Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene plays a key role in plasma triglyceride (TG) metabolism, and shows the involvement in coronary artery disease (CAD). A set of single nucleotide polymorphisms around the APOA5 gene was identified to be associated with plasma TG levels. It is of biological and clinical importance to discern the genuine genetic determinants. A polymorphism in 3' untranslated region of the APOA5 gene, rs2266788, is deserving of investigation for suggestive clues from the association in multiple independent studies. In this study, rs2266788 was genotyped in 3222 unrelated subjects consisting of 2062 CAD cases and 1160 controls. The statistical analyses indicated that the minor C allele of rs2266788 was significantly associated with elevated plasma TG levels and higher CAD risk. In normal human liver tissues, comparison of global APOA5 mRNA levels among genotypes and allelic expression imbalance analysis showed the decreased gene expression for the C allele. Luciferase assays confirmed a concordant result that transcriptional activity was lowered for the C allele compared with the T allele in four cell lines. Multiple lines of evidence in our study supported that rs2266788 was causally associated with plasma TG levels conferring CAD risk in Han Chinese population owing to a cis-acting effect to the APOA5 gene expression.
Variations in the activities of Cytochrome P450s are one of the major factors responsible for inter-individual differences in drug clearance rates, which may cause serious toxicity or inefficacy of therapeutic drugs. Various mRNA level is one of the key factors for different activity of the major P450 genes. Although both genetic and environmental regulators of P450 gene expression have been widely investigated, few studies have evaluated the functional importance of cis- and trans-regulatory factors and environmental factors in the modulation of inter-individual expression variations of the P450 genes. In this study, we measured the mRNA levels of seven major P450 genes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) in 96 liver biopsy samples from Chinese population. Both trans-acting (mRNA levels and non-synonymous SNPs of putative regulator genes) and cis-acting (gene copy number and functional SNPs) factors were investigated to identify the determinants of the expression variations of these seven P450 genes. We found that expression variations of most P450 genes, regulator genes and housekeeping genes were positively correlated at the mRNA level. After partial correlation analysis using ACTB and GAPDH expression to eliminate the effect of global regulators, a UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) tree was constructed to reveal the effects of specific regulation networks potentially masked by global regulators. Combined with the functional analysis of regulators, our results suggested that expression variation at the mRNA level was mediated by several factors in a gene-specific manner. Cis-acting genetic variants might play key roles in the expression variation of CYP2D6 and CYP3A5, environmental inducers might play key roles in CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 variation and global regulators might play key roles in CYP2C9 variation. In addition, the functions of regulators that play less important roles in controlling expression variation for each P450 gene were determined.
This haplotype-based case-control study investigated whether the aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) might be implicated in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension in Yi (226 individuals) and Hani (296 individuals) minorities of China. Four tag SNPs (rs4536, rs4545, rs3097, and rs3802230) and the K173R polymorphism were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method. In the Hani minority, rs4536 was significantly associated with hypertension, after Bonferroni correction. H9 AGGC constructed by tag SNPs was significantly higher in hypertensives than in controls (P = 0.001). Further, we observed that haplotype AGGC remained significantly associated with male hypertension after adjustment for covariates (OR = 3.76, P = 0.002). In the Yi minority, it was found that the CYP11B2 gene was not significantly associated with hypertension. These results indicated that haplotype AGGC conferred an increased risk for hypertension in the Hani minority male. In addition, CYP11B2 may not be associated with hypertension in the Yi minority of China.
In order to comprehensively screen genetic variants leading to differential expression of the important human ABCB1 gene in the primary drug-metabolizing organ, ABCB1 mRNA expression levels were measured in 73 normal liver tissue samples from Chinese subjects. A set of Tag SNPs. were genotyped. In addition, imputation was performed within a 500 kb region around the ABCB1 gene using the reference panels of 1,000 Genome project and HapMap III. Bayesian regression was used to assess the strength of associations by compute Bayes Factors for imputed SNPs. Through imputation and linkage disequilibrium analysis, the imputed loci rs28373093, rs1002205, rs1029421, rs2285647, and rs10235835, may represent independent and strong association signals. rs28373093, a polymorphism 1.5 kb upstream from the ABCB1 transcription start site, has the strongest association. 2677 G>A/T and 3435C>T confer a clear gene-dosage effect on ABCB1 mRNA expression. The systematic characterization of gene-wide common quantitative trait loci associated with ABCB1 mRNA expression in normal liver tissues would provide the candidate markers to ABCB1-relevant clinical phenotypes in Chinese population.
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