Purpose: miR-204-5p was found to be downregulated in CRC tissues in our preliminary microarray analyses. However, the function of miR-204-5p in CRC remains unknown. We therefore investigated the role, mechanism and clinical significance of miR-204-5p in CRC development and progression. Experimental Design: We measured the expression of miR-204-5p and determined its correlation with patient prognoses. Ectopic expression in CRC cells, xenografts and pulmonary metastasis models were used to evaluate the effects of miR-204-5p on proliferation, migration and chemotherapy sensitivity. Luciferase assay and Western blot were performed to validate the potential targets of miR-204-5p after the preliminary screening by a microarray analysis and computer-aided algorithms. Results: miR-204-5p is frequently downregulated in CRC tissues, and survival analysis showed that the downregulation of miR-204-5p in CRC was associated with poor prognoses. Ectopic miR-204-5p expression repressed CRC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, restoring miR-204-5p expression inhibited CRC migration and invasion and promoted tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy. Mechanistic investigations revealed that RAB22A, a member of the RAS oncogene family, is a direct functional target of miR-204-5p in CRC. Furthermore, RAB22A protein levels in CRC tissues were frequently increased and negatively associated with miR-204-5p levels and survival time. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate for the first time that miR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in CRC through inhibiting RAB22A, and reveal RAB22A to be a new oncogene and prognostic factor for CRC.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that exert function by posttranscriptional suppression have recently brought insight in our understanding of the role of non-protein-coding RNAs in carcinogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we described the function and molecular mechanism of miR-139-5p in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its potential clinical application in CRC. We found that miR-139-5p was significantly downregulated in 73.8% CRC samples compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues (NCTs), and decreased miR-139-5p was associated with poor prognosis. Functional analyses demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-139-5p suppressed CRC cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed that miR-139-5p suppress CRC cell invasion and metastasis by targeting AMFR and NOTCH1. Knockdown of the two genes phenocopied the inhibitory effect of miR-139-5p on CRC metastasis. Furthermore, the protein levels of the two genes were upregulated in CRC samples compared with NCTs, and inversely correlated with the miR-139-5p expression. Increased NOTCH1 protein expression was correlated with poor prognosis of CRC patients. Together, our data indicate that miR-139-5p is a potential tumor suppressor and prognostic factor for CRC, and targeting miR-139-5p may repress the metastasis of CRC and improve survival.
Posterior tibial slope that is created during proximal tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty has emerged as an important factor in the mechanics of the knee joint and the surgical outcome. But the ideal degree of posterior tibial slope for recovery of the knee joint function and preventions of complications remains controversial and should vary in different racial groups. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of posterior tibial slope on contact stresses in the tibial polyethylene component of total knee prostheses.
Brain swelling and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) contribute to poor outcome. Vasopressin-1a receptors (V1aR) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) regulate water transport and brain edema formation, perhaps in part by modulating cation fluxes. After focal TBI, V1aR inhibitors diminish V1aR and AQP4, reduce astrocytic swelling and brain edema. We determined whether V1aR inhibition with SR49059 after lateral controlled-cortical-impact (CCI) injury affects extracellular Na(+) and K(+) concentrations ([Na(+)]e; [K(+)]e). Ion-selective Na(+) and K(+) electrodes (ISE) and an ICP probe were implanted in rat parietal cortex, and [Na(+)]e, [K(+)]e, and physiological parameters were monitored for 5 h post-CCI. Sham-vehicle-ISE, CCI-vehicle-ISE and CCI-SR49059-ISE groups were studied, and SR49059 was administered 5 min to 5 h post-injury. We found a significant injury-induced decrease in [Na(+)]e to 80.1 ± 15 and 87.9 ± 7.9 mM and increase in [K(+)]e to 20.9 ± 3.8 and 13.4 ± 3.4 mM at 5 min post-CCI in CCI-vehicle-ISE and CCI-SR49059-ISE groups, respectively (p<0.001 vs. baseline; ns between groups). Importantly, [Na(+)]e in CCI-SR49059-ISE was reduced 5-20 min post-injury and increased to baseline at 25 min, whereas recovery in CCI-vehicle-ISE required more than 1 hr, suggesting SR49059 accelerated [Na(+)]e recovery. In contrast, [K(+)]e recovery took 45 min in both groups. Further, ICP was lower in the CCI-SR49059-ISE group. Thus, selective V1aR inhibition allowed faster [Na(+)]e recovery and reduced ICP. By augmenting the [Na(+)]e recovery rate, SR49059 may reduce trauma-induced ionic imbalance, blunting cellular water influx and edema after TBI. These findings suggest SR49059 and V1aR inhibitors are potential tools for treating cellular edema post-TBI.
The effects of chemical and structural surface heterogeneity on the CH4 adsorption behaviour on microporous carbons have been investigated using a hybrid theoretical approach, including the use of density functional theory (DFT), molecular dynamics (MD), and grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. Bader charge analysis is first performed to analyze the surface atomic partial charges. The CH4 adsorption densities in defective and functionalized graphite slit pores are lower than that in the perfect pore according to the MD simulations. Finally, the CH4 adsorption isotherms for the perfect, defective and functionalized slit pores are analyzed using the GCMC simulations in combination with the DFT and MD results. For pores with a defective surface, the adsorption capacities decrease; the embedded functional groups decrease the adsorption capacity at low pressure and enhance it at high pressure. Our results demonstrate the significant effects of chemical and structural surface heterogeneity on the CH4 adsorption and provide a systematic approach to understand the gas adsorption behaviour.
Bone marrow cell profiles are variable after total hip arthroplasty (THA), including variable levels of Stro-1+ and bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPRs)+ cells. We investigated the impact of bone marrow cell profiles on changes in periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) in uncemented THA patients.
In mouse mid-gestational embryos, definitive hematopoietic stem progenitor cells are derived directly from a very small proportion of the arterial endothelium. However, the physiological mechanisms restraining excessive endothelial-hematopoietic transition remain elusive. We show here that genetic deletion of Smad4 from the endothelium stage (using Tie2-Cre), but not from embryonic hematopoietic cells (using Vav-Cre), leads to a strikingly augmented emergence of intra-arterial hematopoietic clusters and an enhanced in vitro generation of hematopoietic progenitors, with no increase in the proliferation and survival of hematopoietic cluster cells. This finding indicates a temporally restricted negative effect of Smad4 on the endothelial to hematopoietic progenitor transition. Furthermore, the absence of endothelial Smad4 causes an increased expression of subaortic bone morphogenetic protein 4 and an activation of aortic extracellular signal-regulated kinase, thereby resulting in the excessive generation of blood cells. Collectively, our data for the first time identify a physiological suppressor that functions specifically during the transition of endothelial cells to hematopoietic progenitors and further suggest that endothelial Smad4 is a crucial modulator of the subaortic microenvironment that controls the hematopoietic fate of the aortic endothelium.
Although cisplatin (DDP) has been reported to be a promising antitumor therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the effectiveness of the treatment remains limited due to an inherent tumor resistance to DDP. Genistein (GEN) is an abundant, naturally occurring isoflavonoid found in soy products that has been demonstrated to increase the anti-neoplastic activity of certain chemotherapy drugs in multiple tumor types. In the present study, DDP in combination with GEN was selected as a potential treatment to suppress tumor growth and simultaneously reduce the doses of the two drugs required for the treatment of NSCLC. Cell growth inhibition, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and receptor signaling assays were conducted. In the in vivo study, DDP and GEN, either alone or in combination, were used to treat a xenograft model of the A549 cells. It was found that the combination of low concentrations of DDP and GEN induced significantly greater growth inhibition (P<0.01) and increased apoptosis in the A549 cells compared with either agent alone. In addition, DDP in combination with GEN could significantly suppress tumor growth in vivo compared with either agent alone. Combination treatment significantly suppresses constitutive phosphorylation of AKT and phosphoinositide-3 kinase, which may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth. Overall, the present data suggested that GEN can increase the anti-neoplastic activity of DDP and that a combination of GEN and DDP is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of NSCLC.
Laboratory experiments were undertaken to relate biomarker responses to the toxicities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na), both individually and combined. The acute toxicities of MWCNTs and PCP-Na on earthworm Eisenia fetida were studied through different exposure methods (filter paper contact test, immersion contact test, and artificial soil contact test). Enzyme activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the earthworm E. fetida exposed to MWCNTs and PCP-Na in filter paper contact test, both individually and under combined exposure, were determined. After exposure, PCP-Na induced observable acute toxicity while the MWCNTs induced slight toxicity. Interestingly the earthworms exposed to the mixture of MWCNTs and PCP-Na demonstrated different expression of enzymatic biomarkers from those exposed to MWCNTs or PCP-Na alone. Our results indicated that the toxicity of PCP-Na on E. fetida may be alleviated by the appearance of MWCNTs for all exposure methods except for immersion contact test.
The EarlyCDT®-Lung test was the first autoantibody-based diagnostic tool for lung cancer, which was developed with a panel of recombinant protein antigens. To confirm whether the antibody test developed with linear peptide antigens has a similar power to that developed with the whole protein molecules, the present work was then undertaken to develop an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with linear peptide antigens derived from annexin A1 (ANXA1) and DEAD box protein 53 (DDX53), which have been used to develop the EarlyCDT®-Lung test. A total of 272 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 227 control subjects matched in age and smoking history were recruited. Student's t test showed that the levels of circulating IgG to ANXA1-derived peptide antigens were significantly higher in patients with NSCLC than control subjects (t?=?5.66, P?0.0001), in which the increased anti-ANXA1 IgG levels were observed only in patients at stages I, II, or III, but not in those at stage IV. However, the levels of circulating IgG to DDX53-derived peptide antigens were not significantly altered in NSCLC (t?=?1.78, P?=?0.076). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the sensitivity against specificity of >90% was 23.7% for ANXA1 IgG assay and 13.8% for DDX53 IgG assay. This work suggests that the linear peptide antigen derived from ANXA1 may be suitable for the development of diagnostic tool for lung cancer although further screening is needed to identify more such peptide antigens derived from tumor-associated antigens.
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent used in personal care products, and as a result, is widespread in the environment. Toxicity tests of TCS on aquatic organisms have been reported, but limited toxicity data on terrestrial species are available. In this study, the 28-d chronic toxicity of TCS on the biomass, shell diameter growth, and total food intake of the terrestrial snail Achatina fulica were tested. Moreover, biochemical responses, including changes in the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), were examined after 14-d and 28-d exposure. Results showed that TCS had toxic effects on the biomass, shell diameter growth, and total food intake of A. fulica with no observed effect concentration (NOEC) values of 24 mg kg(-1). As for the antioxidant enzymes, TCS caused significant oxidative stress even at the low concentration of 24 mg kg(-1). The CAT and POD activities at the high concentrations of 200 and 340 mg kg(-1), respectively, were significantly inhibited. The SOD and CAT activity in treatments below 118 mg kg(-1) and the MDA content in all treatments showed dose-effect relationships. This study demonstrated that TCS caused adverse effects on terrestrial invertebrates, and provided valuable information for the risk assessment imposed by TCS in the terrestrial environment.
Water from the Liuxihe Reservoir (a source of drinking water for Guangzhou City, P. R. China) was analyzed for semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and the results were used for a potential health impact assessment and genotoxicity test with the microalgae Euglena gracilis. The SVOCs were tested using USEPA Method 525.2, and the health risk assessment was conducted at a screening level using the hazard quotient (HQ) approach. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was used to evaluate DNA damage and determine the genotoxicity of the source water. The concentrations of the SVOCs in Liuxihe Reservoir were very low and phthalic acid esters were the main SVOCs present. The mean HQ values of pollutants were all less than one, indicating no risk. However, the lifetime carcinogenic risks (LCRs) were found to be close to the threshold of 1.00E-5. The results show that the water in the Liuxihe Reservoir might pose a potential carcinogenic risk to local residents. The highly concentrated extracts of the water samples could induce DNA damage in the microalgal cells and a dose-effect relationship was identified. These results showed that Liuxihe Reservoir water, as a source of drinking water, could pose a potential LCR to local consumers.
The development of early B cells, which are generated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in a series of well-characterized stages in bone marrow (BM), represents a paradigm for terminal differentiation processes. Akt is primarily regulated by phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 and at Ser473 by mTORC2, and Akt signaling plays a key role in hematopoiesis. However, the role of mTORC2 in the development of early B cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the functional role of mTORC2 by specifically deleting an integral component, Rictor, in a hematopoietic system. We demonstrated that the deletion of Rictor induced an aberrant increase in the FoxO1 and Rag-1 proteins in BM B cells and that this increase was accompanied by a significant decrease in the abundance of B cells in the peripheral blood (PB) and the spleen, suggesting impaired development of early B cells in adult mouse BM. A BM transplantation assay revealed that the B cell differentiation defect induced by Rictor deletion was not affected by the BM microenvironment, thus indicating a cell-intrinsic mechanism. Furthermore, the knockdown of FoxO1 in Rictor-deleted HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) promoted the maturation of B cells in the BM of recipient mice. In addition, we revealed that treatment with rapamycin (an mTORC1 inhibitor) aggravated the deficiency in B cell development in the PB and BM. Taken together, our results provide further evidence that Rictor regulates the development of early B cells in a cell-intrinsic manner by modifying the expression of FoxO1 and Rag-1.
The high surface area of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) tends to adsorb a large variety of toxic chemicals, which may enhance the toxicity of both MWCNTs and chemicals to organisms. In order to evaluate the combined toxicity of nonylphenol (NP) and MWCNTs to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in soil, artificial soil systems containing distilled water, 0.1 g kg(-1) MWCNTs, 1 g kg(-1) MWCNTs, 1 g kg(-1) MWCNTs absorbed 5 mg kg(-1) NP, and 10 mg kg(-1) NP alone were prepared and exposed to earthworms for 7 days. Antioxidative responses, and activities of cellulase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (TChE) as well as DNA damage were chosen as toxicological endpoints. The results showed that 1 g kg(-1) MWCNTs adsorbed 5 mg kg(-1) NP from the soil which caused much more adverse effects on the earthworms than each chemical alone, evident from the responses of cellulase, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and comet assay. This study indicated that MWCNTs facilitated the bioavailability of NP to the earthworm and increased the harmful effects of NP.
This study aimed to (1) explore the needs of cancer patients regarding common nursing professional social support from the perspective of physicians and nurses, (2) identify what type of needs clinical nurses actually fulfill and what remains to be improved, and (3) analyze the potential reasons for the gap between the identified needs and those that are fulfilled.
Genetic reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses can create pandemic viruses. Influenza surveillance of pigs in Jilin Province, in China during 2007-2008 revealed that there were two distinguishable genotypes: a human-like H3N2 genotype and a double-reassortant genotype derived from the human H3N2 and avian H5 viruses. In this study, viral infection potential, replication kinetics, and pathogenicity were compared. The solid-phase binding assay demonstrated that both viruses prominently maintained a preference for the human-type receptor and the reassortant A/swine/Jilin/37/2008 (Sw/JL/37/08) showed relatively higher binding affinities than the non-reassortant A/swine/Jilin/19/2007 (Sw/JL/19/07). Replication kinetics showed that Sw/JL/37/08 had higher replicability in MDCK cells than Sw/JL/19/07. The mouse experiments clearly revealed that Sw/JL/37/08 had higher virulence than Sw/JL/19/07 as measured by more significant body weight loss, higher viral lung load, delayed viral clearance from lungs, and more severe pulmonary lesions. Sequence analysis indicated that the absence of glycosylation sites at residue 126 of HA and 93 of NA, as well as the characteristic NS1 C-terminal PL residues of ESEV may account for the increased replication and pathogenicity of Sw/JL/37/08. These results may imply that human may have infection risk by the reassortant swine influenza virus and emphasize the necessity for enhanced viral surveillance strategies, which monitor reassortment events in nature to reduce the public health threat posed by influenza viruses with the potential for human-to-human transmission currently circulating in pig populations.
Sevoflurane pre-conditioning before ischemia can reduce ischemia-reperfusion injuries in cardiac, pulmonary and cerebral tissues. It is uncertain whether sevoflurane conditioning before reperfusion has similar protective effects on neuronal injuries. In this study, we explored the effect of sevoflurane conditioning (at concentrations of 1.5%, 2.4% or 3.0%) on the morphology and molecular mechanisms of the hippocampal CA? region in male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to global cerebral ischemia. We determined the pathological results by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and examined the mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and protein levels of p-JNK1/2 and p-Akt1 in the hippocampus at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Our data showed that O? post-conditioning and lower dose (1.5%) of sevoflurane did not ameliorate ischemia-induced CA? injury. However, higher doses of 2.4% and 3.0% sevoflurane post-conditioning alleviated the CA? injury and enhanced the expression levels of IGF-1 mRNA. Furthermore, sevoflurane post-conditioning inhibited the activations of p-JNK1/2 and enhanced activation of p-Akt1. In conclusion, these results suggest that post-conditioning with sevoflurane at 2.4% and 3.0% ameliorates global cerebral ischemia induced hippocampal CA? injury by up-regulating the expression of IGF-1 mRNA followed by the activation of p-Akt1 and inhibition of the activation of p-JNK1/2.
Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is a common biological marker. In this research, on the foundation of successful clone and expression of EGFP, a two-step chromatographic method was established to separate and purify EGFP, which includes the use of HisTrap HP immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and Sephadex G-10 HR size exclusion chromatography in sequence. Sephacryl S-300 HR size exclusion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were used to check out the purity of EGFP. At last, it was found that EGFP still had fluorescent activity using fluorescence spectrophotometric detection and Native-PAGE detection. This method can effectively separate the active EGFP. The purity of the obtained EGFP was more than 98%.
The Notch1 signaling pathway plays an essential role in cell growth and differentiation. Over-expression of the intracellular Notch1 domain (ICN1) in murine hematopoietic cells is able to induce robust T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in mice. Here we explored the drug sensitivity of T-ALL cells in two subpopulations of CD8(+)CD4(+) and CD8(+)CD4(-) cells in Notch1-induced T-ALL mice. We found that Notch1 induced T-ALL cells could be decreased by chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide (CTX). CD8(+)CD4(-) T-ALL cells were more sensitive to CTX treatment than CD8(+)CD4(+) T-ALL cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells induced by CTX treatment was higher in CD8(+)CD4(-) T-ALL cells. T-ALL cells were also inhibited by inhibitor of mTORC1 rapamycin. CD8(+)CD4(+) T-ALL cells were more susceptible to rapamycin treatment than CD8(+)CD4(-) T-ALL cells. Rapamycin treatment selectively arrested more CD8(+)CD4(+) T-ALL cells at G0 phase of cell cycle. A combination of the two drugs significantly improved overall survival of T-ALL bearing mice when compared with CTX or rapamycin alone. These results indicated that CD8(+)CD4(+) and CD8(+)CD4(-) leukemia cell populations had distinct drug sensitivity.
China has recently commenced water quality criteria (WQC) research using the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method; however, it is difficult to obtain sufficient native species toxicity data for thousands of contaminants. In this study, the feasibility of using non-native toxicity data in deriving native WQC was analyzed. We constructed SSDs based on acute toxicity data of species from China and the USA for eight priority pollutants, and compared the sensitivities of different taxonomic groups between the two countries. The results showed that the SSD method of log-logistic distribution fit the toxicity data of different taxa well. The comparison of sensitivity distribution and hazardous concentration for 5 % of the species and 50 % of the species showed that there was no significant difference between Chinese and American taxa. It could be feasible to use toxicity data from the USA to provide a temporary way to protect organisms in China in emergency situations or for management of priority pollutants when native toxicity data are lacking.
This study aimed to compare lung dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters such as mean lung dose (MLD) and the lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V20) of commonly used definitions of normal lung in terms of tumor/target subtraction and to determine to what extent they differ in predicting radiation pneumonitis (RP).
In this report, the sulfated polysaccharide (SJP) from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicas was extracted and tested for its capacity to affect migration and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells. SJP is an intensely sulfated polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 1.79 × 10(5) Da that is capable of promoting neurosphere attachment and migration in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, SJP effectively maintains cell viability even after being deprived of mitogens. Our current results demonstrate that neurosphere are differentiated into neuronal and glial cells when exposed to SJP. These effects were accompanied by an up-regulation of the adhesion molecule, N-cadherin. In addition, we observed that blocking of PI3K activity inhibited N-cadherin-mediated activity. This SJP-induced up-regulation of N-cadherin mediates neurosphere adhesion migration and differentiation via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These results suggest that SJP could be used as a therapeutic agent to mobilize neuroblast migration under conditions of brain injury and disease.
A successful osseointegration relies on the interplay of implant surface and surrounding bone marrow cells. This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of age and gender on the bone marrow composition.
Gap junction provides intercellular communications that play a critical role in invasion of metastatic cancer cells. However, the effects of inhibiting this pathway in breast cancer cell migration have not been investigated. Here, we present data demonstrating that functional blockade of gap junctions during the formation of monolayer decreased the levels of aligned fibers of actin between neighboring breast cancer cells. Furthermore, gap junction inhibitors attenuated the invasion ability of highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells, but had no significant effects on less invasive MCF-7 cells, which caused by shRANKL. Our work is the first to demonstrate the inhibitory effect of gap junction channel inhibitors on the migration of highly invasive breast cancer cells.
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates and pesticides in water of Wujin river inflow into Taihu Lake, were detected for assessment of risk to human health. SVOCs were tested with Method 525.2 established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and health risk assessment (HRA) was conducted by the hazard quotient (HQ) approach from US HRA for screening stage. The results for the liquid-solid extraction of water sample measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showed that three of the tested twenty-three semi-volatile organic contaminants posed potential health risk and the concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, di-n-butyl phthalate, chrysene and benzo(a)anthracene was 0.736, 15.201, 0.307, and 0.334 ?g/l, respectively. SVOCs in the Wujin river water might induce risk to environmental health of Taihu Lake as a source of drinking water.
A rhodamine spirolactam/2-hydrazinopyridine derivative was synthesized and characterized, which exhibited high selectivity to Cu(2+) over other metal cations. The Cu(2+) recognition of this rhodamine derivative could be detected by fluorescence spectra, absorption spectra and an obvious color change which was observed easily by naked-eyes. The binding of this rhodamine derivative to Cu(2+) is instantaneous and sensitive. Moreover, a linear relationship was found between the fluorescence intensity at 575 nm from 0.5×10(-6) M to 3.0×10(-6) M of Cu(2+) concentration, and the limit of detection (LOD) was at low concentration of 2.11×10(-8) M, this would benefit for the establishment of standard working curves in practical Cu(2+) detection. Additionally, we synthesized rhodamine spirolactam/2-aminomethylpyridine derivative and rhodamine spirolactam/phenylhydrazine derivative as analogs for elucidate the structure-recognition relationships. Finally, we prepared the test strips of rhodamine spirolactam/2-hydrazinopyridine derivative for practical chromogenic the Cu(2+) detection.
Preconditioning with selective delta opioid peptide [d-Ala2, d-Leu5] enkephalin (DADLE) provides ischemic tolerance following transient forebrain ischemia in rats. However, whether DADLE postconditioning retains its neuroprotective efficacy and the underlying molecular mechanism in ischemic brain is largely unknown. We investigated DADLE postconditioning protection of hippocampal CA1 neurons against transient forebrain ischemia. 6 days after being implanted with cannula at the right lateral ventricle, rats underwent 10 min of forebrain ischemia by four vessel occlusion. Hippocampal CA1 neuronal survival and degeneration were measured in the hippocampi of rats at 3 days after ischemia. The behavioral and cognitive improvements of DADLE treatment in rats were also evaluated on days 5-9 using open-field and Morris water maze tests. The results showed that DADLE at doses of 0.25 and 2.5 nmol, but not 25 nmol, could significantly protect CA1 neurons against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Co-administration with the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole or pretreatment with the Akt antagonist LY294002 completely abolished the DADLE postconditioning effect. Furthermore, DADLE postconditioning exhibited cognitive benefits in rats with transient forebrain ischemia. The study thus suggested a therapeutic opportunity of postconditioning neuroprotection by DADLE and also provided important information in understanding the mechanism of DADLE action in the ischemic brain.
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling tools have become an integral part of the modern drug discovery-development process. However, accurate PK prediction of enabling formulations of poorly soluble compounds by applying PBPK modeling has been very limited. This is because current PBPK models rely only on thermodynamic drug solubility inputs (e.g., pH-solubility profile) and give little consideration to the dynamic changes in apparent drug solubility (e.g., supersaturation) that occur during gastrointestinal (GI) transit of an enabling formulation of a water insoluble drug. Moreover, biorepresentative and predictive in vitro tools to measure formulation dependent solubility changes during GI transit remain underdeveloped. In this work, we have developed an in vitro dual pH-dilution method based on rat physiology to estimate the apparent drug concentration in solution along the GI tract during release from solubility enabling formulations. This simple dual pH-dilution method was evaluated using various solubility enabling formulations (i.e., cosolvent solution, amorphous solid dispersions) made using a model early development drug candidate with poor aqueous solubility. The in vitro drug concentration-time profiles from the enabling formulations were used as solubility inputs for PBPK modeling using GastroPlus software. This resulted in excellent predictions of the in vivo oral plasma concentration-time profiles, as compared to using the traditional inputs of thermodynamic pH-solubility profiles. In summary, this work describes a novel in vitro method for facile estimation of formulation dependent GI drug concentration-time profiles and demonstrates the utility of PBPK modeling for oral PK prediction of enabling formulations of poorly soluble drugs.
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) exhibit therapeutic potential in neuronal diseases. Previously, we reported that a sulfated polysaccharide (HS) from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus increased the proliferation of NSPCs. Since the formation of neurospheres is related with NSPCs proliferation, we investigated the mechanism leading to neurosphere formation with and without HS. The results showed that HS significantly promoted neurosphere formation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations between 2 and 8 ?g/ml. Cell cycle analysis showed that HS increased the percentage of cells in S phase by 2.8-fold, as compared with the control. On the other hand, we observed a significantly rapid aggregation of NSPCs, resulting in formation of neurospheres as early as 2 h after HS treatment. However, the aggregation was not caused by chemotactic migration of NSPCs, as evidenced by the transwell chamber assay. Furthermore, the effect of HS on NSPCs was similar to the tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) that activated nuclear factor NF-?B. Thus, we demonstrated that HS was able to promote cell proliferation and aggregation of NSPCs which could lead to the formation of neurospheres, and suggested that HS can serve as an adjuvant for promoting proliferation of NSPCs and formation of neurospheres.
Bispecific antibodies capable of redirecting the lytic potential of immune effector cells to kill tumor targets have long been recognized as a potentially potent biological therapeutic intervention. Unfortunately, efforts to produce such molecules have been limited owing to inefficient production and poor stability properties. Here, we describe a novel Fv-derived strategy based on a covalently linked bispecific diabody structure that we term dual-affinity re-targeting (DART). As a model system, we linked an Fv specific for human CD16 (FcgammaRIII) on effector cells to an Fv specific for mouse or human CD32B (FcgammaRIIB), a normal B-cell and tumor target antigen. DART proteins were produced at high levels in mammalian cells, retained the binding activity of the respective parental Fv domains as well as bispecific binding, and showed extended storage and serum stability. Functionally, the DART molecules demonstrated extremely potent, dose-dependent cytotoxicity in retargeting human PBMC against B-lymphoma cell lines as well as in mediating autologous B-cell depletion in culture. In vivo studies in mice demonstrated effective B-cell depletion that was dependent on the transgenic expression of both CD16A on the effector cells and CD32B on the B-cell targets. Furthermore, DART proteins showed potent in vivo protective activity in a human Burkitts lymphoma cell xenograft model. Thus, DART represents a biologically potent format that provides a versatile platform for generating bispecific antibody fragments for redirected killing and, with the selection of appropriate binding partners, applications outside of tumor cell cytotoxicity.
Neuronal plasticity deficits underlie many of the neurobehavioral problems seen in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Recently, we showed that third trimester alcohol exposure leads to a persistent disruption in ocular dominance (OD) plasticity. For instance, a few days of monocular deprivation results in a robust reduction of cortical regions responsive to the deprived eye in normal animals, but not in ferrets exposed early to alcohol. This plasticity deficit can be reversed if alcohol-exposed animals are treated with a phosphodiesterase type 1 (PDE1) inhibitor during the period of monocular deprivation. PDE1 inhibition can increase cAMP and cGMP levels, activating transcription factors such as the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the serum response factor (SRF). SRF is important for many plasticity processes such as LTP, LTD, spine motility, and axonal pathfinding. Here we attempt to rescue OD plasticity in alcohol-treated ferrets using a Sindbis viral vector to express a constitutively active form of SRF during the period of monocular deprivation. Using optical imaging of intrinsic signals and single-unit recordings, we observed that overexpression of a constitutively active form of SRF, but neither its dominant-negative nor GFP, restored OD plasticity in alcohol-treated animals. Surprisingly, this restoration was observed throughout the extent of the primary visual cortex and most cells infected by the virus were positive for GFAP rather than NeuN. This finding suggests that overexpression of SRF in astrocytes may reduce the deficits in neuronal plasticity seen in models of FASD.
Human-like H3N2 influenza viruses have repeatedly been transmitted to domestic pigs in different regions of the world, but it is still uncertain whether any of these variants could become established in pig populations. The fact that different subtypes of influenza viruses have been detected in pigs makes them an ideal candidate for the genesis of a possible reassortant virus with both human and avian origins. However, the determination of whether pigs can act as a "mixing vessel" for a possible future pandemic virus is still pending an answer. This prompted us to gather the epidemiological information and investigate the genetic evolution of swine influenza viruses in Jilin, China.
To test the effects of a sulfated polysaccharide, Haishen (HS) on the viability and proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), we isolated the polysaccharide from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus by enzymolysis extraction, anion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography. HS is a highly sulfated fucoidan with a molecular weight of 4.23x10(5) Da. Due to its safety being of invertebrate origin they are less likely to contain infectious agents, the effects of HS on the viability and proliferation of NSPCs in vitro were examined by MTT assay, BrdU labeling and neurosphere formation assay, respectively. Our results showed that HS alone increased NSPC viability in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, HS acted synergistically with fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) but not epidermal growth factor (EGF) to enhance the proliferation of NSPCs. Finally, HS did not induce apoptosis of NSPCs. Our findings suggest that HS can serve as an adjuvant for promoting the proliferation of NSPCs.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are the leading cause of mental retardation in the western world and children with FASD present altered somatosensory, auditory and visual processing. There is growing evidence that some of these sensory processing problems may be related to altered cortical maps caused by impaired developmental neuronal plasticity.
Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP), mainly associated with the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene, is generally an autosomal-dominant inherited peripheral neuropathy. The present large family including four generations provides an exciting opportunity to gain important insights into HNPP in China.
There is growing evidence that deficits in neuronal plasticity underlie the cognitive problems seen in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). However, the mechanisms behind these deficits are not clear. Here we test the effects of early alcohol exposure on ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) in mice and the reversibility of these effects by phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors. Mouse pups were exposed to 5 g/kg of 25% ethanol i.p. on postnatal days (P) 5, 7 and 9. This type of alcohol exposure mimics binge drinking during the third trimester equivalent of human gestation. To assess ocular dominance plasticity animals were monocularly deprived at P21 for 10 days, and tested using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. During the period of monocular deprivation animals were treated with vinpocetine (20mg/kg; PDE1 inhibitor), rolipram (1.25mg/kg; PDE4 inhibitor), vardenafil (3mg/kg; PDE5 inhibitor) or vehicle solution. Monocular deprivation resulted in the expected shift in ocular dominance of the binocular zone in saline controls but not in the ethanol group. While vinpocetine successfully restored ODP in the ethanol group, rolipram and vardenafil did not. However, when rolipram and vardenafil were given simultaneously ODP was restored. PDE4 and PDE5 are specific to cAMP and cGMP respectively, while PDE1 acts on both of these nucleotides. Our findings suggest that the combined activation of the cAMP and cGMP cascades may be a good approach to improve neuronal plasticity in FASD models.
Overexpression of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) has been reported in many types of cancer and may trigger secretion of their autoantibodies. The present work was thus designed to test whether circulating antibody to p16 protein-derived antigens was altered in lung cancer. Two hundred seventy-one patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 226 control subjects matched in age, gender, and smoking history were recruited in this study. The levels of circulating anti-p16 IgA and IgG antibodies were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed in-house with linear peptide antigens derived from p16 protein. Students t test showed that patients with NSCLC had a significant higher level of anti-p16 IgG antibody than control subjects (t?=?2.74, P?=?0.0063) but did not have a significant increase in IgA antibody levels (t?=?1.92, P?=?0.056). The sensitivity against >90 % specificity was 19.7 % for the IgG assay with an inter-assay deviation of 11.6 %, and 10.3 % for the IgA assay with an inter-assay deviation of 14.7 %. Based on a cut-off value determined by the 99th percentile of control IgG levels, the anti-p16 IgG positivity was 6.7 % in patients with NSCLC compared to 0.88 % in control subjects (? (2)?=?10.58, P?=?0.001, OR?=?7.97, 95 % CI 1.84-34.85). Circulating anti-p16 IgG levels were increased with stages of NSCLC, and patients with stage IV NSCLC had the highest IgG level among all four stages (t?=?2.42, P?=?0.016, compared with the control group). Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between circulating levels of IgA and IgG in the patient group (r?=?-0.2, df?=?236, P?=?0.0021) but not in the control group (r?=?-0.1, df?=?205, P?=?0.146). Circulating IgG antibody to p16 protein may be a potential biomarker with prognostic values for lung cancer.
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