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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Relative roles of CD90 and c-kit to the regenerative efficacy of cardiosphere-derived cells in humans and in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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The regenerative potential of cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) for ischemic heart disease has been demonstrated in mice, rats, pigs, and a recently completed clinical trial (CADUCEUS). CDCs are CD105(+) stromal cells of intrinsic cardiac origin, but the antigenic characteristics of the active fraction remain to be defined. CDCs contain a small minority of c-kit(+) cells, which have been argued to be cardiac progenitors, and a variable fraction of CD90(+) cells whose bioactivity is unclear.
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BMP8B mediates the survival of pancreatic cancer cells and regulates the progression of pancreatic cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Pancreatic cancer has become one of the most common types of cancer. It is believed that inhibiting the apoptosis of tumor cells as well as overgrowth of tumor cells accelerate the progression and development of cancer. However, the detailed mechanisms of pancreatic cancer progression remain to be fully elucidated. Although bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) families are crucial mediators in some types of cancer, whether BMP8B is involved in regulating the growth and apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells and the progression of pancreatic cancer is not clear. In the present study, we found that the expression of BMP8B was downregulated in pancreatic cancer tissue compared with the normal tissue adjacent to the tumors. Moreover, the overexpression of BMP8B inhibited cell growth and promoted activation of caspase-3 and -9, the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and cell apoptosis in PANC-1, while silencing the BMP8B gene expression with BMP8B shRNA exerted anti-apoptotic effects and boosted the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in BxPC-3. Therefore, we concluded that BMP8B mediates the survival of pancreatic cancer cells and regulates the progression of pancreatic cancer, making it a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.
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Cardiospheres reverse adverse remodeling in chronic rat myocardial infarction: roles of soluble endoglin and Tgf-? signaling.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Self-assembling heart-derived stem cell clusters named cardiospheres (CSps) improve function and attenuate remodeling in rodent models of acute myocardial infarction. The effects of CSps in chronically remodeled myocardium post-MI, and the underlying mechanisms, remain unknown. One month after permanent coronary ligation, rats were randomly assigned to injection of vehicle (controls) or CSps in the peri-infarct area. One month post-injection, CSps increased left ventricular function, reduced scar mass and collagen density, and enhanced vascularity within the infarct zone compared to controls. Immunoblots revealed Tgf?-1/smad cascade downregulation and an increase in soluble endoglin post-CSp injection. Six months post-transplantation, left ventricular function further improved and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was attenuated in the CSp-treated group. In vitro, co-culture of CSps with fibroblasts recapitulated the suppression of the Tgf-?1/smad pathway changes, responses which were blunted by neutralizing antibody against endoglin. Thus, cardiosphere transplantation enhances angiogenesis and reduces fibrosis in chronically infarcted myocardium, leading to partial reversal of cardiac dysfunction. The underlying mechanism involves inhibition of Tgf-?1/smad signaling by CSp-secreted soluble endoglin.
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Stimulation of endogenous cardioblasts by exogenous cell therapy after myocardial infarction.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Controversy surrounds the identity, origin, and physiologic role of endogenous cardiomyocyte progenitors in adult mammals. Using an inducible genetic labeling approach to identify small non-myocyte cells expressing cardiac markers, we find that activated endogenous cardioblasts are rarely evident in the normal adult mouse heart. However, myocardial infarction results in significant cardioblast activation at the site of injury. Genetically labeled isolated cardioblasts express cardiac transcription factors and sarcomeric proteins, exhibit spontaneous contractions, and form mature cardiomyocytes in vivo after injection into unlabeled recipient hearts. The activated cardioblasts do not arise from hematogenous seeding, cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation, or mere expansion of a preformed progenitor pool. Cell therapy with cardiosphere-derived cells amplifies innate cardioblast-mediated tissue regeneration, in part through the secretion of stromal cell-derived factor 1 by transplanted cells. Thus, stimulation of endogenous cardioblasts by exogenous cells mediates therapeutic regeneration of injured myocardium.
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Magnetic antibody-linked nanomatchmakers for therapeutic cell targeting.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Stem cell transplantation is a promising strategy for therapeutic cardiac regeneration, but current therapies are limited by inefficient interaction between potentially beneficial cells (either exogenously transplanted or endogenously recruited) and the injured tissue. Here we apply targeted nanomedicine to achieve in vivo cell-mediated tissue repair, imaging and localized enrichment without cellular transplantation. Iron nanoparticles are conjugated with two types of antibodies (one against antigens on therapeutic cells and the other directed at injured cells) to produce magnetic bifunctional cell engager (MagBICE). The antibodies link the therapeutic cells to the injured cells, whereas the iron core of MagBICE enables physical enrichment and imaging. We treat acute myocardial infarction by targeting exogenous bone marrow-derived stem cells (expressing CD45) or endogenous CD34-positive cells to injured cardiomyocytes (expressing myosin light chain. Targeting can be further enhanced by magnetic attraction, leading to augmented functional benefits. MagBICE represents a generalizable platform technology for regenerative medicine.
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Importance of cell-cell contact in the therapeutic benefits of cardiosphere-derived cells.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) effect therapeutic regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI) both in animal models and in humans. Here, we test the hypothesis that cell-cell contact plays a role in mediating the observed therapeutic benefits of CDCs, above and beyond conventional paracrine effects. Human CDCs or vehicle were injected into immunodeficient (SCID) mouse hearts during acute MI. CDC transplantation augmented the proportion of cycling (Ki67(+) ) cardiomyocytes and improved ventricular function. CDC-conditioned media only modestly augmented the percentage of Ki67(+) cardiomyocytes (>control but
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A review of the dragon millipede genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923 in China, with descriptions of four new species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Four new species of Desmoxytes are described from southern China: Desmoxyteslingulata sp. n., Desmoxytesparvula sp. n., and Desmoxytesnodulosa sp. n., from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and Desmoxytesgetuhensis sp. n. from Guizhou Province. In addition, new records of Desmoxytesscutigeroides Golovatch, Geoffroy & Mauriès, 2010 and Desmoxytesscolopendroides Golovatch, Geoffroy & Mauriès, 2010 are provided, with a modified key to Desmoxytes species currently known to occur in China. Two of the new species, Desmoxytesnodulosa sp. n. and Desmoxytesgetuhensis sp. n., seem to be troglobites.
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Angiogenesis, cardiomyocyte proliferation and anti-fibrotic effects underlie structural preservation post-infarction by intramyocardially-injected cardiospheres.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We sought to understand the cellular and tissue-level changes underlying the attenuation of adverse remodeling by cardiosphere transplantation in acute myocardial infarction (MI).
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Identification of genes encoding granule-bound starch synthase involved in amylose metabolism in banana fruit.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) is responsible for amylose synthesis, but the role of GBSS genes and their encoded proteins remains poorly understood in banana. In this study, amylose content and GBSS activity gradually increased during development of the banana fruit, and decreased during storage of the mature fruit. GBSS protein in banana starch granules was approximately 55.0 kDa. The protein was up-regulated expression during development while it was down-regulated expression during storage. Six genes, designated as MaGBSSI-1, MaGBSSI-2, MaGBSSI-3, MaGBSSI-4, MaGBSSII-1, and MaGBSSII-2, were cloned and characterized from banana fruit. Among the six genes, the expression pattern of MaGBSSI-3 was the most consistent with the changes in amylose content, GBSS enzyme activity, GBSS protein levels, and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit. These results suggest that MaGBSSI-3 might regulate amylose metabolism by affecting the variation of GBSS levels and the quantity or size of starch granules in banana fruit during development or storage.
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Controlling the duty cycle of the eigenstates in laser with multiple optical feedback.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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The polarization dynamics of a quasi-isotropic single-mode laser subjected to multiple optical feedback is presented. The variable duty cycle of two eigenstates is observed in high-frequency optical fringes. The high-frequency optical fringes are induced by the multiple reflections in the asymmetry feedback cavity. The duty cycle of two eigenstates can be controlled easily by adjusting the position of polarization flipping due to the residual stress of laser mirror. Particularly, when the frequency difference results from residual stress is reduced to 1.5MHz, the position of polarization flipping moves to the edge of each fringe which can be used to measure small displacement with direction sensitivity and high resolution.
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Missense mutation T485S alters NBCe1-A electrogenicity causing proximal renal tubular acidosis.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Mutations in SLC4A4, the gene encoding the electrogenic Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCe1, cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA), growth retardation, decreased IQ, and eye and teeth abnormalities. Among the known NBCe1 mutations, the disease-causing mechanism of the T485S (NBCe1-A numbering) mutation is intriguing because the substituted amino acid, serine, is structurally and chemically similar to threonine. In this study, we performed intracellular pH and whole cell patch-clamp measurements to investigate the base transport and electrogenic properties of NBCe1-A-T485S in mammalian HEK 293 cells. Our results demonstrated that Ser substitution of Thr485 decreased base transport by ~50%, and importantly, converted NBCe1-A from an electrogenic to an electroneutral transporter. Aqueous accessibility analysis using sulfhydryl reactive reagents indicated that Thr485 likely resides in an NBCe1-A ion interaction site. This critical location is also supported by the finding that G486R (a pRTA causing mutation) alters the position of Thr485 in NBCe1-A thereby impairing its transport function. By using NO3(-) as a surrogate ion for CO3(2-), our result indicated that NBCe1-A mediates electrogenic Na(+)-CO3(2-) cotransport when functioning with a 1:2 charge transport stoichiometry. In contrast, electroneutral NBCe1-T485S is unable to transport NO3(-), compatible with the hypothesis that it mediates Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransport. In patients, NBCe1-A-T485S is predicted to transport Na(+)-HCO3(-) in the reverse direction from blood into proximal tubule cells thereby impairing transepithelial HCO3(-) absorption, possibly representing a new pathogenic mechanism for generating human pRTA.
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Topology of NBCe1 protein transmembrane segment 1 and structural effect of proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) S427L mutation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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In the kidney proximal tubule, NBCe1-A plays a critical role in absorbing HCO3(-) from cell to blood. NBCe1-A transmembrane segment 1 (TM1) is involved in forming part of the ion permeation pathway, and a missense mutation S427L in TM1 impairs ion transport, causing proximal renal tubular acidosis. In the present study, we examined the topology of NBCe1-A-TM1 in detail and its structural perturbation induced by S427L. We analyzed the N-terminal cytoplasmic region (Cys-389-Gln-424) of NBCe1-A-TM1 using the substituted cysteine scanning accessibility method combined with extensive chemical stripping, in situ chemical probing, and functional transport assays. NBCe1-A-TM1 was previously modeled on the anion exchanger 1 TM1 (AE1-TM1); however, our data demonstrated that the topology of AE1-TM1 differs significantly from NBCe1-A-TM1. Our findings revealed that NBCe1-A-TM1 is unusually long, consisting of 31 membrane-embedded amino acids (Phe-412 to Thr-442). The linker region (Arg-394-Pro-411) between the N terminus of TM1 and the cytoplasmic domain is minimally exposed to aqueous and is potentially folded in a helical structure that intimately interacts with the NBCe1-A cytoplasmic domain. In contrast, AE1-TM1 contains 25 amino acids connected to an aqueous-exposed cytoplasmic region. Based on our new NBCe1-A-TM1 model, Ser-427 resides in the middle of TM1. Leucine substitution at Ser-427 blocks the normal aqueous access to Thr-442, Ala-435, and Lys-404, implying a significant alteration of NBCe1-TM1 orientation. Our study provides novel structural insights into the pathogenic mechanism of S427L in mediating proximal renal tubular acidosis.
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[Research of origin and ethnopharmacological uses of mineral medicine Halitum].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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To study the origin and ethnopharmacological uses of mineral medicine Halitum.
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Structural and functional characterization of the C-terminal transmembrane region of NBCe1-A.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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NBCe1-A and AE1 both belong to the SLC4 HCO(3)(-) transporter family. The two transporters share 40% sequence homology in the C-terminal transmembrane region. In this study, we performed extensive substituted cysteine-scanning mutagenesis analysis of the C-terminal region of NBCe1-A covering amino acids Ala(800)-Lys(967). Location of the introduced cysteines was determined by whole cell labeling with a membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and a membrane-impermeant 2-((5(6)-tetramethylrhodamine)carboxylamino) ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS-TAMRA) cysteine-reactive reagent. The results show that the extracellular surface of the NBCe1-A C-terminal transmembrane region is minimally exposed to aqueous media with Met(858) accessible to both biotin maleimide and TAMRA and Thr(926)-Ala(929) only to TAMRA labeling. The intracellular surface contains a highly exposed (Met(813)-Gly(828)) region and a cryptic (Met(887)-Arg(904)) connecting loop. The lipid/aqueous interface of the last transmembrane segment is at Asp(960). Our data clearly determined that the C terminus of NBCe1-A contains 5 transmembrane segments with greater average size compared with AE1. Functional assays revealed only two residues in the region of Pro(868)-Leu(967) (a functionally important region in AE1) that are highly sensitive to cysteine substitution. Our findings suggest that the C-terminal transmembrane region of NBCe1-A is tightly folded with unique structural and functional features that differ from AE1.
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Topological location and structural importance of the NBCe1-A residues mutated in proximal renal tubular acidosis.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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NBCe1-A electrogenically cotransports Na(+) and HCO(3)(-) across the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubule cells. Eight missense mutations and 3 nonsense mutations in NBCe1-A cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA). In this study, the topologic properties and structural importance of the 8 endogenous residues mutated in pRTA and the in situ topology of NBCe1-A were examined by the substituted cysteine accessibility method. Of the 55 analyzed individually introduced cysteines, 8 were labeled with both membrane permeant (biotin maleimide (BM)) and impermeant (2-((5(6)-tetramethylrhodamine)carboxylamino)ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS-TAMRA)) sulfhydryl reagents, 4 with only BM, and 3 with only MTS-TAMRA. The location of the labeled and unlabeled introduced cysteines clearly indicates that the transmembrane region of NBCe1-A contains 14 transmembrane segments (TMs). In this in situ based NBCe1-A topology, residues mutated in pRTA (pRTA residues) are assigned as: Ser(427), TM1; Thr(485) and Gly(486), TM3; Arg(510) and Leu(522), TM4; Ala(799), TM10; and Arg(881), TM12. Substitution of pRTA residues with cysteines impaired the membrane trafficking of R510C and R881C, the remaining membrane-processed constructs had various impaired transport function. Surprisingly, none of the membrane-processed constructs was accessible to labeling with BM and MTS-TAMRA, nor were they functionally sensitive to the inhibition by (2-aminoethyl)methanethiosulfonate. Functional analysis of Thr(485) with different amino acid substitutions indicated it resides in a unique region important for NBCe1-A function. Our findings demonstrate that the pRTA residues in NBCe1-A are buried in the protein complex/lipid bilayer where they perform important structural roles.
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[Study on expression of curcin gene cloned from Jatropha curcas in Escherichia coli].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2009
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To construct mature protein curcin gene prokaryotic expression vectors in Escherichia coli and choose the optimal inducing condition of the recombinant strains.
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Slc4a11 gene disruption in mice: cellular targets of sensorineuronal abnormalities.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
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NaBC1 (the SLC4A11 gene) belongs to the SLC4 family of sodium-coupled bicarbonate (carbonate) transporter proteins and functions as an electrogenic sodium borate cotransporter. Mutations in SLC4A11 cause either corneal abnormalities (corneal hereditary dystrophy type 2) or a combined auditory and visual impairment (Harboyan syndrome). The role of NaBC1 in sensory systems is poorly understood, given the difficulty of studying patients with NaBC1 mutations. We report our findings in Slc4a11(-/-) mice generated to investigate the role of NaBC1 in sensorineural systems. In wild-type mice, specific NaBC1 immunoreactivity was detected in fibrocytes of the spiral ligament, from the basal to the apical portion of the cochlea. NaBC1 immunoreactivity was present in the vestibular labyrinth, in stromal cells underneath the non-immunoreactive sensory epithelia of the macula utricle, sacule, and crista ampullaris, and the membranous vestibular labyrinth was collapsed. Both auditory brain response and vestibular evoked potential waveforms were significantly abnormal in Slc4a11(-/-) mice. In the cornea, NaBC1 was highly expressed in the endothelial cell layer with less staining in epithelial cells. However, unlike humans, the corneal phenotype was mild with a normal slit lamp evaluation. Corneal endothelial cells were morphologically normal; however, both the absolute height of the corneal basal epithelial cells and the relative basal epithelial cell/total corneal thickness were significantly increased in Slc4a11(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time the importance of NaBC1 in the audio-vestibular system and provide support for the hypothesis that SLC4A11 should be considered a potential candidate gene in patients with isolated sensorineural vestibular hearing abnormalities.
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NBCe1-A Transmembrane Segment 1 Lines the Ion Translocation Pathway.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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The electrogenic Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (NBCe1-A) transports sodium and bicarbonate across the basolateral membrane of the renal proximal tubule. In this study the structural requirement of transmembrane segment 1 (TM1) residues in mediating NBCe1-A transport was investigated. Twenty-five introduced cysteine mutants at positions Gln-424 to Gly-448 were tested for their sensitivity to the methanethiosulfonate reagents (2-sulfonatoethyl) methanethiosulfonate (MTSES), [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl]methanethiosulfonate (MTSET), and (2-aminoethyl) methanethiosulfonate (MTSEA). Two mutants, T442C and A435C, showed 100 and 70% sensitivity, respectively, to inhibition by all the three methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents, I441C had >50% sensitivity to MTSET and MTSEA, and A428C had 50% sensitivity to MTSEA inhibition. A helical wheel plot showed that mutants T442C, A435C, and A428C are clustered on one face of TM1 within a 100 degrees arc. Topology analysis of TM1 with biotin maleimide and 2-((5(6)-tetramethylrhodamine)carboxylamino) ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS-TAMRA) revealed Thr-442 marks the C-terminal end of TM1 and that extracellular FGGLLG stretch is in a small aqueous-accessible cavity. Functional studies indicated that Thr-442 resides in a narrow region of the ion translocation pore with strong delta(-) helical dipole influence. Analysis of the corresponding residue of NBCe1-A-Thr-442 in AE1 (Thr-422) shows it is functionally insensitive to MTSES and unlabeled with MTS-TAMRA, indicating that AE1-TM1 is oriented differently from NBCe1-A. In summary, we have identified residues Thr-442, Ala-435, and Ala-428 in TM1 lining the ion translocation pore of NBCe1-A. Our findings are suggestive of a delta(-) helical dipole at the C-terminal end of TM1 involving Thr-442 that plays a critical role in the function of the cotransporter.
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Three new cavernicolous species of dragon millipedes, genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, from southern China, with notes on a formal congener from the Philippines (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).
Zookeys
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The large Southeast Asian genus Desmoxytes is slightly rediagnosed. A number of troglomorphic, most likely troglobitic, species occur in southern China. A key is provided to all 10 Desmoxytes spp. currently known from China, including three new presumed troglobites: Desmoxytes eupterygotasp. n. from Hunan Province, as well as Desmoxytes spinissimasp. n. and Desmoxytes luisp. n. from Guangxi Province. "Desmoxytes" philippina Nguyen Duc & Sierwald, 2010, from the Philippines, is formally removed from Desmoxytes, but not assigned to another genus. It probably belongs in a new genus in the subfamily Australiosomatinae, tribe Antichiropodini, close to the Bornean Euphyodesmus Attems, 1931 and Borneochiropus Golovatch, 1996.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.