We reported on the generation of versatile soliton molecules in a fiber laser mode-locked by a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber (GSA). By virtue of the highly nonlinear effect of the microfiber-based GSA, the soliton molecules could be easily observed. In addition to regular soliton molecules, it is found that the "soliton atoms" in molecules could exhibit different characteristics and show ultra-narrow pulse separations, which was termed as 'structural soliton molecule'. The pulse profiles of 'structural soliton molecules' were further reconstructed theoretically. The obtained results would give further insight towards understanding the dynamics of soliton molecules in fiber lasers.
We previously presented YM500, which is an integrated database for miRNA quantification, isomiR identification, arm switching discovery and novel miRNA prediction from 468 human smRNA-seq datasets. Here in this updated YM500v2 database (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/ym500/), we focus on the cancer miRNome to make the database more disease-orientated. New miRNA-related algorithms developed after YM500 were included in YM500v2, and, more significantly, more than 8000 cancer-related smRNA-seq datasets (including those of primary tumors, paired normal tissues, PBMC, recurrent tumors, and metastatic tumors) were incorporated into YM500v2. Novel miRNAs (miRNAs not included in the miRBase R21) were not only predicted by three independent algorithms but also cleaned by a new in silico filtration strategy and validated by wetlab data such as Cross-Linked ImmunoPrecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq) to reduce the false-positive rate. A new function 'Meta-analysis' is additionally provided for allowing users to identify real-time differentially expressed miRNAs and arm-switching events according to customer-defined sample groups and dozens of clinical criteria tidying up by proficient clinicians. Cancer miRNAs identified hold the potential for both basic research and biotech applications.
A new cell line, CA5171, derived from a chemotherapy-naive, high-grade undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma was established and characterized. The CA5171 cells presented with cobblestone morphology and a doubling time of 24 hours. Gene mutation analysis showed that the cells belonged to the type II ovarian cancer pathway with mutations of PIK3CA, PTEN, and TP53. Single-nucleotide polymorphism array analysis showed no homozygous gene deletion; however, several loci of gene copy number gains were noted in chromosome 1, 2, 5, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 20, and X. The in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that the cells were sensitive to paclitaxel and doxorubicin, but resistant to cisplatin. The cells also presented epithelial-mesenchymal transition properties that may have been related to their invasion and migration potential. The CA5171 cells show the potential as a new cell line for studies on epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in immunity and are used in cancer immunotherapy. However, these cells can be tuned by tumors with immunosuppressive responses. DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-Grabbing Nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin expressed on DCs, recognizes certain carbohydrate structures which can be found on cancer cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial cell-derived malignant tumor, in which immune response remains unclear. This research is to reveal the molecular link on NPC cells that induces the immunosuppressive responses in DCs. In this article, we report identification of annexin A2 (ANXA2) on NPC cells as a ligand for DC-SIGN on DCs. N-linked mannose-rich glycan on ANXA2 may mediate the interaction. ANXA2 was abundantly expressed in NPC, and knockdown of ANXA2 suppressed NPC xenograft in mice, suggesting a crucial role of ANXA2 in NPC growth. Interaction with NPC cells caused DC-SIGN activation in DCs. Consequently DC maturation and the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-12 production were inhibited, and the immunosuppressive IL-10 production was promoted. Blockage of either DC-SIGN or ANXA2 eliminated the production of IL-10 from DCs. This report suggests that suppression of ANXA2 at its expression or glycosylation on NPC may improve DC-mediated immunotherapy for the tumor.
To investigate the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase regulatory subunit alpha?PIK3R1?gene in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma ?HCC?. METHODS?Surgical specimens of liver cancer and corresponding pericancerous liver tissue were collected from 20 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of p85?, encoded by PIK3R1, in HCC tissue specimens was detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. HCC HepG2 cells were transfected with PIK3R1 siRNA or PIK3R1-cDNA. The expression of PIK3R1 in transfected HepG2 cells or control cells were detected by real-time PCR. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT?colony formation assays and flow cytometry respectively. The expression of PI3K/AKT pathway-related proteins were detected by Western blotting. RESULTS?The expression of p85? in liver tissue was higher than that in pericancerous tissues?1.27±0.58 vs 0.99±0.47?t=-3.25?P<0.05?. The expression of PIK3R1 was decreased by 0.19±0.03 fold in PIK3R1siRNA-transfected HepG2 cells(t=46.77?P<0.05)?and increased by 32.36±3.33 fold in PIK3R1 cDNA -transfected cells?t=-16.31? P<0.05?. MTT result showed that PIK3R1 siRNA inhibited growth of HepG2 cells ?0.611±0.072 vs 0.807±0.059?t=3.65?P<0.05??while PIK3R1 cDNA increased the cell growth?0.937±0.060 vs 0.693±0.065?t=-4.78?P<0.05?. PIK3R1 siRNA transfected cells presented lower colony-forming efficiency than control group?3.8%±0.84% vs 15.0%±2.3%?t=7.92?P<0.05??while PIK3R1 cDNA transfected cells had higher colony-forming efficiency than control group?23.6%±3.4% vs 12.0%±1.5%?t=-5.40?P<0.05?. PIK3R1 siRNA reduced the ratio of S phase cells?13.9%±0.015% vs 32.9%±0.07%?t=45.97?P<0.01??while PIK3R1 cDNA increased S phase cells?56.33%±0.024% vs 31.94%±0.042%?t=-8.73?P<0.01?. PIK3R1 increased the level of p-AKT and decreased p53 level. CONCLUSION?p85? is highly expressed in HCC?and PIK3R1 gene may promote proliferation of HepG2 cells by activating PI3K/AKT pathway.
Oxidative stress and persistent DNA damage response contribute to cellular senescence, a degeneration process critically involving ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p53. Selenoprotein H (SelH), a nuclear selenoprotein, is proposed to carry redox and transactivation domains. To determine the role of SelH in genome maintenance, shRNA knockdown was employed in human normal and immortalized cell lines. SelH shRNA MRC-5 diploid fibroblasts under ambient O2 displayed a distinct profile of senescence including ?-galactosidase expression, autofluorescence, growth inhibition, and ATM pathway activation. Such senescence phenotypes were alleviated in the presence of ATM kinase inhibitors, by p53 shRNA knockdown, or by maintaining the cells under 3% O2. During the course of 5-day recovery, the induction of phospho-ATM on Ser-1981 and ?H2AX by H2O2 treatment (20 microM) subsided in scrambled shRNA but exacerbated in SelH shRNA MRC-5 cells. Results from clonogenic assays demonstrated hypersensitivity of SelH shRNA HeLa cells to paraquat and H2O2, but not to hydroxyurea, neocarzinostatin or camptothecin. While SelH mRNA expression was induced by H2O2 treatment, SelH-GFP did not mobilize to sites of oxidative DNA damage. Glutathione level was lower in SelH shRNA than scrambled shRNA HeLa cells, and the H2O2-induced cell death was rescued in the presence of N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor. Altogether, SelH protects against cellular senescence specifically to oxidative stress through a genome maintenance pathway involving ATM and p53.
A new class of biselenophene-based materials including an sp(3)-silicon-bridged diselenosilole (DSS), an sp(3)-germanium-bridged diselenogermole (DSG), and an sp(3)-nitrogen-bridged diselenopyrrole (DSP) as well as an sp(2)-vinylidene-bridged dicyanodiselenofulvene (CDSF), a diacetylenediselenofulvene (ADSF), and a dioctylethylene-bridged benzodiselenophene (BDS) have been successfully synthesized and characterized. The bridging moieties play an important role in determining the optical and electrochemical properties. The six brominated derivatives are ready to construct various biselenophene-based conjugated materials with tunable properties for organic photovoltaics and field effect transistors.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, during which "vulnerable plaques" have been recognised as the underlying risk factor for coronary disease. Regulator of G Protein Signalling (RGS) 5 has been demonstrated to regulate endothelial cells functions and inflammation. In this study, we explored the effect of RGS5 on atherosclerosis and the potential mechanism.
Harvesting solar energy from sunlight to generate electricity is considered as one of the most important technologies to address the future sustainability of humans. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) have attracted tremendous interest and attention over the past two decades due to their potential advantage to be fabricated onto large area and light-weight flexible substrates by solution processing at a lower cost. PSCs based on the concept of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) configuration where an active layer comprises a composite of a p-type (donor) and an n-type (acceptor) material represents the most useful strategy to maximize the internal donor-acceptor interfacial area allowing for efficient charge separation. Fullerene derivatives such as [6,6]-phenyl-C61?or?71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are the ideal n-type materials ubiquitously used for BHJ solar cells. The major effort to develop photoactive materials is numerously focused on the p-type conjugated polymers which are generally synthesized by polymerization of electron-rich donor and electron-deficient acceptor monomers. Compared to the development of electron-deficient comonomers (acceptor segments), the development of electron-rich donor materials is considerably flourishing. Forced planarization by covalently fastening adjacent aromatic and heteroaromatic subunits leads to the formation of ladder-type conjugated structures which are capable of elongating effective conjugation, reducing the optical bandgap, promoting intermolecular ?-? interactions and enhancing intrinsic charge mobility. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on the development of various well-defined new ladder-type conjugated materials. These materials serve as the superb donor monomers to prepare a range of donor-acceptor semi-ladder copolymers with sufficient solution-processability for solar cell applications.
This work proposes a novel, highly sensitive and directional fiber tilt sensor that is based on an asymmetrical dual tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (ADTFMZI). The fiber-optic tilt sensor consists of two abrupt tapers with different tapered waists into which are incorporated a set of iron spheres to generate an asymmetrical strain in the ADTFMZI that is correlated with the tilt angle and the direction of inclination. Owing to the asymmetrical structure of the dual tapers, the proposed sensor can detect the non-horizontal/horizontal state of a structure and whether the test structure is tilted to clockwise or counterclockwise by measuring the spectral responses. Experimental results show that the spectral wavelengths are blue-shifted and red-shifted when the sensor tilts to clockwise (-?) and counterclockwise ( + ?), respectively. Tilt angle sensitivities of about 335pm/deg. and 125pm/deg. are achieved in the -? and + ? directions, respectively, when the proposed sensing scheme is utilized.
We reported on the generation of high-order harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser using a microfiber-based molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber (SA). Taking advantage of both the saturable absorption and large third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of the few-layer MoS2, up to 2.5 GHz repetition rate HML pulse could be obtained at a pump power of 181 mW, corresponding to 369th harmonic of fundamental repetition frequency. The results provide the first demonstration of the simultaneous applications of both highly nonlinear and saturable absorption effects of the MoS2, indicating that the microfiber-based MoS2 photonic device could serve as high-performance SA and highly nonlinear optical component for application fields such as ultrafast nonlinear optics.
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers, and is critical for control of muscle contraction. Its formation requires neuronal agrin that acts by binding to LRP4 to stimulate MuSK. Mutations have been identified in agrin, MuSK, and LRP4 in patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome, and patients with myasthenia gravis develop antibodies against agrin, LRP4, and MuSK. However, it remains unclear whether the agrin signaling pathway is critical for NMJ maintenance because null mutation of any of the three genes is perinatal lethal. In this study, we generated imKO mice, a mutant strain whose LRP4 gene can be deleted in muscles by doxycycline (Dox) treatment. Ablation of the LRP4 gene in adult muscle enabled studies of its role in NMJ maintenance. We demonstrate that Dox treatment of P30 mice reduced muscle strength and compound muscle action potentials. AChR clusters became fragmented with diminished junctional folds and synaptic vesicles. The amplitude and frequency of miniature endplate potentials were reduced, indicating impaired neuromuscular transmission and providing cellular mechanisms of adult LRP4 deficiency. We showed that LRP4 ablation led to the loss of synaptic agrin and the 90 kDa fragments, which occurred ahead of other prejunctional and postjunctional components, suggesting that LRP4 may regulate the stability of synaptic agrin. These observations demonstrate that LRP4 is essential for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the NMJ and that loss of muscle LRP4 in adulthood alone is sufficient to cause myasthenic symptoms.
ErbB2 (v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2), a receptor tyrosine kinase of the ErbB family, is overexpressed in around 25% of breast cancers. In addition to forming a heterodimer with other ErbB receptors in response to ligand stimulation, ErbB2 can be activated in a ligand-independent manner. We report here that Erbin, an ErbB2-interacting protein that was thought to act as an antitumor factor, is specifically expressed in mammary luminal epithelial cells and facilitates ErbB2-dependent proliferation of breast cancer cells and tumorigenesis in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. Disruption of their interaction decreases ErbB2-dependent proliferation, and deletion of the PDZ domain in Erbin hinders ErbB2-dependent tumor development in MMTV-neu mice. Mechanistically, Erbin forms a complex with ErbB2, promotes its interaction with the chaperon protein HSP90, and thus prevents its degradation. Finally, ErbB2 and Erbin expression correlates in human breast tumor tissues. Together, these observations establish Erbin as an ErbB2 regulator for breast tumor formation and progression.
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor ErbB4 are schizophrenia risk genes. NRG1-ErbB4 signaling plays a critical role in neural development and regulates neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Nevertheless, its cellular targets remain controversial. ErbB4 was thought to express in excitatory neurons, although recent studies disputed this view. Using mice that express a fluorescent protein under the promoter of the ErbB4 gene, we determined in what cells ErbB4 is expressed and their identity. ErbB4 was widely expressed in the mouse brain, being highest in amygdala and cortex. Almost all ErbB4-positive cells were GABAergic in cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and most of amygdala in neonatal and adult mice, suggesting GABAergic transmission as a major target of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in these regions. Non-GABAergic, ErbB4-positive cells were present in thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, and hindbrain. In particular, ErbB4 is expressed in serotoninergic neurons of raphe nuclei but not in norepinephrinergic neurons of the locus ceruleus. In hypothalamus, ErbB4 is present in neurons that express oxytocin. Finally, ErbB4 is expressed in a group of cells in the subcortical areas that are positive for S100 calcium binding protein ?. These results identify novel cellular targets of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is known to be nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic in rodents when exposed orally. To understand the systematic responses to OTA exposure, GC-MS- and (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic techniques together with histopathological assessments were applied to analyse the urine and plasma of OTA-exposed rats. It was found that OTA exposure caused significant elevation of amino acids (alanine, glycine, leucine etc.), pentose (ribose, glucitol, xylitol etc.) and nucleic acid metabolites (pseudouridine, adenosine, uridine). Moreover, myo-inositol, trimethylamine-oxide (TMAO), pseudouridine and leucine were identified as potential biomarkers for OTA toxicity. The primary pathways included the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), the Krebs cycle (TCA), the creatine pathway and gluconeogenesis. The activated PPP was attributed to the high requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is involved in OTA metabolism through cytochrome P450. The elevated gluconeogenesis and TCA suggest that energy metabolism was involved. The up-regulated synthesis of creatinine reveals the elevated catabolism of proteins. These findings provide an overview of systematic responses to OTA exposure and metabolomic insight into the toxicological mechanism of OTA.
Several reports suggest that malignant cells generate phenotypic diversity through fusion with various types of stromal cells within the tumor microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is one of the critical components in the tumor microenvironment and a promising fusogenic candidate, but the underlying functions of MSC fusion with malignant cell have not been fully examined. Here, we demonstrate that MSCs fuse spontaneously with lung cancer cells, and the latter is reprogrammed to slow growth and stem-like state. Transcriptome profiles reveal that lung cancer cells are reprogrammed to a more benign state upon MSC fusion. We further identified FOXF1 as a reprogramming mediator that contributes not only to the reprogramming toward stemness but also to the p21-regulated growth suppression in fusion progeny. Collectively, MSC fusion does not enhance the intrinsic malignancy of lung cancer cells. The anti-malignant effects of MSC fusion-induced reprogramming on lung cancer cells were accomplished by complementation of tumorigenic defects, including restoration of p21 function and normal terminal differentiation pathways as well as up-regulation of FOXF1, a putative tumor suppressor. Such fusion process raises the therapeutic potential that MSC fusion can be utilized to reverse cellular phenotypes in cancer.
Quercetin is a plant-derived bioflavonoid that was recently shown to have multiple anticancer activities in various solid tumors. Here, novel molecular mechanisms through which quercetin exerts its anticancer effects in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells were investigated. Results from Western blot and flow cytometric assays revealed that quercetin significantly induced caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activation, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in HL-60 AML cells. The induction of PARP cleavage by quercetin was also observed in other AML cell lines: THP-1, MV4-11, and U937. Moreover, treatment of HL-60 cells with quercetin induced sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and inhibition of ERK by an ERK inhibitor significantly abolished quercetin-induced cell apoptosis. MitoSOX red and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin fluorescence, respectively, showed that mitochondrial superoxide and intracellular peroxide levels were higher in quercetin-treated HL-60 cells compared with the control group. Moreover, both N-acetylcysteine and the superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP, reversed quercetin-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production, ERK activation, and subsequent cell death. The in vivo xenograft mice experiments revealed that quercetin significantly reduced tumor growth through inducing intratumoral oxidative stress while activating the ERK pathway and subsequent cell apoptosis in mice with HL-60 tumor xenografts. In conclusions, our results indicated that quercetin induced cell death of HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo through induction of intracellular oxidative stress following activation of an ERK-mediated apoptosis pathway.
Associations of obesity and obesity-related metabolic factors (adiposity factors) with uterine corpus cancer (UCC) and ovarian cancer (OVC) risk have been described. Still, a cause-effect relationship and the underlying mediators remain unclear, particularly for low-incidence populations. We aimed to prospectively determine whether adiposity factors could predict the development of UCC and OVC in Taiwanese women. To explore the biological mediators linking adiposity factors to cancer risk, we examined the association of two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, with the gynecological cancers.
We report on the generation of a femtosecond pulse in a fiber ring laser by using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)) saturable absorber (SA). With a saturable optical intensity of 34??MW/cm(2) and a modulation depth of ?4.3%, the PVA-based MoS(2) SA had been employed with an erbium-doped fiber ring laser as a mode locker. The mode-locking operation could be achieved at a low pump threshold of 22 mW. A ?710??fs pulse centered at 1569.5 nm wavelength with a repetition rate of 12.09 MHz had been achieved with proper cavity dispersion. With the variation of net cavity dispersion, output pulses with durations from 0.71 to 1.46 ps were obtained. The achievement of a femtosecond pulse at 1.55 ?m waveband demonstrates the broadband saturable absorption of MoS(2), and also indicates that the filmy PVA-based MoS(2) SA is indeed a good candidate for an ultrafast saturable absorption device.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal genitourinary cancer and intrinsically resistant to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormone therapy. Annexin A2 (Anxa2) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein found on various cell types that plays multiple roles in regulating cellular functions. In RCC, Anxa2 expression was correlated with tumor differentiation, clinical outcomes, and the metastatic potential; however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. This study investigated the role of Anxa2 in regulating tumorigenesis of RCC.
Gut microbiota represent an important bridge between environmental substances and host metabolism. Here we reported a comprehensive study of gut microbiota interaction with ochratoxin A (OTA), a major food-contaminating mycotoxin, using the combination of metagenomics and culture-based methods. Rats were given OTA (0, 70, or 210 ?g/kg body weight) by gavage and fecal samples were collected at day 0 and day 28. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and both 16S rRNA and shotgun sequencing (two main methods of metagenomics) were performed. The results indicated OTA treatment decreased the within-subject diversity of the gut microbiota, and the relative abundance of Lactobacillus increased considerably. Changes in functional genes of gut microbiota including signal transduction, carbohydrate transport, transposase, amino acid transport system, and mismatch repair were observed. To further understand the biological sense of increased Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus selective medium was used to isolate Lactobacillus species from fecal samples, and a strain with 99.8% 16S rRNA similarity with Lactobacillus plantarum strain PFK2 was obtained. Thin-layer chromatography showed that this strain could absorb but not degrade OTA, which was in agreement with the result in metagenomics that no genes related to OTA degradation increased. In conclusion, combination of metagenomics and culture-based methods can be a new strategy to study intestinal toxicity of toxins and find applicable bacterial strains for detoxification. When it comes to OTA, this kind of mycotoxin can cause compositional and functional changes of gut microbiota, and Lactobacillus are key genus to detoxify OTA in vivo.
We reported on the generation of dual-wavelength rectangular pulses in a Yb-doped fiber laser (YDFL) by using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber (GSA). The duration of dual-wavelength rectangular pulse could be varied from 1.41 ns to 4.23 ns with the increasing pump power. With a tunable bandpass filter, it was found that the characteristics of the rectangular pulses centered at 1061.8 nm and 1068.8 nm are similar to each other. Moreover, the dual-wavelength switchable operation was also realized by properly rotating the polarization controllers (PCs). The demonstration of the dual-wavelength rectangular pulses from a YDFL would open some applications for fields such as spectroscopy, biomedicine and sensing research.
The vector nature of multi-soliton dynamic patterns was investigated in a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser based on the nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). By properly adjusting the cavity parameters such as the pump power level and intra-cavity polarization controllers (PCs), in addition to the fundamental vector soliton, various vector multi-soliton regimes were observed, such as the random static distribution of vector multiple solitons, vector soliton cluster, vector soliton flow, and the state of vector multiple solitons occupying the whole cavity. Both the polarization-locked vector solitons (PLVSs) and the polarization-rotating vector solitons (PRVSs) were observed for fundamental soliton and each type of multi-soliton patterns. The obtained results further reveal the fundamental physics of multi-soliton patterns and demonstrate that the figure-eight fiber lasers are indeed a good platform for investigating the vector nature of different soliton types.
Expression levels of MIR144 and MIR451 increase during erythropoiesis, a pattern that is conserved from zebrafish to humans. As these two miRs are expressed from the same polycistronic transcript, we manipulated MIR144 and MIR451 in human erythroid cells individually and together to investigate their effects on human erythropoiesis. Inhibition of endogenous human MIR451 resulted in decreased numbers of erythroid (CD71(hi) CD235a(hi) CD34(-) ) cells, consistent with prior studies in zebrafish and mice. In addition, inhibition of MIR144 impaired human erythroid differentiation, unlike in zebrafish and mouse studies where the functional effect of MIR144 on erythropoiesis was minimal. In this study, we found RAB14 is a direct target of both MIR144 and MIR451. As MIR144 and MIR451 expression increased during human erythropoiesis, RAB14 protein expression decreased. Enforced RAB14 expression phenocopied the effect of MIR144 and/or MIR451 depletion, whereas shRNA-mediated RAB14 knockdown protected cells from MIR144 and/or MIR451 depletion-mediated erythropoietic inhibition. RAB14 knockdown increased the frequency and number of erythroid cells, increased ?-haemoglobin expression, and decreased CBFA2T3 expression during human erythropoiesis. In summary, we utilized MIR144 and MIR451 to identify RAB14 as a novel physiological inhibitor of human erythropoiesis.
Imiquimod is a Toll-like receptor 7 agonist used topically to treat external genital warts and basal cell carcinoma. We examined the combination of topical imiquimod with intramuscular administration of CRT/E7, a therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine comprised of a naked DNA vector expressing calreticulin fused to HPV16 E7.
Formula-fed (FF) infants often have harder stools and higher stool concentrations of fatty acid soaps compared to breastfed infants. Feeding high sn-2 palmitate or the prebiotic oligofructose (OF) may soften stools, reduce stool soaps, and decrease fecal calcium loss.
Glucocorticoids (GCs) have both anabolic and catabolic effects on bone. However, no GC anabolic effect mediator has been identified to date. Here we show that targeted expression of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a GC anti-inflammatory effect mediator, enhances bone acquisition in mice. Transgenic mice, in which the expression of GILZ is under the control of a 3.6-kb rat type I collagen promoter, exhibited a high bone mass phenotype with significantly increased bone formation rate and osteoblast numbers. The increased osteoblast activity correlates with enhanced osteogenic differentiation and decreased adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cell cultures in vitro. In line with these changes, the mRNA levels of key osteogenic regulators (Runx2 and Osx) increased, and the level of adipogenic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?2 decreased significantly. We also found that GILZ physically interacts with C/EBPs and disrupts C/EBP-mediated PPAR? gene transcription. In conclusion, our results showed that GILZ is capable of increasing bone acquisition in vivo, and this action is mediated via a mechanism involving the inhibition of PPAR? gene transcription and shifting of bone marrow MSC/progenitor cell lineage commitment in favor of the osteoblast pathway.
Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a cholinergic synapse where motor neurons elicit muscle contraction. Agrin and its coreceptors LRP4 and MuSK are critical for vertebrate NMJ formation. This paper reviews recent evidence for Wnts and Wnt signaling molecules in NMJ formation including a possible retrograde mechanism by muscle ?-catenin. We also present data that Wnt3a, 7a, 8a and 10b could inhibit agrin-mediated AChR clustering. Together with the stimulating effect of Wnt9a, 9b, 10b, 11 and 16 on AChR clustering in the absence of agrin, these results suggest diverse roles for Wnt ligands in NMJ development.
Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome that may progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The formation of MN involves the in situ formation of subepithelial immune deposits and leads to albuminuria; however, the underlying mechanism of how MN leads to ESRD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and biological functions of phosphotriesterase-related protein (PTER) in MN.
We reported on the generation of femtosecond pulse in a fiber ring laser by using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based topological insulator (TI), Bi2Se3 saturable absorber (SA). The PVA-TI composite has a low saturable optical intensity of 12 MW/cm2 and a modulation depth of ~3.9%. By incorporating the fabricated PVA-TISA into a fiber laser, mode-locking operation could be achieved at a low pump threshold of 25 mW. After an optimization of the cavity parameters, optical pulse with ~660 fs centered at 1557.5 nm wavelength had been generated. The experimental results demonstrate that the PVA could be an excellent host material for fabricating high-performance TISA, and also indicate that the filmy PVA-TISA is indeed a good candidate for ultrafast saturable absorption device.
Mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) commonly occur in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients characterized by female gender, never-smoker status and adenocarcinoma histology. The aim of this study was to determine whether gender is a confounding factor for EGFR mutations in NSCLC. To elucidate the confounding effect, Pearson's ?(2) test and logistic regression models were used to correlate these characteristics with EGFR mutations in 426 NSCLC patients treated at our institutes. Of those 426 NSCLC patients, 47% were females, 57% were non-smokers and 84% had adenocarcinomas. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that never-smoker status [odds ratio (OR)=3.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.99-6.13; P<0.001)] and adenocarcinoma (OR=9.43, 95% CI 3.62-24.56; P<0.001) were associated with EGFR mutations; however, gender was not (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 0.73-2.15; P=0.416). Furthermore, gender was not associated with EGFR mutation subtypes (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 0.56-2.50; P=0.650). The frequency of EGFR mutations among females and males was not different in non-smokers (64.8 vs. 55.8%, P=0.204) or ever-smokers (27.8 vs. 24.2%, P=0.775). Therefore, if the assessment for EGFR mutation status was limited to non-smoking females with adenocarcinoma, up to 40% of the patients harboring EGFR mutations would be precluded from the benefit of EGFR inhibitor therapy. Our results indicated that gender is a confounding factor for EGFR mutations in NSCLC and suggested that gender may not be associated with tumorigenesis in NSCLC-harboring EGFR mutations.
The metastatic spread of tumor cells is the major risk factor affecting the clinical prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The metastatic phenotype can be modulated by dysregulating the synthesis of different structural and functional proteins of tumor cells. Micro(mi)RNAs are noncoding RNAs that recognize their cognate messenger (m)RNA targets by sequence-specific interactions with the 3' untranslated region and are involved in the multistep process of CRC development. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and biological roles of miR-224 in CRC. The miR-224 expression level was assessed by a quantitative real-time PCR in 79 CRC and 18 nontumor tissues. Expression levels of miR-224 in CRC tissues were significantly lower than those in nontumor tissues. Its expression level was associated with the mutation status of the APC gene. Ectopic expression of miR-224 suppressed the migratory ability of CRC cell line, but cell proliferation was less affected. Increased miR-224 diminished Cdc42 and SMAD4 expressions at both the protein and mRNA levels and inhibited the formation of actin filaments. Overall, this study indicated a role of miR-224 in negatively regulating CRC cell migration. The expression level of miR-224 may be a useful predictive biomarker for CRC progression.
Nephrotoxicity is the most prominent one among the various toxicities of ochratoxin A (OTA). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have an impact on a wide range of biological processes by regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional level or protein systhesis level. The objective of this study is to analyze miRNA profiling in the kidneys of rats gavaged with OTA.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) and Zearalenone (ZEA) are widespread mycotoxins that contaminate foodstuffs simultaneously, but sufficient data regarding their mixed toxicities are lacking. This study aims to analyze the style of combined effects of OTA and ZEA on cells of their target organs. For this purpose, cytotoxicity was determined in HepG2 and KK-1 cells treated with single and combined forms of OTA and ZEA. Furthermore, we have analyzed the data using two mathematical models based on the concepts of concentration addition (CA) and independent addition (IA). By analyzing data with nonlinear regression, toxins applied singly showed classic sigmoid dose-response curves in HepG2 cells whereas in KK-1 cells hormetic responses were observed. Exposure to equieffective mixtures of OTA and ZEA showed additive effects, irrespective of different nonlinear regression models used. Our results demonstrate that IA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of OTA and ZEA. The results in ROS generation indicate a departure from additivity to antagonism or synergism at different concentrations, probably due to potential interaction during ROS production. This study shows that a risk assessment of mycotoxins should account for mixture effects, and prediction models are valuable tools for mixture assessment.
Recently, mutations of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter were found in several types of cancer. A few reports demonstrate TERT promoter mutations in ovarian clear cell carcinomas but endometrial clear cell carcinoma has not been studied. The aims of this study were to compare differences of molecular alterations and clinical factors, and identify their prognostic impact in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas. We evaluated mutations of the TERT promoter and PIK3CA, expression of ARID1A, and other clinicopathological factors in 56 ovarian and 14 endometrial clear cell carcinomas. We found that TERT promoter mutations were present in 21% (3/14) of endometrial clear cell carcinomas and 16% (9/56) of ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Compared with ovarian clear cell carcinomas, endometrial clear cell carcinomas showed older mean patient age (P<0.001), preserved ARID1A immunoreactivity (P=0.017) and infrequent PIK3CA mutation (P=0.025). In ovarian clear cell carcinomas, TERT promoter mutations were correlated with patient age >45 (P=0.045) and preserved ARID1A expression (P=0.003). In cases of endometrial clear cell carcinoma, TERT promoter mutations were not statistically associated with any other clinicopathological factors. In ovarian clear cell carcinoma patients with early FIGO stage (stages I and II), TERT promoter mutation was an independent prognostic factor and correlated with a shorter disease-free survival and overall survival (P=0.015 and 0.009, respectively). In recurrent ovarian clear cell carcinoma patients with early FIGO stage, TERT promoter mutations were associated with early relapse within 6 months (P=0.018). We concluded that TERT promoter mutations were present in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Distinct molecular alteration patterns in endometrial and ovarian clear cell carcinomas implied different processes of tumorigenesis in these morphologically similar tumors. In ovarian clear cell carcinoma of early FIGO stage, patients with TERT promoter mutation require close follow-up during the initial 6 months following chemotherapy.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 1 August 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.93.
The importance of B-cell activation and immune complex-mediated Fc-receptor activation in the pathogenesis of immunologically mediated glomerulonephritis has long been recognized. The two nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), are primarily expressed by hematopoietic cells, and participate in B-cell-receptor- and Fc-receptor-mediated activation. Pharmacological inhibitors of Syk or Btk are undergoing preclinical development and clinical trials for several immune diseases; and Syk inhibitors have been shown to reduce disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients. However, the clinical therapeutic efficacies of these inhibitors in glomerulonephritis have not been evaluated. Herein, we review recent studies of Syk and Btk inhibitors in several experimental primary and secondary glomerulonephritis models. These inhibitors suppressed development of glomerular injury, and also ameliorated established kidney disease. Thus, targeting Syk and Btk signaling pathways is a potential therapeutic strategy for glomerulonephritis, and further evaluation is recommended.
Nephrotoxicity is the most prominent toxicological effects of ochratoxin A (OTA). We have previously shown that autophagy might be involved in OTA-induced early renal cytotoxicity, but the mechanisms of action are unknown. Since OTA is known to induce mitochondrial damage and Nix is a selective autophagy receptor for mitochondrial clearance, the objective of this study was to investigate whether Nix mediates autophagic response to OTA-induced renal cytotoxicity. Our results showed that OTA induced autophagic and mitophagic activitits. Nix shRNA HEK 293 cells were more sensitive than scrambled shRNA cells to OTA-induced cell death, and differentially affect the mRNA expression of SDHA, AIFM1, and Bad and protein expression of AIF, VDAC, SDHA and LONP1 after OTA treatment. In particular, up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic Bad and AIF after OTA treatment was prominent only in Nix shRNA cells, which might explain the higher ratio of cell death. These results might indicate that Nix plays a critical role in the cellular protection against OTA toxicity through autophagy and mitochondria.
2,7-Diiodo-3,6-dibromofluorene and 2,7-dichloro-3,6-dibromofluorene have been successfully synthesized. The two key intermediates enable us to implement a regioselective Sonogashira reaction followed by intramolecular thiolate/acetylene cyclization, forming two regiospecific pentacyclic dithieno[2,3-b:7,6-b']fluorene (2,7-DTF) and dithieno[3,2-b:6,7-b']fluorene (3,6-DTF) isomeric molecules, respectively. By using a similar strategy, selenophene-based diselenopheno[2,3-b:7,6-b']fluorene (2,7-DSF) as well as diselenopheno[3,2-b:6,7-b']fluorene (3,6-DSF) were also prepared. The isomeric and sulfur/selenium effects determine the optical, electrochemical, and orbital properties. X-ray crystallography revealed that 2,7-DTF and 3,6-DTF molecules assemble into supramolecular helical structures.
Aging phenotypes are dictated by myriad cellular changes including telomere shortening. In most tissues, telomere shortening is accelerated during replication if unrepaired oxidative damage to telomere sequences is present. However, the effect of reactive oxygen species exposure on skeletal muscle telomeres is unknown. We sought to determine if oxidative stress shortens telomeres in isolated adult rodent skeletal muscle fibers. Flexor digitorum brevis muscles were dissected from male mice (C57BL/6, long telomere and CAST/Ei, wild-derived, short telomere) and dissociated into single fibers. Fibers were cultured at an oxygen tension of 2%-5% for 5 days in control, hydrogen peroxide (oxidant), or a combination of N-acetylcysteine (antioxidant) and oxidant containing media. Telomere length, telomerase enzyme activity, and protein content of TRF1 and TRF2 were subsequently measured. In both strains, oxidative stress resulted in significant telomere shortening in isolated skeletal muscle fibers, likely by different mechanisms. Telomerase activity was not altered by oxidative stress treatment but was significantly different between strains, with greater telomerase activity in long-telomere-bearing C57BL/6 mice. These results provide important insights into mechanisms by which oxidative stress could shorten skeletal muscle telomeres.
MicroRNAs (miRs) regulate essentially all cellular processes, but few miRs are known to inhibit growth of precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemias (B-ALLs). We identified miR-509 via a human genome-wide gain-of-function screen for miRs that inhibit growth of the NALM6 human B-ALL cell line. MiR-509-mediated inhibition of NALM6 growth was confirmed by 3 independent assays. Enforced miR-509 expression inhibited 2 of 2 additional B-ALL cell lines tested, but not 3 non-B-ALL leukemia cell lines. MiR-509-transduced NALM6 cells had reduced numbers of actively proliferating cells and increased numbers of cells undergoing apoptosis. Using miR target prediction algorithms and a filtering strategy, RAB5C was predicted as a potentially relevant target of miR-509. Enforced miR-509 expression in NALM6 cells reduced RAB5C mRNA and protein levels, and RAB5C was demonstrated to be a direct target of miR-509. Knockdown of RAB5C in NALM6 cells recapitulated the growth inhibitory effects of miR-509. Co-expression of the RAB5C open reading frame without its 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) blocked the growth-inhibitory effect mediated by miR-509. These findings establish RAB5C as a target of miR-509 and an important regulator of B-ALL cell growth with potential as a therapeutic target.
This study aimed to investigate the relationships of chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes with the development of uterine cervical cancer in Taiwanese women. The SNPs frequencies and haplotypes were also correlated with the clinicopathologic variables of cervical cancer, cancer recurrence, and patient survival.
Ovarian cancer, the deadliest of gynecologic cancers, is usually not diagnosed until advanced stages. Although carboplatin has been popular for treating ovarian cancer for decades, patients eventually develop resistance to this platinum-containing drug. Expression of neurogenic locus notch homolog 3 (Notch3) is associated with chemoresistance and poor overall survival in ovarian cancer patients. Overexpression of NICD3 (the constitutively active form of Notch3) in OVCA429 ovarian cancer cells (OVCA429/NICD3) renders them resistance to carboplatin treatment compared to OVCA429/pCEG cells expressing an empty vector. We have previously shown that methylseleninic acid (MSeA) induces oxidative stress and activates ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and DNA-dependent protein kinase in cancer cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that MSeA and carboplatin exerted a synthetic lethal effect on OVCA429/NICD3 cells. Co-treatment with MSeA synergistically sensitized OVCA429/NICD3 but not OVCA429/pCEG cells to the killing by carboplatin. This synergism was associated with a cell cycle exit at the G2/M phase and the induction of NICD3 target gene HES1. Treatment of N-acetyl cysteine or inhibitors of the above two kinases did not directly impact on the synergism in OVCA429/NICD3 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the efficacy of carboplatin in the treatment of high grade ovarian carcinoma can be enhanced by a combinational therapy with MSeA.
Several individual miRNAs (miRs) have been implicated as potent regulators of important processes during normal and malignant hematopoiesis. In addition, many miRs have been shown to fine-tune intricate molecular networks, in concert with other regulatory elements. In order to study hematopoietic networks as a whole, we first created a map of global miR expression during early murine hematopoiesis. Next, we determined the copy number per cell for each miR in each of the examined stem and progenitor cell types. As data is emerging indicating that miRs function robustly mainly when they are expressed above a certain threshold (?100 copies per cell), our database provides a resource for determining which miRs are expressed at a potentially functional level in each cell type. Finally, we combine our miR expression map with matched mRNA expression data and external prediction algorithms, using a Bayesian modeling approach to create a global landscape of predicted miR-mRNA interactions within each of these hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell subsets. This approach implicates several interaction networks comprising a "stemness" signature in the most primitive hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) populations, as well as "myeloid" patterns associated with two branches of myeloid development.
To determine if patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) have antibodies to agrin, a proteoglycan released by motor neurons and is critical for neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation, we collected serum samples from 93 patients with MG with known status of antibodies to acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle specific kinase (MuSK) and lipoprotein-related 4 (LRP4) and samples from control subjects (healthy individuals and individuals with other diseases). Sera were assayed for antibodies to agrin. We found antibodies to agrin in 7 serum samples of MG patients. None of the 25 healthy controls and none of the 55 control neurological patients had agrin antibodies. Two of the four triple negative MG patients (i.e., no detectable AChR, MuSK or LRP4 antibodies, AChR-/MuSK-/LRP4-) had antibodies against agrin. In addition, agrin antibodies were detected in 5 out of 83 AChR+/MuSK-/LRP4- patients but were not found in the 6 patients with MuSK antibodies (AChR-/MuSK+/LRP4-). Sera from MG patients with agrin antibodies were able to recognize recombinant agrin in conditioned media and in transfected HEK293 cells. These sera also inhibited the agrin-induced MuSK phosphorylation and AChR clustering in muscle cells. Together, these observations indicate that agrin is another autoantigen in patients with MG and agrin autoantibodies may be pathogenic through inhibition of agrin/LRP4/MuSK signaling at the NMJ.
We report on the generation of passive harmonic mode locking of a fiber laser using a microfiber-based topological insulator (TI) Bi2Te3 saturable absorber (SA). The optical deposition method was employed to fabricate the microfiber-based TISA. By virtue of the excellent nonlinear optical property of the proposed TISA, the fiber laser could operate at the pulse repetition rate of 2.04 GHz under a pump power of 126 mW, corresponding to the 418th harmonic of fundamental repetition frequency. The results demonstrate that the microfiber-based TI photonic device can operate as both the high nonlinear optical component and the SA in fiber lasers, and could also find other applications in the related fields of photonics.
The trophic factor neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) and its receptor ErbB4 are schizophrenia candidate genes. NRG1-ErbB4 signaling was thought to regulate spine formation and function in a cell-autonomous manner. Yet, recent studies indicate that ErbB4 expression is largely restricted to GABAergic interneurons and is very low or absent in pyramidal cells. Here, we generated and characterized cell type-specific ErbB4 mutant and transgenic mice. Spine density and the number of excitatory synapses were unaltered by neither deletion nor overexpression of ErbB4 in pyramidal neurons. However, spine density and excitatory synapse number were reduced in PV-ErbB4(-/-) mice where ErbB4 was selectively ablated in parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons. Concurrently, basal glutamate transmission was impaired in PV-ErbB4(-/-) mice, but not in mice where ErbB4 was deleted or overexpressed in pyramidal neurons. Our results demonstrate a role of ErbB4 in PV-positive interneurons for spine formation in excitatory neurons.
We reported on the dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) phenomenon in a mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser by using the nonlinear polarization rotation technique. It was found that the multi-pulse oscillation under high pump power could be circumvented by properly adjusting the polarization controllers, namely, the wave-breaking-free rectangular pulse in DSR region was achieved. As the DSR signature, the pulse duration varied from 8.8 ps to 22.92 ns with the increasing pump power. Correspondingly, the maximum pulse energy was 3.24 nJ. The results demonstrated that the DSR phenomenon could exist in Yb-doped fiber lasers, which could be used to achieve wave-breaking-free, ultrahigh-energy pulse.
A new strategy to synthesize 4,9- and 5,10-dialkylated ?-aNDTs as well as 4,9- and 5,10-dialkylated ?-aNDTs is described. Four isomeric precursors with different dithienyl-ene-diyne arrangements undergo base-induced double 6?-cyclization to construct the central naphthalene cores, leading to the formation of the regiospecific products. These 2,7-distannylated dialkylated aNDT-based monomers can be used for Stille cross-coupling to produce promising conjugated materials for various optoelectronic applications.
Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase protein secreted by various cells, including leukocytes and endothelial cells. Like C-reactive protein (CRP), it belongs to the pentraxin superfamily. The aim of this study was to investigate the differential changes in plasma levels of PTX3 between before and after antibiotic treatment in hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
The deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) homolog neogenin functions in both netrin- and repulsive guidance molecule (RGM)-mediated axon guidance and in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. How neogenin functions in mediating BMP signaling is not well understood. We show that the sole C. elegans DCC/neogenin homolog UNC-40 positively modulates a BMP-like pathway by functioning in the signal-receiving cells at the ligand/receptor level. This function of UNC-40 is independent of its role in netrin-mediated axon guidance, but requires its association with the RGM protein DRAG-1. We have identified the key residues in the extracellular domain of UNC-40 that are crucial for UNC-40-DRAG-1 interaction and UNC-40 function. Surprisingly, the extracellular domain of UNC-40 is sufficient to promote BMP signaling, in clear contrast to the requirement of its intracellular domain in mediating axon guidance. Mouse neogenin lacking the intracellular domain is also capable of mediating BMP signaling. These findings reveal an unexpected mode of action for neogenin regulation of BMP signaling.
To investigate the various genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Taiwanese women patients with abnormal cervical cytology and analyze the associations between HPV types, cervical preinvasive lesions, and the medical characteristics of these patients.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). MG is frequently caused by autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and a kinase critical for NMJ formation, MuSK; however, a proportion of MG patients are double-negative for anti-AChR and anti-MuSK antibodies. Recent studies in these subjects have identified autoantibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), an agrin receptor also critical for NMJ formation. LRP4 autoantibodies have not previously been implicated in MG pathogenesis. Here we demonstrate that mice immunized with the extracellular domain of LRP4 generated anti-LRP4 antibodies and exhibited MG-associated symptoms, including muscle weakness, reduced compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), and compromised neuromuscular transmission. Additionally, fragmented and distorted NMJs were evident at both the light microscopic and electron microscopic levels. We found that anti-LRP4 sera decreased cell surface LRP4 levels, inhibited agrin-induced MuSK activation and AChR clustering, and activated complements, revealing potential pathophysiological mechanisms. To further confirm the pathogenicity of LRP4 antibodies, we transferred IgGs purified from LRP4-immunized rabbits into naive mice and found that they exhibited MG-like symptoms, including reduced CMAP and impaired neuromuscular transmission. Together, these data demonstrate that LRP4 autoantibodies induce MG and that LRP4 contributes to NMJ maintenance in adulthood.
In situ hybridization (ISH) is a type of hybridization that uses a labeled complementary DNA or RNA strand (i.e., probe) to localize a specific DNA or RNA sequence in a portion or section of tissue (In Situ) or in the entire tissue (whole mount ISH). Localization of endogenous transcripts is a desirable approach for confirming expression patterns. This is distinct from immunohistochemistry, which usually localizes proteins in tissue sections. DNA ISH can be used to determine the structure of chromosomes. However, RNA ISH (hybridization histochemistry) is used to measure and localize mRNAs and other transcripts within tissue sections or whole mounts. RNA-RNA hybrids approach may offer increased sensitivity, which is more stable than that of DNA-RNA hybrids. Here we describe the efficient ISH protocol for nonradioactive (i.e., in direct methods using digoxigenin (DIG) system) RNA probes, and it can be performed in less than 3 days.
Loss or duplication of chromosome segments can lead to further genomic changes associated with cancer. However, it is not known whether only a select subset of genes is responsible for driving further changes. To determine whether perturbation of any given gene in a genome suffices to drive subsequent genetic changes, we analyzed the yeast knockout collection for secondary mutations of functional consequence. Unlike wild-type, most gene knockout strains were found to have one additional mutant gene affecting nutrient responses and/or heat-stress-induced cell death. Moreover, independent knockouts of the same gene often evolved mutations in the same secondary gene. Genome sequencing identified acquired mutations in several human tumor suppressor homologs. Thus, mutation of any single gene may cause a genomic imbalance, with consequences sufficient to drive adaptive genetic changes. This complicates genetic analyses but is a logical consequence of losing a functional unit originally acquired under pressure during evolution.
Thrombomodulin (TM) has been shown to regulate many physiological and pathological processes, including inflammation, thrombosis, and tumor progression. TM is also a natural anticoagulant that maintains circulatory homeostasis in endothelial cells. However, little is known regarding the role of TM in the progression and metastasis of cervical cancer. TM-specific RNA interference and a cDNA expression vector were used to manipulate TM expression in cervical cancer cells. Cell growth and cell migration were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, transwell migration assays, and a biosensor system. TM silencing did not affect the growth rate of the cells. However, cell migration was dramatically enhanced after silencing of TM in HeLa cells. The overexpression of TM in cervical cancer cells only slightly influenced their proliferative capacity. After overexpression of TM in HeLa cells, their migratory capability was suppressed. Furthermore, we found that the decreased expression of E-cadherin and increase of zeb-1 and snail expression in TM-silenced cells which may be correlated with the results of knocking-down TM increases the migratory ability in this study. Our results demonstrate that TM may slightly regulate the growth but played the important role in the migratory ability of cervical cancer cells, suggesting that TM could potentially serve as a novel prognostic and therapeutic target in cervical cancer.
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a devastating clinical syndrome causing a substantial mortality, but to date without any effective pharmacological management in clinic. Here, we tested whether nanoparticles based on polyethylenimine (PEI) and DNA could be a potential treatment. In mouse model of ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10mg/kg), intravenous injection of PEI/DNA mediated a rapid (in 6h) and short-lived transgene expression in lung, with alveolar epithelial cells as major targets. When ?2-Adrenergic Receptor (?2AR) was applied as therapeutic gene, PEI/?2AR treatment significantly attenuated the severity of ALI, including alveolar fluid clearance, lung water content, histopathology, bronchioalveolar lavage cellularity, protein concentration, and inflammatory cytokines in mice with pre-existing ALI. In high-dose LPS (40 mg/kg)-induced ALI, post-injury treatment of PEI/?2AR significantly improved the 5-day survival of mice from 28% to 64%. These data suggest that PEI/DNA nanoparticles could be an effective agent in future clinical application for ALI treatment.
We report on the vector nature of rectangular pulse operating in dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) region in a passively mode-locked fiber laser. Apart from the typical signatures of DSR, the rectangular pulse trapping of two polarization components centered at different wavelengths was observed and they propagated as a group-velocity locked vector soliton. Moreover, the polarization resolved soliton spectra show different spectral distributions. The observed results will enhance the understanding of fundamental physics of DSR phenomenon.
The ovarian cancer-associated ascites is an ideal material for evaluating the interaction between the host immune system and cancer cells in the tumor micro-environment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the selected target cytokine expression levels in ascites could serve as an immune biomarker for predicting outcomes in ovarian cancer.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinase, which can transduce intracellular signals responsible for cell proliferation. It is frequently overexpressed and/or constitutively activated in non-small cell lung cancer and thus is considered as a major cause of this disease. Recently, EGFR has been found in the nucleus where the nuclear EGFR (nEGFR) can function as a transcription factor activating the transcription of genes such as cyclin D1 gene (CCND1), which is essential for cell proliferation. Nevertheless, how nEGFRs transcriptional activity is regulated remains unclear. Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is a tumor suppressor, which is lost in various cancers including lung cancer. However, the role of PML in the suppression of lung cancer growth is still unclear. When we investigated the role of PML in the regulation of lung cancer cell growth, we found that PML isoform IV (PMLIV) preferentially represses the growth of lung cancer cells bearing constitutively active EGFR. Besides, when growing in the EGFR activating conditions, the growth of EGFR wild-type bearing A549 cells has been repressed by PMLIV overexpression. We also found that PMLIV can interact physically with nEGFR and represses the transcription of nEGFR target genes. We showed that PMLIV is recruited by nEGFR to the target promoters and reduces the promoter histone acetylation level via HDAC1. Together, our results suggest that PMLIV interacts with nEGFR upon EGFR activation and represses the transcription of nEGFR target genes such as CCND1 and thus leading to inhibition of the lung cancer cell growth.
Neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) is a susceptibility gene of schizophrenia, a disabling mental illness that affects 1% of the general population. Here, we show that ctoNrg1 mice, which mimic high levels of NRG1 observed in forebrain regions of schizophrenic patients, exhibit behavioral deficits and hypofunction of glutamatergic and GABAergic pathways. Intriguingly, these deficits were diminished when NRG1 expression returned to normal in adult mice, suggesting that damage which occurred during development is recoverable. Conversely, increase of NRG1 in adulthood was sufficient to cause glutamatergic impairment and behavioral deficits. We found that the glutamatergic impairment by NRG1 overexpression required LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1), which was activated in mutant mice, identifying a pathological mechanism. These observations demonstrate that synaptic dysfunction and behavioral deficits in ctoNrg1 mice require continuous NRG1 abnormality in adulthood, suggesting that relevant schizophrenia may benefit from therapeutic intervention to restore NRG1 signaling.
Tumor cells have long been observed to share several biological characteristics with normal stem/progenitor cells; however, the oncogenic mechanisms underlying the lung stem/progenitor cell signaling remain elusive. Here we report that SOX2, a self-renewal factor in lung stem/progenitor cells, is highly expressed in a subclass of lung cancer cells, the proliferation, survival and chemoresistance of which are dependent on SOX2 signaling. Overexpression of SOX2 promotes oncogenic phenotypes in lung cancer cells; knockdown of SOX2 attenuated cell proliferation. We observed that SOX2 increased the expression of EGFR, and EGFR activation further upregulated SOX2 levels, forming a positive feedback loop. SOX2 expression promoted chemoresistance, and silencing of SOX2 perturbed mitochondrial function, causing marked apoptosis and autophagy. SOX2 induced BCL2L1, the ectopic expression of which rescued the effects of SOX2 silencing on apoptosis, autophagy, and mitochondrial function. SOX2 promoted tumor formation, along with increased cell proliferation in a xenograft mouse model. SOX2 expression is associated with poor prognosis in lung cancer patients; moreover, SOX2, EGFR and BCL2L1 expression levels were significantly correlated in lung tumors. Our findings support the emerging role of SOX2 in cell proliferation and survival by eliciting oncogenic EGFR and BCL2L1 signaling with potential applications as a prognosis marker and a therapeutic target in lung cancer. Stem Cells 2013.
Selenium was considered a toxin until 1957, when this mineral was shown to be essential in the prevention of necrotic liver damage in rats. The hypothesis of selenium chemoprevention is principally formulated by the observations that cancer incidence is inversely associated with selenium status. However, recent clinical and epidemiological studies demonstrate a role for some selenoproteins in exacerbating or promoting other disease states, specifically type 2 diabetes, although other data support a role of selenium in stimulating insulin sensitivity. Therefore, it is clear that our understanding in the role of selenium in glucose metabolism and chemoprevention is inadequate and incomplete. Research exploring the role of selenium in individual healthcare is of upmost importance and possibly will help explain how selenium is a double-edged sword in the pathologies of chronic diseases.
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78) is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone; it maintains endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and modulates unfolded protein response. The protein is overexpressed in various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Increased Grp78 expression in patients with RCC is correlated with more aggressive tumors and poorer prognoses. This study investigated the role of Grp78 in regulating tumorigenesis and evaluated the potential of Grp78-targeted therapy for RCC.
The generation of mode-locked rectangular pulses operating in dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) region is demonstrated in an erbium-doped figure-eight fiber laser with net anomalous dispersion. The duration of the wave-breaking-free rectangular pulse broadens with the increase of pump power. At a maximum pump power of 341 mW, the pulse energy can be up to 3.25 nJ with a repetition rate of 3.54 MHz. Particularly, the spectrum of rectangular pulse operating in DSR exhibits conventional soliton sidebands. The observed results show that the formation of pulse operating in DSR region is independent of mode-locking techniques, which may be helpful for further understanding the DSR phenomenon.
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