan along the substrate length shows peak wavelength changes continuously from approximately 500 to approximately 700 nm. Furthermore, we show that under strong optical pumping, every spot along the substrate length displays lasing behavior. Thus our nanowire chip provides a spatially continuously tunable laser with a superbroad wavelength tuning range, unmatched by any other available semiconductor-based technology.
The prevention of adventitious agent contamination is a top priority throughout the entire biopharmaceutical production process. For example, although viral contamination of cell banks or cell cultures is rare, it can result in serious consequences (e.g., shutdown and decontamination of manufacturing facilities). To ensure virus free production, numerous in vivo and in vitro adventitious agent assays and biophysical characterizations such as electron microscopy are conducted on cell banks, raw materials, process materials, and drug substances throughout the manufacturing process. Molecular assays such as PCR and other nucleotide-based techniques are also routinely used for screening and identification of any viral agents. However, modern techniques in protein identification of complex protein mixtures have not yet been effectively integrated throughout the industry into current viral testing strategies. Here, we report the identification and quantitation of Vesivirus 2117 particles in bioreactor fluid from infected Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures by global protein sequencing using mass spectrometry in combination with multi-dimensional liquid-chromatography. Following mass spectrometric data acquisition and rigorous data analysis, six virus specific peptides were identified. These peptides were fragments of two structural proteins, capsid protein pre-cursor (four unique peptides) and small structural protein (two unique peptides), from the same species: Vesivirus 2117. Using stable heavy isotope-labeled peptides as internal standards, we also determined the absolute concentration of Vesivirus particles in the bioreactor fluid and the ratio of two capsid proteins (VP1:VP2) in the particles as approximately 9:1. The positive identification of Vesivirus 2117 was subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR.
In the current environment of diverse product pipelines, rapidly fluctuating market demands and growing competition from biosimilars, biotechnology companies are increasingly driven to develop innovative solutions for highly flexible and cost-effective manufacturing. To address these challenging demands, integrated continuous processing, comprised of high-density perfusion cell culture and a directly coupled continuous capture step, can be used as a universal biomanufacturing platform. This study reports the first successful demonstration of the integration of a perfusion bioreactor and a four-column periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) system for the continuous capture of candidate protein therapeutics. Two examples are presented: (1) a monoclonal antibody (model of a stable protein) and (2) a recombinant human enzyme (model of a highly complex, less stable protein). In both cases, high-density perfusion CHO cell cultures were operated at a quasi-steady state of 50-60 × 10(6) cells/mL for more than 60 days, achieving volumetric productivities much higher than current perfusion or fed-batch processes. The directly integrated and automated PCC system ran uninterrupted for 30 days without indications of time-based performance decline. The product quality observed for the continuous capture process was comparable to that for a batch-column operation. Furthermore, the integration of perfusion cell culture and PCC led to a dramatic decrease in the equipment footprint and elimination of several non-value-added unit operations, such as clarification and intermediate hold steps. These findings demonstrate the potential of integrated continuous bioprocessing as a universal platform for the manufacture of various kinds of therapeutic proteins.
: Biopharmaceuticals represent a growing sector of the pharmaceutical industry, and are used for a wide range of indications, including oncology and rheumatology. Cultured mammalian cells have become the predominant expression system for their production, partly due to their ability to complete the posttranslational modifications required for drug safety and efficacy. Over the past decade, the productivity of mammalian cell culture production processes has growth dramatically through improvements in both volumetric and specific productivities. This article presents an overview of the biologics market, including analysis of sales and approvals; as well as a review of industrial production cell lines and cell culture operations.
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