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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Direct C-H difluoromethylenephosphonation of arenes and heteroarenes with bromodifluoromethyl phosphonate via visible-light photocatalysis.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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This communication reports a room temperature visible-light-driven protocol for the C-H difluoromethylenephosphonation of arenes and heteroarenes. Using commercially available diethyl bromodifluoromethyl phosphonate as a precursor of difluoromethyl radical, fac-Ir(ppy)3 as a photosensitizer and a 3 W blue LED as a light source, an array of aromatic compounds containing difluoromethylenephosphonyl groups were prepared directly from the corresponding arenes and heteroarenes in excellent to moderate yields.
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Increased Spinal Cord Na+-K+-2Cl- Cotransporter-1 (NKCC1) Activity Contributes to Impairment of Synaptic Inhibition in Paclitaxel-induced Neuropathic Pain.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Microtubule-stabilizing agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxol), are effective chemotherapy drugs for treating many cancers, and painful neuropathy is a major dose-limiting adverse effect. Cation-chloride cotransporters, such as Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter-1 (NKCC1) and K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter-2 (KCC2), critically influence spinal synaptic inhibition by regulating intracellular chloride concentrations. Here we show that paclitaxel treatment in rats significantly reduced GABA-induced membrane hyperpolarization and caused a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential of dorsal horn neurons. However, paclitaxel had no significant effect on AMPA or NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic input from primary afferents to dorsal horn neurons. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased protein levels, but not mRNA levels, of NKCC1 in spinal cords. Inhibition of NKCC1 with bumetanide reversed the paclitaxel effect on GABA-mediated hyperpolarization and GABA reversal potentials. Also, intrathecal bumetanide significantly attenuated hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by paclitaxel. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that NKCC1 interacted with ?-tubulin and ?-actin in spinal cords. Remarkably, paclitaxel increased NKCC1 protein levels at the plasma membrane and reduced NKCC1 levels in the cytosol of spinal cords. In contrast, treatment with an actin-stabilizing agent had no significant effect on NKCC1 protein levels in the plasma membrane or cytosolic fractions of spinal cords. In addition, inhibition of the motor protein dynein blocked paclitaxel-induced subcellular redistribution of NKCC1, whereas inhibition of kinesin-5 mimicked the paclitaxel effect. Our findings suggest that increased NKCC1 activity contributes to diminished spinal synaptic inhibition and neuropathic pain caused by paclitaxel. Paclitaxel disrupts intracellular NKCC1 trafficking by interfering with microtubule dynamics and associated motor proteins.
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Prediction of the joint toxicity of five organophosphorus pesticides to Daphnia magna.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The individual toxicities of five organophosphorus pesticides (dichlorvos, parathion, methyl parathion, malathion and dimethoate) to Daphnia magna were investigated in 24-h immobilization experiments. Using these toxicity data, their combined toxicities were measured in pesticide mixtures designed using either 'equivalent-effect concentration ratios' or 'uniform-design concentration ratios'. The toxicities of mixtures of similarly or dissimilarly acting toxicants are often predicted from the individual toxicities of the component compounds, using one of two distinct biometric models: concentration addition (CA) or independent action (IA). The relative accuracies of the CA and IA models were assessed using the model deviation rate (MDR), which represents the difference between the effect predicted from the individual pesticide concentrations and the observed effect. The mean MDR value of CA was 0.93 (range 0.75-1.31) and the mean value obtained by IA was 3.13 (range 2.52-4.37). We conclude that the CA model is better able to predict the joint toxicities of mixtures of organophosphorus pesticides to D. magna.
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Nonlinearity effects on the directed momentum current.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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We investigate the quantum transport dynamics governed by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a periodically-?-kicking potential and discover the emergence of a directed current in momentum space. With the increase of nonlinearity, we find strikingly that the momentum current decreases, reverses, and finally vanishes, indicating that the quantum transport can be effectively manipulated through adjusting the nonlinearity. The underlying dynamic mechanism is uncovered and some important implications are addressed.
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Comparison of genotypes I and III in Japanese encephalitis virus reveals distinct differences in their genetic and host diversity.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an arthropod-borne disease associated with the majority of viral encephalitis cases in the Asia-Pacific region. The causative agent, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), has been phylogenetically divided into five genotypes. Recent surveillance data indicate that genotype I (GI) is gradually replacing genotype III (GIII) as the dominant genotype. To investigate the mechanism behind the genotype shift and the potential consequences in terms of vaccine efficacy, human cases, and virus dissemination, we collected (i) all full-length and partial JEV molecular sequences and (ii) associated genotype and host information comprising a data set of 873 sequences. We then examined differences between the two genotypes at the genetic and epidemiological level by investigating amino acid mutations, positive selection, and host range. We found that although GI is dominant, it has fewer sites predicted to be under positive selection, a narrower host range, and significantly fewer human isolates. For the E protein, the sites under positive selection define a haplotype set for each genotype that shows striking differences in their composition and diversity, with GIII showing significantly more variety than GI. Our results suggest that GI has displaced GIII by achieving a replication cycle that is more efficient but is also more restricted in its host range.
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Isolation and characterization of a subtype C avian metapneumovirus circulating in Muscovy ducks in China.
Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20-500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China.
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Celecoxib attenuates hepatic cirrhosis through inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of hepatocytes.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of hepatocytes is a key step for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Long-term administration of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, can ameliorate hepatic fibrosis. This research aimed to examine the effect of celecoxib on the EMT of hepatocytes during the development of liver cirrhosis.
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[Application of lenalidomide in chronic lymphocytic leukemia].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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In recent years, the incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is increasing. Microenvironment and immune system play a key role in the pathogenesis of CLL. The immune system is aggravated by the use of chemotherapeutic agents, such as fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with rituximab(FCR) which are the current standards in frontline therapy. This leads to an increase of infection incidence in patients, resulting in a poor prognosis. The present situation was changed by lenalidomide. Recent studies indicated that lenalidomide monotherapy in treatment of refractory or relapsed CLL patients, the overall response rate(ORR) reached about 32%-47%, CR roughly was 7%-13%; when lenalidomide and rituximab were combined for treatment of refractory or relapsed CLL patients, the ORR reached about 53%-66%, CR about 12%-13%. Moreover, when lenalidomide and ofatumumab were combined, the efficacy is improved significantly and the adverse reactions are greatly reduced. The adverse reactions are neutrophilic granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, tumor lysis syndrome(TLS), tumor flare reaction(TFR) and venous thromboembolism(VTE). This review focuses on the related studies and the latest progress about lenalidomide in CLL.
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[Efficacy of adjusted BACOD regimen on the treatment of relapsed refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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To compare the efficacy and adverse events of adjusted BACOD (bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, dexamethasone) regimen (continuous intravenous infusion) and conventional BACOD regimen (conventional intravenous drip) in the treatment of relapsed and refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
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MicroRNA expression profile of bromocriptine-resistant prolactinomas.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNA) have been implicated in the resistance of tumors to chemotherapy. However, little is known about miRNA expression in bromocriptine-resistant prolactinomas. In this study, 23 prolactinoma samples were classified as bromocriptine-sensitive or -resistant according to the clinical definition of bromocriptine resistance, and their miRNA expression profiles were determined using Solexa sequencing. We found 41 miRNAs that were differentially expressed between the two groups, and 12 of these were validated by stem-loop qRT-PCR. Hsa-mir-93, hsa-mir-17, hsa-mir-22*, hsa-mir-126*, hsa-mir-142-3p, hsa-mir-144*, hsa-mir-486-5p, hsa-mir-451, and hsa-mir-92a were up-regulated and hsa-mir-30a, hsa-mir-382, and hsa-mir-136 were down-regulated in bromocriptine-resistant prolactinomas in comparison with bromocriptine-sensitive prolactinomas. Furthermore, silencing of mir-93 significantly increased the sensitivity of MMQ cells to dopamine agonist treatment. Mir-93 directly affected p21 expression in MMQ cells by targeting the 3'-UTR. Our study is the first to identify a miRNA expression profile associated with bromocriptine-resistant prolactinoma.
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Selenomethionine ameliorates cognitive decline, reduces tau hyperphosphorylation, and reverses synaptic deficit in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Disruption of the intracellular balance between free radicals and the antioxidant system is a prominent and early feature in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selenium, a vital trace element with known antioxidant potential, has been reported to provide neuroprotection through resisting oxidative damage but its therapeutic effect on AD remains to be investigated. The objective of our study was to investigate the potential of selenomethionine (Se-Met), an organic form of selenium, in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and neuropathology of triple transgenic AD (3 × Tg-AD) mice. 3 × Tg-AD mice, which were four months old, were treated with Se-Met for 3 months and demonstrated significant improvements in cognitive deficit along with an increased selenium level compared with the untreated control mice. Se-Met treatment significantly reduced the level of total tau and phosphorylated tau, mitigated the decrease of synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampus and cortex of the 3 × Tg-AD mice. Meanwhile, glial activation in AD mice was inhibited and the level of reduced glutathione was increased in the treated mice compared with control mice. Additionally, the expression and activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3? and protein phosphatase 2A, two important enzymes involved in tau phosphorylation, were markedly decreased and increased respectively by Se-Met treatment. Thus Se-Met improves cognitive deficit in a murine model of AD, which is associated with reduction in tau expression and hyperphosphorylation, amelioration of inflammation, and restoration of synaptic proteins and antioxidants. This study provides a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of AD.
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Triptolide improves early survival of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into rat myocardium.
Cardiology
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To investigate whether triptolide can prolong the survival of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfected with the mouse hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (mHCN4) gene in the myocardium.
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Adoptive transfer of bone marrow dendritic cells failed to localize in the renal cortex and to improve renal injury in adriamycin nephropathy.
Nephron Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Murine bone marrow (BM) dendritic cells (DCs) can be modulated to be tolerogenic by cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, and may play a regulatory role and sustain immune hemostasis in cognate kidney disease. However, it is unknown whether BM-DCs can be used to protect against renal injury in murine Adriamycin nephropathy (AN).
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JIP1 mediates anterograde transport of Rab10 cargos during neuronal polarization.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Axon development and elongation require strictly controlled new membrane addition. Previously, we have shown the involvement of Rab10 in directional membrane insertion of plasmalemmal precursor vesicles (PPVs) during neuronal polarization and axonal growth. However, the mechanism responsible for PPV transportation remains unclear. Here we show that c-Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) interacts with GTP-locked active form of Rab10 and directly connects Rab10 to kinesin-1 light chain (KLC). The kinesin-1/JIP1/Rab10 complex is required for anterograde transport of PPVs during axonal growth. Downregulation of JIP1 or KLC or disrupting the formation of this complex reduces anterograde transport of PPVs in developing axons and causes neuronal polarity defect. Furthermore, this complex plays an important role in neocortical neuronal polarization of rats in vivo. Thus, this study has demonstrated a mechanism underlying directional membrane trafficking involved in axon development.
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Growth performance and stress responses of larval Mississippi Paddlefish Polyodon spathula to hypoxia under different diet treatments.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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A growth trial was conducted to detect the effects of different diets on the growth performance and hypoxia adaptation capacity of Mississippi Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) larvae. The larvae were fed with live food, formulated diets, and 1/2 live food with 1/2 formulated diets. After a 15-d growth trial, final body weight and total body length were measured, and five larvae from each dietary group were subjected to 1 h of hypoxia treatment. Serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Final body weight and weight gain of the fish fed live food were significantly higher than the values for the other two groups. Total body length of the fish fed live food and 1/2 live food with 1/2 formulated diets exhibited no significant difference. After hypoxia treatment, serum T-AOC and SOD activities of the fish fed formulated diets were significantly lower than those of the other two groups. Liver MDA content of the fish fed with live food was significantly higher than that of the other two groups. In conclusion, larval paddlefish fed with an appropriate proportion of live food and formulated diets exhibit improved adaptive capacity to hypoxia.
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Effects of Ciji Hua'ai Baosheng Granule Formula (CHBGF) on Life Time, Pathology, Peripheral Blood Cells of Tumor Chemotherapy Model Mouse with H22 Hepatoma Carcinoma Cells.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ciji Hua'ai Baosheng Granule Formula (CHBGF) is a traditional Chinese empirical formula that can help the tumor patients who have received chemotherapy antagonize the toxin and side-effects so as to improve and prolong the life. This study is to evaluate the effects of CHBGF on improving life quality in terms of survival time, pathology of tumor tissue and ameliorating peripheral blood cells in mouse chemotherapy model with subcutaneous transplanted tumor or ascitic tumor of H22 hepatoma carcinoma cells at an overall level.
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Optogenetics reveals a role for accumbal medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine D2 receptors in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization.
Front Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Long-lasting, drug-induced adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been proposed to contribute to drug-mediated addictive behaviors. Here we have used an optogenetic approach to examine the role of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) were delivered into the NAc of D2R-Cre transgenic mice. This allowed us to selectively photostimulate D2R-MSNs in NAc. D2R-MSNs form local inhibitory circuits, because photostimulation of D2R-MSN evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in neighboring MSNs. Photostimulation of NAc D2R-MSN in vivo affected neither the initiation nor the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. However, photostimulation during the drug withdrawal period attenuated expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. These results show that D2R-MSNs of NAc play a key role in withdrawal-induced plasticity and may contribute to relapse after cessation of drug abuse.
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Clinical values of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence video angiography with Flow 800 software in cerebrovascular surgery.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Microscope-integrated near-infrared indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA) has been used in neurosurgery for a decade. This study aimed to assess the value of intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) video angiography with Flow 800 software in cerebrovascular surgery and to discover its hemodynamic features and changes of cerebrovascular diseases during surgery.
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Mercury-cadmium-telluride waveguides--a novel strategy for on-chip mid-infrared sensors.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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We report the first planar waveguides made from mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT)-a material to date exclusively used for mid-infrared (MIR) detector elements-serving as on-chip MIR evanescent field transducers in combination with tunable quantum cascade lasers (tQCLs) emitting in the spectral regime of 5.78-6.35 ?m. This novel MIR sensing approach utilizes structured MCT chips fabricated via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) as waveguide enabling sensing via evanescent field absorption spectroscopy, as demonstrated by the detection of 1 nL of acetone. Complementary finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations fit well with the experimentally obtained data and predict an improvement of the limit of detection by at least 2 orders of magnitude upon implementation of thinner MCT waveguides. With the first demonstration of chemical sensing using on-chip MCT waveguides, monolithically fabricated IR sensing systems directly interfacing the waveguide with the MCT detector element may be envisaged.
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Triazole-Dithiocarbamate Based Selective Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) Inactivators Inhibit Gastric Cancer Cell Growth, Invasion, and Migration.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), the first identified histone demethylase, plays an important role in epigenetic regulation of gene activation and repression. The up-regulated LSD1s expression has been reported in several malignant tumors. In the current study, we designed and synthesized five series of 1,2,3-triazole-dithiocarbamate hybrids and screened their inhibitory activity toward LSD1. We found that some of these compounds, especially compound 26, exhibited the most specific and robust inhibition of LSD1. Interestingly, compound 26 also showed potent and selective cytotoxicity against LSD1 overexpressing gastric cancer cell lines MGC-803 and HGC-27, as well as marked inhibition of cell migration and invasion, compared to 2-PCPA. Furthermore, compound 26 effectively reduced the tumor growth bared by human gastric cancer cells in vivo with no signs of adverse side effects. These findings suggested that compound 26 deserves further investigation as a lead compound in the treatment of LSD1 overexpressing gastric cancer.
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Visualization of synaptic inhibition with an optogenetic sensor developed by cell-free protein engineering automation.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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We describe an engineered fluorescent optogenetic sensor, SuperClomeleon, that robustly detects inhibitory synaptic activity in single, cultured mouse neurons by reporting intracellular chloride changes produced by exogenous GABA or inhibitory synaptic activity. Using a cell-free protein engineering automation methodology that bypasses gene cloning, we iteratively constructed, produced, and assayed hundreds of mutations in binding-site residues to identify improvements in Clomeleon, a first-generation, suboptimal sensor. Structural analysis revealed that these improvements involve halide contacts and distant side chain rearrangements. The development of optogenetic sensors that respond to neural activity enables cellular tracking of neural activity using optical, rather than electrophysiological, signals. Construction of such sensors using in vitro protein engineering establishes a powerful approach for developing new probes for brain imaging.
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Mild electrical pulse current stimulation upregulates S100A4 and promotes cardiogenesis in MSC and cardiac myocytes coculture monolayer.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Parietal endoderm-secreted S100A4 promotes early cardiomyogenesis in embryoid bodies [1]. After an acute ischemic event, S100A4 protein appears in cardiac myocytes only in the border zone in rat and human hearts [2]. In wound research, a large outward current of 4 ?A/cm(2) was always measured at the wound edges of rat cornea and human skin [3]. We hypothesize that a special electrical circumstance at the border zone may contribute to the phenomenon. An electric stimulation system was designed to give the cells electric pulse current stimulation (EPCS), the feature of the signal is pulse polarity altered one after another, rectangular 2 ms, 2 Hz, 40 ?A. This intensity of stimulation is proved to be safe to cardiac myocytes (both in structure and beating behavior compared with the cardiac myocytes which do not receive stimulation) and MSCs (in cell vitality, proliferation, cell cycle, and gap junction generation potential) through our previous work. Canine MSCs are capable of generating voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channel and Na(+) channels and generating the Ca(2+) handling system during differentiation. We found that CD44 was reduced in the MSCs monolayer treated with EPCS, compared with non-stimulated MSCs; and EPCS MSCs (3 h/day, 6 h/day, 5 days) showed an 14.04 ± 3.44 and 14.55 ± 3.97 % reduction in CD44, compared with the cotemporary MSCs; these reveal that CD44 reduction amplitude is not correlated with time for EPCS disposure and CD29 (integrin ?1) expression is not affected by EPCS exposure. EPCS was given to the MSCs and cardiac myocytes coculture monolayer (ratio 3:1) for different time (1, 3, and 6 h/day) for 4 days to see the biological effects. Gap junction protein and troponin T show an increase after EPCS. We found that the gap junction protein Cx43 increased with treating time-in the EPCS group, it exhibited 1.5 and 1.7 fold in the 3 h/day group and 6 h/day group (P < 0.01), and troponin T exhibited to about 3.6 and 4.4 fold in the 3 h/day group (P < 0.01) and 6 h/day group (P < 0.05). Since coculture was used as stimuli, immunofluorescence was used to visualize the changes during EPCS for the purpose of elucidating the impact of EPCS on cardiac myocytes and MSCs. We found that after 5 days exposure, EPCS can enhance the expression of S100A4, which is 2.33 fold in cardiac myocytes (P < 0.01) and 1.99 fold in MSCs (P < 0.01) in gray value. A significant increasing expression of the myocyte enhancer factor (MEF) and GATA4 is detected in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (P < 0.01) compared with cotemporary coculture monolayer in the control group. Also, EPCS can trigger the assembly of MEF2c in the nuclei. In addition, more cardiac myocytes were found to have two nuclei. But MSCs fail to active MEF2C transcriptional factor like that in cardiac myocytes after EPCS exposure. The elevation of MEF2 in both cytoplasm and nuclei of cardiac myocytes can always make a clear distinction of the cardiac myocytes and MSCs in coculture. Some factors show strong upregulation tendency with EPCS in both cardiac myocytes and MSCs-these include the troponin T (P < 0.01) and Cx43 (P < 0.05) in cardiac myocytes, and troponin T (P < 0.01) and Cx43 (P < 0.01) in MSCs. Collagen I expression is not affected with EPCS. In conclusion, mild EPCS can upregulate the secretion of S100A4 in both cardiac myocytes and MSCs, which is a factor supporting the cardiomyogenesis and angiogenesis; it further triggers the development of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes through upregulation of MEF2C and GATA4, the number of cardiac myocytes with two nuclei increases with EPCS, but this phenomenon does not appear in MSCs. Despite this, Cx43 and troponin T in both cardiac myocytes and MSCs are very sensitive to EPCS. EPCS can act as an effective and multi-targeted physical intervention method in cardiomyogenesis.
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BlastGraph: a comparative genomics tool based on BLAST and graph algorithms.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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BlastGraph is an interactive Java program for comparative genome analysis based on Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), graph clustering and data visualization. The software generates clusters of sequences of multiple genomes from all-to-all BLAST results and visualizes the results in graph plots together with related information such as sequence features, gene conservation and similarity relationships. Pruning algorithms are used to reduce results to more meaningful subclusters. Subsequent analyses can then be conducted based on the predicted clusters, including gene content, genome phylogenetics and gene gain and loss. Availability and implementation: https://github.com/bigwiv/BlastGraph.
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Design of a Fluidic Circuit-Based Microcytometer for Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Enumeration.
IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Portable devices have been introduced to provide companion diagnostics in many applications such as personalized healthcare monitoring since several decades ago. Recently the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic chip enables a cost effective platform for point of care diagnostics. In this paper, we present a systematic theoretical and experimental study of a novel fluidic circuit-based microcytometer. The working principle of this device is based on the characterization of the bandwidth and amplitude of the bias-voltage pulses induced by the microparticles physical blockage of the sensing aperture. In the simulation, the amplitude and bandwidth of the bias voltage change is simply related to the microparticle translocation time and resistance change in the sensing aperture. In the modeling part, we simulate the two parameters (peak and translocation time) by considering 7 ?m and 16 ?m, which is used to approximately characterize the Red Blood Cells (RBCs) and Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs). In the experimental setup, microparticles of different sizes are used to demonstrate the chip performance. Furthermore, RBCs and CTCs are detected and enumerated by the proposed chip. The microcytometry chip is presented and is expected toward the point of care clinical diagnostics.
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Recombinant influenza A H3N2 viruses with mutations of HA transmembrane cysteines exhibited altered virological characteristics.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Influenza A H3N2 virus as the cause of 1968 pandemic has since been circulating in human and swine. Our earlier study has shown that mutations of one or two cysteines in the transmembrane domain of H3 hemagglutinin (HA) affected the thermal stability and fusion activity of recombinant HA proteins. Here, we report the successful generation of three recombinant H3N2 mutant viruses (C540S, C544L, and 2C/SL) with mutations of one or two transmembrane cysteines of HA in the background of A/swine/Guangdong/01/98 [H3N2] using reverse genetics, indicating that the mutated cysteines were not essential for virus assembly and growth. Further characterization revealed that recombinant H3N2 mutant viruses exhibited larger plaque sizes, increased growth rate in cells, enhanced fusion activity, reduced thermal and acidic resistances, and increased virulence in embryonated eggs. These results demonstrated that the transmembrane cysteines (C540 and C544) in H3 HA have profound effects on the virological features of H3N2 viruses.
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Structural assembly from phosphate to germanophosphate by applying germanate as a binder.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Structural assembly from phosphate to germanophosphate by applying germanate as a binder has been achieved. Two isotypic porous compounds, K3[M(II)4(HPO4)2][Ge2O(OH)(PO4)4]·xH2O (M(II) = Fe, Cd; x = 2 for Fe and 3 for Cd, denoted as KFeGePO-1 and KCdGePO-1, respectively), contain a known transition-metal phosphate (TMPO) layer, (?)(2){[M2(HPO4)3]2–}, which is built from chains of trans-edge-sharing MO6 octahedra bridged by MO5 trigonal bipyramids that were further linked and decorated by phosphate tetrahedra. The layers are bound by infinite chains of GeO5(OH) octahedra, resulting in a 3D open-framework structure with 1D 12-ring channels that are occupied by K+ ions and water molecules. The curvature of the TMPO layers and shape of the 12-ring windows can be tuned by the transition metals because of their Jahn–Teller effect.
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Hypophosphatemia during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration is associated with mortality in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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The primary aim of this study was to determine whether hypophosphatemia during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) is associated with the global outcome of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI).
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Transcatheter arterial embolization followed by octreotide and celecoxib synergistically prolongs survival of rabbits with hepatic VX2 allografts.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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To validate the efficacy of an innovative multimodality therapy with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) plus octreotide and celecoxib in reducing neoangiogenesis and prolonging the survival of rabbits with hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Variants in TNFSF4, TNFAIP3, TNIP1, BLK, SLC15A4 and UBE2L3 interact to confer risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in Chinese population.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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Our previous genome-wide association studies on SLE have identified several susceptibility genes involved in NF-?B signaling pathway, including TNFSF4, TNFAIP3, TNIP1, BLK, SLC15A4 and UBE2L3. The aim of this study is to investigate the association model (additive, dominant, recessive) of these genes and search for possible gene-gene interactions between them. In this study, we explored the association model of these six genes and search for possible gene-gene interactions based on identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among them by using logistic regression analysis in the combined sample of 4,199 cases and 8,255 controls. The most significant association evidence was observed under recessive model for all of these SNPs. Besides, significant interactions between these SNPs were observed in this study: the TNFSF4 and TNIP1 SNPs (P adjusted = 1.68E-10), the TNFSF4 and SLC15A4 SNPs (P adjusted = 3.55E-08), the TNFSF4 and UBE2L3 SNPs (P adjusted = 8.74E-13), the TNIP1 and BLK SNPs (P adjusted = 9.45E-10), the TNIP1 and UBE2L3 SNPs (P adjusted = 8.25E-11), the TNFAIP3 and UBE2L3 SNPs (P adjusted = 3.06E-14) and the BLK and SLC15A4 SNPs (P adjusted = 4.51E-12). These results may contribute to our understanding of SLE genetic interactions and account for the additional risk of certain patients to develop SLE.
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The feasibility and safety of early removal of nasogastric tube after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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To evaluate the feasibility and safety of early removal of nasogastric tube after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
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Fine mapping of a linear epitope on EDIII of Japanese encephalitis virus using a novel neutralizing monoclonal antibody.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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The domain III (EDIII) of the envelope protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is proposed to play an essential role in JEV replication and infection; it is involved in binding to host receptors and contains specific epitopes that elicit neutralizing antibodies. However, most previous studies have not provided detailed molecular information about the functional epitopes on JEV EDIII protein. In this study, we described a monoclonal antibody (mAb 2B4) we produced and characterized by IFA, PRNT, ELISA and Western blot analyses. The results showed that mAb 2B4 was specific to JEV EDIII protein and possessed high neutralization activity against JEV in vitro. Furthermore, we found that the motif, (394)HHWH(397), was the minimal unit of the linear epitope recognized by mAb 2B4 through screening a phage-displayed random 12-mer peptide library. Using sequence alignment analysis it was found that this motif was highly conserved among JEV strains and was present in West Nile Virus (WNV). Indeed, ELISA data showed that this epitope could be recognized by both JEV-positive swine serum and WNV-positive swine serum. Notably, this linear epitope was highly hydrophilic and was located within the terminal end of a ?-pleated sheet of EDIII. An analysis of the spatial conformation supported the possibility of inducing specific antibodies to this epitope. Taken together, we identified (394)HHWH(397) as an EDIII-specific linear epitope recognized by mAb 2B4, which would be beneficial for studying the pathogenic mechanism of JEV; and mAb 2B4 was also a potential diagnostic and therapeutic reagent.
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2-(4-Methyl-phen-yl)-3-oxo-4-phenyl-2,3,3a,4,9,9a-hexa-hydro-1H-benzo[f]iso-indole-6-carbo-nitrile.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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In the title compound, C26H22N2O, one phenyl ring, one five-membered N-heterocyclic ring and one six-membered carbocyclic ring make up the hexa-hydro-benzo[f]iso-indole core. Another phenyl group is attached to the heterocyclic N atom as a substituent. The non-aromatic five- and six-membered rings both exhibit boat conformations. In the crystal, weak C-H?O and C-H?N inter-actions establish the observed three-dimensional structure. The crystal studied was refined as an inversion twin.
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CCND1 G870A polymorphism interaction with cigarette smoking increases lung cancer risk: meta-analyses based on 5008 cases and 5214 controls.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Evidence indicates CCND1 G870A polymorphisms as a risk factor for a number of cancers. Increasing studies have been conducted on the association of CCND1 G870A polymorphism with lung cancer risk. However, the results were controversial. The aim of the present study was to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship. Meta-analyses examining the association between CCND1 G870A polymorphism and lung cancer were performed. Subgroup analyses regarding ethnicity, smoking status, histological types and source of controls were also implemented. All eligible studies for the period up to May 2012 were identified. The overall data from ten case-control studies including 5,008 cases and 5,214 controls indicated that variant A allele may have an association with increased lung cancer risk (AA vs GG: OR = 1.21; 95 % CI = 1.08-1.36, dominant model: OR = 1.09; 95 % CI = 1.00-1.19, recessive model: OR = 1.23; 95 % CI = 1.01-1.49). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, A allele may elevate lung cancer risk among Asians but not Caucasians or Mixed ethnicities. In smoking status subgroup, A allele was shown to associate with increased lung cancer risk among smokers but not non-smokers. In the subgroup analysis by histological types, increased cancer risks were shown in adenocarcinoma but not squamous cell carcinoma, under the homozygote comparison and recessive models. Collectively, the results of the present study suggest that CCND1 G870A polymorphism might be a low-penetrant risk factor for lung cancer, particularly among Asians and smokers. Moreover, homozygous AA alleles might have a correlation with increased lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility.
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InAs-mediated growth of vertical InSb nanowires on Si substrates.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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In this work, InSb nanowires are grown vertically on Si (111) with metal organic chemical vapor deposition using InAs as seed layer, instead of external metal catalyst. Two groups of InSb nanowires are fabricated and characterized: one group presents Indium droplets at the nanowires free end, while the other, in contrast, ends without Indium droplet but with pyramid-shaped InSb. The indium-droplet-ended nanowires are longer than the other group of nanowires. For both groups of InSb nanowires, InAs layers play an important role in their formation by serving as a template for growing InSb nanowires. The results presented in this work suggest a useful approach to grow catalyst-free InSb nanowires on Si substrates, which is significant for their device applications.
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High-rate lithium storage of anatase TiO2 crystals doped with both nitrogen and sulfur.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Anatase TiO2 nanocrystals doped with nitrogen and sulfur, where substitutional N and S atoms for lattice O, respectively, locate in the bulk and the surface layer of the crystals, were designed and prepared. As a result of remarkably lowered electronic resistance, the N/S doped TiO2 shows a superior high rate lithium storage capability to that of reference TiO2 nanocrystals, though the former has a larger particle size.
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Tumor suppressor in lung cancer-1 (TSLC1) mediated by dual-regulated oncolytic adenovirus exerts specific antitumor actions in a mouse model.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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The tumor suppressor in lung cancer-1 (TSLC1) is a candidate tumor suppressor of lung cancer, and frequently inactivated in primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we investigated the effects of TSLC1 mediated by a dual-regulated oncolytic adenovirus on lung cancer, and the mechanisms underlying the antitumor actions.
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Selective inhibition of human group IIA-secreted phospholipase A2 (hGIIA) signaling reveals arachidonic acid metabolism is associated with colocalization of hGIIA to vimentin in rheumatoid synoviocytes.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Human group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (hGIIA) promotes tumor growth and inflammation and can act independently of its well described catalytic lipase activity via an alternative poorly understood signaling pathway. With six chemically diverse inhibitors we show that it is possible to selectively inhibit hGIIA signaling over catalysis, and x-ray crystal structures illustrate that signaling involves a pharmacologically distinct surface to the catalytic site. We demonstrate in rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes that non-catalytic signaling is associated with rapid internalization of the enzyme and colocalization with vimentin. Trafficking of exogenous hGIIA was monitored with immunofluorescence studies, which revealed that vimentin localization is disrupted by inhibitors of signaling that belong to a rare class of small molecule inhibitors that modulate protein-protein interactions. This study provides structural and pharmacological evidence for an association between vimentin, hGIIA, and arachidonic acid metabolism in synovial inflammation, avenues for selective interrogation of hGIIA signaling, and new strategies for therapeutic hGIIA inhibitor design.
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Decreased copy number of mitochondrial DNA: A potential diagnostic criterion for gastric cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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An alteration in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number has been detected in numerous human cancers. However, certain changes in the mtDNA copy number that occur during the initiation and progression of gastric cancer remain undetected. In the present study, using quantitative PCR analysis, the quantitative changes in mtDNA were observed during the initiation and progression of gastric cancer. Furthermore, the possible correlation between the changes in mtDNA and the clinicopathological stage were also investigated. However, the mechanism by which the change in mtDNA copy number occurs remains to be elucidated. Epigenetic changes are believed to play a significant role in regulating the mtDNA content. In order to determine whether there is a potential correlation between DNA methylation and mtDNA regulation, in vitro demethylation experiments were performed. Tumor tissues and corresponding non-cancerous tissues were surgically resected from 76 gastric cancer patients between 2010 and 2011. The results revealed that the average relative mtDNA copy numbers were 94.71±28.11 in the cancer tissues and 111.68±21.84 in the corresponding non-cancerous tissues (P<0.01). The quantitative changes in mtDNA demonstrated a significant decrease in gastric cancer, particularly in ill-defined stage III and IV cases, but had no association with gender. The mtDNA copy numbers demonstrated a marked increase (P<0.05) following demethylation treatment. The present results indicate that the mtDNA copy number plays a significant role during the progression of colorectal cancer, particularly during the late clinicopathological stages, and that the change in the mtDNA copy number may correlate with DNA methylation.
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In situ investigation of allografted mouse HCN4 gene-transfected rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells with the use of patch-clamp recording of ventricular slices.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Recently, proof-of-concept experiments have shown that genetically modified bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) carrying hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels were able to express the funny current (If) in vitro, which played a key role in the process of pacemaker generation for heart rate, and were capable of pacemaker function after transplantation into the host heart. Nevertheless, because of the lack of direct experimental access to the implanted cells in situ, the changes in electrophysiological characteristics and the mechanisms underlying the pacemaker function of engrafted HCN gene-transfected MSCs in vivo remain unclear.
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4-Hydroxytamoxifen-stimulated processing of cyclin E is mediated via G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and accompanied by enhanced migration in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Over-expression of cleaved cyclin E in breast tumors is closely associated with tumor progression and resistance to antiestrogens. 17?-Estradiol (E2) has been recently shown to induce cyclin E processing in breast cancer cells. Tamoxifen has been used in patients with estrogen-sensitive breast cancer, yet resistance to antiestrogens and recurrence will appear in some of the patients after its continued use. We therefore addressed possible effects of tamoxifen on the generation of cleaved cyclin E and its signal mechanism(s) in estrogen-responsive MCF-7 breast cancer cells that express both G protein-coupled protein (GPR) 30 and estrogen receptor ? (ER?). 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (OHT, tamoxifens active form) failed to prevent E2-induced proteolysis of cyclin E and migration, but rather triggered cyclin E cleavage coincident with augmented migration. OHT-induced cyclin E truncation also occurred in SK-BR-3 cells that express GPR30 and lack ER?, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells that express neither GPR30 nor ER?. G1, a specific GPR 30 agonist, caused dramatic proteolysis of cyclin E and enhanced migration. Furthermore, OHT-stimulated cleavage of cyclin E and migration were tremendously attenuated by G15, a GPR30 antagonist, or siRNA against GPR30. In addition, inhibitors for EGFR or ERK1/2 remarkably suppressed OHT-induced truncation of cyclin E, suggesting involvement of EGFR signaling. Collectively, our data indicate that OHT contributes to the production of proteolyzed cyclin E via GPR30 with augmented migration in MCF-7 cells.
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Prognostic value of cancer stem cell marker CD133 expression in gastric cancer: a systematic review.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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To investigate the correlation between CD133-positive gastric cancer and clinicopathological features and its impact on survival.
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siRNA-Act1 inhibits the function of IL-17 on lung fibroblasts via the NF-?B pathway.
Respiration
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Interleukin (IL)-17-producing T lymphocytes play a role in pulmonary fibrosis, but the possible mechanism of IL-17 on lung fibroblasts remains uncertain.
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Octreotide and celecoxib synergistically encapsulate VX2 hepatic allografts following transcatheter arterial embolisation.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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To evaluate the encapsulation of VX2 hepatic allografts in rabbits induced by octreotide and celecoxib administration following transcatheter arterial embolisation (TAE), rabbits with hepatic VX2 allografts were divided into four groups: control, TAE, octreotide + celecoxib (O+C) and the multimodality therapy (TAE+O+C). Allograft metastasis, capsule thickness and percentage of clear cells were measured and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD31 were detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The extrahepatic metastases of each intervention group were significantly fewer than those of the control group, with the TAE+O+C group exhibiting the fewest extrahepatic metastases. The TAE+O+C group had the greatest proportion of clear cells and thickest capsule on day 30. Increased capsule thickness was negatively correlated with tumour metastasis. In addition, VEGF expression levels assessed by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR in the three intervention groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. Furthermore, the TAE+O+C group had a significantly reduced CD31 count induced by TAE. These results demonstrate that TAE, followed by long-term administration of octreotide and celecoxib, synergistically inhibits VX2 hepatic allograft metastasis by increasing the proportion of clear cells, promoting encapsulation and inhibiting angiogenesis.
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Middle frontal horizontal partial laryngectomy (MFHPL): a treatment for stage T1b squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx involving anterior vocal commissure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The therapeutic effect of middle frontal horizontal partial laryngectomy (MFHPL) in treating stage T1b squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx involving anterior vocal commissure (AVC) was compared with that of the anterior frontolateral vertical partial laryngectomy (AFVPL). The feasibility and practical significance of MFHPL in clinical application was discussed in the present study.
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Raman study on zinc-blende single InAs nanowire grown on Si (111) substrate.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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We report polarized Raman scattering studies on single InAs nanowires (NWs). The NWs were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Si (111) substrates without external catalyst and showed a zinc-blende crystal structure. The single NWs were studied for different polarization excitation of the incident laser beam relative to the NW axis. The transverse optical (TO) mode exhibits maximum intensity when both the incident and analyzed light polarizations are parallel to the NW axis. The TO mode of InAs NWs is found to act like a nearly perfect dipole antenna, which can be attributed to the one-dimensional NW geometry and Raman selection rules.
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Next-generation transgenic mice for optogenetic analysis of neural circuits.
Front Neural Circuits
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Here we characterize several new lines of transgenic mice useful for optogenetic analysis of brain circuit function. These mice express optogenetic probes, such as enhanced halorhodopsin or several different versions of channelrhodopsins, behind various neuron-specific promoters. These mice permit photoinhibition or photostimulation both in vitro and in vivo. Our results also reveal the important influence of fluorescent tags on optogenetic probe expression and function in transgenic mice.
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Celecoxib ameliorates portal hypertension of the cirrhotic rats through the dual inhibitory effects on the intrahepatic fibrosis and angiogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Increased intra-hepatic resistance to portal blood flow is the primary factor leading to portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Up-regulated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the cirrhotic liver might be a potential target to ameliorate portal hypertension.
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Identification and characterization of novel immunomodulatory bursal-derived pentapeptide-II (BPP-II).
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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The bursa of Fabricius, the acknowledged central humoral immune organ, plays a vital role in B lymphocyte differentiation. However, there are few reports of the molecular basis of the mechanism on immune induction and potential antitumor activity of bursal-derived peptides. In this paper, a novel bursal-derived pentapeptide-II (BPP-II, MTLTG) was isolated and exerted immunomodulatory functions on antibody responses in vitro. Gene microarray analyses demonstrated that BPP-II regulated expression of 2478 genes in a mouse-derived hybridoma cell line. Immune-related gene ontology functional procedures were employed for further functional analysis. Furthermore, the majority of BPP-II-regulated pathways were associated with immune responses and tumor processes. Moreover, BPP-II exhibited immunomodulatory effects on antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, including enhancement of avian influenza virus (H9N2 subtype)-specific antibody and cytokine production and modification of T cell immunophenotypes and lymphocyte proliferation. Finally, BPP-II triggered p53 expression and stabilization and selectively inhibited tumor cell proliferation. These data identified the multifunctional factor, BPP-II, as a novel biomaterial representing an important linking between the humoral central immune system and immune induction, including antitumor. Information generated in this study elucidates further the mechanisms involved in humoral immune system and represents the potential basis of effective immunotherapeutic strategies for treating human tumors and immune improvement.
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Molecular characterization and functional analysis of Cashmere goat mammalian target of rapamycin.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase that belongs to the phosphatidylinositol kinase-related kinase family. We describe our molecular characterization of mTOR and its function (GenBank accession HM114224) in Cashmere goat (Capra hircus). The goat mTOR complementary DNA is 8617 bp, comprising an open reading frame of 7650 bp--corresponding to a polypeptide of 2549 amino acids--and a 909 bp 3 untranslated region with a polyA tract and a polyadenylation signal at nucleotides 8575-8580. In a bioinformatics analysis, goat mTOR has typical sites of activity and domains. mTOR mRNA was measured in brain, heart, testis, liver, spleen, kidney, and lung by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the expression of mTOR in fetal fibroblasts was detected by western blot. The viability of fetal fibroblasts was inhibited on treatment with CCI-779, a specific inhibitor of mTOR. Our data supplied evidence that the transcription of mTOR was detected in the seven tissues in Cashmere goat, and mTOR protein was translated in fetal fibroblasts. The proliferation of fetal fibroblasts decreases on inhibition of mTOR.
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Batch fabrication of disposable screen printed SERS arrays.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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A novel facile method of fabricating disposable and highly reproducible surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) arrays using screen printing was explored. The screen printing ink containing silver nanoparticles was prepared and printed on supporting materials by a screen printing process to fabricate SERS arrays (6 × 10 printed spots) in large batches. The fabrication conditions, SERS performance and application of these arrays were systematically investigated, and a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(-13) M for rhodamine 6G could be achieved. Moreover, the screen printed SERS arrays exhibited high reproducibility and stability, the spot-to-spot SERS signals showed that the intensity variation was less than 10% and SERS performance could be maintained over 12 weeks. Portable high-throughput analysis of biological samples was accomplished using these disposable screen printed SERS arrays.
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VPS35 haploinsufficiency increases Alzheimers disease neuropathology.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2011
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VPS35, a major component of the retromer complex, is important for endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of membrane proteins. Although implicated in Alzheimers disease (AD), how VPS35 regulates AD-associated pathology is unknown. In this paper, we show that hemizygous deletion of Vps35 in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD led to earlier-onset AD-like phenotypes, including cognitive memory deficits, defective long-term potentiation, and impaired postsynaptic glutamatergic neurotransmission in young adult age. These deficits correlated well with an increase of ?-amyloid peptide (A?) level in the mutant hippocampus. We further demonstrate that VPS35 is predominantly expressed in pyramidal neurons of young adult hippocampus and interacts with BACE1, a protease responsible for A? production. Loss of VPS35 function in the mouse hippocampus increased BACE1 activity. Suppression of VPS35 expression in culture decreased BACE1 trans-Golgi localization but enriched it in endosomes. These results demonstrate an essential role for VPS35 in suppression of AD neuropathology and in inhibition of BACE1 activation and A? production by promoting BACE1 endosome-to-Golgi retrieval.
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Multiple depositions of Ag nanoparticles on chemically modified agarose films for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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A facile and cost-effective approach for the preparation of a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate through constructing silver nanoparticle/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane/agarose films (Ag NPs/APTES/Agar film) on various solid supports is described. The SERS performance of the substrate was systematically investigated, revealing a maximum SERS intensity with four layers of the Ag NP deposition. The enhancement factor of the developed substrate was calculated as 1.5 × 10(7) using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as the probe molecule, and the reproducibility of the SERS signals was established. A high throughput screening platform was designed, manufactured and implemented which utilised the ability to cast agarose to assemble arrays. Quantitative analysis of 4-aminobenzoic acid (4-ABA) and 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) was achieved over a ?0.5 nM-0.1 ?M range.
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An ammonium iron(II) pyrophosphate, (NH(4))(2)[Fe(3)(P(2)O(7))(2)(H(2)O)(2)], with a layered structure.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Diammonium diaquabis(phosphato)triferrate(II), (NH(4))(2)[Fe(3)(P(2)O(7))(2)(H(2)O)(2)], was synthesized under solvo-thermal conditions at 463?K. The crystal structure, isotypic to its Mn and Ni analogues, is built from iron pyrophosphate layers parallel to (100), which are linked by ammonium ions sitting in the inter-layer space via O-H?O and N-H?O hydrogen bonds. There are two crystallographic Fe sites in the crystal structure, one at a special position (2a, [Formula: see text]), the other at a general position (4e, 1). The former Fe atom on the inversion centre is coordinated by six O atoms, forming an FeO(6) octa-hedron, while the latter is coordinated by five phosphate O atoms and one water mol-ecule, forming an FeO(5)(H(2)O) octa-hedron. Each FeO(6) octa-hedron shares trans edges with two FeO(5)(H(2)O) octa-hedra, forming a linear trimeric unit. These trimers share the lateral edges of FeO(5)(H(2)O) with other trimers, forming a zigzag chain running along [010]. The zigzag chains are further linked by P(2)O(7) groups into a layered structure parallel to (100).
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Corticosterone rapidly promotes respiratory burst of mouse peritoneal macrophages via non-genomic mechanism.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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The immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) have been described as bimodal. High concentration of GCs exerts immunosuppressive effects and low levels of GCs are immunopermissive. While the immunosuppressive mechanisms of GCs have been investigated intensely, the immunopermissive effects of GCs remain unclear. A lot of studies showed GCs could exert rapid non-genomic actions. We herein studied the rapid immunopromoting effects of GCs.
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Electrocardiographic and biochemical evidence for the cardioprotective effect of antioxidants in acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in the beagle dogs.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent antitumor agent, but the cardiotoxicity mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species limit its clinical use. The present study aims to explore electrocardiographic and biochemical evidence for the cardioprotective effect of two antioxidants, Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP, the main antioxidant in Lycium barbarum) and edaravone (a potent free radical scavenger, EDA) against DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity in beagle dogs. In this study, male beagle dogs received daily treatment of either LBP (20 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) or EDA (2 mg/kg, intravenously (i.v.)) for 7 d and then followed by an intravenous injection of DOX (1.5 mg/kg). DOX (15 mg/kg) significantly induced acute cardiotoxicity in dogs characterized by conduction abnormalities (including decreased heart rate, ST segment elevation, QT intervals prolongation, inverted T wave, arrhythmia, and myocardial ischemia) and increased serum creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Pretreatment with LBP or EDA effectively alleviated both DOX-associated conduction abnormalities and increased serum CK and AST. Moreover, physiological and serum biochemical evidences demonstrated that EDA is more effective than LBP in alleviating these abnormalities produced by DOX in heart. All these results confirm and extend previous observations in rats concerning the effectiveness of LBP or EDA against DOX-induced cardiomyopathy.
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[Mechanism and clinical significance of anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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To evaluate the molecular mechanism and prognostication of bcl-2 protein expression in different subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL) in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
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[Numerical simulation study on effects of ambient temperature on airflow in the nasal cavity].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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To study the aerodynamics of the normal human nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures.
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Role of inhibitor of apoptosis protein Livin in radiation resistance in nonsmall cell lung cancer.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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The objective of the present study was to explore the role of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) Livin in radioresistance in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Removal of tracheobronchial foreign bodies via suspension laryngoscope and Hopkins telescope in infants.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is a life-threatening accident in infants, and is still a formidable clinical emergency to both otorhinolaryngologists and anesthesiologists. In this study, we attempted to assess the safety and ease of tracheobronchial foreign body removal in infants via suspension laryngoscopy and Hopkins telescopy under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation.
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Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in the testis of freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2011
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Cadmium (Cd), one of the most toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, is known to exert gonadotoxic and spermiotoxic effects. In the present study, we examined the toxic effect of Cd on the testis of freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense. Crabs were exposed to different Cd concentrations (from 0 to 116.00 mg·L(-1)) for 7 d. Oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in the testes were detected. The activities of SOD, GPx and CAT initially increased and subsequently decreased with increasing Cd concentrations, which was accompanied with the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2) content in a concentration-dependent manner. Typical morphological characteristic and physiological changes of apoptosis were observed using a variety of methods (HE staining, AO/EB double fluorescent staining, Transmission Electron Microscope observation and DNA fragmentation analysis), and the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased in a concentration-dependent manner after Cd exposure. These results led to the conclusion that Cd could induced oxidative damage as well as apoptosis in the testis, and the apoptotic processes may be mediated via mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway by regulating the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9.
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Changes in lipid profiles in morbidly obese patients after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG).
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has evolved as a primary weight loss surgery. This study provides changes in lipid profiles in obese patients 1 year after LSG.
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Anesthesia for tracheobronchial foreign bodies removal via self-retaining laryngoscopy and Hopkins telescopy in children.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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This study attempted to explore suitable anesthetic methods used for removal of tracheobronchial foreign body (FB) via self-retaining laryngoscopy and Hopkins telescopy in children. 92 cases had undergone FB removal via self-retaining laryngoscopy and Hopkins telescopy or rigid bronchoscopy in our hospital since 2006, of which 56 cases were under intravenous anesthesia and endotracheal intubation with muscle relaxation (IAEI with MR), and the other 36 cases were under intravenous anesthesia with spontaneous breathing (IASB). Operative parameters and intraoperative vital signs were analyzed. Tracheobronchial foreign body was successfully removed in 87 cases, and not found in the other 5 cases. SpO(2) was below 90% transiently in 41 cases, 29 cases of which were under IAEI with MR and 12 cases were under IASB. Laryngospasm and choke were found in 12 cases under IASB. Vital signs including P(ET)CO(2) and heart rate were stable in all the cases. The mean surgical time, anaesthetic induction and recovery time of IAEI with MR via self-retaining laryngoscopy group were (5.69 ± 3.43) min, (9.68 ± 1.66) min and (26.13 ± 6.94) min, IASB via self-retaining laryngoscopy group were (21.35 ± 17.25) min, (13.71 ± 3.79) min and (24.64 ± 5.44) min, IAEI with MR via rigid bronchoscopy group were (10.20 ± 5.01) min, (10.31 ± 3.56) min and (25.13 ± 6.21) min, and IASB via rigid bronchoscopy group were (25.35 ± 13.25) min, (14.71 ± 3.61) min and (26.22 ± 5.65) min. Its a new and wonderful surgical procedure that combining self-retaining laryngoscopy and Hopkins telescopy for removal of tracheobronchial foreign body. IAEI with MR is suitable for bronchial FBA cases via them, while IASB is better for tracheal FBA or complicated cases.
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Radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes subjected to axial pressure.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
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In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the radial breathing mode (RBM) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) subjected to axial pressure is presented based on an elastic continuum model. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are described as an individual elastic shell and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are considered to be two shells coupled through the van der Waals force. The effects of axial pressure, wave numbers and nanotube diameter on the RBM frequency are investigated in detail. The validity of these theoretical results is confirmed through the comparison of the experiment, calculation and simulation. Our results show that the RBM frequency is linearly dependent on the axial pressure and is affected by the wave numbers. We concluded that RBM frequency can be used to characterize the axial pressure acting on both ends of a CNT.
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[Bicyclol protects rat thoracic aorta from superoxide anion-induced inhibition of vascular relaxation].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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To investigate the effect of bicyclol on vascular oxidative stress injury induced by superoxide anion.
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Total flavonoids of Flos Chrysanthemi protect arterial endothelial cells against oxidative stress.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Total flavonoids of Flos Chrysanthemi (TFFC) are known to modulate vascular functions, but their effect on endothelial cells injured by oxidative stress is unknown. Our objective was to investigate the vasoprotective effect and mechanism of action of TFFC on rat mesenteric artery exposed to superoxide anions produced by pyrogallol.
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Effect of growth temperature on the morphology and phonon properties of InAs nanowires on Si substrates.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Catalyst-free, vertical array of InAs nanowires (NWs) are grown on Si (111) substrate using MOCVD technique. The as-grown InAs NWs show a zinc-blende crystal structure along a < 111 > direction. It is found that both the density and length of InAs NWs decrease with increasing growth temperatures, while the diameter increases with increasing growth temperature, suggesting that the catalyst-free growth of InAs NWs is governed by the nucleation kinetics. The longitudinal optical and transverse optical (TO) mode of InAs NWs present a phonon frequency slightly lower than those of InAs bulk materials, which are speculated to be caused by the defects in the NWs. A surface optical mode is also observed for the InAs NWs, which shifts to lower wave-numbers when the diameter of NWs is decreased, in agreement with the theory prediction. The carrier concentration is extracted to be 2.25 × 1017 cm-3 from the Raman line shape analysis. A splitting of TO modes is also observed.PACS: 62.23.Hj; 81.07.Gf; 63.22.Gh; 61.46.Km.
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Fabrication of a novel hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on C@Au composite.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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A promising hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) biosensor was fabricated by the immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) on C@Au composite surface. The composite with carbon spheres and gold shell (C@Au) was synthesized via the seed-growth assembly technique. The assembly of the gold shell on carbon sphere surfaces was characterized by scanning electron miscroscopy (SEM). Owing to the unique structure and large surface area of the gold shell, the composite offered an effective interface for the immobilization of hemoglobin to fabricate a H2O2 biosensor. The obtained biosensor showed a wide linear range from 5.0 microM to 135 microM with a detection limit of 1.67 microM at 3sigma, and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km(app)) of the immobilized Hb was calculated to be 88.6 microM. Moreover, the biosensor also exhibited good reproducibility and long-term stability. Therefore, this kind of composite can provide an ideal matrix for protein immobilization and biosensor fabrication.
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Identification of polymer materials using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy combined with artificial neural networks.
Appl Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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A combination of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) has been used for the identification of polymer materials, including polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyoxymethylene (POM), polyethylene (PE), polyamide or nylon (PA), polycarbonate (PC) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). After optimization of the experimental setup and the spectrum acquisition protocol, successful identification rates between 81 and 100% were achieved using spectral features gathered from single spectra without averaging (1 second acquisition time) over a wide spectral range (240-820 nm). Furthermore, ten different materials based on PVC were tested using the identification procedure. Correct identifications were obtained as well. Sorting of the materials into sub-categories of PVC materials according to their charges (concentration in trace elements such as Ca) was performed. The demonstrated capacities fit, in practice, the needs of plastic-waste sorting and of producing high-grade recycled plastic materials.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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