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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Specific Gene Repression by CRISPRi System Transferred through Bacterial Conjugation.
ACS Synth Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In microbial communities, bacterial populations are commonly controlled using indiscriminate, broad range antibiotics. There are few ways to target specific strains effectively without disrupting the entire microbiome and local environment. Here we use conjugation, a natural DNA horizontal transfer process among bacterial species, to deliver an engineered CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system for targeting specific genes in recipient Escherichia coli cells. We show that delivery of the CRISPRi system is successful and can specifically repress a reporter gene in recipient cells, thereby establishing a new tool for gene regulation across bacterial cells and potentially for bacterial population control.
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Time-resolved ICP-MS analysis of mineral element contents and distribution patterns in single cells.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Novel single cell techniques are attracting growing interest for clinical applications, because they can elucidate the cellular diversity and heterogeneity instead of the average masked by bulk measurements. Herein, time-resolved ICP-MS for the determination of essential mineral elements in single cells has been developed and is used to analyze the contents and distribution patterns of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, P and S in two types of cancer cells (HeLa and A549) and one type of normal cells (16HBE). The results show that there are obvious differences in contents and distribution patterns of the elements among the three types of cells. The mass of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, P, and S in individual HeLa cells is significantly higher and span a broader range of values than in the single 16HBE and A549 cells. The contents of Fe, Zn, and Cu follow log-normal distributions, and Mn, P, and S follow Poisson distributions with high ? values in single HeLa cells, indicating a large cell-to-cell variance. Comparatively, the contents of Cu, Zn, P, and S in 16HBE cells show the narrowest distribution range among the three tested cells, demonstrating the homogenous distribution of the elements in the cells. The method of single cell ICP-MS (SC-ICP-MS) provides potential applications for the monitoring of the variation of mineral elements at a single cell level.
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Evaluating tumor metastatic potential by imaging intratumoral acidosis via pH-activatable near-infrared fluorescent probe.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of cancer deaths. To minimize metastasis-associated mortality, it is crucially important to evaluate the metastatic potential (M.P.), that is, defined as a tendency of a primary tumor to colonize a distant organ. Dysregulated pH in solid tumors, especially the acidification of extracellular pH (pHe ) promotes dormant metastasis by driving protease-mediated digestion, disrupting cell-matrix interaction and increasing migration of cancer cells. Therefore, imaging intratumoral acidosis creates a unique opportunity to evaluate the M.P. In this work, a novel pH activatable probe was developed, in which two near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores were conjugated via a flexible and acid liable linkage. While the fluorescence of this probe is quenched due to intramolecular dimeric aggregate under neutral environment, the cleavage of pH liable linkage with the concomitant disruption of aggregates in acidic tumor microenvironment results in a remarkable fluorescence enhancement. This probe not only visualized the primary tumors with high target to background (T/B) signal ratio in vivo, but also revealed the correlation between the M.P. and acidosis distribution pattern in tumor. While the acidosis locate dispersedly at tumor periphery in highly metastatic tumor, it distribute more widely in lowly metastatic tumor and the acidification degree increases substantially from the margin to core areas. This pH activatable NIR fluorescent probe holds the potential to evaluate the M.P., monitor the therapeutic response and predict the prognosis by delineating acidosis in tumors.
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Enhancement in bioavailability of ketorolac tromethamine via intranasal in situ hydrogel based on poloxamer 407 and carrageenan.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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The objective of this study was to construct a new in situ gel system based on the combination of poloxamer 407 and carrageenan (carrageenan-poloxamer 407 hydrogel, CPH) for intranasal delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. CPH showed potassium ion concentration - dependent erosion characteristics which ensured slow erosion in aqueous environment containing potassium ion at the physiological level. Loading with ketorolac tromethamine influenced erosion, drug release and thermosensitive properties of CPH. CPH containing 15% ketorolac tromethamine showed suitable gelation temperature (near 35°C) and in vitro sustained release profiles. Pharmacokinetic study of intranasal CPH containing 15% ketorolac tromethamine in rats demonstrated enhanced absolute bioavailability (68.8 ± 23.3%) and prolonged mean residence time (8.8 ± 3.5h) in comparison with the intranasal solution group (24.8 ± 13.8%, 3.9 ± 0.6h). Nasal ciliotoxicity evaluation on an in situ toad palate model preliminarily showed the safety of CPH for intranasal use. All results suggested the potential of CPH as a new sustained - release platform for the intranasal delivery of ketorolac tromethamine.
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In vivo evaluation of an in-situ hydrogel system for vaginal administration.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The vaginal retention and local irritation of a carrageenan, poloxamer 407 and carbopol-based thermosensitive hydrogel system for vaginal drug delivery was assessed. Results showed that the residence of hydrogel in the mouse vagina following intravaginal administration was prolonged by carrageenan and further prolonged by the addition of a mucoadhesive component (carbopol). The optimal hydrogel formulation was proven to be safe for vaginal use in rabbits.
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Oral magnetite nanoparticles disturb the development of Drosophila melanogaster from oogenesis to adult emergence.
Nanotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Abstract The potential impacts of nanomaterials (NMs) on fetal development have attracted great concerns because of the increased potential exposure to NMs during pregnancy. Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis and developmental transitions may provide an attractive system to study the biological and environmental effects of NMs on the embryonic development. In this study, the effects of three types of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs): UN-MNPs (pristine), CA-MNPs (citric acid modified) and APTS-MNPs (3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane coated) on the development of Drosophila at 300 and 600??g/g dosage were studied. The uptake of MNPs by female and male flies caused obvious reduction in the female fecundity, and the developmental delay at the egg-pupae and pupae-adult transitions, especially in those treated by the positive APTS-MNPs. Further investigation demonstrates that the parental uptake of MNPs disturbs the oogenesis period, induces ovarian defect, reduces the length of eggs, decreases the number of nurse cells and delays egg chamber development, which may contribute to the decrease of fecundity of female Drosophila and the development delay of their offspring. Using the synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-?XRF), the dyshomeostasis of trace elements such as Fe, Ca and Cu along the anterior-posterior axis of the fertilized eggs was found, which may be an important reason for the development delay of Drosophila.
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EGFR-targeted poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine micelle loaded with paclitaxel for laryngeal cancer: preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using polymeric micelles modified with a peptide (termed GE11) ligand of epidermal growth factor receptor as the targeted carriers to achieve increased accumulation in laryngeal cancer and enhanced intracellular delivery for the encapsulated anticancer drugs. Poly (ethylene glycol)-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) micelles containing paclitaxel were prepared via film-hydration method followed by investigation of in vitro release of paclitaxel in phosphate-buffered saline. The average size of GE11-PEG-DSPE/paclitaxel micelle and mPEG-DSPE/paclitaxel were 35?±?2.8?nm [the polydispersity index (PDI)?=?0.207] and 28?±?2.1?nm (PDI?=?0.154), respectively. Micelles with or without GE11-modified had similar physicochemical properties. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the micelles were homogeneous and spherical in shape. Encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of the micelle were 74.11?±?3.89% and 3.58?±?2.82%, respectively. The in vitro targeting characteristic of GE11-modified micelles was investigated by observing the level of cellular uptake of fluorescent coumarin-6-loaded micelles on EGFR over-expressed human laryngeal cancer cell line Hep-2 and EGFR low-expressed human leukemic cell line U-937. Hep-2 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by GE11-PEG-DSPE/paclitaxel micelle compared to mPEG-DSPE/paclitaxel micelle and Taxol in vitro. Our results suggested that GE11-PEG-DSPE micelle could be a promising strategy for enhancing paclitaxel's chemotherapeutic effects on EGFR over-expressed cancer cells.
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Retro-inverso isomer of Angiopep-2: a stable d-peptide ligand inspires brain-targeted drug delivery.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents most drugs from reaching the site of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, intensively confining the therapeutic efficiency. Angiopep-2 (here termed (L)Angiopep), which is a 19-mer peptide derived from human Kunitz domain, can trigger transcytosis and traverse the BBB by recognizing low density lipoprotein-related protein 1 (LRP-1) expressed on the brain capillary endothelial cells. Various enzymes in the blood and the BBB, however, present multiple metabolic barriers to peptide-inspired brain-targeted drug delivery. Here we designed a retro-inverso isomer of (L)Angiopep, termed (D)Angiopep, to inspire brain-targeted drug delivery. Both (D)Angiopep and (L)Angiopep displayed high uptake capacity in LRP-1 overexpressed cells, including bEnd.3 and U87 cells. (D)Angiopep demonstrated lower uptake efficiency in both cell lines than did (L)Angiopep, suggestive of lower binding affinity to LRP-1 of the d-peptide. (D)Angiopep was resistant to proteolysis in fresh rat blood serum, while more than 85% of (L)Angiopep disappeared within 2 h. Endocytosed (D)Angiopep and (L)Angiopep were found to be colocalized with lysosomal compartments of bEnd.3 cells, indicating that susceptibility to proteolysis of (L)Angiopep in the BBB may further attenuate its transcytosis efficiency. In vivo, (D)Angiopep modified PEG-DSPE micelles displayed high distribution in normal brain and intracranial glioblastoma. Due to the expression of LRP-1 on the BBB and glioblastoma cells, proteolytically stable (D)Angiopep holds much potential for designing two-order brain tumor targeted delivery systems.
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A novel nanoscale-dispersed eye ointment for the treatment of dry eye disease.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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A novel nanoscale-dispersed eye ointment (NDEO) for the treatment of severe evaporative dry eye has been successfully developed. The excipients used as semisolid lipids were petrolatum and lanolin, as used in conventional eye ointment, which were coupled with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) as a liquid lipid; both phases were then dispersed in polyvinyl pyrrolidone solution to form a nanodispersion. Single-factor experiments were conducted to optimize the formulations. A transmission electron micrograph showed that the ointment matrix was entrapped in the nanoemulsion of MCT, with a mean particle size of about 100 nm. The optimized formulation of NDEO was stable when stored for six months at 4?°C, and demonstrated no cytotoxicity to human corneal epithelial cells when compared with commercial polymer-based artificial tears (Tears Natural Forte). The therapeutic effects of NDEO were evaluated on a mouse model with 'dry eye'. Both the tear break-up time and fluorescein staining demonstrated therapeutic improvement, displaying a trend of positive correlation with higher concentrations of ointment matrix in the NDEO formulations compared to a marketed product. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the NDEO restored the normal corneal and conjunctival morphology and is safe for ophthalmic application.
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Penetratin, a potentially powerful absorption enhancer for noninvasive intraocular drug delivery.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Intraocular drug delivery is extraordinarily hampered by the impermeability of defensive barriers of the eye. In this study, the ocular permeability of fluorophore-labeled cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), including penetratin, TAT, low molecular weight protamine, and poly(arginine)8, was investigated based on multilevel evaluations. The human conjunctival epithelial cell (NHC) was exposed to various CPPs to determine the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake. Ex vivo studies with rabbit cornea were performed using side-by-side diffusion chambers to evaluate the apparent permeability coefficients and acute tissue tolerance of the CPP candidates. Among all examined CPPs, penetratin shows an outstanding cellular uptake, by increasing more than 16 and 25 times at low and high concentrations, compared to the control peptide poly(serine)8 respectively. Additionally, the permeability of penetratin across excised cornea is 87.5 times higher in comparison with poly(serine)8. More importantly, after instilled in the conjunctival sac of rat eyes, fluorophore-labeled penetratin displayed a rapid and wide distribution in both anterior and posterior segment of the eye, and could be observed in the corneal epithelium and retina lasting for at least 6 h. Interestingly, penetratin showed the lowest ocular cell and tissue toxicities among all examined CPPs. The high ocular permeability of penetratin could be attributed to its amphipathicity and spatial conformation determined by circular dichroism. Taken together, these data demonstrate that penetratin is potentially useful as an absorption enhancer for intraocular drug delivery.
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Retro-inverso CendR peptide-mediated polyethyleneimine for intracranial glioblastoma-targeting gene therapy.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The development of nonviral gene delivery vectors offers the potential to provide effective treatment for glioblastoma in the form of gene therapy. Here, we report the use of retro-inverso C-end rule (CendR) peptide D(RPPREGR) as a targeting ligand to prepare a D(RPPREGR)-PEG-PEI gene vector. D(RPPREGR) peptide specifically recognized the neuropilin-1 receptor that was overexpressed on U87 glioma cells, and showed enhanced tumor spheroid penetration ability. Compared with parental RGERPPR, D(RPPREGR) possessed improved biological stability and had a higher affinity for U87 glioma cells; it also showed enhanced penetration of the tumor spheroid. mPEG-PEI/pDNA and D(RPPREGR)-PEG-PEI/pDNA complexes were prepared and MTT assay results revealed that the cytotoxicity of D(RPPREGR)-PEG-PEI complexes was significantly lower than that of PEI complexes, with cell survival rates above 80%. Qualitative and quantitative in vitro transfection results revealed that D(RPPREGR)-PEG-PEI complex transfection efficiencies were 1.9 times higher than those of mPEG-PEI. Fluorescent imaging and frozen sections of brain tissue demonstrated that the D(RPPREGR) modification improved the in vivo transfection efficiency of mPEG-PEI in nude mice bearing U87 gliomas. An antiglioblastoma assay revealed that D(RPPREGR)-PEG-PEI carrying the therapeutic gene pORF-hTRAIL significantly prolonged the survival time of intracranial U87 glioma-bearing mice from 25 to 30 days. Therefore, D(RPPREGR)-PEG-PEI appears to be suitable for use as a safe and efficient gene delivery vehicle with potential applications in glioblastoma gene therapy.
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Combined effects of urinary phytoestrogens metabolites and polymorphisms in metabolic enzyme gene on idiopathic male infertility.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds that may interact with estrogen receptors and mimic estrogenic effects. It remains unclear whether the individual variability in metabolizing phytoestrogens contributes to phytoestrogens-induced beneficial or detrimental effects. Our aim was to determine whether there is any interaction between metabolic rates (MR) of phytoestrogens and genetic polymorphisms in related xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genes. MR was used to assess phytoestrogen exposure and individual metabolic ability. The amount of phytoestrogens in urine was measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 600 idiopathic infertile male patients and 401 controls. Polymorphisms were genotyped using the SNPstream platform combined with the Taqman method. Prototypes and metabolites of secoisolariciresinol (SEC) have inverse effects on male reproduction. It was found that low MR of SEC increased the risk of male infertility (OR 2.49, 95 % CI 1.78, 3.48, P trend = 8.00 × 10(-8)). Novel interactions were also observed between the MR of SEC and rs1042389 in CYP2B6, rs1048943 in CYP1A1, and rs1799931 in NAT2 on male infertility (P inter = 1.06 × 10(-4), 1.14 × 10(-3), 3.55 × 10(-3), respectively). By analyzing the relationships between urinary phytoestrogen concentrations, their metabolites and male infertility, we found that individual variability in metabolizing SEC contributed to the interpersonal differences in SEC's effects on male reproduction.
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Programming a Pavlovian-like conditioning circuit in Escherichia coli.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Synthetic genetic circuits are programmed in living cells to perform predetermined cellular functions. However, designing higher-order genetic circuits for sophisticated cellular activities remains a substantial challenge. Here we program a genetic circuit that executes Pavlovian-like conditioning, an archetypical sequential-logic function, in Escherichia coli. The circuit design is first specified by the subfunctions that are necessary for the single simultaneous conditioning, and is further genetically implemented using four function modules. During this process, quantitative analysis is applied to the optimization of the modules and fine-tuning of the interconnections. Analogous to classical Pavlovian conditioning, the resultant circuit enables the cells to respond to a certain stimulus only after a conditioning process. We show that, although the conditioning is digital in single cells, a dynamically progressive conditioning process emerges at the population level. This circuit, together with its rational design strategy, is a key step towards the implementation of more sophisticated cellular computing.
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SNX31: a novel sorting nexin associated with the uroplakin-degrading multivesicular bodies in terminally differentiated urothelial cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Uroplakins (UP), a group of integral membrane proteins, are major urothelial differentiation products that form 2D crystals of 16-nm particles (urothelial plaques) covering the apical surface of mammalian bladder urothelium. They contribute to the urothelial barrier function and, one of them, UPIa, serves as the receptor for uropathogenic Escherichia coli. It is therefore important to understand the mechanism by which these surface-associated uroplakins are degraded. While it is known that endocytosed uroplakin plaques are targeted to and line the multivesicular bodies (MVBs), it is unclear how these rigid-looking plaques can go to the highly curved membranes of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). From a cDNA subtraction library, we identified a highly urothelium-specific sorting nexin, SNX31. SNX31 is expressed, like uroplakins, in terminally differentiated urothelial umbrella cells where it is predominantly associated with MVBs. Apical membrane proteins including uroplakins that are surface biotin-tagged are endocytosed and targeted to the SNX31-positive MVBs. EM localization demonstrated that SNX31 and uroplakins are both associated not only with the limiting membranes of MVBs containing uroplakin plaques, but also with ILVs. SNX31 can bind, on one hand, the PtdIns3P-enriched lipids via its N-terminal PX-domain, and, on the other hand, it binds uroplakins as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay, and by its reduced membrane association in uroplakin II-deficient urothelium. The fact that in urothelial umbrella cells MVBs are the only major intracellular organelles enriched in both PtdIns3P and uroplakins may explain SNX31's MVB-specificity in these cells. However, in MDCK and other cultured cells transfected SNX31 can bind to early endosomes possibly via lipids. These data support a model in which SNX31 mediates the endocytic degradation of uroplakins by disassembling/collapsing the MVB-associated uroplakin plaques, thus enabling the uroplakin-containing (but 'softened') membranes to bud and form the ILVs for lysosomal degradation and/or exosome formation.
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Tumor-Penetrating Peptide Mediation: An Effective Strategy for Improving the Transport of Liposomes in Tumor Tissue.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Currently, the inefficient transport of liposomes in tumor tissue hinders their clinical application. Tumor-penetrating peptides (TPP) are a series of targeting peptides with the function of penetrating tumor blood vessels and tumor stroma. This work aimed to improve the penetration of liposomes in tumor tissues by TPP modification, thereby enhancing the antitumor effect. First, RPARPAR, a TPP, was modified to the surface of liposomes loaded with doxorubicin. The RPARPAR-modified liposomes (RPA-LP) and unmodified liposomes (LP) showed spherical morphology with average sizes about 90 nm. RPA-LP exhibited remarkably increased cellular accumulation by PC-3 tumor cells than LP as evidenced by the cellular uptake test. The in vivo imaging study confirmed that RPARPAR modification significantly increased the liposome accumulation in subcutaneous tumor tissues. RPA-LP could penetrate through tumor blood vessels and tumor stroma and into the deep tumor tissues as evidence by the immunofluorescence staining analysis. The cytotoxicity of RPARPAR-modified doxorubicin liposomes (RPA-LP-DXR) is considerably increased compared with that of doxorubicin liposomes (LP-DXR). The RPA-LP-DXR also showed significantly (p < 0.005) stronger growth-inhibiting effect on tumor than LP-DXR, possibly due to the tumor-penetrating ability of RPA-LP and targeted killing of tumor cells. This study proved that TPP mediation may be an effective strategy for improving the transport of liposomes in tumor tissue.
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Tumor-penetrating peptide functionalization enhances the anti-glioblastoma effect of doxorubicin liposomes.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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The targeted therapeutic effect of nano drug delivery system for glioblastoma has been hampered by the weak enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of glioblastoma and the low delivering efficiency of NDDS in glioblastoma tissue. In this study, a tumor-penetrating peptide (RGERPPR), the specific ligand of neuropilin-1 overexpressed on glioblastoma and endothelial cells, was used as a targeting moiety to enhance the anti-glioblastoma effect of doxorubicin liposomes. Firstly, RGERPPR-PEG-DSPE was synthesized and used to prepare the RGERPPR peptide-functionalized liposomes (RGE-LS), which showed vesicle sizes of around 90 nm and narrow size distributions. The cellular uptake and in vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging test displayed that RGE-LS exhibited increased uptake by glioblastoma cells and intracranial glioblastoma tissues. The cytotoxicity assay and anti-glioblastoma study proved that RGERPPR functionalization significantly enhanced the in vitro inhibitory effect of doxorubicin liposomes on glioblastoma cells and prolonged the median survival time of nude mice bearing intracranial glioblastoma. Finally, the immunofluorescence analysis evidenced that RGE-LS were able to penetrate through tumor vessels and stroma and deep into the whole tumor tissue. The results indicated that tumor-penetrating peptide functionalization is an effective strategy for enhancing the anti-glioblastoma effect of doxorubicin liposomes.
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Targeted gene delivery to glioblastoma using a C-end rule RGERPPR peptide-functionalised polyethylenimine complex.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Safe and efficient systems capable of specifically targeting brain tumour cells represent a promising approach for the treatment glioblastoma multiforme. Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is over-expressed in U87 glioma cells. In the current study, the tumour specific peptide RGERPPR, which binds specifically to NRP-1, was used as a targeting ligand in a gene delivery strategy for glioblastoma. The RGERPPR peptide was coupled to branched polyethylenimine (PEI, 25kDa) using heterobifunctional Mal-PEG-NHS, resulting in a novel gene delivery polymer. Polymer/plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexes were formed and their sizes and zeta potentials were measured. Compared with the unmodified mPEG-PEI/pDNA complexes, the RGERPPR-PEG-PEI/pDNA complex led to a significant enhancement in intracellular gene uptake and tumour spheroid penetration. Furthermore, the RGERPPR-PEG-PEI/pDNA complex facilitated enhanced transfection efficiency levels, as well as a reduction in cytotoxicity when tested in U87 glioma cells in vitro. Most significantly of all, when complexes formed with pDsRED-N1 were injected into the tail vein of intracranial U87 tumour-bearing nude mice, the RGERPPR-PEG-PEI complexes led to improved levels of red fluorescence protein expression in the brain tissue. Taken together, the results show that RGERPPR-PEG-PEI could be used as a safe and efficient gene delivery vehicle with potential applications in glioblastoma gene delivery.
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Lipid-insertion enables targeting functionalization of erythrocyte membrane-cloaked nanoparticles.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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RBC membrane-cloaked polymeric nanoparticles represent an emerging nanocarrier platform with extended circulation in vivo. A lipid-insertion method is employed to functionalize these nanoparticles without the need for direct chemical conjugation. Insertion of both folate and the nucleolin-targeting aptamer AS1411 shows receptor-specific targeting against model cancer cell lines.
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Bioaccumulation, subcellular, and molecular localization and damage to physiology and ultrastructure in Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze exposed to yttrium.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Bioaccumulation, subcellular distribution, and acute toxicity of yttrium (Y) were evaluated in Nymphoides peltata. The effects of Y concentrations of 1-5 mg L(-1) applied for 4 days were assessed by measuring changes in photosynthetic pigments, nutrient contents, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and ultrastructure. The accumulation of Y in subcellular fractions decreased in the order of cell wall > organelle > soluble fraction. Much more Y was located in cellulose and pectin than in other biomacromolecules. The content of some mineral elements (Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, and Mo) increased in N. peltata, but there was an opposite effect for P and K. Meanwhile, ascorbate, and catalase activity decreased significantly for all Y concentrations. In contrast, peroxidase activity was induced, while initial rises in superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content were followed by subsequent declines. Morphological symptoms of senescence, such as chlorosis and damage to chloroplasts and mitochondria, were observed even at the lowest Y concentration. Pigment content decreased as the Y concentration rose and the calculated EC50 and MPC of Y for N. peltata were 2 and 0.2 mg L(-1) after 4 days of exposure, respectively. The results showed that exogenous Y was highly available in water and that its high concentration in water bodies might produce harmful effects on aquatic organisms. N. peltata is proposed as a biomonitor for the assessment of metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems.
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Metallomics insights for in vivo studies of metal based nanomaterials.
Metallomics
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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With the rapid development of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) and wide biomedical applications for new types of multifunctional NMs, an understanding of the behavior patterns of NMs in vivo and clarification of their potential health impact as a result of their novel physicochemical properties is essential for ensuring safety in biomedical applications of nanotechnology. NMs have heterogeneous characteristics in that they combine the bulk properties of solids with the mobility of molecules, and present phase transformation, dissolution, oxidation/reduction as well as nano-bio interface reactions in biological milieu, which affect their in vivo behaviors and biological effects. The accurate study of identification, quantification, transformation state of NMs and their biological effects in vivo remains a challenge. This review aims to provide a "metallomics" (an integrated metal-assisted function bioscience) insight into the in vivo behavior and biological effects of NMs, particularly for metal-based nanomaterials (MNMs) and is based mainly on our own research and other previous works.
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The use of borneol as an enhancer for targeting aprotinin-conjugated PEG-PLGA nanoparticles to the brain.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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To evaluate the effect of borneol on the brain targeting efficiency of aprotinin-conjugated poly (ethyleneglycol)-poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (Apr-NP) and the activity of huperzine A (Hup A) loaded nanoparticles to AD rats .
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Fatty acid-based strategy for efficient brain targeted gene delivery.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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To investigate a fatty acid-based strategy for efficient brain targeted gene delivery and to understand mechanism(s) of this small molecule-mediated brain gene delivery strategy.
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Glutathione-sensitive RGD-poly(ethylene glycol)-SS-polyethylenimine for intracranial glioblastoma targeted gene delivery.
J Gene Med
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Reductively reversible and hydrolytically degradable cationic polymers have been used as gene delivery systems. The present study aimed to enhance the low transfection efficiency caused by PEGylation by taking advantage of a nonviral vector containing a disulfide linkage.
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Responses of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle to zinc: in situ localization, subcellular distribution and physiological and ultrastructural modifications.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle exposed to 15-150 ?M Zn for 7 days were analyzed with reference to the ultrastructural localization, subcellular distribution of metal and its influence on photosynthetic efficiency, malondialdehyde (MDA), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and ultrastructure. Zn grains were found in the cell walls and within nuclei and chloroplasts using the autometallographic technique. Subcellular fractionation of Zn-containing tissues indicated 43-54% of the element was located in the cell wall fraction, followed by cell organelles (24-31%) and the soluble fraction (21-29%). A significant reduction in photosynthetic efficiency was observed in a concentration dependent manner, as indicated by the reduced efficiency of the PS II photochemical system (Fv/Fm). MDA content showed a sharp increase at all Zn concentrations, which indicated oxidative stress. Zn-exposed plants displayed a significant decrease in ATP content. Zn exposure also caused the chloroplasts and nuclei to disintegrate and the vacuolization of mitochondria, all of which suggested that Zn hastened plant senescence.
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Broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of carbon nanotubes to human gut bacteria.
Small
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hold promise in manufacturing, environmental, and biomedical applications, as well as food and agricultural industries. Previous observations have shown that CNTs have antimicrobial activity; however, the impact of CNTs to human gut microbes has not been investigated. Here, the antibacterial activity of CNTs against the microbes commonly encountered in the human digestion system--L. acidophilus, B. adolescentis, E. coli, E. faecalis, and S. aureus--are evaluated. The bacteria studied include pathogenic and non-pathogenic, gram-positive and negative, and both sphere and rod strains. In this study, CNTs, including single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs, 1-3 ?m), short and long multi-walled CNTs (s-MWCNTs: 0.5-2 ?m; l-MWCNTs: >50 ?m), and functionalized multi-walled CNTs (hydroxyl- and carboxyl-modification, 0.5-2 ?m), all have broad-spectrum antibacterial effects. Notably, CNTs may selectively lyse the walls and membranes of human gut microbes, depending on not only the length and surface functional groups of CNTs, but also the shapes of the bacteria. The mechanism of antibacterial activity is associated with their diameter-dependent piercing and length-dependent wrapping on the lysis of microbial walls and membranes, inducing release of intracellular components DNA and RNA and allowing a loss of bacterial membrane potential, demonstrating complete destruction of bacteria. Thin and rigid SWCNT show more effective wall/membrane piercing on spherical bacteria than MWCNTs. Long MWCNT may wrap around gut bacteria, increasing the area making contact with the bacterial wall. This work suggests that CNTs may be broad-spectrum and efficient antibacterial agents in the gut, and selective application of CNTs could reduce the potential hazard to probiotic bacteria.
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Reducing Poisson noise and baseline drift in X-ray spectral images with bootstrap Poisson regression and robust nonparametric regression.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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X-ray spectral imaging provides quantitative imaging of trace elements in a biological sample with high sensitivity. We propose a novel algorithm to promote the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of x-ray spectral images that have low photon counts. Firstly, we estimate the image data area that belongs to the homogeneous parts through confidence interval testing. Then, we apply the Poisson regression through its maximum likelihood estimation on this area to estimate the true photon counts from the Poisson noise corrupted data. Unlike other denoising methods based on regression analysis, we use the bootstrap resampling method to ensure the accuracy of regression estimation. Finally, we use a robust local nonparametric regression method to estimate the baseline and subsequently subtract it from the x-ray spectral data to further improve the SNR of the data. Experiments on several real samples show that the proposed method performs better than some state-of-the-art approaches to ensure accuracy and precision for quantitative analysis of the different trace elements in a standard reference biological sample.
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Oligoarginine-modified biodegradable nanoparticles improve the intestinal absorption of insulin.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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The strategy of oral administration of bioactive macromolecules using cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) is restricted to covalent linkage or electrostatic interaction between the cargo and CPPs. In the present study, we devised an approach utilizing CPP-functionalized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles as a carrier for oral delivery of insulin. Pegylated PLGA nanoparticles were modified with poly(arginine)8 enantiomers (l-R8 and d-R8) via a maleimide-mediated covalent conjugating procedure. The physical and chemical features of the nanoparticles were characterized, which confirmed the successful immobilization of R8 to the nanoparticles. Using a Caco-2 cell monolayer model, R8-modified nanoparticles were found to exhibit significantly increased cellular uptake and transportation. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the insulin-loaded nanoparticles were evaluated with rats by intestinal administration. Compared to the unmodified nanoparticles, l-R8 and d-R8 modified-nanoparticles increased the relative bioavailabilities of insulin by 3.2- and 4.4-times, meanwhile, improved the hypoglycemic effects by 2.5- and 3.7-times, respectively. Neither of the R8-modified nanoparticles caused perceptible histological toxicities. The results implied that surface modification of biodegradable nanoparticles with poly(arginine)8, especially with the d-form enantiomer, showed remarkable advancement in promoting the intestinal absorption of insulin. This delivery system is also promising for the delivery of a wide variety of bioactive macromolecules by oral administration.
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Experiment of low resistance joints for the ITER correction coil.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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A test method was designed and performed to measure joint resistance of the ITER correction coil (CC) in liquid helium (LHe) temperature. A 10 kA superconducting transformer was manufactured to provide the joints current. The transformer consisted of two concentric layer-wound superconducting solenoids. NbTi superconducting wire was wound in the primary coil and the ITER CC conductor was wound in the secondary coil. The primary and the secondary coils were both immersed in liquid helium of a 300 mm useful bore diameter cryostat. Two ITER CC joints were assembled in the secondary loop and tested. The current of the secondary loop was ramped to 9 kA in several steps. The two joint resistances were measured to be 1.2 n? and 1.65 n?, respectively.
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A formalized design process for bacterial consortia that perform logic computing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The concept of microbial consortia is of great attractiveness in synthetic biology. Despite of all its benefits, however, there are still problems remaining for large-scaled multicellular gene circuits, for example, how to reliably design and distribute the circuits in microbial consortia with limited number of well-behaved genetic modules and wiring quorum-sensing molecules. To manage such problem, here we propose a formalized design process: (i) determine the basic logic units (AND, OR and NOT gates) based on mathematical and biological considerations; (ii) establish rules to search and distribute simplest logic design; (iii) assemble assigned basic logic units in each logic operating cell; and (iv) fine-tune the circuiting interface between logic operators. We in silico analyzed gene circuits with inputs ranging from two to four, comparing our method with the pre-existing ones. Results showed that this formalized design process is more feasible concerning numbers of cells required. Furthermore, as a proof of principle, an Escherichia coli consortium that performs XOR function, a typical complex computing operation, was designed. The construction and characterization of logic operators is independent of "wiring" and provides predictive information for fine-tuning. This formalized design process provides guidance for the design of microbial consortia that perform distributed biological computation.
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Copper ultrastructural localization, subcellular distribution, and phytotoxicity in Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate copper (Cu) subcellular distribution and toxicity in Hydrilla verticillata. Fronds were subjected to different concentrations (15, 75, and 150 ?M) of Cu for 7 days. Cu grains were found in cell walls, plasmodesmata, and within the nuclei and chloroplasts using the autometallographic technique. Subcellular fractionation of Cu-containing tissues indicated that in leaves subjected to high Cu concentrations, 59-65 % of the element was located in the cell wall fraction, followed by cell organelles (21-30 %) and the soluble fraction (10-14 %). The levels of K, P, Zn, and Mg declined under all Cu concentrations, but Ca, Mn, and Fe contents reached their peak at 15 ?M Cu and decreased thereafter. F v/F m, F 0, and F m fell significantly in line with the decrease in pigment content. Cu exposure also caused significant damage to the chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nuclei, including disintegration of the chloroplasts and vacuolization of the mitochondria and nuclei, all of which suggested that Cu hastened plant senescence. The Cu maximum permissible concentration for H. verticillata was 10 ?M, which was less than the existing general water quality standard. This suggested that H. verticillata could be used to assess Cu phytotoxicity.
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Potent retro-inverso D-peptide for simultaneous targeting of angiogenic blood vasculature and tumor cells.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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The application of tumor targeting ligands for the treatment of cancer holds the promise of enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity. L-SP5 ((L)(SVSVGMKPSPRP)) is a peptide that recognizes tumor neovasculature but not normal blood vessels (Lee et al., Cancer Res.2007, 67, 10958-65). The current report presents the design and application of D-SP5 ((D)(PRPSPKMGVSVS)), a novel retro-inverso analogue of L-SP5. Peptides D-SP5 and parental L-SP5 are shown to compete for the same target sites of a yet unknown cellular target and possess a dual-targeting bioactivity for both activated endothelial cells (HUVEC) and several tumor cell lines. Cellular uptake experiments showed superior in vitro targeting abilities of D-SP5 compared with L-SP5, such as enhanced internalization into stimulated HUVEC or KB, U87, and SGC tumor cells. A radioligand receptor binding assay revealed a higher cell affinity of D-SP5 in all tested cell lines, with K(d) values for D-SP5 about 2-fold lower than for L-SP5. An up to 3-fold higher maximum binding capacity (B(max)) to cells of D-SP5 was noted. Fluorescein-labeled D-SP5 upon intravenous administration displayed strong association with tumor endothelium. D-SP5-conjugated PEG-DSPE micelles displayed enhanced tumor homing (evidenced by near-infrared in vivo imaging). When loaded with doxorubicin, D-SP5 micelles could markedly suppress tumor growth with higher efficacy than L-SP5 micelles both in vitro and in vivo in KB tumor xenografts. In summary, the data demonstrate that D-SP5 displays higher binding affinities toward tumor endothelium as well as tumor cells and enhanced tumor targeting capability in vitro and in vivo.
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Two-order targeted brain tumor imaging by using an optical/paramagnetic nanoprobe across the blood brain barrier.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Surgical resection is a mainstay of brain tumor treatments. However, the completed excision of malignant brain tumor is challenged by its infiltrative nature. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is widely used for defining brain tumor in clinic. However its ability in tumor visualization is hindered by the transient circulation lifetime, nontargeting specificity, and poor blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability of the commercially available MR contrast agents. In this work, we developed a two-order targeted nanoprobe in which MR/optical imaging reporters, tumor vasculature targeted cyclic [RGDyK] peptides, and BBB-permeable Angiopep-2 peptides are labeled on the PAMAM-G5 dendrimer. This nanoprobe is supposed to first target the ?(V)?(3) integrin on tumor vasculatures. Increased local concentration of nanoprobe facilitates the association between BBB-permeable peptides and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) receptors on the vascular endothelial cells, which further accelerates BBB transverse of the nanoprobe via LRP receptor-mediated endocytosis. The nanoprobes that have penetrated the BBB secondly target the brain tumor because both ?(V)?(3) integrin and LRP receptor are highly expressed on the tumor cells. In vivo imaging studies demonstrated that this nanoprobe not only efficiently crossed intact BBB in normal mice, but also precisely delineated the boundary of the orthotropic U87MG human glioblastoma xenograft with high target to background signal ratio. Overall, this two-order targeted nanoprobe holds the promise to noninvasively visualize brain tumors with uncompromised BBB and provides the possibility for real-time optical-image-guided brain tumor resection during surgery.
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Benzamide analogue-conjugated polyethylenimine for brain-targeting and gene delivery.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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In this study, a small molecule, benzamide analogue, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HA), was used as a novel ligand for brain-targeting gene delivery. p-HA was conjugated to polyethylenimine and further labeled with a near infrared dye, IR820, for in vivo and ex vivo imaging study. Significant fluorescent signal was detected in brain from 0.5 to 24 h after injection compared with unmodified PEI. Then nanoparticles were prepared with p-HA-PEI to encapsulate pEGFP and pGL2 as reporter genes and characterized on the cell level. In 5 y cells green fluorescent protein expression could be observed by fluorescent microscopy and significant higher expression of firefly luciferase was detected in p-HA-PEI/pGL2 group than in PEI/pGL2 group. For in vivo gene expression study, comparable high expression of green fluorescent protein in brain sections was confirmed using both confocal fluorescent microscopy and in vivo fluorescent imaging. All these results suggested that p-HA-PEI could be potentially used for brain targeted gene delivery.
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Determination of cardiac reserve in preterm infants.
Turk. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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We aimed in this study to determine the cardiac reserve in preterm infants with phonocardiogram. One hundred and fifty-four preterm infants participated in this study. The ratio of the first heart sound to the second heart sound (S1/S2), the ratio of diastolic to systolic duration (D/S) and the cardiac contractility change trend after stimulation (CCCTS) were measured in all infants. The preterm neonatal S1/S2 decreased with increasing gestational age, but the differences between each gestational stage were not significant (p > 0.05), while the D/S significantly increased with increasing gestational age (p < 0.05). After crying induced by vaccination, the D/S was significantly lower than that in quiet state at each gestational stage (p < 0.05). The CCCTS increased with increasing gestational weeks, but the differences between each gestational stage were not significant (p > 0.05).
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The use of myristic acid as a ligand of polyethylenimine/DNA nanoparticles for targeted gene therapy of glioblastoma.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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To establish a gene delivery system for brain targeting, a low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI(10 K)) was modified with myristic acid (MC), and complexed with DNA, yielding MC-PEI(10 K)/DNA nanoparticles successfully. The nanoparticles were observed to be successfully taken up by the brains of mice. The transfection efficiency of the nanoparticles was then investigated, and both the in vitro and in vivo gene expression of MC-PEI(10 K)/DNA nanoparticles is significantly higher than that of unmodified PEI(10 K)/DNA nanoparticles. The anti-glioblastoma effect of MC-PEI(10 K)/pORF-hTRAIL was demonstrated by the survival time of intracranial U87 glioblastoma-bearing mice. The median survival time of the MC-PEI(10 K)/pORF-hTRAIL group (28 days) was significantly longer than that of the PEI(10 K)/pORF-hTRAIL group (24 days), the MC-PEI(10 K)/pGL(3) group (21 days) and the saline group (22 days). Therefore, our results suggested that MC-PEI(10 K) could be potentially used for brain-targeted gene delivery and in the treatment of glioblastoma.
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LyP-1-conjugated doxorubicin-loaded liposomes suppress lymphatic metastasis by inhibiting lymph node metastases and destroying tumor lymphatics.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Lymphatic metastasis can be greatly promoted by metastases growth and lymphangiogenesis in lymph nodes (LNs). LyP-1, a cyclic peptide, is able to specifically bind with tumor cells and tumor lymphatics in metastatic LNs. This work aimed to use LyP-1-conjugated liposomes (L-LS) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) (L-LS/DOX) to suppress lymphatic metastasis by inhibiting both metastases and tumor lymphatics in LNs. L-LS were prepared and exhibited sizes around 90 nm and spherical morphology as characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro cellular studies showed that LyP-1 modification obviously increased liposome uptake by MDA-MB-435 tumor cells and enhanced the cytotoxicity of liposomal DOX. A popliteal and iliac LN metastases model was successfully established by subcutaneous inoculation of tumor cells to nude mice. The immunofluorescence staining analysis indicated that LyP-1 modification enabled specific binding of liposome with tumor lymphatics and enhanced the destroying effect of liposomal DOX on tumor lymphatics. The in vivo fluorescence imaging and pharmacodynamic studies showed that LyP-1 modification increased liposome uptake by metastatic LNs and that L-LS/DOX significantly decreased metastatic LN growth and LN metastasis rate. These results suggested that L-LS/DOX were an effective delivery system for suppressing lymphatic metastasis by simultaneously inhibiting LN metastases and tumor lymphatics.
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Exosomes as extrapulmonary signaling conveyors for nanoparticle-induced systemic immune activation.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2011
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Evaluation of systemic biosafety of nanomaterials urgently demands a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of the undesirable interference and systemic signaling that arises between man-made nanomaterials and biological systems. It is shown that exosomes may act as signal conveyors for nanoparticle-induced systemic immune responses. Exosomes are extracellularly secreted membrane vesicles which act as Trojan horses for the dissemination and intercellular communication of natural nanosized particles (like viruses). Upon exposure to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs), it is possible to dose-dependently generate a significant number of exosomes in the alveolar region of BALB/c mice. These exosomes are quickly eliminated from alveoli into systemic circulation and largely transfer their signals to the immune system. Maturation of dendritic cells and activation of splenic T cells are significantly induced by these exosomes. Furthermore, exosome-induced T-cell activation is more efficient toward sensitized T cells and in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice than in the unsensitized counterparts. Activation of systemic T cells reveals a T helper 1 polarization and aggravated inflammation, which poses potential hazards to the deterioration of allergic diseases in OVA-sensitized mice. The studies suggest that exosomes may act as conveyors for extrapulmonary signal transduction in nanoparticle-induced immune systemic responses, which are the key in vivo processes of manufactured nanoparticles executing either biomedical functions or toxic responses.
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Cyclic RGD-polyethylene glycol-polyethylenimine for intracranial glioblastoma-targeted gene delivery.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2011
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Even though the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is compromised for angiogenesis, therapeutic agents for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are particularly inefficient due to the existence of a blood-tumor barrier (BTB), which hampers tumor accumulation and uptake. Integrin ?(v)?(3) is overexpressed on glioblastoma U87 cells and neovasculture, thus making its ligands such as the RGD motif target glioblastoma in vitro and in vivo. In the present work, we have designed a modified polyethylene glycol-polyethylenimine (PEG-PEI) gene carrier by conjugating it with a cyclic RGD sequence, c(RGDyK) (cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-D-tyrosine-lysine). When complexed with plasmid DNA, this gene carrier, termed RGD-PEG-PEI, formed homogenous nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 73?nm. These nanoparticles had a high binding affinity with U87 cells and facilitated targeted gene delivery against intracranial glioblastoma in vivo, thereby leading to a higher gene transfer efficiency compared to the PEG-PEI gene carrier without RGD decoration. This intracranial glioblastoma-targeted gene carrier also enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of pORF-hTRAIL, as evidenced by a significantly prolonged survival of intracranial glioblastoma-bearing nude mice. Considering the contribution of glioblastoma neovasculature to the BBB under angiogenic conditions, our results demonstrated the therapeutic feasibility of treating a brain tumor through mediation of integrin ?(v)?(3), as well as the potential of using RGD-PEG-PEI as a targeted gene carrier in the treatment of intracranial glioblastoma.
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Imaging brain tumor by dendrimer-based optical/paramagnetic nanoprobe across the blood-brain barrier.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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A multimodal optical/paramagnetic nanoprobe, Den-Angio, was developed and demonstrated a capability to circumvent the blood brain barrier (BBB) and visualize brain tumors with high sensitivity in vivo. Den-Angio holds promise to pre-operatively localize brain tumors and make image-guided tumor resection possible during surgery.
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Uterine packing during cesarean section in the management of intractable hemorrhage in central placenta previa.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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To determine the safety and effectiveness of uterine packing in the management of intractable hemorrhage during cesarean section for central placenta previa.
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Molecular imaging of hepatic stellate cell activity by visualization of hepatic integrin ?v?3 expression with SPECT in rat.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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The key factors in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis are the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which express integrin ?v?3 after activation. This study aimed to explore the potential of (99m)Tc-labeled cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid pentapeptide (cRGD) as a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracer to image hepatic integrin ?v?3 expression to reflect HSC activity in fibrotic livers. Rat models of liver fibrosis caused by thioacetamide or carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) treatment were employed to examine the expression and distribution of integrin ?v?3 during fibrotic progression or regression. The binding activity of radiolabeled cRGD to integrin ?v?3 was assessed in liver sections. SPECT was performed to determine hepatic integrin ?v?3 expression in rats with different stages of liver fibrosis. Protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of integrin ?v and ?3 subunits were increased with the progression of liver fibrosis and reduced with its regression. The cell type that expressed the majority of integrin ?v?3 in fibrotic livers was found to be activated HSCs. The cRGD binding to activated HSCs displayed a high receptor-coupling affinity and an abundant receptor capacity. Iodine-125 ((125)I)-labeled cRGD bound to fibrotic liver sections and the binding activity was the highest in advanced fibrosis. Intravenously administered carboxyfluorescein-labeled cRGD was accumulated in fibrotic liver, and the accumulation amount was increased with the progression and reduced with the regression of fibrosis. A SPECT imaging study with (99m)Tc-labeled cRGD as a tracer demonstrated that the radioactivity ratio of liver to heart increased progressively along with severity of hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: Hepatic integrin ?v?3 expression in fibrotic liver reflects HSC activity and its imaging using (99m)Tc-labeled cRGD as a SPECT radiotracer may distinguish different stages of liver fibrosis in rats.
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Preventable maternal mortality: geographic/rural-urban differences and associated factors from the population-based Maternal Mortality Surveillance System in China.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Most maternal deaths in developing countries can be prevented. China is among the 13 countries with the most maternal deaths; however, there has been a marked decrease in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) over the last 3 decades. Chinas reduction in the MMR has contributed significantly to the global decline of the MMR. This study examined the geographic and rural-urban differences, time trends and related factors in preventable maternal deaths in China during 1996-2005, with the aim of providing reliable evidence for effective interventions.
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Hospitalized delivery and maternal deaths from obstetric hemorrhage in China from 1996 to 2006.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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To evaluate the role of hospitalized delivery in reducing maternal deaths from obstetric hemorrhage in urban and rural areas of China.
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Clinical analysis of 828 cases of iatrogenic preterm births.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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To investigate the incidence, causes and delivery methods of iatrogenic preterm births.
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LyP-1-conjugated PEGylated liposomes: a carrier system for targeted therapy of lymphatic metastatic tumor.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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The application of liposomes in targeted therapy of lymphatic metastatic tumors has been hampered by the low uptake rate of liposome by metastatic lymph nodes. In this report, LyP-1, a peptide that can specifically bind tumor cells, tumor lymphatics and tumor-associated macrophages, was conjugated to liposomes for targeting and treating lymphatic metastatic tumors. Firstly, LyP-1-conjugated PEGylated liposomes loaded with fluorescein or doxorubicin (DOX) were prepared and showed satisfactory vesicle size and size distribution. The in vitro cellular uptake and in vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging results showed that LyP-1 modification increased liposome uptake by tumor cells and metastatic lymph nodes, but did not increase uptake by normal lymph nodes. The immunofluorescence analysis evidenced that LyP-1-conjugated liposomes were distributed adjacent to tumor lymphatics and tumor-associated macrophages in metastatic lymph nodes. The pharmacodynamic study suggested that compared with unmodified liposomes, LyP-1-conjugated DOX-loaded liposomes exhibited enhanced inhibition effect on tumor cells in vitro and lymphatic metastatic tumors in vivo. Pathological examination showed that liposomal DOX caused reduced tissue damage to injection site compared with DOX solution. In summary, LyP-1-conjugated PEGylated liposomes could be targeted to metastatic lymph nodes based on their specific binding to tumor cells, tumor lymphatics and tumor-associated macrophages. They are a safe and effective drug delivery system of antineoplastic agents for targeted therapy of lymphatic metastatic tumors.
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Polymorphisms in CYP1B1 modify the risk of idiopathic male infertility with abnormal semen quality.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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It is acknowledged that Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) plays a crucial role in metabolism and is involved in lots of diseases. We carried out this study to evaluate the association between CYP1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and male infertility in the Han-Chinese population with abnormal semen parameters.
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Cyclic RGD-poly(ethylene glycol)-polyethyleneimine is more suitable for glioblastoma targeting gene transfer in vivo.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2010
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Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) is a widely chosen ligand to improve the specific gene targeting transfection efficiency of polyethyleneimine (PEI) in vivo. However, the optimal RGD conjugating mode, RGD-poly(ethylene glycol)-PEI (RGD-PEG-PEI) or RGD-PEI-methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol) (RGD-PEI-mPEG) still remains controversial. In this study, RGD-PEG-PEI and RGD-PEI-mPEG were synthesized and compared with respects to their glioblastoma cell-binding capability and tumor-targeting ability of their complexes with plasmid DNA. These results demonstrated that RGD-PEG-PEI/plasmid enhanced green fluorescent protein (pEGFP)-N2 complexes had higher binding affinities with U87 cells than RGD-PEI-mPEG/pEGFP-N2 complexes. The gene transfection was also performed on U87 cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, both of the RGD-modified PEI derivatives enhanced the gene transfection efficiency to some extent. However, all of the complexes (with or without RGD modification) had high transfection efficiency. The biodistribution of RGD-PEG-PEI/pEGFP-N2 complexes in mice bearing subcutaneous glioblastomas were significantly greater than that of RGD-PEI-mPEG/pEGFP-N2 complexes, suggesting a more efficient gene transfection in vivo. In the RGD-PEG-PEI, the use of a PEG spacer was particularly important. These results indicated that RGD-PEG-PEI was more suitable for targeted gene transfer in vivo.
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Loop 2 of Ophiophagus hannah toxin b binds with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and enhances intracranial drug delivery.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2010
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Three-finger snake neurotoxins have been widely investigated for their high binding affinities with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are widely expressed in the central nervous system including the blood-brain barrier and thus mediate intracranial drug delivery. The loop 2 segments of three-finger snake neurotoxins are considered as the binding domain with nAChRs, and thus, they may have the potential to enhance drug or drug delivery system intracranial transport. In the present work, binding of the synthetic peptides to the neuronal nAChRs was assessed by measuring their ability to inhibit the binding of (125)I-?-bungarotoxin to the receptor. The loop 2 segment of Ophiophagus hannah toxin b (KC2S) showed high binding affinity, and the competitive binding IC(50) value was 32.51 nM. Furthermore, the brain targeting efficiency of KC2S had been investigated in vitro and in vivo. The specific uptake by brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) demonstrated that KC2S could be endocytosized after binding with nAChRs. In vivo, the qualitative and quantitative biodistribution results of fluorescent dyes (DiR or coumarin-6) indicated that KC2S modified poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) micelles (KC2S-PEG-PLA micelles) could enhance intracranial drug delivery. Furthermore, intravenous treatment with paclitaxel-encapsulated KC2S-PEG-PLA micelles (KC2S-PEG-PLA-PTX micelles) afforded robust inhibition of intracranial glioblastoma. The median survival time of KC2S-PEG-PLA-PTX-micelle-treated mice (47.5 days) was significantly longer than that of mice treated by mPEG-PLA-PTX micelles (41.5 days), Taxol (38.5 days), or saline (34 days). Compared with the short peptide derived from rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG29) that has been previously reported as an excellent brain targeting ligand, KC2S has a similar binding affinity with neuronal nAChRs but fewer amino acid residues. Thus, we concluded that the loop 2 segment of Ophiophagus hannah toxin b could bind with neuronal nAChRs and thus enhance intracranial drug delivery for the treatment of central nervous system diseases.
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Pregnancy complicating systemic lupus erythematosus: a series of 86 cases.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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To investigate the timing of pregnancy and pregnancy termination and its management in women with pregnancy complicating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
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Repeated medical abortions and the risk of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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The aim of this study was to determine the impact of repeated first trimester mifepristone-induced medical abortions on the risk of preterm birth in a subsequent pregnancy.
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N-Boc-histidine-capped PLGA-PEG-PLGA as a smart polymer for drug delivery sensitive to tumor extracellular pH.
Macromol Biosci
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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A pH-sensitive polymer was synthesized by introducing the N-Boc-histidine to the ends of a PLGA-PEG-PLGA block copolymer. The synthesized polymer was confirmed to be biodegradable and biocompatible, well dissolved in water and forming micelles above the CMC. DOX was employed as a model anticancer drug. In vitro drug release from micelles of N-Boc-histidine-capped PLGA-PEG-PLGA exhibited significant difference between pH?=?6.2 and pH?=?7.4, whereas DOX release from micelles composed of un-capped virgin polymers was not significantly sensitive to medium pH. Uptake of DOX from micelles of the new polymer into MDA-MB-435 solid tumor cells was also observed, and pH sensitivity was confirmed. Hence, the N-Boc-histidine capped PLGA-PEG-PLGA might be a promising material for tumor targeting.
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Targeted brain delivery of itraconazole via RVG29 anchored nanoparticles.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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The blood-brain barrier is a major barrier in the neurological diseases treatment and precludes the entry of drugs from blood to brain. Here, we developed 29-amino-acid peptide derived from rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG29) peptide conjugated itraconazole-loaded albumin nanoparticles (RVG29-ITZ-NPs). The RVG29 peptide was conjugated to the albumin NPs using biotin-binding streptavidin as crosslinker. The NPs were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, drug loading and release behavior in vitro. Cellular uptake of RVG29-ITZ-NPs was investigated by flow cytometry. Pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of RVG29-ITZ-NPs were investigated after intravenous administration of NPs. The particle size of RVG29-ITZ-NPs was 89.3?±?1.9?nm as determined by dynamic light scattering. The zeta potential of RVG29-ITZ-NPs was -33.1?±?0.9 mV. RVG29-ITZ-NPs exhibited a sustained release profile within 24?h. In vitro cellular uptake studies demonstrated that RVG29 significantly facilitated the intracellular delivery of NPs. A significant (P?
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Molecular cloning, genomic structure, and genetic mapping of two Rdl-orthologous genes of GABA receptors in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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The Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl) gene encodes a subunit of the insect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. Cyclodiene resistance in many insects is associated with replacement of a single amino acid (alanine at position 302) with either a serine or a glycine in the Rdl gene. Two Rdl-orthologous genes of GABA receptors (PxGABARalpha1 and PxGABARalpha2) were cloned and sequenced from a susceptible strain (Roth) of Plutella xylostella. PxGABARalpha1 and PxGABARalpha2 showed 84% and 77% identity with the Rdl gene of Drosophila melanogaster at an amino acid level, respectively. The coding regions of PxGABARalpha1 and PxGABARalpha2 both comprise ten exons, with two alternative RNA-splicing forms in exon 3 of both genes. At the orthologous position of alanine-302 in D. melanogaster Rdl, PxGABARalpha1 has a conserved alanine at position 282. PxGABARalpha2 has a serine instead of an alanine at the equivalent position. With two informative DNA markers, both PxGABARalpha1 and PxGABARalpha2 were mapped onto the Z chromosome of P. xylostella.
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Structural and functional insights into polymorphic enzymes of cytochrome P450 2C8.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily plays a key role in the oxidative metabolism of a wide range of drugs and exogenous chemicals. CYP2C8 is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism of the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel in the human liver. Nearly all previous works about polymorphic variants of CYP2C8 were focused on unpurified proteins, either cells or human liver microsomes; therefore their structure-function relationships were unclear. In this study, two polymorphic enzymes of CYP2C8 (CYP2C8.4 (I264M) and CYP2C8 P404A) were expressed in E. coli and purified. Metabolic activities of paclitaxel by the two purified polymorphic enzymes were observed. The activity of CYP2C8.4 was 25% and CYP2C8 P404A was 30% of that of WT CYP2C8, respectively. Their structure-function relationships were systematically investigated for the first time. Paclitaxel binding ability of CYP2C8.4 increased about two times while CYP2C8 P404A decreased about two times than that of WT CYP2C8. The two polymorphic mutant sites of I264 and P404, located far from active site and substrate binding sites, significantly affect heme and/or substrate binding. This study indicated that two important nonsubstrate recognition site (SRS) residues of CYP2C8 are closely related to heme binding and/or substrate binding. This discovery could be valuable for explaining clinically individual differences in the metabolism of drugs and provides instructed information for individualized medication.
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Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactide acid) micelles anchored with angiopep-2 for brain-targeting delivery.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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In this study, angiopep with high transcytosis capacity and parenchymal accumulation was used as a novel ligand for the brain-targeting delivery of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(D,L-lactide acid) (PEG-PLA) micelles. Angiopep-2 was synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis, and then conjugated with maleimide-PEG-PLA to form angiopep-PEG-PLA. The micelles composed of methoxy-PEG-PLA (mPEG-PLA) and angiopep-PEG-PLA was prepared by film-hydration method. Near-infrared fluorescence dye, DiR was loaded into micelles to evaluate the brain-targeting ability of micelles with or without angiopep modification by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in vivo and ex vivo. Significant near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent signal was detected in the brain after angiopep-anchored micelles administration and further confirmed by imaging the whole brain and brain slices, compared with that of the micelles without modification. ¹²?I-radiolabeled angiopep-PEG-PLA micelles after intravenous administration in mice showed high brain accumulation for up to 24?h. These results indicate that angiopep-modified PEG-PLA micelle is a promising brain-targeting nanocarrier for lipophilic drugs.
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Exposure of young mothers and newborns to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Guangzhou, China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
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Exposure of young mothers and newborns to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were assessed by measuring the levels of OCPs in human milk (HM) and maternal blood (MB) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples from Guangzou in China. 21 OCPs were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the median levels (ranges) of total HCHs (four HCH isomers) in HM, MB and UBC were 54.7 (5.7-159.3), 43.7 (1.9-386.6), and 20.2 (4.0-103.2) ng/g lipid, respectively; and the median concentration of total DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) were 2114.6 (329.1-6164.6), 1676.0(283.4-6167.7), and 1287.8(189.6-3296.0) ng/g lipid, respectively. On a lipid basis, the chemical concentrations were in the order HM>MB>UCB. Comparison with literature data showed that the levels of summation operatorDTTs and summation operatorHCHs in milk and maternal blood samples were within the range reported in samples in other Chinese provinces and higher than those in developed or industrialized countries, but significantly lower than contaminated area such as in India. The predominant pollutant in the HCH family is beta-HCH. p,p-DDE is a predominant pollutant in all DDEs and DDDs and DDTs for all the samples tested, and accounted for more than 80% of total HCHs and DDTs.
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Renal impairment caused by chronic occupational chromate exposure.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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To determine the nephritic toxicity of chromate after chronic occupational exposure.
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Preparation, characterization and in vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation of thymopentin loaded poly(lactide acid)/poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) implants.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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To avoid the clinical inconvenience of repeated injection of the immune modulator thymopentin (TP5), biodegradable implants comprising a mixed polymer matrix of poly(lactide acid) (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) were produced using a simple extrusion method. Drug release from these TP5-loaded implants was characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacodynamic studies were carried out in immunosuppressed rats using the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) cells, determined by flow cytometry, as an index of immunity. The results indicated that the entrapment efficiency of the implants was greater than 98%, but the release rate of TP5 depended on the drug loading. Implants containing less than 10% TP5 showed consistent release over 30 days, with low burst-release both in vitro and in vivo. Improved immunity and survival rates were observed in rats treated by TP5 injection and in rats given middle-to-high dose implants. When the release of TP5 exceeded 0.1 mg/kg body weight/day the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios increased in the 3 weeks after implantation, reaching a maximum (91.6% of the normal level) by the end of the third week. The TP5-loaded implants presented here provide a promising alternative to injections and the results support the further development of controlled-release TP5 formulations.
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Folate-PEG-CKK(2)-DTPA, A Potential Carrier for Lymph-Metastasized Tumor Targeting.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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A novel conjugate, Folate-PEG-CKK(2)-DTPA, was designed and prepared as a carrier for lymphatic metastasized tumor imaging diagnosis and targeting therapy.
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Design and synthesis of a potent peptide containing both specific and non-specific cell-adhesion motifs.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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This article reports a potent chemical to promote cell adhesion on a substrate by combination of both moieties for specific and non-specific adhesion. The cyclic (-RGDfK-) (R: arginine, G: glycine, D: aspartic acid, f: D-phenylalanine, K: lysine) is employed to trigger specific cell adhesion, and a linear tripeptide KKK is introduced to enhance early non-specific cell adhesion. A series of cyclic and linear peptides with different charges were synthesized and then functionalized with thiol end-group. All the peptides were immobilized on gold layers, which were later passivated by bovine serum albumin. The coverage of NIH/3T3 fibroblast cells on the substrate modified by the linker containing both cyclic (-RGDfK-) and linear KKK is, surprisingly, significantly better than the summation using one of them, which reveals the strong cooperativity of specific and non-specific cell adhesions. The resultant cell adhesion on the substrates modified by appropriate linkers was much better than on tissue-culture plates. The cooperativity principle and the design strategy of the combined linker might be helpful for fundamental research of cell-material or cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and for modification of new biomaterials in regenerative medicine and targeted drug delivery.
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Roles of dextrans on improving lymphatic drainage for liposomal drug delivery system.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Our aim was to develop a novel liposomal drug delivery system containing dextrans to reduce undesirable retention of antineoplastic agents and thus alleviate local tissue damage. At the cell level, diethylaminoethyl-dextran (DEAE-Dx) showed the strongest inhibiting effect on liposome uptake by macrophages among tested dextrans. The distribution of radiolabeled liposomes mixed with dextrans in injection site and draining lymph node was investigated in rats after subcutaneous injection. DEAE-Dx substantially reduced the undesired local retention and promoted the draining of liposome into lymphatics, which was further confirmed by confocal microscopy images revealing the substantial prevention of rhodamine B-labelled liposome sequestration by macrophages in normal lymph node in rats. Pharmacokinetic data indicated the accelerated drainage of liposome through lymphatics back to systemic circulation by mixing with DEAE-Dx. In the toxicological study in rabbits, DEAE-Dx alleviated the local tissue damage caused by liposomal doxorubicin. In conclusion, dextrans, particularly DEAE-Dx, could efficiently enhanced liposomes drainage into lymphatics, which proves themselves as promising adjuvants for lymphatic-targeted liposomal drug delivery system.
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New methods for nanotoxicology: synchrotron radiation-based techniques.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Nanotoxicology, a new branch of bionanoscience, deals with the study and application of the toxic or biological effects of nanomaterials or nanostructures, and aims to fill gaps in our knowledge of interactions between nano- and biosystems. However, progress in this new discipline largely relies on developing methodology to characterize nanomaterials in biological samples, quantify nanoparticles in living systems, and study their uptake, translocation, biodistribution, location and chemical status in vitro and in vivo, etc. In this review article, we focus on the main features of synchrotron radiation-based methods and their application to the study of the toxicological activities of nanomaterials. Synchrotron radiation-based analytical techniques are shown to provide a potent means for characterizing the toxic or biological behaviors of nanoparticles in biological systems.
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Challenges to maternal health care utilization among ethnic minority women in a resource-poor region of Sichuan Province, China.
Health Policy Plan
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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We present a simple descriptive study of maternal health care utilization among ethnic minority women in a remote region of China. Factors that affect women obtaining care and their decision-making are explored. Results show that utilization of maternal health care services is associated with a range of social, economic, cultural and geographic factors as well as the policies of the state and the delivery of services. Utilization is not necessarily increased through easy access to a health facility. We identify potential for improving utilization through developing the role of village-based health care workers, expanding mobile antenatal care clinics and changing the way township hospital services are provided and funded. This would include modifications to rural health insurance schemes. Several of these changes are achievable at the township or county level. The findings of this study provide insights that can be used by local health providers, planners and decision-makers to improve the provision of maternal health care services to ethnic minority women.
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EGFP-EGF1 protein-conjugated PEG-PLA nanoparticles for tissue factor targeted drug delivery.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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In a strategy for anti-thrombotic therapy, we have expressed EGFP-EGF1 fusion protein, in which EGF1 can bind with tissue factor (TF). EGFP has previously been widely used as a fluorescent protein marker. EGFP-EGF1 protein was thiolated and conjugated to the malemide covering on the pegylated nanoparticles (NP) to form the EGFP-EGF1-NP. The EGFP-EGF1-NP was characterized in terms of morphology, size and zeta potential. In vitro cell viability experiment confirmed that the biodegradable EGFP-EGF1-NP was safe. To evaluate the delivering ability of EGFP-EGF1-NP, a fluorochrome dye, Dir, was incorporated into the nanoparticle, and the loading capacity and release property of the particle were examined. In vitro results showed that the binding ability of EGFP-EGF1-NP with TF-expressing cells was significantly stronger than that of non-conjugated NP. In vivo multispectral fluorescent imaging demonstrated that EGFP-EGF1-NP had high specificity and sensitivity in targeting thrombi. Our study demonstrated that EGFP-EGF1-NP is a promising TF-targeting drug delivery system for thrombolytic treatment.
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Effect of progesterone treatment due to threatened abortion in early pregnancy for obstetric and perinatal outcomes.
Early Hum. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Progesterone supplementation has been used in a large number of women with threatened abortion for decades, despite various degrees of success, and contradictory and ever-changing views about its efficacy. The majority of previous literature has mainly focused on evaluation the effect of progesterone on pregnancy outcome of threatened abortion. No controlled epidemiological studies of obstetric and perinatal outcomes, including preterm birth, pregnancy complications and low birth weight newborns, in pregnant women with progesterone treatment have been published. The data of 523 pregnant women with progesterone treatment in the second and third months of pregnancy due to threatened abortion was compared with the data of other 21,054 pregnant women in the Department of Obstetrics, West China Second University Hospital for a period of 6years from January 2002 to October 2008. There was no difference in mean gestational age at delivery and birth weight, in addition the rate of preterm birth, pregnancy complications and low birth weight newborns. Intramuscular progesterone treatment due to threatened abortion during early pregnancy did not associate with a higher risk for pregnancy complications, preterm birth and low birth weight newborns.
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A relative value method for measuring and evaluating neonatal cardiac reserve.
Indian J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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To devise some indicators for measuring and evaluating the neonatal cardiac reserve by using phonocardiogram test (PCGT).
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Predictive power progesterone combined with beta human chorionic gonadotropin measurements in the outcome of threatened miscarriage.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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To investigate the predictive power of progesterone combined with beta human chorionic gonadotropin (?-HCG) measurements in the outcome of threatened miscarriage.
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Cyclic RGD conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(lactic acid) micelle enhances paclitaxel anti-glioblastoma effect.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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The use of glioblastoma-targeted drug delivery system facilitates efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to malignant gliomas in the central nervous system while minimizing high systemic doses associated with debilitating toxicities. To employ the high binding affinity of a cyclic RGD peptide (c(RGDyK), cyclic Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-D-Tyrosine-Lysine) with integrin alpha(v)beta(3) over-expressed on tumor neovasculature and U87MG glioblastoma cells, we prepared paclitaxel-loaded c(RGDyK)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) micelle (c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA-PTX). In vitro physicochemical characterization of these novel micelles showed satisfactory encapsulated efficiency, loading capacity and size distribution. In vitro cytotoxicity studies proved that the presence of c(RGDyK) enhanced the anti-glioblastoma cell cytotoxic efficacy by 2.5 folds. The binding affinity of c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA micelle with U87MG cells was also investigated. The competitive binding IC(50) value of c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA micelle was 26.30 nM, even lower than that of c(RGDyK) (56.23 nM). In U87MG glioblastoma-bearing nude mice model, biodistribution of (125)I-radiolabeled c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA or DiR encapsulated micelles and anti-glioblastoma pharmacological effect was investigated after intravenous administration. c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA micelle accumulated in the subcutaneous and intracranial tumor tissue, and when loaded with PTX (c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA-PTX), exhibited the strongest tumor growth inhibition among the studied paclitaxel formulations. The anti-glioblastoma effect of c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA-PTX micelle was also reflected in the median survival time of mice bearing intracranial U87MG tumor xenografts where the median survival time of c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA-PTX micelle-treated mice (48 days) was significantly longer than that of mice treated with PEG-PLA-PTX micelle (41.5 days), Taxol (38.5 days) or saline (34 days). Therefore, our results suggested that c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA micelle may be a potential drug delivery system in the treatment of integrin alpha(v)beta(3) over-expressed glioblastoma.
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Rapid determination of the geographical origin of honey based on protein fingerprinting and barcoding using MALDI TOF MS.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2009
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The authentication of foods is an important aspect of quality control and food safety. Honey is one of the most natural and most popular foods in the world. A fast and reliable method to determine the geographical origin of honey was developed based on fingerprinting and barcoding of proteins in honey by using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) and MALDI Biotyper 1.1 software, respectively. The protein mass spectra of 16 honey samples of known Hawaii origin were obtained and peak information was extracted to generate protein fingerprints. This information was transformed into a database library of spectral barcodes that were used for differentiation of the geographical origin of honeys based on pattern matching. The differentiation ability of the database library of barcodes was validated by comparing the results of replicate assays of 5 of the 16 honey samples of known Hawaii origin obtained directly from the producers. Validation results showed that the protein fingerprints of honeys have better comparability with those honeys in the library known to be from the same region than with those of honey samples from other regions. The protein fingerprints were used to differentiate the geographical origins of commercially purchased honey samples with labels indicating that they were produced in different countries and various states of the USA, including Hawaii. The results showed that the MALDI TOF MS Biotyper system can be a rapid, simple and practical method for determining the geographical origin of honeys sold in commerce.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.