JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Polydispersity and gelation in concentrated colloids with competing interactions.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In colloids with competing short-range attractions and long-range repulsions, microcrystalline gels are experimentally formed under conditions where computer simulations point to a lamellar phase as the ground state. Here, upon applying a low-frequency alternating electric field, we bring the system from an initial gel state to a columnar-like state. While molecular dynamics simulations on monodisperse colloids reveal that a columnar structure spontaneously evolves towards a lamellar phase, the columnar-like state in experiments relaxes back to the initial disordered gel state once the electric field is switched off. Similarly, a columnar phase in molecular dynamics simulations decomposes into finite-size crystalline clusters as the relative polydispersity of the colloids is around 1.0%. We conclude that the experimentally observed melting of the columnar structure is driven by polydispersity. Moreover, further simulations reveal that the critical polydispersity required to destabilize a long-range ordered structure increases with the attraction range, pointing to the possibility of observing periodic structures in experiments if the attraction range is sufficiently long compared to the polydispersity of the colloids.
Related JoVE Video
Research Progress in Applying Proteomics Technology to Explore Early Diagnosis Biomarkers of Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer and Ovarian Cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
According to the China tumor registry 2013 annual report , breast cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer are three common cancers in China nowadays, with high mortality due to the absence of early diagnosis technology. However, proteomics has been widespreadly implanted into every field of life science and medicine as an important part of post-genomics era research. The development of theory and technology in proteomics has provided new ideas and research fields for cancer research. Proteomics can be used not only for elucidating the mechanisms of carcinogenesis focussing on whole proteins of the tissue or cell, but also seeking the biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. In this review, we introduce proteomics principles, covering current technology used in exploring early diagnosis biomarkers of breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer.
Related JoVE Video
High-speed and broadband terahertz wave modulators based on large-area graphene field-effect transistors.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present a broadband terahertz wave modulator with improved modulation depth and switch speed by cautiously selecting the gate dielectric materials in a large-area graphene-based field-effect transistor (GFET). An ultrathin Al2O3 film (?60??nm) is deposited by an atomic-layer-deposition technique as a high-k gate dielectric layer, which reduces the Coulomb impurity scattering and cavity effect, and thus greatly improves the modulation performance. Our modulator has achieved a modulation depth of 22% and modulation speed of 170 kHz in a frequency range from 0.4 to 1.5 THz, which is a large improvement in comparison to its predecessor of SiO2-based GFET.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis, Antitumor Activity, and Mechanism of Action of Benzo[b]chromeno[6,5-g][1,8]naphthyridin-7-one Analogs of Acronycine.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of 6-methoxy-3,3,14-trimethyl-3,14-dihydro-7H-benzo[b]chromeno[6,5-g][1,8] naphthyridin-7-one (4), 13-aza derivatives of benzo[b]acronycine, the isomeric 5-methoxy-2,2,13-trimethyl-2,13-dihydro-6H-benzo[b]chromeno[7,6-g][1,8]naphthyridin-6-one (5), and related cis-diols mono and diesters were designed and synthesized. Their in vitro and in vivo biological activities were evaluated. As previously observed in acronycine series, esters were the most potent derivatives exhibiting submicromolar activities, among them monoesters are particularly active. Racemic diacetate 21, showed a strong activity against KB-3-1 cell lines and was selected for in vivo evaluation and proved to be active inhibiting tumor growth by more than 80%. After separation of the two enantiomers, compounds 21a and 21b were also evaluated against C38 colon adenocarcinoma their activities were found significantly different.
Related JoVE Video
Factors Associated With Early Mortality After Living-Donor Liver Transplant.
Exp Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We sought to identify the risk factors associated with the early mortality after a living-donor liver transplant.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis, structure and properties of 2D lanthanide coordination polymers based on N-heterocyclic arylpolycarboxylate ligands.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The reaction of 3-(2,4-dicarboxyphenyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (H4dppd) with rare earth nitrates under hydrothermal conditions generated a series of new two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymers, namely {[La(Hdppd)(H2O)2·(H2O)2]n (), [Ln2(Hdppd)2(H2O)4·(H2O)3]n [Ln = Sm (), Eu ()] and [Ln(Hdppd)(H2O)3·H2O]n [Ln = Gd (), Tb (), Dy (), Ho (), Er ()] [Hdppd = 3-(2,4-dicarboxyphenyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic trivalent anion]}. The complexes were characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Luminescence spectroscopy of and showed bright red and green luminescences due to the 4f(n)-4f(n) transitions in Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) respectively, although the luminescence lifetime is shortened by non-radiative decay due to the presence of coordinating water molecules. The magnetic properties of were measured and discussed. Compound exhibits frequency dependent out-of-phase signals, and ferromagnetic coupling exists in .
Related JoVE Video
Acute lung injury induced by H9N2 virus in mice.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have repeatedly caused infections in mammals even humans in many countries. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the acute lung injury (ALI) caused by H9N2 viral infection in mice.
Related JoVE Video
[Complete genomic analysis of a novel infectious bronchitis virus isolate].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The genome of CK/CH/SD09/005, an isolate of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), was characterized to enable the further understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of IBV in China. Twenty-five pairs of primers were designed to amplify the full-length genome of CK/CH/SD09/005. The nucleotide sequence of CK/CH/SD09/005 was compared with reference IBV strains retrieved from GenBank. The phylogenic relationship between CK/CH/SD09/005 and the reference strains was analyzed based on S1 gene sequences. The complete genome of CK/CH/SD09/005 consisted of 27691 nucleotides (nt), excluding the 5' cap and 3' poly A tail. The whole-genome of CK/CH/SD09/005 shared 97 - 99% nucleotide sequence homology with the GX-NN09032 strain, which was the only complete genome that was closely related to CK/CH/SD09/005. When compared with all reference strains except GX-NN09032, CK/CH/SD09/005 showed the highest similarity to ck/CH/LDL/091022 and SDIB821/2012 (QX-like) in the replicase gene (Gene 1) and 3'UTR, with a sequence identity rate of 97% and 98%, respectively. However, CK/CH/SD09/005 exhibited lower levels of similarity with ck/CH/LDL/091022 and SDIB821/2012 in S-3a-3b-3c/ E-M-5a-5b-N with a sequence identity of 72% - 90%. CK/CH/SD09/005 showed the highest level of nucleotide identity with Korean strain 1011, and Chinese strains CK/CH/LXJ/02I, DK/CH/HN/ZZ2004 and YX10, in ORF 3c/E (97%), 5a (96%), 5b (99%) and N (96%), respectively. ORFs 3a, 3b and M of CK/CH/SD09/005 exhibited no more than 90% homology with the reference strains, excluding GX-NN09032. The phylogenic analysis based on the S1 gene revealed that CK/CH/SD09/005 and 39 published strains were classified into seven clades (genotypes). CK/CH/SD09/005 was distributed in clade IV with several isolates collected between 2007 and 2012. CK/CH/SD09/005 showed 66% - 69% and 72% - 81% nucleotide identities with the IBV strains of other six clades in the S1 and S2 subunits, respectively. More over, multiple substitutions were found throughout the entire S gene of CK/CH/SD09/005, while insertions and deletions were located within the S1 gene. These results indicated that CK/CH/SD09/005 is a novel variant that may be derived from the QX-like strains that are prevalent in China. Multiple genetic mechanisms, including recombinations, mutations, insertions and deletions, are likely to have contributed to the emergence of this IBV strain.
Related JoVE Video
EZH2 promotes angiogenesis through inhibition of miR-1/Endothelin-1 axis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Emerging evidence clearly indicates that EZH2 plays a crucial role in tumor angiogenesis. However, the role of EZH2 in angiogenesis is still unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We here showed that the elevated EZH2 level was closely associated with an aggressive and poor prognostic phenotype, and was positively correlated with microvessel density (MVD) in NPC tissues. Functional studies showed that EZH2 upregulation promoted cell proliferation, migration and tubule formation of endothelial cells, and knockdown of EZH2 suppressed tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed that EZH2 inhibited miR-1 transcription via promoter binding activity, leading to enhanced expression of Endothelin-1 (ET-1) which is suppressed by miR-1 targeting of ET-1 3'UTR. Furthermore, knockdown of EZH2 or overexpression of miR-1 exerted anti-angiogenic effect on NPC cells. More importantly, the neutralizing antibody against ET-1 significantly abrogated the pro-angiogenic effect of EZH2, and forced expression of ET-1 rescued the anti-angiogenic effect induced by EZH2 knockdown. In clinical specimens, ET-1 was widely overexpressed and associated with clinical stage and MVD. Taken together, our results identify a novel signaling pathway involved in NPC angiogenesis, and also suggest that EZH2-miR-1-ET-1 axis represents multiple potential therapeutic targets for NPC.
Related JoVE Video
Is hepatectomy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma (? 10 cm in diameter) safe and effective? A single-center experience.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This retrospective study aimed to validate the safety and effectiveness of hepatectomy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Related JoVE Video
Saikosaponin-D attenuates heat stress-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 cells by increasing the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and HSP72.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heat stress stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause oxidative damage in the kidney. This study clarifies the mechanism by which saikosaponin-d (SSd), which is extracted from the roots of Bupleurum falcatum L, protects heat-stressed pig kidney proximal tubular (LLC-PK1) cells against oxidative damage. SSd alone is not cytotoxic at concentrations of 1 or 3 ?g/mL as demonstrated by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. To assess the effects of SSd on heat stress-induced cellular damage, LLC-PK1 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of SSd, heat stressed at 42°C for 1 h, and then returned to 37°C for 9 h. DNA ladder and MTT assays demonstrated that SSd helped to prevent heat stress-induced cellular damage when compared to untreated cells. Additionally, pretreatment with SSd increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) but decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in a dose-dependent manner when compared to controls. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that SSd significantly increased the expression of copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), CAT, GPx-1 and heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) at both the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these results are the first to demonstrate that SSd ameliorates heat stress-induced oxidative damage by modulating the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and HSP72 in LLC-PK1 cells.
Related JoVE Video
[Size distributions of water-soluble inorganic ions in atmospheric aerosols in Fukang].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the levels and size distributions of water soluble inorganic components, samples were collected with Andersen cascade sampler from Feb. 2011 to Feb. 2012, in Fukang, and were analyzed by IC. The variation trend, concentration level, composition, sources and size distribution of major ions during non-heating period were compared with heating period. Based on the specific samples, ionic compositions and size distributions were analyzed during heavy pollution, straw burning and spring planting periods. The results showed that inorganic components in Fukang were severely affected by heating. The total water soluble ions in fine and coarse particles during non-heating and heating periods were 11.17, 12.68 microg x m(-3) and 35.98, 22.22 microg x m(-3), respectively. SO4(2-) was mainly from saline-alkali soil, NO3(-) and NH4(+) were from resuspension of farmland soil during non-heating period, while SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) were all from the fossil fuel consumption during the heating period. All ions were bimodal distribution during non-heating and heating periods. During the heating period, the particle size growth of SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) in fine mode was found, SO4(2-) and NH4(+) peaked at 3.3-4.7 microm in coarse particles. Secondary pollutions were serious during heavy pollution days with high levels of secondary ions between 1.1 and 2.1 microm. Biomass burning obviously affected the size distribution of ions during the straw burning period and ions focused on smaller than 0.65 microm, while there were more soil dusts during spring planting periods and ions concentrated in larger than 3.3 microm.
Related JoVE Video
Functional roles of long non-coding RNA in human breast cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The discovery of long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) changes our view of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. With application of new research techniques such as high-throughput sequencing, the biological functions of LncRNAs are gradually becoming to be understood. Multiple studies have shown that LncRNAs serve as carcinogenic factors or tumor suppressors in breast cancer with abnormal expression, prompts the question of whether they have potential value in predicting the stages and survival rate of breast cancer patients, and also as therapeutic targets. Focusing on the latest research data, this review mainly summarizes the tumorigenic mechanisms of certain LncRNAs in breast cancer, in order to provide a theoretical basis for finding safer, more effective treatment of breast cancer at the LncRNA molecular level.
Related JoVE Video
[The function of transcription factor P63 and its signaling pathway during limb development].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The development of human limb is controlled by several transcription factors and signaling pathways, which are organized in precise time- and space-restricted manners. Recent studies showed that P63 and its signaling pathway play important roles in this process. Transcription factor P63, one member of the P53 family, is characterized by a similar amino acid domain, plays a crucial role in the development of limb and ectoderm differentiation, especially with its DNA binding domain, and sterile alpha motif domains. Mutated P63 gene may produce abnormal transcription factor P63 which can affect the signaling pathway. Furthermore, defective signaling protein in structure and/or quantity is synthesized though the pathway. Eventually, members of the signaling protein family are involved in the regulation of differentiation and development of stem cell, which causes deformity of limbs. In brief, three signaling pathways are related to the digit formation along three axes, including SHH-ZPA, FGFs-AER and Lmx1B-Wnt7a-En1. Each contains numerous signaling molecules which are integrated in self-regulatory modules that assure the acquisition or the correct digit complements. These finding has brought new clues for deciphering the etiology of congenital limb malformation and may provide alternatives for both prevention and treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Digital controlled luminescent emission via patterned deposition of lanthanide coordination compounds.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Presented here is a new direct patterning method, printer-type lithography technology, for the formation of lanthanide coordination compounds (LCCs) single crystal in different spatial locations. We first integrate this technology in digital controlled emission by patterned deposition of LCCs. We demonstrate its usefulness in the control of emission intensity by regulating print cycles, so that the emission intensity can be digitally controlled. This printer technology can also be used to precisely control the location at which a single LCC crystal is grown, which provides great promise in the application of anticounterfeiting barcode. Besides, by varying the stoichiometric ratio of the lanthanide ions in the identical cartridge, a fluent change of emission colors from white, orange, pink, to blue green was achieved. Therefore, this low-cost and high-throughput patterning technique can be readily applied to a wide range of areas including micro-/nanofabrication, optics, and electronics studies.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of intracoronary nitroprusside in preventing no reflow phenomenon during primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis.
J Interv Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adjunctive therapy with intracoronary nitroprusside (NTP) in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) had controversial benefits in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Related JoVE Video
Redox-active Cu(I) boron imidazolate framework for mechanochromic and catalytic applications.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A redox-active Cu(I) boron imidazolate framework with ladder-chain structure shows mechanochromic luminescence and can directly reduce Ag nanoparticles into its structure, due to the presence of rich B-H functional bonds in the structure.
Related JoVE Video
Portal hemodynamics before and after liver resection and its correlation with post-hepatectomy liver failure in patients with Child-Pugh class A: analysis of 151 consecutive cases.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Low portal velocity (PV) was found in cirrhotic patients, which was thought to be a risk factor for post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF). This study attempted to find out whether a correlation existed between portal hemodynamics and PHLF.
Related JoVE Video
[Seasonal variation of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 at Changbai Mountain].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study seasonal variation of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 at Changbai Mountain. PM2.5 was collected with a high-volume sampler from Jun. 2005 to Dec. 2008, and the concentrations of water-soluble ions were analyzed using ion chromatography. The results showed that the three major ions of SO4(2-), NH4+ and NO3 showed obvious seasonal variation. The mass concentration of SO4(2-) was the highest in summer and lowest in autumn. The mass concentration of NO3- was the highest in winter and lowest in summer. The seasonal variation of NH4+ was influenced by SO4(2-) and NO3-. The total concentrations of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 from different directions were evidently different, following the order of NE < NW < SW, with the average concentrations of 5.43, 7.63 and 10.26 microg x m(-3), respectively. Ca2+ was strongly correlated with CO3(2-), and the correlation(R) was higher in spring (0.74) than that in summer (0.30).
Related JoVE Video
[Corticoplasty for multiple enchondromatosis of hand].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the results of corticoplasty for multiple enchondromatosis of the hand.
Related JoVE Video
Hourglass-like constrictions of peripheral nerve in the upper extremity: a clinical review and pathological study.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The development of an hourglass-like constriction in the nerve is rare, and its origin is unknown. Its clinical manifestations are not well documented, and the treatment protocol has not been established.
Related JoVE Video
Genomic characterization of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 isolate from swine.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The SD0803 strain of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was isolated from a piglet in China in 2008 and has been classified as a novel subgenotype of BVDV-1. To describe the molecular features of this novel subgenotype, we sequenced and characterized the complete genome of the SD0803 virus. The genome is 12,271 bp in length and contains 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that flank an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 3,898-amino-acid polypeptide. The full-length genome of the SD0803 strain shares 78.8% to 83.3% identity with those of other BVDV-1 strains, 70.0% to 70.7% identity with those of BVDV-2 strains, and less than 67.6% identity with those of other pestiviruses. The highest level of shared identity was 83.3% between the complete SD0803 genome and that of the ZM-95 strain of BVDV-1. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5' UTR and the coding sequence for the N-terminal protease fragment of the SD0803 polyprotein indicated that the SD0803 virus is a member of the novel subgenotype BVDV-1q, isolates of which have been identified recently in dairy cattle and camels in China.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of clinically significant portal hypertension on hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinically significant portal hypertension (PHT) is considered as a contraindication for hepatectomy according to the guidelines of the European Association for Study of Liver and the American Association for Study of Liver Diseases. However, this issue remains controversial. Here we performed a meta- analysis to evaluate the impact of PHT on the results of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Related JoVE Video
Graft microvascular disease in solid organ transplantation.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alloimmune inflammation damages the microvasculature of solid organ transplants during acute rejection. Although immunosuppressive drugs diminish the inflammatory response, they do not directly promote vascular repair. Repetitive microvascular injury with insufficient regeneration results in prolonged tissue hypoxia and fibrotic remodeling. While clinical studies show that a loss of the microvascular circulation precedes and may act as an initiating factor for the development of chronic rejection, preclinical studies demonstrate that improved microvascular perfusion during acute rejection delays and attenuates tissue fibrosis. Therefore, preservation of a functional microvasculature may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for preventing chronic rejection. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the role of the microvasculature in the long-term survival of transplanted solid organs. We also highlight microvessel-centered therapeutic strategies for prolonging the survival of solid organ transplants.
Related JoVE Video
Theory of activated dynamics and glass transition of hard colloids in two dimensions.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The microscopic nonlinear Langevin equation theory is applied to study the localization and activated hopping of two-dimensional hard disks in the deeply supercooled and glass states. Quantitative comparisons of dynamic characteristic length scales, barrier, and their dependence on the reduced packing fraction are presented between hard-disk and hard-sphere suspensions. The dynamic barrier of hard disks emerges at higher absolute and reduced packing fractions and correspondingly, the crossover size of the dynamic cage which correlates to the Lindemann length for melting is smaller. The localization lengths of both hard disks and spheres decrease exponentially with packing fraction. Larger localization length of hard disks than that of hard spheres is found at the same reduced packing fraction. The relaxation time of hard disks rises dramatically above the reduced packing fraction of 0.88, which leads to lower reduced packing fraction at the kinetic glass transition than that of hard spheres. The present work provides a foundation for the subsequent study of the glass transition of binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard disks, normally adopted in experiments and simulations to avoid crystallization, and further, the rheology and mechanical response of the two-dimensional glassy colloidal systems.
Related JoVE Video
Leukotrienes in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Immunol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators derived from the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism and are markers and mediators of pulmonary inflammation. Research over the past two decades has established that LTs modulate inflammation in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The purpose of this review was to summarize the current knowledge of LTs in the pathophysiology of PAH and to highlight a recent study that advances our understanding of how leukotriene B4 (LTB4) specifically contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling. The results of these studies suggest that pharmacological inhibition of LT pathways, especially LTB4, has high potential for the treatment of PAH.
Related JoVE Video
Macrophages in solid organ transplantation.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Macrophages are highly plastic hematopoietic cells with diversified functions related to their anatomic location and differentiation states. A number of recent studies have examined the role of macrophages in solid organ transplantation. These studies show that macrophages can induce allograft injury but, conversely, can also promote tissue repair in ischemia-reperfusion injury and acute rejection. Therapeutic strategies that target macrophages to improve outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients are being examined in preclinical and clinical models. In this review, we discuss the role of macrophages in different types of injury and rejection, with a focus on macrophage-mediated tissue injury, specifically vascular injury, repair and remodeling. We also discuss emerging macrophage-centered therapeutic opportunities in solid organ transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for abdominal bleeding after living-donor liver transplant.
Exp Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors of postoperative abdominal bleeding after living-donor liver transplant.
Related JoVE Video
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound: Improving the preoperative staging of hepatocellular carcinoma and guiding individual treatment.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the clinical role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) combined with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) or magnetic resonance imaging to improve the preoperative staging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and guide surgical decision-making.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of liver resection and transplantation for Child-pugh A cirrhotic patient with very early hepatocellular carcinoma and portal hypertension.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of liver transplantation and resection for very early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, ? 2 cm) patients with Child-pugh A liver function and portal hypertension.
Related JoVE Video
Cholesterol selectively activates canonical Wnt signalling over non-canonical Wnt signalling.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Wnt proteins control diverse biological processes through ?-catenin-dependent canonical signalling and ?-catenin-independent non-canonical signalling. The mechanisms by which these signalling pathways are differentially triggered and controlled are not fully understood. Dishevelled (Dvl) is a scaffold protein that serves as the branch point of these pathways. Here, we show that cholesterol selectively activates canonical Wnt signalling over non-canonical signalling under physiological conditions by specifically facilitating the membrane recruitment of the PDZ domain of Dvl and its interaction with other proteins. Single-molecule imaging analysis shows that cholesterol is enriched around the Wnt-activated Frizzled and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6 receptors and plays an essential role for Dvl-mediated formation and maintenance of the canonical Wnt signalling complex. Collectively, our results suggest a new regulatory role of cholesterol in Wnt signalling and a potential link between cellular cholesterol levels and the balance between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling activities.
Related JoVE Video
Child-Pugh A hepatitis B-related cirrhotic patients with a single hepatocellular carcinoma up to 5 cm: liver transplantation vs. resection.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to analyze the outcomes of patients with Child-Pugh A class cirrhosis and a single hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) up to 5 cm in diameter who underwent liver transplantation vs. resection.
Related JoVE Video
Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio changes predict small hepatocellular carcinoma survival.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is limited information available concerning the delta neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (?NLR) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study was designed to evaluate the predictive value of dynamic change of NLR in patients who undergo curative resection for small HCC.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical and molecular features of 38 children with chronic granulomatous disease in mainland china.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder, with phagocytes failing to produce antimicrobial superoxide due to deficient NADPH oxidase activity. Mutations in the gene encoding CYBB are responsible for the majority of the CGD cases. To date, there have been no reports on large samples of children with CGD in China. Therefore, in this study, we described the clinical and molecular features of 38 suspected CGD patients from 36 unrelated Chinese families.
Related JoVE Video
Luminescent mechanochromic porous coordination polymers.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three 2D luminescent isomeric porous coordination polymers are synthesized and characterized. Their luminescence properties can be modified by grinding and they can act as mechanochromic materials and their properties are probably related to the weak interactions of cuprophilicity and ?-? interactions.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of low-dose tacrolimus with mycophenolate mofetil on renal function following liver transplantation.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine whether low-dose tacrolimus (TAC) combined with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a safe approach to decrease the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in liver transplantation (LT) recipients.
Related JoVE Video
Two new susceptibility loci 1q24.2 and 11p11.2 confer risk to severe acne.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Severe acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by widespread inflammatory lesions including nodules, cysts and potential scarring. Here we perform the first genome-wide association study of severe acne in a Chinese Han population comprising 1,056 cases and 1,056 controls using the Illumina HumanOmniZhongHua-8 BeadChip. In an independent cohort of 1,860 cases and 3,660 controls of Chinese Han, we replicate 101 SNPs of which 3 showed consistent association. We identify two new susceptibility loci at 11p11.2 (DDB2, rs747650, P(combined)=4.41 × 10?? and rs1060573, P(combined)=1.28 × 10??) and 1q24.2 (SELL, rs7531806, P(combined)=1.20 × 10??) that are involved in androgen metabolism, inflammation processes and scar formation in severe acne. These results point to new genetic susceptibility factors and suggest several new biological pathways related to severe acne.
Related JoVE Video
Cutting-balloon angioplasty before drug-eluting stent implantation for the treatment of severely calcified coronary lesions.
J Geriatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Severely calcified coronary lesions respond poorly to balloon angioplasty, resulting in incomplete and asymmetrical stent expansion. Therefore, adequate plaque modification prior to drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation is the key for calcified lesion treatment. This study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cutting balloon angioplasty for severely calcified coronary lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Solvent-regulated assemblies of 1D lanthanide coordination polymers with the tricarboxylate ligand.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Solvothermal reactions of the tricarboxylic acid ligand, biphenyl-3,3',5-tricarboxylic acid (H3bpta), and rare earth nitrate (Ln(NO3)3·6H2O) in the presence of KOH or DMF produced eight 1D linear coordination polymers, namely, [La(bpta)(H2O)5·(H2O)3]n (), [Pr(bpta)(H2O)5·(H2O)2.5]n (), [Nd(bpta)(H2O)5·(H2O)1.75]n (), [Sm(bpta)(H2O)5·(H2O)0.5]n () and [Ln(bpta)(DMF)(H2O)3·(H2O)]n [Ln = Eu (), Gd (), Tb (), Dy ()]. The 1D chain further assembles into a 3D supramolecular network structure through hydrogen bonds and ?-? stacking among chains. Complexes and display the typical emission spectra for lanthanide-centred luminescence. The optical properties of were analysed in detail and coincide well with the structural properties. The influence of temperature on the luminescence lifetime of has been studied and different non-radiative decay paths have been discussed. The magnetic properties show that and exhibit strong spin-orbit coupling, while weak antiferromagnetic coupling exists in .
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors associated with early and late HAT after adult liver transplantation.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify risk factors that might contribute to hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) after liver transplantation (LT).
Related JoVE Video
[Epidemiology survey of gastrointestinal stromal tumor in Shanxi Province in 2011].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the incidence and distribution of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in Shanxi Province.
Related JoVE Video
[Common errors and mistakes seen in Chinese prosthodontic articles].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As an editor of dental journals, the author found that some inappropriate writing and mistakes existed in many articles, which reduced the quality of the published papers. The problems can be divided into three categories: irregular terminology; not concise, inaccurate description; improper use of punctuation and title code. They were illustrated respectively in this article for readers to avoid these mistakes in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of hepatitis B prophylactic outcomes in living donor liver transplantation recipients who meet the Milan or UCSF criteria.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The tumor burden before liver transplantation indicates that hepatitis B virus (HBV) may hide in the extrahepatic and micrometastatic sites which serve as a source of HBV replication. Currently, many liver transplant centers, especially in Western countries, use the Milan or UCSF criteria to select patients with hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation. This study was undertaken to compare the HBV prophylactic outcomes in two groups of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) recipients. Patients in group A met the Milan criteria and those in group B exceeded the Milan criteria but were within the UCSF criteria.
Related JoVE Video
[The high expression of HPV31 and 52 L2 fusion protein in E. coli and detection of its immunogenicity].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To express HPV31 and 52 L2 fusion protein and detect its immunogenicity.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinicopathological significance of abnormal metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids in colorectal cancer tissue].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the relationship between different tissue levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and the clinicopathologic parameters in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and evaluate their prognostic significance.
Related JoVE Video
[Observation of size distribution of atmospheric OC/EC in Tangshan, China].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atmospheric particulate matter pollution is serious in Tangshan, a heavy industrial city of North China. The annual average concentrations of PM1.1, PM2.1, PM9.0 and TSP were (75 +/- 43), (106 +/- 63), (221 +/- 100) and (272 +/- 113) microg x m(-3), respectively, from 2009 to 2011. Carbonaceous aerosols were the key components in various size particles. Elemental carbon (EC) accounted for 9%, 9%, 6% and 4% of PM1.1, PM2.1, PM9.0 and TSP, respectively, meanwhile, organic carbon (OC) accounted for 25%, 24%, 16% and 14% of PM1.1, PM2.1, PM9.0 and TSP, respectively. The concentration spectrum distribution of particulate matter and the enrichment amount of the carbonaceous aerosols showed seasonal variations. In autumn and winter, the EC and OC concentration in the fine particulate matter reached up to (9 +/- 4), (11 +/- 5) and (19 +/- 7), (28 +/- 10) microg x m(-3), respectively, accounting for 11%, 10% and 26%, 25% of fine particles; EC and OC in spring and summer were (5 +/- 2), (5 +/- 1) and (15 +/- 3), (15 +/- 1) microg x m(-3), respectively, accounting for about 7%, 6% and 26%, 18% of TSP, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
Blocking macrophage leukotriene b4 prevents endothelial injury and reverses pulmonary hypertension.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious condition that affects mainly young and middle-aged women, and its etiology is poorly understood. A prominent pathological feature of PH is accumulation of macrophages near the arterioles of the lung. In both clinical tissue and the SU5416 (SU)/athymic rat model of severe PH, we found that the accumulated macrophages expressed high levels of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), the biosynthetic enzyme for leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Moreover, macrophage-derived LTB4 directly induced apoptosis in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). Further, LTB4 induced proliferation and hypertrophy of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. We found that LTB4 acted through its receptor, BLT1, to induce PAEC apoptosis by inhibiting the protective endothelial sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1)-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway. Blocking LTA4H decreased in vivo LTB4 levels, prevented PAEC apoptosis, restored Sphk1-eNOS signaling, and reversed fulminant PH in the SU/athymic rat model of PH. Antagonizing BLT1 similarly reversed established PH. Inhibition of LTB4 biosynthesis or signal transduction in SU-treated athymic rats with established disease also improved cardiac function and reopened obstructed arterioles; this approach was also effective in the monocrotaline model of severe PH. Human plexiform lesions, one hallmark of PH, showed increased numbers of macrophages, which expressed LTA4H, and patients with connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension exhibited significantly higher LTB4 concentrations in the systemic circulation than did healthy subjects. These results uncover a possible role for macrophage-derived LTB4 in PH pathogenesis and identify a pathway that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting.
Related JoVE Video
Cytokine and Chemokine Levels in Patients Infected With the Novel Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus in China.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
H7N9 avian influenza is an emerging viral disease in China caused by avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. We investigated host cytokine and chemokine profiles in serum samples of H7N9 patients by multiplex-microbead immunoassays. Statistical analysis showed that IP-10, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-2 were increased in H7N9 infected patients. Furthermore, IL-6 and the chemokine IP-10 were significantly higher in severe H7N9 patients compared to nonsevere H7N9 cases. We suggest that proinflammatory cytokine responses, characterized by a combined Th1/Th17 cytokine induction, are partially responsible for the disease progression of patients with H7N9 infection.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic and prognostic value of plasma microRNA deregulation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is uncommon worldwide but often highly invasive in late stages. Due to its special location and lack of specific symptoms, NPC is hardly detected in regular medical examination at the beginning. Development of sensitive and specific biomarker should help to save lives against this type of disease. In the present report, we investigated the value of plasma miRNAs for diagnosis and prognosis of NPC. Using candidate approach, we selected 21 miRNAs from literature to compare their expression levels in the plasma of NPC patients and controls. As a result, five miRNAs showed diagnostic potentials (P<0.01). Among them, miR-16, -21, -24, and -155 had increased levels in NPC patients, whereas the level of miR-378 was decreased. There was a negative correlation between plasma miRNA expression and cancer progression, where miR-21 was statistically significant in T and N staging and miR-16 and 24 were significant in N staging only. Combination of miR-16, -21, -24, -155, and -378 gives 87.7% of sensitivity and 82.0% of specificity for NPC diagnosis. Without miR-16, combination of the rest 4 miRNAs gives the same sensitivity but a slightly reduced specificity. After treatment, all 5 miRNAs were somewhat back to normal levels in patients without cancer recurrence but the prognostic value was not statistically significant. In conclusion, plasma miRNA expression is a useful biomarker for NPC diagnosis but not for its prognosis. More importantly, it is simple, effective, and non-invasive. Combination of several plasma miRNAs can increase both NPC diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.
Related JoVE Video
Congenital symbrachydactyly: outcomes of surgical treatment in 120 webs.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Symbrachydactyly is defined as a combination of short fingers with syndactyly. There are few published reports estimating the incidence of symbrachydactyly. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and the outcome of surgical treatment for congenital symbrachydactyly.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil physical and chemical properties and crop yield under winter wheat/spring corn rotation on dryland of east Gansu, Northwest China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Based on the 7-year field experiment on the dryland of east Gansu of Northwest China in 2005-2011, this paper analyzed the variations of soil moisture content, bulk density, and nutrients content at harvest time of winter wheat and of the grain yield under no-tillage and conventional tillage and five fertilization modes, and approached the effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil water storage and conservation, soil fertility, and grain yield under winter wheat/ spring corn rotation. In 2011, the soil moisture content in 0-200 cm layer and the soil bulk density and soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers under different fertilization modes were higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the contents of soil organic matter and available nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, as compared with other fertilization modes. The soil available potassium content under different tillage and fertilization modes decreased with years. The grain yield under conventional tillage was higher than that under no-tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the grain yield was the highest under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and the lowest under no fertilization. In sum, no-tillage had the superiority than conventional tillage in improving the soil water storage and conservation and soil fertility, and the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers under conventional tillage could obtain the best grain yield.
Related JoVE Video
Promotion of airway anastomotic microvascular regeneration and alleviation of airway ischemia by deferoxamine nanoparticles.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Airway tissue ischemia and hypoxia in human lung transplantation is a consequence of the sacrifice of the bronchial circulation during the surgical procedure and is a major risk factor for the development of airway anastomotic complications. Augmented expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? promotes microvascular repair and alleviates allograft ischemia and hypoxia. Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) is an FDA-approved iron chelator which has been shown to upregulate cellular HIF-1?. Here, we developed a nanoparticle formulation of DFO that can be topically applied to airway transplants at the time of surgery. In a mouse orthotopic tracheal transplant (OTT) model, the DFO nanoparticle was highly effective in enhancing airway microvascular perfusion following transplantation through the production of the angiogenic factors, placental growth factor (PLGF) and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1. The endothelial cells in DFO treated airways displayed higher levels of p-eNOS and Ki67, less apoptosis, and decreased production of perivascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared to vehicle-treated airways. In summary, a DFO formulation topically-applied at the time of surgery successfully augmented airway anastomotic microvascular regeneration and the repair of alloimmune-injured microvasculature. This approach may be an effective topical transplant-conditioning therapy for preventing airway complications following clinical lung transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Partial nitritation for subsequent Anammox to treat high-ammonium leachate.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nitrogen removal via autotrophic denitrification, an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process, requires an appropriate NO2-N/NH4-N ratio to provide nitrite as an intermediate. In this study, a laboratory-scale Hybrid Sequencing Batch Reactor (HSBR) was implemented for treating high-ammonium raw leachate to yield an appropriate NO2-N/NH4-N mixture as a pretreatment for subsequent Anammox. The optimal operating conditions were examined through the long-term operation of the HSBR. The experimental results showed that the prerequisite ratio of NO2-N/NH4-N was found with an initial ammonium concentration of 1200 mg/L, dissolved oxygen (DO) of 0.5-1.0 mg/L, sludge retention time (SRT) of 3 days and temperature of 31 degrees C, which is essential for the subsequent Anammox process. Moreover, the inhibition of free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) were also examined under a constant pH condition, and it was found that AOB (ammonium oxidation bacteria) had a great ability to adapt to a broad FA and FNA concentration, whereas NOB (nitrite-oxidizing bacteria) were inhibited by either FA or FNA concentration to a certain extent. It appears that partial nitritation could be implemented by facilitating FA and/or suppressing FNA concentration.
Related JoVE Video
[Characterization of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 at Dinghu Mount].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the characteristics and source of aerosol in the background region of the Pearl River Delta, PM2.5 samples were collected with a high volume sampler from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2008 at Dinghu Mountain. Water-soluble ions in PM2.5 were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). The results showed that the annual concentrations of total water-soluble ions was (36.3 +/- 16.4) microg x m(-3) The three major ions SO4(2-), NH4(+) and NO3(-), accounted for 89% of the total water-soluble ions. The correction of Na+ and Cl- was significantly enhanced in summer by the marine air mass, and the correlation coefficient R2 was 0.91. The mean value of NO3(-)/SO(2-) was 0.32, indicating that stationary sources had more contributions to Dinghu Mountain. The range of sigma cation/ sigma anion was 0.44 - 2.59, with a mean of 1.03 in PM2.5. The charge of water-soluble ions almost achieved balance in PM2.5
Related JoVE Video
[Water-soluble inorganic salts in ambient aerosol particles in Tangshan].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the levels, seasonal variation and size distributions of water soluble inorganic components, samples were collected with an Andersen cascade sampler in Tangshan from Sep. 2010 to Aug. 2011, and were analyzed by IC. The results showed that the secondary inorganic components (SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+)) were the major contributors to PM9 and PM2.1, accounting for 68% and 77% of the total water soluble salts in PM9 and PM2.1, respectively. The total concentrations of these three ions in spring, summer, autumn, and winter were 35.0, 84.7, 67.3 and 61.6 microg x m(-3) in PM9, and 23.2, 64.8, 52.7 and 49.6 microg x m(-3) in PM2.1. About 70%, 75% and 94% of SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) were found in the fine mode of aerosol, respectively. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were unimodal and mostly concentrated in the coarse mode. Those results indicated that the pollution caused by atmospheric particles is serious in Tangshan. It is urgent to control the anthropogenic emissions sources, such as vehicle emission, coal and biomass burning. Meanwhile, it is necessary to strengthen the greening and reinforce the management of the road construction.
Related JoVE Video
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded EB nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein is required for maintenance and transmission of the viral episome in EBV-infected cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of EBNA1 protein in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
Related JoVE Video
Theoretical and computational studies of dendrimers as delivery vectors.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is a great challenge for nanomedicine to develop novel dendrimers with maximum therapeutic potential and minimum side-effects for drug and gene delivery. As delivery vectors, dendrimers must overcome lots of barriers before delivering the bio-agents to the target in the cell. Extensive experimental investigations have been carried out to elucidate the physical and chemical properties of dendrimers and explore their behaviors when interacting with biomolecules, such as gene materials, proteins, and lipid membranes. As a supplement of the experimental techniques, it has been proved that computer simulations could facilitate the progress in understanding the delivery process of bioactive molecules. The structures of dendrimers in dilute solutions have been intensively investigated by monomer-resolved simulations, coarse-grained simulations, and atom-resolved simulations. Atomistic simulations have manifested that the hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen-bond interactions, and electrostatic attraction play critical roles in the formation of dendrimer-drug complexes. Multiscale simulations and statistical field theories have uncovered some physical mechanisms involved in the dendrimer-based gene delivery systems. This review will focus on the current status and perspective of theoretical and computational contributions in this field in recent years. (275 references).
Related JoVE Video
A multifunctional helical Cu(I) coordination polymer with mechanochromic, sensing and photocatalytic properties.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A multifunctional Cu(I) coordination polymer constructed from helical chains showed unusual mechanochromic, sensing of nitrobenzene and photocatalytic properties on degradation of organic dyes.
Related JoVE Video
Isolated ring-little finger metacarpal synostosis: a new classification system and treatment strategy.
J Hand Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To devise a comprehensive classification system for isolated ring-little finger metacarpal synostosis that offers a clear guide to specific treatment for each variation of the deformity.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence of PAOI in a low temperature EBPR system.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The occurrence of Accumulibacter Type I (a known phosphorus-accumulating organism, PAO) has received increased attention due to the potential operating benefits associated with their denitrifying activity in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment plants. In this study, after a shift from an enriched glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) culture (competitors of PAO) to a PAO-enriched system, Accumulibacter Type I (PAO I) became dominant in an anaerobic-aerobic EBPR system fed with acetate and operated at 10°C with a net aerobic solids retention time (SRT) of 6 d. Since Accumulibacter Type II (PAO II) were not detected, the low temperature in combination with the net aerobic SRT applied appeared to have suppressed their growth as well. The stoichiometry of PAO I was in agreement with previous metabolic models, suggesting that it was the main PAO organisms present in previous studies operated under similar conditions. Moreover, under poly-P limiting conditions, PAO I were unable to switch to a GAO-like metabolism at low temperatures. These results contribute to increase the understanding of the physiology, microbial metabolism and microbial ecology of PAO I.
Related JoVE Video
Reconsideration of liver transplantation for portal hypertension due to hepatitis B cirrhosis: a single center experience.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BaCKGROUND/AIMS: Some patients with portal hypertension due to hepatitis B cirrhosis who were suitable for periesophagogastric devascularization with splenectomy (PDS) also met the indications of liver transplantation (LT), the study compared the effect of PDS and LT, and of PDS followed by LT when required.
Related JoVE Video
Computational investigations of a Peptide-modified dendrimer interacting with lipid membranes.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding the interactions of dendrimers as delivery vectors with biomembranes is important for functional optimization. Here, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study the interactions between a surface-modified dendrimer with short peptides and lipid bilayers under physiological and low pH conditions. The peptide consists of three histidines (H) with the pH-sensitive property and an arginine (R). It is found that the peptide-dendrimer conjugate either adheres to or penetrates through the negatively charged, asymmetrical bilayer, dependent on the pH value. Calculation of the potential of mean force shows that the penetration is energy favorable at low pH. The conjugate can lead to membrane thinning with enhanced permeability. Inspired by the results, a possible route is proposed for gene delivery using the non-specific electrostatic interaction adjusted by the pH environment.
Related JoVE Video
Tie2-dependent VHL knockdown promotes airway microvascular regeneration and attenuates invasive growth of Aspergillus fumigatus.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microvascular ischemia and infections are associated with the development of chronic rejection following lung transplantation. The von Hippel–Lindau protein (VHL) controls protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), regulates vascular repair, and improves tissue perfusion. Here, we studied the role of VHL in microvascular repair by orthotopically transplanting tracheas into mice with VHL haplodeficiency in Tie2 lineage cells. We showed that VHL haplodeficiency prolonged airway microvascular perfusion and promoted tissue blood flow through the production of the angiogenic factors, SDF-1 and angiopoietin 1. VHL-haplodeficient pulmonary endothelial cells exhibited increased angiogenic activity, resistance to serum deprivation-induced cell death, and enhanced microvascular repair. By contrast, in recipient mice with HIF-1? deficiency in Tie2 lineage cells, microvascular repair was significantly diminished and suggested that recipient-derived HIF-1? normally participates in the repair of alloimmune-mediated microvascular damage. To evaluate the translational impact of our findings, we compared VHL-haplodeficient mice with wild-type controls using a model of Aspergillus airway infection. In 83% of the VHL-haplodeficient recipients, Aspergillus fumigatus was noninvasive in contrast to 75% of wild-type mice in which the mold was deeply invasive. Our study demonstrated that stabilization of HIF-1? in angiogenic cells, through Tie2 cell VHL haplodeficiency, promoted airway microvascular regeneration and vascular normalization and thereby minimized tissue ischemia and hypoxia. By also mitigating the virulence of A. fumigatus, a common pathogen and itself a risk factor for the development of lung transplant rejection, the selective enhancement of HIF-1? expression has the prospect of offering several novel therapeutic effects to transplant recipients.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of postoperative TACE on prognosis of HCC: an update.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy in the world and is mainly treated by surgery resection. It is believed that even after radical resection, the recurrence and metastasis rates remain at a high level. This threatens the health and safety of patients. Postoperative adjuvant transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is regarded as a common strategy for HCC patients at a high recurrence risk. However, there is a debate on the effects of postoperative TACE and range of applications in the medical world. Here we review the effects of postoperative TACE on the prognosis of HCC.
Related JoVE Video
Value of ?-fetoprotein in association with clinicopathological features of hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the relationship between ?-fetoprotein (AFP) and various clinicopathological variables and different staging system of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) thoroughly.
Related JoVE Video
miR-26a inhibits invasion and metastasis of nasopharyngeal cancer by targeting EZH2.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive and metastatic type of cancer that is widely prevalent in Southern China. Studies have shown that several microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in NPC metastasis. Our previous studies have demonstrated that miRNA miR-26a inhibits cell growth and tumorigenesis of NPC through the repression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2). However, the role of miR-26a in NPC metastasis remains unknown. In this study, we showed that ectopic expression of miR-26a inhibited the migratory and invasive capacities of NPC cells in vitro. Additionally, we used a murine model to investigate the role of miR-26a in NPC metastasis and results showed that miR-26a overexpression suppresses the metastatic behavior of NPC cells in vivo. Furthermore, the data demonstrated that miR-26a decreased the expression levels of EZH2 in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the antimetastatic effect of miR-26a in NPC was mediated by regulating EZH2. Therefore, these findings indicate that miR-26a functions as an antimetastatic miRNA in NPC and that its antimetastatic effects are mediated mainly by repressing EZH2 expression.
Related JoVE Video
Scoring selection criteria including total tumour volume and pretransplant percentage of lymphocytes to predict recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The selection criteria for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to undergo liver transplantation should accurately predict posttransplant recurrence while not denying potential beneficiaries. In the present study, we attempted to identify risk factors associated with posttransplant recurrence and to expand the selection criteria.
Related JoVE Video
[Tirofiban improved the prognosis of senior acute coronary syndrome patients received percutaneous coronary intervention].
Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine if tirofiban may improve the prognosis in aged acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.