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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of Anions on the Electrodeposition of Cobalt on Pt(111) Electrode.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Voltammetry and in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to examine electrodeposition of cobalt (Co) on a stationary Pt(111) electrode in 0.1 M K2SO4 + 1 mM H2SO4 + 10 mM CoSO4 (or the sulfate solution) without and with 10 mM chloride (the chloride solution). Under- and overpotential deposition (UPD and OPD) of Co resulted in reduction peaks at -0.52 and -0.74 V (vs Ag/AgCl), respectively. Hydrogen evolution was the major obstruction to Co(2+) reduction, which limited the efficiency of Co deposition at ?63% in both solutions. UPD of Co resulted in a highly ordered honeycomb structure in the sulfate solution, whereas that formed in the chloride solution was clearly disordered. Multilayer Co deposit formed by OPD at -0.74 V in the sulfate medium was crystalline, forming moiré structures for the first eight layers, followed by pyramids made of stacked triangles. These results suggested face-centered cubic stacking of the Co deposit. Co film produced in the chloride solution was also layered, except perimeters of Co layers were mostly rugged. Distinct screw dislocations and spiral defects were seen in the Co thin films produced in both solutions.
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The expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4 in predicting postoperative tumour progression in stages I-II colon cancer: a retrospective study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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The prognostic significance of chemokine receptors in stage I/II colon cancer is unclear. We assessed the prognostic value of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and CXCR4 in stage I/II colon cancer.
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The Renin-Angiotensin system mediates EGF receptor-vitamin d receptor cross-talk in colitis-associated colon cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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We previously showed that EGF receptor (EGFR) promotes tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) model, whereas vitamin D suppresses tumorigenesis. EGFR-vitamin D receptor (VDR) interactions, however, are incompletely understood. Vitamin D inhibits the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), whereas RAS can activate EGFR. We aimed to elucidate EGFR-VDR cross-talk in colorectal carcinogenesis.
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[Change of spinal neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To observe the change of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression in the spinal cord of diabetic rats with painful diabetic neuropathy.
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Establishment and application of a multiplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of six viruses in swine.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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A multiplex PCR assay was developed and evaluated subsequently for its effectiveness in simultaneously detecting mixed viral infections of swine. Specific primers were designed and used for testing the six swine viruses: three DNA viruses, including pseudorabies virus (PRV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2); three common RNA viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). This technique has shown to be highly sensitive in that the minimum detection amounts of nucleic acids from PRV, PPV, PCV2, PRRSV, CSFV, and JEV were 6.6, 96, 12.9, 10.5, 51, and 46 pg, respectively. It also was effective for detecting one or multiple viruses in the specimens, such as the lungs, spleens, lymph nodes, and tonsils collected from clinically ill pigs. The multiplex PCR method can detect simultaneously not only infection of the six viruses, but also other swine DNA and RNA viruses. Given its rapidity, specificity, and sensitivity, the multiplex PCR is a useful tool for diagnosing clinically the mixed infections of swine DNA and RNA viruses.
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Taxonomic study on two Chinese species of the genus Cerynia (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Flatidae).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Male genitalia of the species Cerynia lineola Melichar is described and illustrated for the first time from China. Colour polymorphism in a planthopper species Cerynia maria (White, 1846) is investigated based on some specimens from China, and a map showing the geographic distribution of this species is also provided. The examined specimens are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China (GUGC).
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Immunohistochemical detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in melanoma patients with monoclonal antibody VE1.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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A novel mutation-specific monoclonal antibody VE1 was generated to detect BRAF V600E mutation with immunohistochemistry. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemistry compared with conventional Sanger sequencing and to evaluate whether IHC would become the routine screening method of BRAF V600E mutation. A total of 84 cases of melanoma lesion specimens were selected to make the tissue microarray and to perform IHC with VE1 antibody. Simultaneously Sanger sequencing was applied to test and verify. VE1 has a high specificity (100%) and sensitivity (72.2%), and the concordance between the two techniques is excellent (93.8% cases coherent and kappa?=?0.801). As a rapid, cost-effective method, IHC may become the routine diagnostic means for the detection of BRAF V600E mutation of malignant melanomas in the near future, and the recommended detection process is initial immunohistochemical staining for positive cases, followed by molecular techniques for negative or ambiguous cases.
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Construction, characterization and evaluation of the protective efficacy of the Streptococcus suis double mutant strain ?SsPep/?SsPspC as a live vaccine candidate in mice.
Microbiol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) causes sepsis and meningitis in piglets and humans, and results in one of the most serious bacterial diseases affecting the production of commercial pigs around the world. Due to the failure of the current inactivated vaccine to protect against the disease, development of a new attenuated live vaccine against S. suis 2 by deleting essential virulence factors is urgently needed. We have previously reported the construction and characterization of an SsPep single gene deletion mutant strain ?SsPep based on S. suis 2. Our previous results have shown that SsPep plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of S. suis 2. In this study, a precisely defined double-deletion mutant ?SsPep/?SsPspC of S. suis 2 without antibiotic-resistance markers was constructed based on ?SsPep, and the levels of virulence of the wild-type (WT) and ?SsPep/?SsPspC were compared in a mouse experimental infection model. We demonstrated that the double mutant ?SsPep/?SsPspC was less virulent than the WT, and could induce a noticeable antibody response. Analysis of IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2a) indicated that both Th1 and Th2 responses were induced by ?SsPep/?SsPspC, although the IgG2a (Th1) response predominated over the IgG1 (Th2) response. Moreover, ?SsPep/?SsPspC could confer 90% protective efficacy against challenge with a lethal dose of fully virulent S. suis 2. Taken together, these data demonstrate that ?SsPep/?SsPspC can be used as an effective live vaccine and provide a novel strategy against infection of S. suis 2.
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Highly enantioselective [3+2] coupling of indoles with quinone monoimines promoted by a chiral phosphoric acid.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Highly enantioselective [3+2] coupling of 3-substituted indoles with quinone monoimines promoted by a chiral phosphoric acid has been reported. A large variety of benzofuroindolines were prepared in moderate to good yields (up to 98%) with generally excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee).
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Aplysin enhances temozolomide sensitivity in glioma cells by increasing miR-181 level.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Aplysin, a natural brominate compound from marine organisms, has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-tumor activity, mainly by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, its effect on glioma is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effects of aplysin on the malignant properties of glioma cells and its enhancing effect on temozolomide (TMZ) action against drug-resistant glioma cell lines.
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Axitinib augments antitumor activity in renal cell carcinoma via STAT3-dependent reversal of myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Axitinib, a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), is used as an anti-angiogenic agent for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the effect of axitinib on antitumor immunity has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we show that while axitinib (25mg/kg) significantly suppresses tumor growth and metastasis, thus prolonging life span in murine RCC xenografts, the treatment leads to a major decrease in the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the spleens and tumor beds of animals, which in turn promotes antitumor responses of CD8+ T-cells in vivo. Moreover, as one of the main transcription factors that regulate MDSC function, Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was also significantly inhibited in the Renca tumor-associated MDSC and tumor tissues. These results suggest that axitinib has the potential to modulate antitumor immunity by downregulating STAT3 expression and reversing MDSC-mediated tumor-induced immunosuppression. The study reveals the unique antitumor mechanism of axitinib and provided useful information for its clinical application.
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[Construction of recombinant adenovirus vector co-expressing VEGF165 and SDF-1 genes and its expression in ischemic cerebral tissue of rats].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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To construct a recombinant adenoviral vector carrying and co-expressing vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) and stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and explore its co-expression in ischemic brain tissue in rats.
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Statistical intensity variation analysis for rapid volumetric imaging of capillary network flux.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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We present a novel optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based technique for rapid volumetric imaging of red blood cell (RBC) flux in capillary networks. Previously we reported that OCT can capture individual RBC passage within a capillary, where the OCT intensity signal at a voxel fluctuates when an RBC passes the voxel. Based on this finding, we defined a metric of statistical intensity variation (SIV) and validated that the mean SIV is proportional to the RBC flux [RBC/s] through simulations and measurements. From rapidly scanned volume data, we used Hessian matrix analysis to vectorize a segment path of each capillary and estimate its flux from the mean of the SIVs gathered along the path. Repeating this process led to a 3D flux map of the capillary network. The present technique enabled us to trace the RBC flux changes over hundreds of capillaries with a temporal resolution of ~1 s during functional activation.
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The Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channel, ANO1 (TMEM16A), is a double-edged sword in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Since anoctamin 1 ANO1 (TMEM16A) was found to be a molecular component of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels, its role in tumorigenesis has gained attention at a fast pace. ANO1 overexpression frequently occurs in the cancer tissues along with 11q13 chromosome amplification. Poor prognosis of many types of cancers has been closely correlated with ANO1 gene amplification and protein overexpression. ANO1 is now considered an excellent biomarker for certain cancers. Recent research suggests that it is the channel function of ANO1 that is involved in the tumorigenesis. However, how the overexpression of the functional ANO1 causes malignant transformation of tissues via signaling pathways, for example, MAPK remains to be investigated. Clarification of the reasons in future will avail to make ANO1 as a target for cancer treatment.
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Propofol prevents lung injury after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion by inhibiting the interaction between mast cell activation and oxidative stress.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Both mast cells and oxidative stress are involved in acute lung injury (ALI) induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether propofol could improve IIR-induced ALI through inhibiting their interaction.
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Genistein enhances the effect of cisplatin on the inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Although cisplatin (DDP) has been reported to be a promising antitumor therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the effectiveness of the treatment remains limited due to an inherent tumor resistance to DDP. Genistein (GEN) is an abundant, naturally occurring isoflavonoid found in soy products that has been demonstrated to increase the anti-neoplastic activity of certain chemotherapy drugs in multiple tumor types. In the present study, DDP in combination with GEN was selected as a potential treatment to suppress tumor growth and simultaneously reduce the doses of the two drugs required for the treatment of NSCLC. Cell growth inhibition, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and receptor signaling assays were conducted. In the in vivo study, DDP and GEN, either alone or in combination, were used to treat a xenograft model of the A549 cells. It was found that the combination of low concentrations of DDP and GEN induced significantly greater growth inhibition (P<0.01) and increased apoptosis in the A549 cells compared with either agent alone. In addition, DDP in combination with GEN could significantly suppress tumor growth in vivo compared with either agent alone. Combination treatment significantly suppresses constitutive phosphorylation of AKT and phosphoinositide-3 kinase, which may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth. Overall, the present data suggested that GEN can increase the anti-neoplastic activity of DDP and that a combination of GEN and DDP is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of NSCLC.
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The application of multiple miRNA response elements enables oncolytic adenoviruses to possess specificity to glioma cells.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Adenovirus-mediated virotherapy is one of the promising therapeutic approaches for glioma treatment. However, its replication efficiency and specificity still failed to meet the requirements for clinical treatment. To improve the anti-tumor activity and specificity of oncolytic adenoviruses (OA), we applied multiple miRNA response elements (MREs) of miR-124, miR-128, miR-146b and miR-218, whose expressions were downregulated in glioma cells, to enable OA to be specific to glioma. Adenoviral E1A protein regulated by these 4 MREs (OA-4MREs) was shown to be highly expressed in glioma cells, but not in normal cells. The selective E1A expression led to glioma-specific replication and cytotoxicity of OA-4MREs. Animal experiments also showed that OA-4MREs exhibited improved anti-tumor activities for both subcutaneous and intracranial glioma xenografts, without significant toxicity to normal brain and liver tissues. Collectively, we demonstrated that oncolytic adenovirus, whose replication was regulated by MREs, may be promising biological agents for glioma treatment.
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Expression and clinical significance of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in colon cancer.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, encoded by gene PTPN11, has been identified as a tumor-promoting factor in several types of leukemia and is hyper-activated by other mechanisms in some solid tumors including gastric cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), etc. But few were reported on the expression and significances of SHP-2 in colon cancer. Here, we detect SHP-2 expression in colon cancer cells, colon cancer-induced by AOM+DSS in mice and 232 human colon cancer specimens, including 58 groups of self-matched adjacent peritumor tissues and normal tissues. We found that compared to the normal colon tissues, SHP-2 significantly decreased in tumor tissues (P<0.001). The same results were got in colon tumor cells as well as mice colon tumors. And in humans samples, low SHP-2 expression showed a significantly correlation with poor tumor differentiation (P<0.05), late TNM stage (P=0.1666) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05).
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Mechanism of the Rpn13-induced activation of Uch37.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Uch37 is a de-ubiquitinating enzyme that is activated by Rpn13 and involved in the proteasomal degradation of proteins. The full-length Uch37 was shown to exhibit low iso-peptidase activity and is thought to be auto-inhibited. Structural comparisons revealed that within a homo-dimer of Uch37, each of the catalytic domains was blocking the other's ubiquitin (Ub)-binding site. This blockage likely prevented Ub from entering the active site of Uch37 and might form the basis of auto-inhibition. To understand the mode of auto-inhibition clearly and shed light on the activation mechanism of Uch37 by Rpn13, we investigated the Uch37-Rpn13 complex using a combination of mutagenesis, biochemical, NMR, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Our results also proved that Uch37 oligomerized in solution and had very low activity against the fluorogenic substrate ubiquitin-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (Ub-AMC) of de-ubiquitinating enzymes. Uch37?(Hb,Hc,KEKE), a truncation removal of the C-terminal extension region (residues 256-329) converted oligomeric Uch37 into a monomeric form that exhibited iso-peptidase activity comparable to that of a truncation-containing the Uch37 catalytic domain only. We also demonstrated that Rpn13C (Rpn13 residues 270-407) could disrupt the oligomerization of Uch37 by sequestering Uch37 and forming a Uch37-Rpn13 complex. Uch37 was activated in such a complex, exhibiting 12-fold-higher activity than Uch37 alone. Time-resolved SAXS (TR-SAXS) and FRET experiments supported the proposed mode of auto-inhibition and the activation mechanism of Uch37 by Rpn13. Rpn13 activated Uch37 by forming a 1:1 stoichiometric complex in which the active site of Uch37 was accessible to Ub.
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Two Spx regulators modulate stress tolerance and virulence in Streptococcus suis serotype 2.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important zoonotic pathogen causing severe infections in pigs and humans. The pathogenesis of S. suis 2 infections, however, is still poorly understood. Spx proteins are a group of global regulators involved in stress tolerance and virulence. In this study, we characterized two orthologs of the Spx regulator, SpxA1 and SpxA2 in S. suis 2. Two mutant strains (?spxA1 and ?spxA2) lacking the spx genes were constructed. The ?spxA1 and ?spxA2 mutants displayed different phenotypes. ?spxA1 exhibited impaired growth in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, while ?spxA2 exhibited impaired growth in the presence of SDS and NaCl. Both mutants were defective in medium lacking newborn bovine serum. Using a murine infection model, we demonstrated that the abilities of the mutant strains to colonize the tissues were significantly reduced compared to that of the wild-type strain. The mutant strains also showed a decreased level of survival in pig blood. Microarray analysis revealed a global regulatory role for SpxA1 and SpxA2. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time that Spx is involved in triggering the host inflammatory response. Collectively, our data suggest that SpxA1 and SpxA2 are global regulators that are implicated in stress tolerance and virulence in S. suis 2.
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Synthesis of BiOI-TiO2 composite nanoparticles by microemulsion method and study on their photocatalytic activities.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study was conducted to synthesize a series of nanosized BiOI-TiO2 catalysts to photodegrade Bisphenol A solution. The BiOI-TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized in the reverse microemulsions, consisting of cyclohexane, Triton X-100, n-hexanol, and aqueous salt solutions. The synthesized particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analyzer, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis) absorption spectra and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The photodegradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous suspension under visible light irradiation was investigated to explore the feasibility of using the photocatalytic method to treat BPA wastewater. The effects of different molar ratios of BiOI to TiO2 on the photocatalytic activity were discussed. The experimental results revealed that the photocatalytic effect of the BiOI-TiO2 particles was superior to the commercial P25 TiO2. The BPA degradation could be approached by a pseudo-first-order rate expression. The observed reaction rate constant (kobs) was related to nanoparticles dosage and initial solution pH.
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[Isolation, identification and characterization of 68 protease-producing bacterial strains from the Arctic].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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We screened and identified protease-producing bacterial strains from the Arctic, the results would help find cold-adapted protease.
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Diagnostic utility of the Elecsys anti-CCP assay in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Mod Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Objective. The automatic anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies assay offered great advantages over traditional methods in terms of improved precision, reliability, technical simplicity, short turnaround time and high-speed throughput. In this study, we evaluated the main technical performance and diagnostic accuracy of the first automatic anti-CCP assay approved in China. Methods. The study comprised 106 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 203 non-RA rheumatic disease controls and 46 healthy persons. Anti-CCP, rheumatoid factor (RF), ?1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were measured and compared. The precision, reference intervals for Chinese population and cut-off value for RA diagnosis, as well as the suitable diluent for anti-CCP were assessed. The positive rate and score of anti-CCP were compared with RF and acute-phase reactants, according to the new RA criteria. Results. Within- and between-run imprecision, expressed as the coefficient of variation, were 0.47-1.36% and 1.15-2.63%, respectively. Upper 95% reference limit of anti-CCP in healthy Chinese was 8.8 U/mL. The area under curve of the receiver operating characteristic(ROC) for anti-CCP and RF were 0.882 (95% CI 0.833-0.930) and 0.844 (95% CI 0.792-0.897), respectively. Based on the cut-off value set by ROC, compared to RF, anti-CCP had higher sensitivity (96.8% vs. 78.3%) and specificity (90.9% vs. 70.7%). With 17 U/mL set as the optimal cut-off for anti-CCP, the total positivity of anti-CCP was comparable to that of RF (76.4% vs. 75.5%), but the high-positivity rate of anti-CCP was significantly higher (74.5% vs. 62.3%, p < 0.005). Conclusions. Our results confirm anti-CCP as a more sensitive and specific marker than RF for the diagnosis of RA. The diagnostic performance of the Elecsys anti-CCP assay makes it a useful adjunct to clinical practice in the Chinese population.
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The two-component system NisK/NisR contributes to the virulence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.
Microbiol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Two-component signal-transduction systems (TCSTSs) may regulate some virulence factors in response to external stimuli, and thus allowing Streptococcus suis serotype 2 to interact with the host, promote survival, and cause disease. Here, a mutant of the NisKR TCSTS had attenuated virulence in vitro, as exemplified by lowered hemolytic activity, reduced adherence to epithelial cells, increased elimination by macrophages, and decreased resistance to killing by neutrophils. Results also showed that this system is important for the ability of S. suis serotype 2 to survive and proliferate in an in vivo mouse model. Thus, the NisKR system plays a significant role in pathogenesis, both in colonization and invasive disease.
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The Mechanism of Sevoflurane Preconditioning-Induced Protections against Small Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Is Independent of Mast Cell in Rats.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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The study aimed to investigate whether sevoflurane preconditioning can protect against small intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IIR) injury and to explore whether mast cell (MC) is involved in the protections provided by sevoflurane preconditioning. Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to sevoflurane or treated with MC stabilizer cromolyn sodium (CS) were subjected to 75-minute superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 2-hour reperfusion in the presence or absence of MC degranulator compound 48/80 (CP). Small intestinal ischemia reperfusion resulted in severe intestinal injury as demonstrated by significant elevations in intestinal injury scores and p47(phox) and gp91(phox), ICAM-1 protein expressions and malondialdehyde and IL-6 contents, and MPO activities as well as significant reductions in SOD activities, accompanied with concomitant increases in mast cell degranulation evidenced by significant increases in MC counts, tryptase expression, and ? -hexosaminidase concentrations, and those alterations were further upregulated in the presence of CP. Sevoflurane preconditioning dramatically attenuated the previous IIR-induced alterations except MC counts, tryptase, and ? -hexosaminidase which were significantly reduced by CS treatment. Furthermore, CP exacerbated IIR injury was abrogated by CS but not by sevoflurane preconditioning. The data collectively indicate that sevoflurane preconditioning confers protections against IIR injury, and MC is not involved in the protective process.
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Construction of a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome clone of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is the causative agent of duck viral enteritis, which causes an acute, contagious and lethal disease of many species of waterfowl within the order Anseriformes. In recent years, two laboratories have reported on the successful construction of DEV infectious clones in viral vectors to express exogenous genes. The clones obtained were either created with deletion of viral genes and based on highly virulent strains or were constructed using a traditional overlapping fosmid DNA system. Here, we report the construction of a full-length infectious clone of DEV vaccine strain that was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC).
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Isolation and genomic characterization of a classical Muscovy duck reovirus isolated in Zhejiang, China.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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A classical Muscovy reovirus was isolated from a sick Muscovy duck with white necrotic foci in its liver in Zhejiang, China, in 2000. This classical reovirus was propagated in a chicken fibroblast cell line (DF-1) with obvious cytopathic effects. Its genome was 22,967bp in length, with approximately 51.41% G+C content and 10 dsRNA segments encoding 11 proteins, which formed a 3/3/4 electrophoretic PAGE profile pattern. The length of the genomic segments was similar to those of avian orthoreoviruses (ARV and N-MDRV), ranging from 3959nt (L1) to 1191nt (S4). All of the segments have the conserved terminal sequences 5-GCUUUU--UUCAUC-3, and with the exception of the S4 segment, all the genome segments apparently encode one single primary translation product. The genome analysis revealed that the S4 segment of classical MDRV is a bicistronic gene, encoding the overlapping ORFs for p10 and ?C but distinct from ARV and N-MDRV/N-GRV, which codes for p10, p18 and ?C via the tricistronic S1 segment. A comparative sequence analysis provided evidence indicating extensive sequence divergence between classical MDRV and other avian orthoreoviruses. A phylogenetic analysis based on the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and the major outer capsid proteins ?C was performed. Members of the DRVs in the Avian orthoreovirus species were clustered into two genetic groups (classical MDRV and N-MDRV genotype), and the classical MDRV isolates formed distinct lineages (China and Europe lineages), suggesting that the classical MDRVs isolated in restricted geographical region are evolving by different and independent pathways.
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MicroRNA-mediated mechanism of vitamin D regulation of innate immune response.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Macrophages play a critical role in innate immune response to protect the host from pathogenic microorganisms. Inflammatory response is regulated by negative feedback mechanisms to prevent detrimental effects. The SOCS family of proteins is key component of the negative feedback loop that regulates the intensity, duration and quality of cytokine signaling, whereas miR-155 is a key regulator of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling that targets SOCS1 in activated macrophages to block the negative feedback loop. Recently we showed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) modulates innate immune response by targeting the miR-155-SOCS1 axis. We found that Vdr deletion leads to hyper inflammatory response in mice and macrophage cultures when challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), due to miR-155 overproduction to excessively suppress SOCS1. Using mice with bic/miR-155 deletion we confirmed that 1,25(OH)2D3 suppresses inflammation and stimulates SOCS1 by down-regulating miR-155. Mechanistically 1,25(OH)2D3 down-regulates bic transcription by blocking NF-?B activation, which is mediated by a ?B cis-DNA element identified within the first intron of the bic gene. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that VDR inhibits NF-?B activation by directly interacting with IKK? protein. Our studies identified a novel mechanism whereby VDR signaling attenuates TLR-mediated inflammation by enhancing the negative feedback regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 16th Vitamin D Workshop.
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SlnM gene overexpression with different promoters on natamycin production in Streptomyces lydicus A02.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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Natamycin is an important polyene macrolide antifungal agent produced by several Streptomyces strains and is widely used as a food preservative and fungicide in food, medicinal and veterinary products. In order to increase the yield of natamycin, this study aimed at cloning and overexpressing a natamycin-positive regulator, slnM2, with different promoters in the newly isolated strain Streptomyces lydicus A02, which is capable of producing natamycin. The slnM gene in S. lydicus is highly similar to gene pimM (scnRII), the pathway-specific positive regulator of natamycin biosynthesis in S. natalensis and S. chattanoogensis, which are PAS-LuxR regulators. Three engineered strains of S. lydicus, AM01, AM02 and AM03, were generated by inserting an additional copy of slnM2 with an ermEp* promoter, inserting an additional copy of slnM2 with dual promoters, ermEp* and its own promoter, and inserting an additional copy of slnM2 with its own promoter, respectively. No obvious changes in growth were observed between the engineered and wild-type strains. However, natamycin production in the engineered strains was significantly enhanced, by 2.4-fold in strain AM01, 3.0-fold in strain AM02 and 1.9-fold in strain AM03 when compared to the strain A02 in YEME medium without sucrose. These results indicated that the ermEp* promoter was more active than the native promoter of slnM2. Overall, dual promoters displayed the highest transcription of biosynthetic genes and yield of natamycin.
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Genomic characteristics of a novel reovirus from Muscovy duckling in China.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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A new reovirus was isolated from a sick Muscovy duckling with hemorrhagic-necrotic lesions in the liver in Zhejiang, China in 2000 and was tentatively denoted a new type of Muscovy duck reovirus (N-MDRV ZJ00M). This reovirus was propagated in a chicken fibroblast cell line (DF-1) with obvious cytopathic effects. The reoviruss genome was 23,419bp in length with an approximately 50% G+C content and 10 dsRNA segments encoding 12 proteins. The length of the genomic segments was similar to those of avian reoviruses (ARVs), which range from 3959 nt (L1) to 1191 nt (S4) in size. All of the segments have the conserved terminal sequences 5-GCUUUUU…UUCAUC-3, and all of the genome segments, with the exception of S1, apparently encoded one single primary translation product. The genome analysis revealed that the S1 segment of N-MDRV is a tricistronic gene that encodes the overlapping ORFs for p10, p18, and ?C. This finding is similar to that found for ARVs but distinct from that found for classical MDRV and GRV, which have a bicistronic S4 segment that encodes p10 and ?C and do not encode p18. The amino acid (aa) alignments of the putative proteins encoded by the main ORF in each segment revealed a high similarity (14.1-100%) to the counterpart proteins encoded by other ARV species from the avian orthoreoviruses (e.g., ARV, classical MDRV and N-MDRV) in the Orthoreovirus genus, particularly with N-MDRV (94.6-100%). The phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of all 10 genome segments revealed that N-MDRV ZJ00M is distinct from all other described reovirus species groups but is a separated from the ARV (including MDRV and GRV) species within orthoreovirus species group II and grouped into the classical MDRV and GRV genogroup with the N-MDRV isolates. The MDRV genogroup can be further divided into two genotype clusters. The morphological and pathological analyses and the genetic characterization of N-MDRV ZJ00M suggest that it belongs to genotype 2 (N-MDRV). In addition, the RT-PCR assays of DRV diseased duckling and gosling samples collected from different regions of China during 2000-2013 indicate that N-MDRV is currently the prevalent genotype in China.
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The interaction between oxidative stress and mast cell activation plays a role in acute lung injuries induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Both oxidative stress and mast cells are involved in acute lung injuries (ALIs) that are induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR). The aim of this study was to further investigate the interaction between oxidative stress and mast cells during the process of IIR-induced ALI.
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A chiral ruthenium-monophosphine catalyst for asymmetric addition of arylboronic acids to aryl aldehydes.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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A novel ruthenium catalyst on the basis of a chiral monophosphorus ligand is efficient for the asymmetric addition of arylboronic acids to aryl aldehydes, providing a series of chiral diarylmethanols in excellent yields and enantioselectivities (up to 92% ee). Preliminary study has shown that this process is catalyzed by a Ru complex with a single monophosphorus ligand.
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The Function of miRNA in Hepatic Cancer Stem Cell.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and ranks third in the leading causes of cancer patients death. Cancer stem cells (HSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, have been reported in multiple subtypes of HCC and are considered as the master regulators of HCC initiation, chemotherapy drug resistance, tumor metastasis, and progression. In spite of their clinical importance, the detailed mechanism about how HSCs are intricately regulated in the molecular level remains elusive. MicroRNA (miRNA), a class of newly emerging small noncoding RNAs, has been demonstrated to serve as a vital player in modulating a number of biological activities ranging from embryogenesis to programmed cell death as well as the maintenance of HSCs. In this review, we synthesize these latest findings of miRNA regulation of HSCs and try to elucidate their mechanistic roles in orchestrating cellular equilibrium. This recent progress underlies the functional role of miRNA in cellular transformation of liver cancer, which has largely extended our knowledge how HSCs are controlled by miRNA network, and in the development of novel miRNA-based anticancer therapies specifically targeting HSCs in the coming future.
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Antioxidant action of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone protects PC12 cells against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cytotoxicity.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Oxidative stress-induced neuronal death plays a pivotal role in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects by acting as a selective tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) agonist. In addition, the antioxidant action of 7,8-DHF may protect neuronal cells against oxidative injury. In the present study, we used PC12 cells, a cell line generally thought to lack TrkB, to investigate the effect of 7,8-DHF on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity and the underlying mechanism. We found that 7,8-DHF effectively prevented cell death, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by 6-OHDA. In a cell free system, 7,8-DHF did not slow down extracellular auto-oxidation of 6-OHDA which may generate H2O2. However, We found that 7,8-DHF dramatically reduced cellular malondialdehyde content and phospho-histone H2A.X protein level. 7,8-DHF also elevated total superoxide dismutase activity in 6-OHDA-treated cells. These results indicate that 7,8-DHF might protect PC12 cells against 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity through its powerful antioxidant activity. By acting as a potent TrkB agonist and an antioxidant together with its easiness to pass across blood-brain barrier, 7,8-DHF may be developed into a promising candidate in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
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K-enriched WO3 nanobundles: high electrical conductivity and photocurrent with controlled polarity.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Potassium ions are successfully intercalated into WO3 nanobundles with the integrity of the pseudo-orthorhombic structure remaining intact. The nanobundles display a 5-fold increase in the electrical conductivity. It changes from a value of 10(-4) Sm(-1) for pure WO3 to 40 Sm(-1) upon potassium intercalation. The electrical conductivity also increases by ~200 times as temperature increases from 23 to 200 °C whereby analysis shows a thermal activation energy of ~1 eV. Density functional theory calculations show that K ions cause the reduction of the surrounding W atoms and lead to an increase in the electron population in the conduction band. Hence, the conductivity of the K-WO3 nanobundles is greatly enhanced. The calculated band structure also shows a gap of 1 eV that is consistent with the measured thermal activation energy. Upon illumination of focused laser beam, individual and isolated nanobundle displays significant photon induced current (9 nA) without external bias at low laser power (2 mW); the amplitude and polarity of photocurrent could be controlled by location of laser spot.
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Intestinal epithelial vitamin D receptor signaling inhibits experimental colitis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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The inhibitory effects of vitamin D on colitis have been previously documented. Global vitamin D receptor (VDR) deletion exaggerates colitis, but the relative anticolitic contribution of epithelial and nonepithelial VDR signaling is unknown. Here, we showed that colonic epithelial VDR expression was substantially reduced in patients with Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis. Moreover, targeted expression of human VDR (hVDR) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) protected mice from developing colitis. In experimental colitis models induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, dextran sulfate sodium, or CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cell transfer, transgenic mice expressing hVDR in IECs were highly resistant to colitis, as manifested by marked reductions in clinical colitis scores, colonic histological damage, and colonic inflammation compared with WT mice. Reconstitution of Vdr-deficient IECs with the hVDR transgene completely rescued Vdr-null mice from severe colitis and death, even though the mice still maintained a hyperresponsive Vdr-deficient immune system. Mechanistically, VDR signaling attenuated PUMA induction in IECs by blocking NF-?B activation, leading to a reduction in IEC apoptosis. Together, these results demonstrate that gut epithelial VDR signaling inhibits colitis by protecting the mucosal epithelial barrier, and this anticolitic activity is independent of nonepithelial immune VDR actions.
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Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time.
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Construction of a Streptomyces lydicus A01 transformant with a chit42 gene from Trichoderma harzianum P1 and evaluation of its biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Streptomyces lydicus A01 and Trichoderma harzianum P1 are potential biocontrol agents of fungal diseases in plants. S. lydicus A01 produces natamycin to bind the ergosterol of the fungal cell membrane and inhibits the growth of Botrytis cinerea. T. harzianum P1, on the other hand, features high chitinase activity and decomposes the chitin in the cell wall of B. cinerea. To obtain the synergistic biocontrol effects of chitinase and natamycin on Botrytis cinerea, this study transformed the chit42 gene from T. harzianum P1 to S. lydicus A01. The conjugal transformant (CT) of S. lydicus A01 with the chit42 gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Associated chitinase activity and natamycin production were examined using the 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, respectively. The S. lydicus A01-chit42 CT showed substantially higher chitinase activity and natamycin production than its wild type strain (WT). Consequently, the biocontrol effects of S. lydicus A01-chit42 CT on B. cinerea, including inhibition to spore germination and mycelial growth, were highly improved compared with those of the WT. Our research indicates that the biocontrol effect of Streptomyces can be highly improved by transforming the exogenous resistance gene, i.e. chit42 from Trichoderma, which not only enhances the production of antibiotics, but also provides a supplementary function by degrading the cell walls of the pathogens.
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Complete genome analysis of a novel norovirus GII.4 variant identified in China.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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The complete genome sequence of a novel norovirus strain GZ2010-L87 identified in Guangzhou was analyzed phylogenetically in this study. The RNA genome of the GZ2010-L87 strain is composed of 7,559 nucleotides. The phylogenetic analysis based on open reading frame (ORF) 2 revealed that the strain belongs to the GII.4 genotype, forming the new cluster GII.4-2009 which was also identified in Asia and the USA since 2009. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of the full genome and the different open reading frame sequences of GZ2010-L87 and other representative strains suggested that the novel strain did not undergo recombination. Comparative analysis with the consensus sequence of 31 completely sequenced norovirus GII.4-2009 genomes showed 86 mismatched nucleotides (56 in ORF1, 16 in ORF2, and 14 in ORF3), resulting in 19 amino acid changes (9 in ORF1, 3 in ORF2, and 7 in ORF3). Furthermore, 12 variable sites were found on the capsid protein of norovirus GII.4-2009, and most were located at the P2 domain. Meanwhile, based on comparison with other GII.4 clusters, 14 sites were shown specific to the novel cluster. In summary, the genome of the new GII.4-2009 variant GZ2010-L87, which was first identified in China, was extensively characterized with a large panel of genetically diverse noroviruses. The genomic information obtained from the novel variant can be used not only as a full-length norovirus sequence standard in China but also as reference data for future evolution research.
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Complete genome sequence of acute viral necrosis virus associated with massive mortality outbreaks in the Chinese scallop, Chlamys farreri.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Acute viral necrosis virus (AVNV) is the causative agent of a serious disease resulting in high mortality in cultured Chinese scallops, Chlamys farreri. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of AVNV.
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The expression of chemokine receptors CCR6, CXCR2 and CXCR4 is not organ-specific for distant metastasis in colorectal cancer: a comparative study.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The liver and lung are the organs most commonly affected by metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC), and the interaction of chemokines and chemokine receptors (CKRs) plays an important role in the metastatic process. The aim of this study was to investigate the organ specificity of CKRs in CRC distant metastasis.
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1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D promotes negative feedback regulation of TLR signaling via targeting microRNA-155-SOCS1 in macrophages.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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The negative feedback mechanism is essential to maintain effective immunity and tissue homeostasis. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D3) modulates innate immune response, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. In this article, we report that vitamin D receptor signaling attenuates TLR-mediated inflammation by enhancing the negative feedback inhibition. Vitamin D receptor inactivation leads to hyperinflammatory response in mice and macrophage cultures when challenged with LPS, because of microRNA-155 (miR-155) overproduction that excessively suppresses suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, a key regulator that enhances the negative feedback loop. Deletion of miR-155 attenuates vitamin D suppression of LPS-induced inflammation, confirming that 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulates suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 by downregulating miR-155. 1,25(OH)2D3 downregulates bic transcription by inhibiting NF-?B activation, which is mediated by a ?B cis-DNA element located within the first intron of the bic gene. Together, these data identify a novel regulatory mechanism for vitamin D to control innate immunity.
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Up-regulation of RACK1 by TGF-?1 promotes hepatic fibrosis in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Liver fibrosis represents the consequences of a sustained wound healing response to chronic liver injury, and activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into a myofibroblast-like phenotype is considered as the central event of liver fibrosis. RACK1, the receptor for activated C-kinase 1, is a classical scaffold protein implicated in numerous signaling pathways and cellular processes; however, the role of RACK1 in liver fibrosis is little defined. Herein, we report that RACK1 is up-regulated in activated HSCs in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1)-dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo, and TGF-?1 stimulates the expression of RACK1 through NF-?B signaling. Moreover, RACK1 promotes TGF-?1 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-mediated activation of pro-fibrogenic pathways as well as the differentiation, proliferation and migration of HSCs. Depletion of RACK1 suppresses the progression of TAA-induced liver fibrosis in vivo. In addition, the expression of RACK1 in fibrogenic cells also positively correlates well with the stage of liver fibrosis in clinical cases. Our results suggest RACK1 as a downstream target gene of TGF-?1 involved in the modulation of liver fibrosis progression in vitro and in vivo, and propose a strategy to target RACK1 for liver fibrosis treatment.
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Quantitative imaging of cerebral blood flow velocity and intracellular motility using dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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This paper describes a novel optical method for label-free quantitative imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and intracellular motility (IM) in the rodent cerebral cortex. This method is based on a technique that integrates dynamic light scattering (DLS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), named DLS-OCT. The technique measures both the axial and transverse velocities of CBF, whereas conventional Doppler OCT measures only the axial one. In addition, the technique produces a three-dimensional map of the diffusion coefficient quantifying nontranslational motions. In the DLS-OCT diffusion map, we observed high-diffusion spots, whose locations highly correspond to neuronal cell bodies and whose diffusion coefficient agreed with that of the motion of intracellular organelles reported in vitro in the literature. Therefore, the present method has enabled, for the first time to our knowledge, label-free imaging of the diffusion-like motion of intracellular organelles in vivo. As an example application, we used the method to monitor CBF and IM during a brief ischemic stroke, where we observed an induced persistent reduction in IM despite the recovery of CBF after stroke. This result supports that the IM measured in this study represent the cellular energy metabolism-related active motion of intracellular organelles rather than free diffusion of intracellular macromolecules.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of xanthine derivatives on dipeptidyl peptidase 4.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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A series of xanthine derivatives in which a methylene was inserted at position 8 of xanthine scaffold was synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. As the results of structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of the series, the compounds with 4-methyl-quinazoline-2-yl-methyl group at N-1 position and 2-aminoethylaminomethyl group gave better activities. Compounds H4 and H9 showed good DPP-4 inhibition and more than 100-fold selectivity over DPP-7 and DPP-8.
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Roles of miR-1-1 and miR-181c in ventricular septal defects.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous noncoding RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides in length that mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing by annealing to sequences in the 3-untranslated region of target mRNAs.
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Adventitial fibroblasts from apoE(-/-) mice exhibit the characteristics of transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) are the main cell type in the adventitia, however, their role in atherosclerosis remains unclear. We have investigate the role of AFs in atherosclerotic lesion formation by comparing the characteristics of AFs from apoE(-/-) to C57BL/6 mice. A minority of AFs from apoE(-/-) mice expressed ?-SM-actin, but no ?-SM-actin-positive cells were found in AFs from C57BL/6 mice. The content of total collagens, and the mRNA levels of collagen I and collagen III in AFs of apoE(-/-) mice, were higher than in C57BL/6 mice. AFs from apoE(-/-) mice proliferate and migrate faster, and synthesized more TGF-?(1) , MCP-1, and PDGF-b AFs from apoE(-/-) mice have the characteristics of transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts, including enhanced proliferation and migration, along with synthesis of collagens and cytokines compared to AFs from C57BL/6 mice. The histological and functional characteristics of AFs may contribute to early atherosclerotic lesion formation.
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MiRNA-mediated tumor specific delivery of TRAIL reduced glioma growth.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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As an aggressive cancer with high morbidity, malignant glioma always has a poor prognosis even after surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) shows a strong apoptosis-inducing effect on a variety of cancer cells including glioma. However so far, TRAIL delivery mediated by adenoviral vectors lacks tumor specificity and thus has cytotoxicity to normal cells. To improve the tumor-specificity of adenovirus-mediated TRAIL delivery, we utilized miR-124, miR-128, miR-146b and miR-218 to restrict its expression to within glioma cells. qPCR assay showed that expression of these four miRNAs was greatly downregulated in glioma in comparison with normal brain tissue. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-124, miR-128, miR-146b and miR-218 conferred exogenous gene expression with glioma-specificity. By inserting miRNA response elements (MREs) of these miRNAs into the downstream of TRAIL on adenoviral vectors, TRAIL was highly expressed in glioma cells, but not in normal brain cells. Cell viability and immunoblotting assays and FACS analysis showed that cytotoxicity and apoptosis elicited by TRAIL was only observed in glioma cells, rather than normal brain cells. Animal experiments also showed that MREs-regulated TRAIL delivery reduced the growth of glioma xenograft. In this study, we proved that miRNA-mediated tumor specific delivery of TRAIL was able to inhibit the survival of glioma cells and reduce the growth of glioma in vivo.
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Prognostic value of microsatellite instability in sporadic locally advanced rectal cancer following neoadjuvant radiotherapy.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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This study was conducted to investigate the clinicopathological significance and prognostic value of microsatellite instability (MSI) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) following neoadjuvant radiotherapy.
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In vivo imaging of cerebral energy metabolism with two-photon fluorescence lifetime microscopy of NADH.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Minimally invasive, specific measurement of cellular energy metabolism is crucial for understanding cerebral pathophysiology. Here, we present high-resolution, in vivo observations of autofluorescence lifetime as a biomarker of cerebral energy metabolism in exposed rat cortices. We describe a customized two-photon imaging system with time correlated single photon counting detection and specialized software for modeling multiple-component fits of fluorescence decay and monitoring their transient behaviors. In vivo cerebral NADH fluorescence suggests the presence of four distinct components, which respond differently to brief periods of anoxia and likely indicate different enzymatic formulations. Individual components show potential as indicators of specific molecular pathways involved in oxidative metabolism.
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Regulation of inhibition of neutrophil infiltration by the two-component regulatory system CovRS in subcutaneous murine infection with group A streptococcus.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Hypervirulent invasive group A streptococcus (GAS) isolates inhibit neutrophil infiltration more than pharyngitis isolates do, and the molecular basis of this difference is not well understood. This study was designed to first determine whether natural null mutation of the two-component regulatory system CovRS is responsible for the enhancement of the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment seen in hypervirulent GAS. Next, we examined the role of CovRS-regulated interleukin-8/CXC chemokine peptidase (SpyCEP), C5a peptidase (ScpA), and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (SsE) in the enhanced innate immune evasion. Invasive isolate MGAS5005 induces less neutrophil infiltration and produced a greater lesion area than pharyngitis isolate MGAS2221 in subcutaneous infections of mice. It is known that MGAS5005, but not MGAS2221, has a natural 1-bp deletion in the covS gene. Replacement of covS(?1bp) in MGAS5005 with wild-type covS resulted in the MGAS2221 phenotype. Deletion of covS from MGAS2221 resulted in the MGAS5005 phenotype. Tests of single, double, and triple deletion mutants of the MGAS5005 sse, spyCEP, and scpA genes found that SsE plays a more important role than SpyCEP and ScpA in the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment and that SsE, SpyCEP, and ScpA do not have synergistic effects on innate immune evasion by MGAS5005. Deletion of sse, but not spyCEP or scpA, of MGAS2221 enhances neutrophil recruitment. Thus, covS null mutations can cause substantial inhibition of neutrophil recruitment by enhancing the expression of the chemoattractant-degrading virulence factors, and SsE, but not SpyCEP or ScpA, is required for CovRS-regulated GAS inhibition of neutrophil infiltration.
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The antidiabetic effects of an herbal formula composed of Alnus hirsuta, Rosa davurica, Acanthopanax senticosus and Panax schinseng in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Nutr Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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A folk prescription consisting of Alnus hirsuta, Rosa davurica, Acanthopanax senticosus and Panax schinseng has been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the herb formula extract (HFE) composed of Alnus hirsuta, Rosa davurica, Acanthopanax senticosus and Panax schinseng in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The HFE was mixed in the food supply of the healthy and STZ-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats, and its effects on the body weight, water and food intake, hyperglycemia, hypolipidemic and islet structure were studied. The treatment of the rats with STZ for 6 weeks resulted in marasmus, polydipsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. In addition, the diabetic rats showed an apparent decrease in the insulin immunoreactivity and the number of ?-cells in the pancreas. The addition of the HFE to the rats food supply significantly lowered the serum glucose and the serum triglycerides level and preserved the normal histological appearance of the pancreatic islets. These results indicate that the HEF have a strong antidiabetic potential along with the significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects, which may be applicable in the pharmaceutical industry.
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Expression and clinical significance of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-7 in serum and lung cancer tissues from patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The expression and clinical significance of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7) were investigated in serum and lung cancer tissues from 57 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung cancer tissues at different pathologic stages (27 patients at stages I-II and 30 patients at stages III-IV), normal lung tissues from 17 patients with benign pulmonary disease, and serum samples from both lung cancer and benign pulmonary disease patients were collected during surgery. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex immunohistochemical staining were used to detect IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-7 expression in serum and tissues, respectively. The results show that expression of IGF-1 in lung cancer tissues and serum from NSCLC patients were significantly higher than in the control (P < 0.05). However, expression of IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-7 in cancer tissues and serum from NSCLC patients was significantly lower than in the control (P < 0.05). These results suggest that upregulation of IGF-1 and downregulation of IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-7 may be potential diagnostic biomarkers for NSCLC.
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Oleanolic acid suppresses migration and invasion of malignant glioma cells by inactivating MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Mitogen-activated protein kinases/Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway is essential for migration and invasion of malignant glioma. It is efficient to inhibit migration and invasion of glioma cells by targeting this pathway. Oleanolic acid (OA) has been well demonstrated to suppress survival, growth and angiogenesis of glioma cells. However, it is still unknown if OA affects the migration and invasion of glioma cells. We utilized U-87 MG glioma cell lines and primary glioma cells from patients to study the effect of OA on migration and invasion of glioma cells with multidisciplinary approaches. In this study, we found that OA significantly decreased the ability of glioma cells to migrate and invade. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of glioma cells was also suppressed by OA treatment. Furthermore, MAPK/ERK pathway was greatly inhibited in glioma cells under OA treatment. MAPK/ERK reactivation induced by a recombinant lentiviral vector, Lv-MEK, was able to rescue the inhibitory effect of OA on migration and invasion of glioma cells. Taken together, we provided evidences that OA was a MAPK/ERK pathway-targeting anti-tumor agent. Although the concentrations we used exceeded its physiological level, OA may be used to prevent migration and invasion of glioma cells by developing its derivatives with enhanced bioactivity.
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Uncoupling of natural IgE production and CD23 surface expression levels.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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CD23, the low affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE), has been proposed to play a critical role in the regulation of IgE production, based on altered IgE levels in CD23-deficient mice and transgenic mouse models, as well as in mouse strains with mutations in the CD23 gene, e.g. 129 substrains. Here, we have investigated a mouse line termed LxT1 that expresses reduced CD23 surface levels on B cells, and its influence on natural IgE production. Extensive phenotypic analysis showed that CD23 surface expression was reduced in LxT1 compared to the control, without affecting B cell development in general. This CD23(low) surface level in LxT1 mice is not as a result of reduced CD23 mRNA expression levels or intracellular accumulation, but linked to a recessive locus, a 129-derived region spanning 28 Mb on chromosome 8, which includes the CD23 gene. Sequence analysis confirmed five mutations within the CD23 coding region in LxT1 mice, the same as those present in New Zealand Black (NZB) and 129 mice. However, this CD23(low) phenotype was not observed in all 129 substrains despite carrying these same CD23 mutations in the coding region. Moreover, serum IgE levels in LxT1 mice are as low as those in the C57BL/6 (B6) strain, and much lower than those in 129 substrains. These data indicate that the CD23 surface level and serum IgE level are uncoupled and that neither is directly regulated by the mutations within the CD23 coding region. This study suggests that caution should be taken when interpreting the immunological data derived from mice with different genetic background, especially if the gene of interest is thought to influence CD23 surface expression or serum IgE level.
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S phase-dependent interaction with DNMT1 dictates the role of UHRF1 but not UHRF2 in DNA methylation maintenance.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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Recent studies demonstrate that UHRF1 is required for DNA methylation maintenance by targeting DNMT1 to DNA replication foci, presumably through its unique hemi-methylated DNA-binding activity and interaction with DNMT1. UHRF2, another member of the UHRF family proteins, is highly similar to UHRF1 in both sequence and structure, raising questions about its role in DNA methylation. In this study, we demonstrate that, like UHRF1, UHRF2 also binds preferentially to methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) through its conserved tudor domain and hemi-methylated DNA through the SET and Ring associated domain. Like UHRF1, UHRF2 is enriched in pericentric heterochromatin. The heterochromatin localization depends to large extent on its methylated H3K9-binding activity and to less extent on its methylated DNA-binding activity. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that both UHRF1 and UHRF2 interact with DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b and G9a. Despite all these conserved functions, we find that UHRF2 is not able to rescue the DNA methylation defect in Uhrf1 null mouse embryonic stem cells. This can be attributed to the inability for UHRF2 to recruit DNMT1 to replication foci during S phase of the cell cycle. Indeed, we find that while UHRF1 interacts with DNMT1 in an S phase-dependent manner in cells, UHRF2 does not. Thus, our study demonstrates that UHRF2 and UHRF1 are not functionally redundant in DNA methylation maintenance and reveals the cell-cycle-dependent interaction between UHRF1 and DNMT1 as a key regulatory mechanism targeting DNMT1 for DNA methylation.
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Two-photon microscopy of cortical NADH fluorescence intensity changes: correcting contamination from the hemodynamic response.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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Quantification of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) changes during functional brain activation and pathological conditions provides critical insight into brain metabolism. Of the different imaging modalities, two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) is becoming an important tool for cellular-resolution measurements of NADH changes associated with cellular metabolic changes. However, NADH fluorescence emission is strongly absorbed by hemoglobin. As a result, in vivo measurements are significantly affected by the hemodynamics associated with physiological and pathophysiological manipulations. We model NADH fluorescence excitation and emission in TPLSM imaging based on precise maps of cerebral microvasculature. The effects of hemoglobin optical absorption and optical scattering from red blood cells, changes in blood volume and hemoglobin oxygen saturation, vessel size, and location with respect to imaging location are explored. A simple technique for correcting the measured NADH fluorescence intensity changes is provided, with the utilization of a parallel measurement of a physiologically inert fluorophore. The model is applied to TPLSM measurements of NADH fluorescence intensity changes in rat somatosensory cortex during mild hypoxia and hyperoxia. The general approach of the correction algorithm can be extended to other TPLSM measurements, where changes in the optical properties of the tissue confound physiological measurements, such as the detection of calcium dynamics.
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Tembusu virus in ducks, china.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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In China in 2010, a disease outbreak in egg-laying ducks was associated with a flavivirus. The virus was isolated and partially sequenced. The isolate exhibited 87%-91% identity with strains of Tembusu virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus group. These findings demonstrate emergence of Tembusu virus in ducks.
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Enantioselective synthesis of 4-substituted 4,5-dihydro-1H-[1,5]benzodiazepin-2(3H)-ones by the Lewis base-catalyzed hydrosilylation.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Enantioselective synthesis of 4-substituted 4,5-dihydro-1H-[1,5]benzodiazepin-2(3H)-ones has been accomplished through chiral Lewis base-catalyzed hydrosilylation. The corresponding products were obtained in excellent yields (up to 99%) and enantioselectivities (up to 98%). The absolute configuration of product 3n has been determined as S by X-ray crystallographic analysis.
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Synthesis and anti-hypercholesterolemic evaluations of calcium salts of 4-substituted quinoline-based mevalonic acid.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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A series of calcium (3R,5S,6E)-7-[4,6,7,8-substituted-quinoline-3-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-hept-6-enoates was synthesized from the lactones, and the anti-hypercholesterolemic evaluation in quails was presented in this report. It was found that most of the compounds significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. 2e showed better hypolipidemic effect than atorvastatin, and 2d and 2j exhibited comparable efficacy to atorvastatin. These three compounds were selected as the hypocholesterolemic candidates for further evaluation.
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4a-Hydroxy-9-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,4a,5,6,9,9a-hexahydro-3H-xanthene-1,8(2H,7H)-dione.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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The title compound, C(19)H(20)O(5), was synthesized by the reaction of 1,3-cyclo-hexa-nedione and 4-hy-droxy-benzaldehyde in the presence of PdCl(2) and thio-urea. The tetra-hydro-pyran ring and the six-membered cyclo-hexene ring adopt envelope conformations, and the six-membered cyclo-hexane ring is in a chair conformation. The crystal packing is stabilized by classical inter-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H?O inter-actions.
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Synthesis and antibacterial activity of N4-mono alkyl derivatives of novel glycopeptide LYV07ww01.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Thirty-one N(4)-mono alkyl derivatives of novel glycopeptide LYV07ww01 were synthesized by the reductive alkylation and their in vitro antibacterial activity was tested. The benzyl derivatives showed potent activity, especially against vancomycin-resistant enterococci and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.
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Influences of ORF1 on the virulence and immunogenicity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes porcine pleuropneumonia. The pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae is strongly correlated with the production of active repeat-in-toxin (RTX) proteins such as ApxIVA. We evaluated the contribution of a potential ApxIVA activator, ORF1, to the virulence and immunogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae in pigs. The orf1 gene in A. pleuropneumoniae SLW03 (serovar 1, ?apxIC?apxIIC) was deleted, producing strain SLW05 (?apxIC?apxIIC?orf1). The virulence of strains SLW03 and SLW05 was compared in pigs. Clinical signs and pulmonary lesions induced by strain SLW05 were slighter than that of strain SLW03 (P < 0.05). The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of strains SLW03 and SLW05 were similar. All pigs immunized with strain SLW03 or SLW05 developed high antibody titers against ApxIA, ApxIIA, and ApxIVA before challenge. Two weeks after a second immunization, pigs were challenged intratracheally with either a fully virulent A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 or serovar 3 strain. Vaccination with strains SLW03 or SLW05 provided significantly greater protection compared to the negative control (P < 0.01). Immunized pigs displayed significantly fewer clinical signs and lower lung lesion scores than non-immunized pigs. These results suggested that ORF1 plays an important role in the development of ApxIVA toxicity. Furthermore, strain SLW05 is a highly attenuated strain able to induce protective immunity against A. pleuropneumoniae infection.
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Inhibition of inflammation by pentosan polysulfate impedes the development and progression of severe diabetic nephropathy in aging C57B6 mice.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Inflammation has a key role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) progression. Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) has been shown to decreases interstitial inflammation and glomerulosclerosis in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Since PPS has an excellent long-term safety profile in interstitial cystitis treatment, and we recently found that old diabetic C57B6 mice develop DN characterized by extensive tubulointerstitial inflammatory lesions that mimics human DN, we examined the effect of PPS on old diabetic mice. We also examined the anti-inflammatory properties of PPS in renal cells in vitro. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in 18 months female (early aging) C57B6 mice. Mice were then randomized to receive oral PPS (25 mg/kg/day) or water for 4 months. The effect of PPS on NF-?B activation and on TNF?, high glucose or advanced glycation end products (AGEs) stimulated proinflammatory gene expression in renal cells was examined. We found that PPS treatment preserved renal function, significantly reduced albuminuria, and markedly decreased the severity of renal lesions, including tubulointerstitial inflammation. PPS also reduced upregulation of TNF? and proinflammatory genes in aging diabetic kidneys. Furthermore, PPS suppressed NF-?B, decreased the proinflammatory actions of TNF?, and decreased high glucose and AGEs stimulated MCP-1 production in vitro. Finally, PPS decreased TNF?-induced increase in albumin permeability in podocyte monolayers. In conclusion, PPS treatment largely prevents the development/progression of nephropathy in aging diabetic mice. As this may be mediated by suppression of TNF?, high glucose, and AGE-stimulated NF-?B activation and inflammation in vitro, the in vivo blockade of DN may be due to the anti-inflammatory properties of PPS.
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9-(4-Chloro-phen-yl)-4a-hy-droxy-4,4a,5,6,9,9a-hexa-hydro-3H-xanthene-1,8(2H,7H)-dione.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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In the title compound, C(19)H(19)ClO(4), the central fused ring and the attached cyclo-hexene ring adopt envelope conformations, while the cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation. The crystal packing is stabilized by O-H?O hydrogen bonds, which link the mol-ecules into a chain along the b axis. Weak C-H?O bonds also occur.
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14-Methoxy-2,16-dioxapentacyclo[7.7.5.0.0.0]henicosa-3(8),10,12,14-tetraene-7,20-dione.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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The title compound, C(20)H(20)O(5), was synthesized from the reaction between 3-methoxysalicaldehyde and 1,3-cyclo-hexa-nedione in the presence of palladium(II) chloride. The two fused xanthene rings and one of the six-membered cyclo-hexane rings adopt envelope conformations, while the other six-membered cyclo-hexane ring is in a chair conformation. The mol-ecular packing is stabilized by weak inter-molecular C-H?O inter-actions.
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Cloning, expression, and characterization of TonB2 from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and potential use as an antigenic vaccine candidate and diagnostic marker.
Can. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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In this study the tonB2 gene was cloned from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae JL01 (serovar 1) and expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The GST fusion protein was recognized by antibodies in serum positive for A. pleuropneumoniae by Western blot analysis. Purified soluble GST-TonB2 was assessed for its ability to protect BALB/c mice against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Mice were vaccinated with GST-TonB2 subcutaneously and challenged intraperitoneally with either ~4.0 × 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) or ~1.0 × 10(6) CFU of A. pleuropneumoniae 4074. They were examined daily for 7 d after challenge. The survival rate of the TonB2-vaccinated mice was significant higher than that of the mice given recombinant GST or adjuvant alone. These results demonstrate that A. pleuropneumoniae TonB2 is immunogenic in mice and should be further assessed as a potential candidate for a vaccine against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. In addition, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the GST-TonB2 recombinant protein was developed. Compared with the ApxIVA ELISA, the TonB2 ELISA provided earlier detection of antibodies in pigs at various times after vaccination with A. pleuropneumoniae live attenuated vaccine. When compared with an indirect hemagglutination test, the sensitivity and specificity of the TonB2 ELISA were 95% and 88%, respectively. The TonB2 ELISA provides an alternative method for rapid serologic diagnosis of A. pleuropneumoniae infection through antibody screening, which would be especially useful when the infection status or serovar is unknown.
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Functional characterization of BjCET3 and BjCET4, two new cation-efflux transporters from Brassica juncea L.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Brassica juncea is promising for metal phytoremediation, but little is known about the functional role of most metal transporters in this plant. The functional characterization of two B. juncea cation-efflux family proteins BjCET3 and BjCET4 is reported here. The two proteins are closely related to each other in amino acid sequence, and are members of Group III of the cation-efflux transporters. Heterologous expression of BjCET3 and BjCET4 in yeast confirmed their functions in exporting Zn, and possibly Cd, Co, and Ni. Yeast transformed with BjCET4 showed higher metal resistance than did BjCET3 transformed. The two BjCET-GFP fusion proteins were localized to the plasma membrane in the roots when expressed in tobacco, and significantly enhanced the plants Cd tolerance ability. Under Cd stress, tobacco plants transformed with BjCET3 accumulated significant amounts of Cd in shoots, while maintaining similar shoot biomass production with vector-control subjects. Transformed BjCET4 tobacco plants showed significantly enhanced shoot biomass production with markedly decreased shoot Cd content. The two transporter genes have a lower basal transcript expression in B. juncea seedling tissues when grown in normal conditions than under metal-stress, however, their transcripts levels could be substantially increased by Zn, Cd, NaCl or PEG, suggesting that BjCET3 and BjCET4 may play roles in several stress conditions, roles which appear to be different from those of previous characterized cation-efflux transporters, for example, AtMTP1, BjCET2, and BjMTP1.
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Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by methyl 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinate in human colon cancer cells: Involvement of the PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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Methyl 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinate (MDQ) is a flavonoid glucoside found in several plants that scavenges 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and peroxynitrite, and inhibits the formation of cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide during the copper ion-induced oxidation of blood plasma in rats. In this study, MDQ inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner as detected by 1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT), trypan blue exclusion, and flow cytometric assays. Western blot analysis showed that apoptosis was dependent on caspase-3 activity. PARP cleavage and the cytosolic release of cytochrome c from mitochondria increased significantly. In addition, these events were accompanied by a collapse in the mitochondrial membrane potential and a decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Furthermore, the MDQ-induced G(0)/G(1) arrest was correlated with an increase in p27 and a decrease in cyclin D1 and p53. MDQ also inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and ERK; significantly reduced NF-?B; and in general displayed a significant anti-proliferative effect via a cell cycle arrest and apoptotic induction in HT-29 cells. These results suggest that MDQ has therapeutic potential against human colon carcinoma.
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