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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Changing Work and Work-Family Conflict: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network*
Am Sociol Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life are work resources that may help employees manage the work-family interface. However, existing data and designs have made it difficult to conclusively identify the effects of these work resources. This analysis utilizes a group-randomized trial in which some units in an information technology workplace were randomly assigned to participate in an initiative, called STAR, that targeted work practices, interactions, and expectations by (a) training supervisors on the value of demonstrating support for employees' personal lives and (b) prompting employees to reconsider when and where they work. We find statistically significant, though modest, improvements in employees' work-family conflict and family time adequacy and larger changes in schedule control and supervisor support for family and personal life. We find no evidence that this intervention increased work hours or perceived job demands, as might have happened with increased permeability of work across time and space. Subgroup analyses suggest the intervention brings greater benefits to employees more vulnerable to work-family conflict. This study advances our understanding of the impact of social structures on individual lives by investigating deliberate organizational changes and their effects on work resources and the work-family interface with a rigorous design.
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Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea for its metabolite biosynthesis and sexual development.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Antrodia cinnamomea, a polyporus mushroom of Taiwan, has long been used as a remedy for cancer, hypertension, and hangover, with an annual market of over $100 million (US) in Taiwan. We obtained a 32.15-Mb genome draft containing 9,254 genes. Genome ontology enrichment and pathway analyses shed light on sexual development and the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, ergostanes, antroquinonol, and antrocamphin. We identified genes differentially expressed between mycelium and fruiting body and 242 proteins in the mevalonate pathway, terpenoid pathways, cytochrome P450s, and polyketide synthases, which may contribute to the production of medicinal secondary metabolites. Genes of secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways showed expression enrichment for tissue-specific compounds, including 14-?-demethylase (CYP51F1) in fruiting body for converting lanostane to ergostane triterpenoids, coenzymes Q (COQ) for antroquinonol biosynthesis in mycelium, and polyketide synthase for antrocamphin biosynthesis in fruiting body. Our data will be useful for developing a strategy to increase the production of useful metabolites.
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PP2A regulatory subunits ParA and PabA orchestrate septation and conidiation, and are essential for PP2A phosphatase activity in Aspergillus nidulans.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major intracellular protein phosphatase that regulates multiple aspects of cell growth and metabolism. Different activities of PP2A and subcellular localization are determined by its regulatory subunits. Here, we identified and characterized the function of two protein phosphatase regulatory subunit homologs parA and pabA in Aspergillus nidulans. Our results demonstrate that ParA locates to the septum site and deletion of parA causes hyper-septation, while over-expression of parA abolishes septum formation; this suggests that ParA may function as a negative regulator of septation. In comparison, PabA displays a clear co-localization pattern with DAPI stained nuclei and deletion of pabA induces a remarkable delayed septation phenotype. Both parA and pabA are required for hyphal growth, conidiation, and self-fertilization likely to maintain normal levels of PP2A activities. Most interestingly, parA deletion is capable of suppressing septation defects in pabA mutants, suggesting that ParA counteracts PabA during the septation process. By contrast, double mutants of parA and pabA led to synthetic defects in colony growth, indicating that ParA functions synthetically with PabA during hyphal growth. Moreover, unlike PP2A-Par1 and PP2A-Pab1 in yeast (which are negative regulators that inactivate the Septation Initiation Network [SIN]), loss of ParA or PabA fails to suppress defects of the temperature-sensitive mutants of the SEPH kinase of the SIN components. Thus, our findings support the previously unrealized evidence that the B-family subunits of PP2A have comprehensive functions as the partners of heterotrimeric enzyme complexes of PP2A spatially and temporally in A. nidulans.
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[Quantitative estimation of evapotranspiration from Tahe forest ecosystem, Northeast China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important parameter of agriculture, meteorology and hydrology research, and also an important part of the global hydrological cycle. This paper applied the improved DHSVM distributed hydrological model to estimate daily ET of Tahe area in 2007 using leaf area index and other surface data extracted TM remote sensing data, and slope, aspect and other topographic indices obtained by using the digital elevation model. The relationship between daily ET and daily watershed outlet flow was built by the BP neural network, and a water balance equation was established for the studied watershed, together to test the accuracy of the estimation. The results showed that the model could be applied in the study area. The annual total ET of Tahe watershed was 234.01 mm. ET had a significant seasonal variation. The ET had the highest value in summer and the average daily ET value was 1.56 mm. The average daily ET in autumn and spring were 0.30, 0.29 mm, respectively, and winter had the lowest ET value. Land cover type had a great effect on ET value, and the broadleaf forest had a higher ET ability than the mixed forest, followed by the needle leaf forest.
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Influence of serotonergic mechanisms on the urine flow rate in male rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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This study extensively examined the role of a 5-HT1A receptor in controlling voiding function in anesthetized male rats. A simultaneous recording of the intravesical pressure (IVP), external urethral sphincter (EUS)-electromyography (EMG), and urine flow rate (UFR) during continuous cystometry was used. 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, significantly improved the voiding efficiency, as detected by increases in the evoked contraction amplitude, EUS burst period, and silent period, and decreases in the volume threshold, pressure threshold, and residual volume. Interestingly, the UFR during voiding was reduced by 8-OH-DPAT, as evidenced by decreases in the maximal UFR and mean UFRs of the voiding period, spike duration, and interspike interval. Conversely, treating rats with WAY-100635, a 5-HT1A antagonist, produced effects opposite to those produced by 8-OH-DPAT. These findings suggest that 8-OH-DPAT improved the voiding efficiency by enhancing the detrusor contractile ability and prolonging EUS burst period, which would compensate for the lower UFR, resulting from urethral smooth muscle contractions and longer EUS silent periods during voiding. The present study contributes to our understanding of the role of 5-HT1A receptors in controlling the urine flow rate in male rats.
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[Retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of anti-hepatitis B virus drugs taken during pregnancy in women from the Guangdong Province].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To investigate the efficacy of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) drugs for preventing vertical transmission of HBV and the safety of these drugs when given as treatment during pregnancy (to women) or insemination (to men).
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Pilot study of amitriptyline in the prophylactic treatment of medication-overuse headache: a 1-year follow-up.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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This study aims to evaluate the long-term efficacy of low-dose amitriptyline combined with abrupt withdrawal in outpatients of medication-overuse headache (MOH) in an open-label design.
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Genomic organization, transcriptomic analysis, and functional characterization of avian ?- and ?-keratins in diverse feather forms.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Feathers are hallmark avian integument appendages, although they were also present on theropods. They are composed of flexible corneous materials made of ?- and ?-keratins, but their genomic organization and their functional roles in feathers have not been well studied. First, we made an exhaustive search of ?- and ?-keratin genes in the new chicken genome assembly (Galgal4). Then, using transcriptomic analysis, we studied ?- and ?-keratin gene expression patterns in five types of feather epidermis. The expression patterns of ?-keratin genes were different in different feather types, whereas those of ?-keratin genes were less variable. In addition, we obtained extensive ?- and ?-keratin mRNA in situ hybridization data, showing that ?-keratins and ?-keratins are preferentially expressed in different parts of the feather components. Together, our data suggest that feather morphological and structural diversity can largely be attributed to differential combinations of ?- and ?-keratin genes in different intrafeather regions and/or feather types from different body parts. The expression profiles provide new insights into the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers. Finally, functional analysis using mutant chicken keratin forms based on those found in the human ?-keratin mutation database led to abnormal phenotypes. This demonstrates that the chicken can be a convenient model for studying the molecular biology of human keratin-based diseases.
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Negative interference by rheumatoid factor of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide in chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) is widely used for the quantitative determination of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is usually thought to result in a positive interference in immunoassays, but it is not clear whether its presence in plasma can lead to interferences in the CMIA of BNP.
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H2S, a novel therapeutic target in renal-associated diseases?
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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For more than a century, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been regarded as a toxic gas. Recently, the understanding of the biological effects of H2S has been changed. This review surveys the growing recognition of H2S as an endogenous signaling molecule in mammals, with emphasis on its physiological and pathological pathways in the urinary system. This article reviews recent progress of basic and pharmacological researches related to endogenous H2S in urinary system, including the regulatory effects of H2S in the process of antioxidant, inflammation, cellular matrix remodeling and ion channels, and the role of endogenous H2S pathway in the pathogenesis of renal and urogenital disorders.
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Mipu1 Overexpression Protects Macrophages from oxLDL-Induced Foam Cell Formation and Cell Apoptosis.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Mipu1 (myocardial ischemic preconditioning upregulated protein 1) is a novel N-terminal Kruppel-associated box (KRAB)/C2H2 zinc finger superfamily protein, that displays a powerful effect in protecting H9c2 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis. The present study aims to investigate the effect of Mipu1 overexpression on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced foam cell formation, cell apoptosis, and its possible mechanisms. New Zealand healthy rabbits were used to establish atherosclerosis model, and serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were detected by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Sudan IV staining was used to detect atherosclerotic lesions. The RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was selected as the experimental material. Oil red O staining, high-performance liquid chromatography, and Dil-labeled lipoprotein were used to detect cholesterol accumulation qualitatively and quantitatively, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell apoptosis. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of the main proteins that are associated with the transport of cholesterol, such as ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-BI, and CD36. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression of Mipu1. There were atherosclerotic lesions in the high-fat diet group with Sudan IV staining. High-fat diet decreased Mipu1 expression and increased CD36 expression significantly at the 10th week compared with standard-diet rabbits. Mipu1 overexpression decreased oxLDL-induced cholesterol accumulation, oxLDL uptake, cell apoptosis, and cleaved caspase-3. Mipu1 overexpression inhibited the oxLDL-induced CD36 mRNA and protein expression, but it did not significantly inhibit the mRNA expression of ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI. Mipu1 overexpression inhibits oxLDL-induced foam cell formation and cell apoptosis. Mipu1 overexpression reduces the lipid intake of macrophages and might be associated with the downregulation of CD36 expression in the presence of oxLDL.
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Botanical Drug Puerarin Coordinates with Nerve Growth Factor in the Regulation of Neuronal Survival and Neuritogenesis via Activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways in the Neurite Extension Process.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates neuronal survival and differentiation by activating extracellular signal-regulated-kinases (ERK) 1/2 and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways in two distinct processes: latency process and neurite extension process. This study was designed to investigate whether botanical drug C-glucosylated isoflavone puerarin coordinates with NGF to regulate neuritogenesis via activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt in neurite extension process.
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Elastic properties of chemical-vapor-deposited monolayer MoS2, WS2, and their bilayer heterostructures.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Elastic properties of materials are an important factor in their integration in applications. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) monolayer semiconductors are proposed as key components in industrial-scale flexible devices and building blocks of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures. However, their mechanical and elastic properties have not been fully characterized. Here we report high 2D elastic moduli of CVD monolayer MoS2 and WS2 (?170 N/m), which is very close to the value of exfoliated MoS2 monolayers and almost half the value of the strongest material, graphene. The 2D moduli of their bilayer heterostructures are lower than the sum of 2D modulus of each layer but comparable to the corresponding bilayer homostructure, implying similar interactions between the hetero monolayers as between homo monolayers. These results not only provide deep insight into understanding interlayer interactions in 2D van der Waals structures but also potentially allow engineering of their elastic properties as desired.
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Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in oral squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Wuhan, China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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High risk forms of the human papilloma virus (HPV) are generally accepted as necessary causative agents for cervical cancer. Recently, a possible relation between HPV and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has also been noticed. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection in OSCCs in Wuhan city. DNA samples were collected from fresh tissues in 200 patients with OSCC and 68 normal controls. The polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing were used to identify the HPV types in the samples. The prevalence of HPV of all types in the OSCC group was higher than in the control group (55/200 vs 2/68, OR=11.5, 95% CI=2.6-50.2). HPV16 and HPV18 were the main types detected, with HPV6 was the only low-risk type identified. High-risk HPV types HPV16 and HPV18 are prevalent in OSCC patients and may participate in the development of OSCC with traditional risk factors, tobacco and alcohol, possibly exerting synergistic effects. The results of multinomial logistic regression showed that those who smoked, consumed alcohol and with HPV infection have the highest risk of developing oral cancer (OR=13.3, 95% CI=3.1-56.8). Adjusted for age, smoking and alcohol use, HPV infection was independently associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
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Systemic sclerosis and the risk of tuberculosis.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Pulmonary involvement is common in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and this condition causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Disrupted immunity from the disease or associated medication may render such patients subject to tuberculosis (TB) infection. However, the relationship between SSc and TB has not yet been investigated.
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Electronic and vibrational properties of stable isomers of (SiO)n((0,±)) (n = 2-7) clusters.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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First-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to explore the stable configurations, electronic structures, and vibrational spectra of neutral and charged silicon monoxide clusters (SiO)n((0,±)) (n = 2-7), which could be used as precursors in the synthesis of silicon nanowires. Our theoretical calculations provide new results on characteristic electron affinity, ionization potential, and vibrational spectroscopy, guiding future experiments in the synthesis of high-quality silicon nanowires. Specifically, as the number of SiO units n increases, IR spectra of (SiO)n(±) and Raman spectra of (SiO)n(-) show an evident blue shift, and Raman spectra of (SiO)n demonstrate a red shift. Moreover, most of the neutral silicon monoxide clusters have strong IR intensities and weak Raman activities, while most of the anionic counterparts have relatively weak IR intensities and strong Raman activities. Some other energetically competitive isomers of some (SiO)n((0,±)) species were also studied for comparison.
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Homocysteine Promotes Intestinal Fibrosis in Rats with Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Previous studies have revealed significantly increased levels of plasma and mucosal homocysteine (Hcy) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD); however, whether Hcy is involved in intestinal fibrosis of CD remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Hcy on intestinal fibrosis in TNBS/ethanol-induced colitis and to elucidate its potential mechanisms.
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Light exposure at night, sleep duration, melatonin, and breast cancer: a dose-response analysis of observational studies.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Evidence from observational studies on light at night (LAN) exposure, sleep duration, endogenous melatonin levels, and risk for breast cancer in women is conflicting. This led us to conduct a dose-response analysis of published observational data. Pertinent studies were identified by searching Medline, Web of Science, and EMBASE through April 2013. The dose-response relationship between sleep duration, urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels, and breast cancer was assessed using the restricted cubic spline model and by multivariate random-effects metaregression. A separate meta-analysis was also carried out to calculate the relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer for the comparable categories or highest levels of exposure versus the lowest levels. Twelve case-control and four cohort studies were included in the analysis. High artificial LAN exposure is associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (RR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.23), but not ambient LAN exposure (RR=0.91, 95% CI: 0.78-1.07). The summary RR for breast cancer is 1.00 (95% CI: 0.995-1.01) for an increment of 1?h of sleep per night. No significant dose-response relationship between sleep duration and breast cancer was found either for the linearity test (Ptrend=0.725) or for the nonlinearity (Ptrend=0.091) test. An increasein of 15 ng/mg creatinine in urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin is associated with a 14% reduced risk for breast cancer (RR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.78-0.95), with a linear dose-response trend (Ptrend=0.003). There was no evidence of substantial heterogeneity or publication bias in the analysis. Our study adds to the evidence of LAN breast cancer theory. Further research in this area is warranted.
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Tuning interlayer coupling in large-area heterostructures with CVD-grown MoS2 and WS2 monolayers.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Band offsets between different monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are expected to efficiently separate charge carriers or rectify charge flow, offering a mechanism for designing atomically thin devices and probing exotic two-dimensional physics. However, developing such large-area heterostructures has been hampered by challenges in synthesis of monolayers and effectively coupling neighboring layers. Here, we demonstrate large-area (>tens of micrometers) heterostructures of CVD-grown WS2 and MoS2 monolayers, where the interlayer interaction is externally tuned from noncoupling to strong coupling. Following this trend, the luminescence spectrum of the heterostructures evolves from an additive line profile where each layer contributes independently to a new profile that is dictated by charge transfer and band normalization between the WS2 and MoS2 layers. These results and findings open up venues to creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical effects.
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[Impact of the Beijing and Tianjin Sand Source Control Project on the grassland soil organic carbon storage: a case study of Xilingol League, Inner Mongolia, China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Understanding the impacts of eco-construction project on grassland soil carbon storage is crucial to assess the effectiveness of the project and its role in carbon cycling of the grassland ecosystems. Using IPCC carbon budget inventory method, this paper analyzed the influence of Beijing and Tianjin Sand Source Control Project (BTSSCP) on the grassland soil carbon storage between 2000 and 2006 in Xilingol League, Inner Mongolia, and evaluated the time needed to reach the maximal soil carbon density for three management practices (i. e. , sown pasture, aerial sowing pasture, and grazing exclosure). Results showed that the BTSSCP significantly increased soil carbon storage, with a carbon sequestration of 59.26 x 10(4) t C from 2000 to 2006. The rate and effectiveness of soil carbon sequestration varied significantly with management practices, with the highest rate in sown pasture (0.25 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1)) while a greater benefit of soil carbon sequestration in the grazing exclosure (63 million yuan). Compared with other grassland vegetations, lowland meadow and temperate meadow steppe both had higher carbon sequestration rates of 0.14 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1). Long time would be needed to reach the maximum soil carbon density in grassland under the three practices, yet shorter for sown pasture with average of 57.75 years.
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[Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load.
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[Progress of research on parasitic adaptability of schistosome and its application value].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The larval and adult schistosomes can effectively establish the stable parasitic relationship with their final hosts and then maintain the parasitism for a long time, due to the successful adaptation to their parasitic lifestyle. This paper reviews the progress of research on parasitic adaptability of schistosomes in several respects, and demonstrates the application value of schistosomal genes related to parasitic adaptability in schistosomiasis control and exploitation of natural active molecules.
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Bushen Huoxue decoction improves cognitive decline in rats with cerebral hypoperfusion.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Cerebral hypoperfusion is a common feature of vascular dementia and has recently been recognized to contribute to the progression of cognitive decline. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Bushen Huoxue decoction (BHD), a two?herb Chinese Medicine, on cognitive impairment in a rat model of cerebral hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO). The results demonstrated that BHD significantly attenuated learning and spatial memory deficits in the Morris water maze test in a dose?dependent manner. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the reduction of synapse density in hippocampal CA1 and cortex parietal isolated from rats with 2VO was partially restored by BHD treatment. In addition, the expression levels of a number of antioxidants, including superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathine and glutathione peroxidase?1 (GPx?1) increased, whereas malondialdehyde decreased in the hippocampi of rats with 2VO following BHD treatment. Polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis further confirmed that the GPx?1 and CAT expression increased in the BHD treatment group. In conclusion the results suggested that BHD has therapeutic potential to treat vascular dementia, which may be associated with synapse density and anti?oxidant activities in the hippocampus.
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Latent TB infection in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients - A multicenter prospective observational study.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Lung cancer and tuberculosis (TB) share common risk factors and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Coexistence of lung cancer and TB were reported in previous studies, with uncertain pathogenesis. The association between lung cancer and latent TB infection (LTBI) remains to be explored.
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Intranasal co-delivery of IL-6 gene enhances the immunogenicity of anti-caries DNA vaccine.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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To investigate the effects of co-delivering IL-6 expressing plasmid pCI-IL-6 on the immunogenicity of the anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P, which encodes the surface protein antigen PAc of Streptococcus mutans.
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Clinical characteristics of basilar-type migraine in the neurological clinic of a university hospital.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of basilar-type migraine in the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in China.
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Comparison between visual clinical examination and the replica method for assessments of sealant retention over a 2-year period.
Int J Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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To compare the levels of agreement and the survival rates of sealant retention for different sealing materials over a 2-year period assessed using the visual clinical examination and replica methods, sealant retention data were obtained by visual clinical examination and from replicas of the same sealed tooth at baseline and at 0.5-, 1- and 2-year evaluation points in 407 children and were compared for agreement using kappa coefficients. Survival curves of retained sealants on occlusal surfaces were created using modified categorisation (fully retained sealants and those having all pits and fissures partly covered with the sealant material versus completely lost sealants that included pit and fissure systems that had ?1 pit re-exposed) according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The kappa coefficient for the agreement between both assessment methods over the three evaluation time points combined was 0.38 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35-0.41). More sealant retention was observed from replicas than through visual clinical examination. Cumulative survival curves at the three evaluation times were not statistically significantly higher when assessed from replicas (P=0.47). Using the replica method, more retained sealant material was observed than through visual clinical examination during the 2-year period. This finding did not result in a difference in the survival rates of sealants assessed by the two assessment methods. When replicas cast in die stone are used for assessing sealant retention, the level of reliability of the data is higher than that of data obtained through the commonly used visual clinical examination, particularly if such assessments are conducted over time.
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An evidence-based appraisal of global association between air pollution and risk of stroke.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the transient effects of air pollutants on stroke morbidity and mortality using the meta-analytic approach.
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Push-out bond strength of self-adhesive methacrylate resin-based sealers to root dentin.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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This study examined the adhesive strength of two self-adhesive methacrylate resin-based sealers (MetaSEAL and RealSeal SE) to root dentin and compared them with RealSeal and AH Plus in properties. A total of 48 extracted human single-rooted teeth were used to prepare the 0.9-mm thick longitudinal tooth slice (each per tooth). Standardized simulated canal spaces of uniform dimensions were prepared in the middle of radicular dentin. After treated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% EDTA, tooth slices were allocated randomly to four groups (n=12) in terms of different sealers used: MetaSEAL, RealSeal SE, RealSeal, and AH plus groups. The simulated canal spaces were obturated with different sealers in each group. There were 10 slabs with 20 simulated canal spaces (n=20) used in each group for push-out testing. The failure modes and the ultrastructures of fractured sealer-dentin interfaces were examined. The remaining 2 slabs in each group underwent partial demineralization for observation of the ultrastructure of resin tags. The results showed that the push-out bond strength was 12.01±4.66 MPa in MetaSEAL group, significantly higher than that in the other three groups (P<0.05). Moreover, no statistically significant differences were noted in the push-out bond strength between RealSeal SE (5.43±3.68 MPa) and AH Plus (7.34±2.83 MPa) groups and between RealSeal SE and RealSeal (2.93±1.76 MPa) groups (P>0.05). Mixed failures were predominant in the fractured sealer-dentin interfaces in MetaSEAL and AH Plus groups, while adhesive failures were frequently seen in RealSeal SE and RealSeal groups. In conclusion, after complete removal of the smear layer, MetaSEAL showed superior bond ability to root dentin. The RealSeal SE is applicable in clinical practice, with its adhesive strength similar to that of AH Plus. The self-adhesive methacrylate resin-based sealer holds promise for use in endodontic treatment.
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Both GtfA and GtfB are required for SraP glycosylation in Staphylococcus aureus.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Staphylococcus aureus has been shown to bind to human platelets through a variety of surface molecules, including serine-rich adhesin for platelets (SraP). The SraP mutant strain of S. aureus is significantly impaired in its ability to initiate infection compared with the wild strain. SraP is a cell wall-anchored, glycosylated protein. A previous study revealed that SecY2, Asp1, Asp2, Asp3, and SecA2 in the SraP operon were required for the efficient transport of glycosylated SraP from the cytoplasm to the bacterial cell surface. However, no glycosyltransferase (Gtf) was found to be involved in the glycosylation of SraP. In this study, SraP was found in all of the 55 clinical isolates of S. aureus using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that GtfA and GtfB in the SraP operon were highly conserved in most of these clinical isolates. Conserved domains analysis revealed that both GtfA and GtfB contained a GT1_GtfA-like domain. Structural homology analysis inferred that they are both Gtfs. We then constructed an in vivo glycosylation system in Escherichia coli using SraP1–743 as the substrate and GtfA and GtfB as the Gtfs. Using this system, we found that GtfA and GtfB were the Gtfs that transferred the N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharides to the recombinant SraP1–743. Deletion of either one or both of the Gtfs abolished the glycosylation of SraP. In summary, GtfA and GtfB in the SraP operon are highly conserved in most clinical isolates of S. aureus, and both GtfA and GtfB are required for SraP glycosylation.
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ARHI overexpression induces epithelial ovarian cancer cell apoptosis and excessive autophagy.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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ARHI is a maternally imprinted tumor suppressor gene that is responsible for initiating programmed cell death and inhibiting cancer cell growth. However, the influence of ARHI on epithelial ovarian cancer cell death and the underlying mechanisms behind how ARHI regulates cancer cells still require further studies.
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Do light cured ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants perform better than resin-composite sealants: a 4-year randomized clinical trial.
Dent Mater
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The hypotheses tested were: the cumulative survival rates of dentin caries lesion-free pits and fissures of ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants with light-curing (high-intensity LED) and glass-carbomer sealants are higher than those of conventional ART sealants and resin-composite sealants after 4 years.
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Nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma: biology, diagnosis and treatment.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is an uncommon variant of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. It is characterized histologically by presence of lymphohistiocytic cells which have B-cell phenotype, are positive for CD19, CD20, CD45, CD79a, BOB.1, Oct.2, and negative for CD15 and CD30. Patients often present with early stage of disease and do not have classical B symptoms. The clinical behavior appears to mimic that of an indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma more than that of classical Hodgkin disease. The purpose of the present report is to define the biology of NLPHL, review its clinical presentation, and summarize the available clinical data regarding treatment.
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Risk factors for venous port migration in a single institute in Taiwan.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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An implantable port device provides an easily accessible central route for long-term chemotherapy. Venous catheter migration is one of the rare complications of venous port implantation. It can lead to side effects such as pain in the neck, shoulder, or ear, venous thrombosis, and even life-threatening neurologic problems. To date, there are few published studies that discuss such complications.
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Monolayer behaviour in bulk ReS2 due to electronic and vibrational decoupling.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides consist of monolayers held together by weak forces where the layers are electronically and vibrationally coupled. Isolated monolayers show changes in electronic structure and lattice vibration energies, including a transition from indirect to direct bandgap. Here we present a new member of the family, rhenium disulphide (ReS2), where such variation is absent and bulk behaves as electronically and vibrationally decoupled monolayers stacked together. From bulk to monolayers, ReS2 remains direct bandgap and its Raman spectrum shows no dependence on the number of layers. Interlayer decoupling is further demonstrated by the insensitivity of the optical absorption and Raman spectrum to interlayer distance modulated by hydrostatic pressure. Theoretical calculations attribute the decoupling to Peierls distortion of the 1T structure of ReS2, which prevents ordered stacking and minimizes the interlayer overlap of wavefunctions. Such vanishing interlayer coupling enables probing of two-dimensional-like systems without the need for monolayers.
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Root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis obtained Brassicaceae-specific strictosidine synthase-like genes by horizontal gene transfer.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Besides gene duplication and de novo gene generation, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is another important way of acquiring new genes. HGT may endow the recipients with novel phenotypic traits that are important for species evolution and adaption to new ecological niches. Parasitic systems expectedly allow the occurrence of HGT at relatively high frequencies due to their long-term physical contact. In plants, a number of HGT events have been reported between the organelles of parasites and the hosts, but HGT between host and parasite nuclear genomes has rarely been found.
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Replication of migraine GWAS susceptibility loci in Chinese Han population.
Headache
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 3 genetic variants that are strongly associated with migraine in Europeans. The effect of these risk variants in other populations is unknown. To further replicate the GWAS findings, we investigated the 3 variants rs2651899 (1p36.32, PRDM16), rs10166942 (2q37.1, TRPM8), and rs11172113 (12q13.3, LRP1) for their association with migraine in the Chinese Han population.
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Charlson comorbidity index helps predict the risk of mortality for patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Our intent is to examine the predictive role of Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) on mortality of patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN). Based on the CCI score, the severity of comorbidity was categorized into three grades: mild, with CCI scores of 1-2; moderate, with CCI scores of 3-4; and severe, with CCI scores ?5. Factors influencing mortality and differences between groups stratified by CCI were determined by logistical regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The impact of CCI on mortality was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier analysis. A total of 533 patients with type 2 DN were enrolled in this study, all of them had comorbidity (CCI score >1), and 44.7% (238/533) died. The mortality increased with CCI scores: 21.0% (50/238) patients with CCI scores of 1-2, 56.7% (135/238) patients with CCI scores of 3-4, and 22.3% (53/238) patients with CCI scores ?5. Logistical regression analysis showed that CCI scores, hemoglobin, and serum albumin were the potential predictors of mortality (P<0.05). One-way ANOVA analysis showed that DN patients with higher CCI scores had lower levels of hemoglobulin, higher levels of serum creatinine, and higher mortality rates than those with lower CCI scores. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed that survival time decreased when the CCI scores and mortality rates went up. In conclusion, CCI provides a simple, readily applicable, and valid method for classifying comorbidities and predicting the mortality of type 2 DN. An increased awareness of the potential comorbidities in type 2 DN patients may provide insights into this complicated disease and improve the outcomes by identifying and treating patients earlier and more effectively.
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The association between B vitamins supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study is to explore the association of adverse cardiovascular events with B vitamins supplementation. Rev.Man 5.1 and Stata 11.0 software were applied for the meta-analysis. The number of cardiovascular events was collected and calculated using indicates of odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals in a fixed-effects or a random-effects model when appropriate. The study includes 15 studies which consists of 37,358 study objects (experimental group: 19,601; control group: 17,757). This study showed that the pooled ORs was 1.01 (95% CI = 0.96~1.06, P > 0.05) for objects with Experimental group (B vitamins supplementation) vs. Control group (placebo or regular treatment), which suggests no significant differences were found in the overall effect of the number of cardiovascular events between the two groups. Further stratification of subgroup analysis indicates no significant differences were found between the two groups as well. There were also no publication bias existing by the Egger's linear regression test (P > 0.05). Our result indicates that the number of cardiovascular events in experimental group using B vitamins supplementation during the treatment is equal to placebo or regular treatment group thus further studies is necessary.
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OPN and ?v?3 expression are predictors of disease severity and worse prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Expressions of OPN and ?v?3 are associated with a poor prognosis in many malignancies. However, their relationship in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. We systematically collected hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples from 305 patients over 3 years, and analyzed the status of OPN and ?v?3 in hepatocellular carcinoma and correlate expression with patient disease status and survival outcome. Our study results indicated that OPN and ?v?3 are expressed at significantly higher rates in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with adjacent non-tumorous tissue (69.5% vs 18.4%, p<0.01 and 77.4% vs 21.6%, p<0.01, respectively). Both OPN and ?v?3 expression levels are associated with poor prognostic factors, including tumor size, capsular invasion, tumor thrombus of the portal vein, metastasis of the lymph node and clinical staging. Patients expressing OPN and ?v?3 had significantly shorter survival compared with patients negative for protein expression (p<0.01). Multivariate analysis also showed that both OPN and ?v?3 expression are independent prognostic factors for poorer survival in hepatocellular carcinoma. By this study, we conclude that OPN and ?v?3 are negative prognostic predictors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The expressions of both OPN and ?v?3 are associated with worse survival outcome.
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Tea consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Tea consumption has inconsistently been shown to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the present study was to conduct a dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies assessing the association between consumption of tea and risk of developing T2D. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE through 31 March 2013. A total of sixteen cohorts from fifteen articles that reported 37 445 cases of diabetes among 545 517 participants were included. A significant linearly inverse association between tea consumption and T2D risk was found (P for linear trend = 0·02). An increase of 2 cups/d in tea consumption was found to be associated with a 4·6 (95 % CI 0·9, 8·1) % reduced risk of T2D. On the basis of the dose-response meta-analysis, the predicted relative risks of diabetes for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 cups of tea consumed per d were 1·00 (referent), 0·97 (95 % CI 0·94, 1·01), 0·95(95 % CI 0·92, 0·98), 0·93 (95 % CI 0·88, 0·98), 0·90 (95 % CI 0·85, 0·96), 0·88 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·93) and 0·85 (95 % CI 0·80, 0·91), respectively. There was a statistically significant heterogeneity within the selected studies (Q= 45·32, P< 0·001, I 2= 60·3 %). No evidence of substantial small-study bias was found (P= 0·46). Our findings suggest that tea consumption could be linearly inversely associated with T2D risk. Future well-designed observational studies that account for different characteristics of tea such as tea types, preparation methods and tea strength are needed to fully characterise such an association.
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Association Between p53 Arg72Pro Polymorphism and the Risk of Human Papillomavirus-related Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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This study aimed to investigate the association between p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by conducting meta-analysis. The PubMed database was searched for relevant studies until May 30, 2013. Relevant studies were selected and data were extracted by two independent authors. Overall, subgroup, and sensitivity analyses were then conducted using the Comprehensive Meta- Analysis v2.2 software. Wild-genotype ArgArg was considered as reference [odds ratio (OR) = 1.00]. Nine studies involving 1071 HNSCC cases were obtained. Meta-analysis results indicated no association between p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and the risk of HPV-related HNSCC: for Pro/Pro vs. Arg/Arg, OR = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-1.98; for Arg/Pro vs. Arg/ Arg, OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.97-1.72; and for (Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro) vs. Arg/Arg, OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.95-1.70. These meta-analysis results were supported by subgroup and sensitivity analysis results. In conclusions, p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism is a potential marker of HP infection-related HNSCC rather than a susceptibility gene polymorphism.
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[Effects of bidirectional EphB4-EphrinB2 signaling on bone remodeling].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Bidirectional Eph-Ephrin signaling as a focal point of research in cell-cell communications is critical for generation of nerves and vesssels as well as invation and metastasis of tumor cells. The roles for Ephrin-Eph bidirectional signaling in bone remodeling were important. EphrinB2 is expressed on osteoblasts and EphB4 is expressed on osteoclasts. Forward signaling through the EphB4 receptor into mesenchymal precursors promotes osteoblast differentiation, while reverse signaling through the EphrinB2 ligand into osteoclast suppresses differentiation. Signaling between the ligand EphrinB2 and the receptors EphB4 explains bidirectional signaling between osteoblasts and osteoclasts,bone absorption and remodeling, which may lay a theoretical foundation for identifying drug targeting and preventing and treating bone loss.
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Origin and Evolution of the Eukaryotic SSU Processome Revealed by a Comprehensive Genomic Analysis and Implications for the Origin of the Nucleolus.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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As a nucleolar complex for small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA processing, SSU processome has been extensively studied mainly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but not in diverse organisms, leaving open the question of whether it is a ubiquitous mechanism across eukaryotes and how it evolved in the course of the evolution of eukaryotes. Genome-wide survey and identification of SSU processome components showed that the majority of all 77 yeast SSU processome proteins possess homologs in almost all of the main eukaryotic lineages, and 14 of them have homologs in archaea but few in bacteria, suggesting that the complex is ubiquitous in eukaryotes, and its evolutionary history began with abundant protein homologs being present in archaea and then a fairly complete form of the complex emerged in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ancient gene duplication and functional divergence of the protein components of the complex occurred frequently during the evolutionary origin of the LECA from prokaryotes. We found that such duplications not only increased the complexs components but also produced some new functional proteins involved in other nucleolar functions, such as ribosome biogenesis and even some nonnucleolar (but nuclear) proteins participating in pre-mRNA splicing, implying the evolutionary emergence of the subnuclear compartment-the nucleolus-has occurred in the LECA. Therefore, the LECA harbored not only complicated SSU processomes but also a nucleolus. Our analysis also revealed that gene duplication, innovation, and loss, caused further divergence of the complex during the divergence of eukaryotes.
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1H-2,3-Dihydroperimidine Derivatives: A New Class of Potent Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitors.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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A series of 1H-2,3-dihydroperimidine derivatives was designed, synthesized, and evaluated as a new class of inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values in the micromolar range. Compounds 46 and 49 showed submicromolar inhibitory activity against PTP1B, and good selectivity (3.48-fold and 2.10-fold respectively) over T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatases (TCPTP). These results have provided novel lead compounds for the design of inhibitors of PTP1B as well as other PTPs.
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Association between recent use of fluoroquinolones and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a population-based cohort study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Background.?An association between use of oral fluoroquinolones (FQs) and retinal detachment remains controversial. This study was to determine the association of recent use of oral FQs and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after adjustment for confounding factors known to be associated with RRD. Methods.?This retrospective population-based cohort study with parallel groups included adults treated with an oral FQ (FQ cohort = 178 179 prescriptions) and propensity score-matched adults treated with oral amoxicillin (amoxicillin cohort = 178 179 prescriptions). The data were extracted from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1998 to 2010. Interaction terms were used to identify populations at risk. RRD was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Results.?During the 90-day follow-up period, 96 patients (0.054%) in the FQ cohort developed RRD compared to 46 (0.026%) among the matched amoxicillin cohort. The overall adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for FQ use and RRD was 2.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-2.96). The interval between use of oral FQs and onset of RRD was 35.5 days (interquartile range, 14-57 days). Interaction terms were not significant for age, sex, diabetes, indications for antimicrobials, or underlying ophthalmic conditions. The adjusted HRs differed for specific FQs. These were 10.68 (95% CI, 3.28-34.82) for ciprofloxacin, 2.41 (95% CI, .76-7.68) for levofloxacin, 2.00 (95% CI, 1.06-3.79) for norfloxacin, and 1.17 (95% CI, .59-2.31) for ofloxacin. Conclusions.?The use of oral FQs was associated with the subsequent occurrence of RRD. The FQ risk was independent of age, sex, diabetes, indications for antimicrobials, and underlying ophthalmic conditions. Certain FQs carried higher risk of RRD.
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Molecular characterization of major structural protein genes of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus isolates in southern china.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2013
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To gain comprehensive genetic information of circulating avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates in China, analysis of the phylogenetic tree, entropy of the amino acid sequences, and the positive selection as well as computational recombinations of S1, M and N genes of 23 IBV isolates was conducted in the present study. The phylogenetic trees based on the S1, M and N genes exhibited considerably different topology and the CK/CH/LSC/99I-type isolates were the predominant IBVs based on the phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene. Results of entropy of amino acid sequences revealed that the S1 gene had the largest variation; the M gene had less variation than the N gene. Positive selections were detected in not only S1 but also M and N gene proteins. In addition, five S1 gene recombinants between vaccine strain 4/91 and CK/CH/LSC/99I-type field isolate were confirmed. In conclusion, multiple IBV genotypes co-circulated; genetic diversity and positive selections existed in S1, M and N genes; 4/91 vaccine recombinants emerged in China. Our results show that field IBVs in China are continuing to evolve and vaccine strains may have an important role in the appearance of new IBV strains via recombination. In addition, the present study indicates that IBV evolution is driven by both generations of genetic diversity and selection.
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Sexually dimorphic urethral activity in response to pharmacological activation of 5-HT1A receptors in the rat.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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In this study, we examined the possibility that 5-HT1A receptors may underlie sexually dimorphic mechanisms affecting the regulation of urethral functions in anesthetized rats. Simultaneous recordings of intravesical pressure under isovolumetric conditions, external urethral sphincter-electromyography, and urethral perfusion pressure were used to examine the effects of a 5-HT1A receptor agonist [8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT)] and antagonist (WAY-100635) on bladder and urethral functions. This research also evaluated the effects of 8-OH-DPAT and ?-bungarotoxin (a neuromuscular blockade agent) on urethral continence using leak point pressure testing, and the distribution of 5-HT1A receptors in the lower urinary tract was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The serotonergic mechanism that controls the urinary bladder and external urethral sphincter-electromyography activity showed no significant sexual differences, but urethral activity in urethral perfusion pressure and leak point pressure values exhibited some sexual differences. 8-OH-DPAT enhanced urethral pressure during continence in rats of both sexes, but the drug elevated the pressure during voiding in male rats and reduced it in female rats. The distribution of 5-HT1A receptors in the spinal cord also showed some sexual differences. The present study contributes to our understanding of the role of 5-HT1A receptors in physiological and immunohistochemical properties of urethral smooth muscle in rats of different sexes. These findings may be a basis for the future development of pharmacotherapies for stress urinary incontinence in men.
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Macroevolutionary trends of atomic composition and related functional group proportion in eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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To fully explore the trends of atomic composition during the macroevolution from prokaryote to eukaryote, five atoms (oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen) and related functional groups in prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins were surveyed and compared. Genome-wide analysis showed that eukaryotic proteins have more oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen atoms than prokaryotes do. Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) analysis revealed that oxygen, sulfur, carbon and hydrogen frequencies are higher in eukaryotic proteins than in their prokaryotic orthologs. Furthermore, functional group analysis demonstrated that eukaryotic proteins tend to have higher proportions of sulfhydryl, hydroxyl and acylamino, but lower of sulfide and carboxyl. Taken together, an apparent trend of increase was observed for oxygen and sulfur atoms in the macroevolution; the variation of oxygen and sulfur compositions and their related functional groups in macroevolution made eukaryotic proteins carry more useful functional groups. These results will be helpful for better understanding the functional significances of atomic composition evolution.
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CTLA-4 polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): a meta-analysis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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The aim of this study was to summarize results on the association of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) promoter exon-1 +49 and 1722T/C polymorphism with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility by using the meta-analysis. We searched all the publications about the association between CTLA-4) promoter exon-1 +49 and 1722T/C polymorphism and SLE from PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang (Chinese). Previous CTLA-4 association studies with SLE, however, have produced inconsistent results. We have performed a meta-analysis to better assess the purported associations. A total of 17 independent studies (to June 2012) testing association between one or more CTLA-4 polymorphisms and SLE were used in this analysis. We have compared allele and genotype frequencies at two polymorphic sites found in exon-1 (at +49) and the promoter region (at -1722). The data demonstrate that the exon-1 +49 polymorphism is associated with SLE susceptibility in Asian population. The overall risk, measured by odds ratio (OR), stratification by ethnicity indicates the exon-1 +49 GG+GA genotype is associated with SLE, at least in Asians (OR = 0.85, 95 % CI = 0.73-0.99, P = 0.04 for GG+GA vs. AA; OR = 0.85, 95 % CI = 0.72-1.00, P = 0.05 for AG vs. AA). Similar trends are found in allele-specific risk estimates and disease association. Overall, there was significant association between the 1722T/C polymorphism and overall SLE risks (OR = 0.78, 95 % CI = 0.63-0.97, P = 0.04 for GG+GA vs. AA, OR = 0.87, 95 % CI = 0.76-0.99, P = 0.04 for G vs. A) in Asian population.In summary, this meta-analysis demonstrates that the CTLA-4 promoter +49A/G and promoter -1722C/T polymorphism may confer susceptibility to SLE, especially in Asian-derived population.
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High-efficiency headspace sampling of volatile organic compounds in explosives using capillary microextraction of volatiles (CMV) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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A novel geometry configuration based on sorbent-coated glass microfibers packed within a glass capillary is used to sample volatile organic compounds, dynamically, in the headspace of an open system or in a partially open system to achieve quantitative extraction of the available volatiles of explosives with negligible breakthrough. Air is sampled through the newly developed sorbent-packed 2 cm long, 2 mm diameter capillary microextraction of volatiles (CMV) and subsequently introduced into a commercially available thermal desorption probe fitted directly into a GC injection port. A sorbent coating surface area of ?5?×?10(-2) m(2) or 5,000 times greater than that of a single solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber allows for fast (30 s), flow-through sampling of relatively large volumes using sampling flow rates of ?1.5 L/min. A direct comparison of the new CMV extraction to a static (equilibrium) SPME extraction of the same headspace sample yields a 30 times improvement in sensitivity for the CMV when sampling nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and diphenylamine (DPA) in a mixture containing a total mass of 500 ng of each analyte, when spiked into a liter-volume container. Calibration curves were established for all compounds studied, and the recovery was determined to be ?1 % or better after only 1 min of sampling time. Quantitative analysis is also possible using this extraction technique when the sampling temperature, flow rate, and time are kept constant between calibration curves and the sample.
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[The analysis of the efficacy and safety of combined transarterial chemoembolization with sorafenib in patients with large hepatocellular carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined transarterial chemoembolization with sorafenib in patients with large hepatocellular carcinoma.
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EGFR phosphorylates tumor-derived EGFRvIII driving STAT3/5 and progression in glioblastoma.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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EGFRvIII, a frequently occurring mutation in primary glioblastoma, results in a protein product that cannot bind ligand, but signals constitutively. Deducing how EGFRvIII causes transformation has been difficult because of autocrine and paracrine loops triggered by EGFRvIII alone or in heterodimers with wild-type EGFR. Here, we document coexpression of EGFR and EGFRvIII in primary human glioblastoma that drives transformation and tumorigenesis in a cell-intrinsic manner. We demonstrate enhancement of downstream STAT signaling triggered by EGFR-catalyzed phosphorylation of EGFRvIII, implicating EGFRvIII as a substrate for EGFR. Subsequent phosphorylation of STAT3 requires nuclear entry of EGFRvIII and formation of an EGFRvIII-STAT3 nuclear complex. Our findings clarify specific oncogenic signaling relationships between EGFR and EGFRvIII in glioblastoma.
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Blockade of glioma proliferation through allosteric inhibition of JAK2.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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The gene that encodes the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed or mutated in human cancers, including glioblastoma. However, the efficacy of EGFR-targeted small-molecule inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies in glioblastomas that also have mutation or deletion of the gene encoding phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) has been modest. We found that EGFR signaling was blocked by a small molecule (G5-7) that selectively inhibited Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-mediated phosphorylation and activation of EGFR and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) by binding to JAK2, thereby decreasing the activity of downstream signaling by mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and inducing cell cycle arrest. G5-7 inhibited the proliferation of PTEN-deficient glioblastoma cell lines harboring a constitutively active variant of EGFR (U87MG/EGFRvIII) and human glioblastoma explant neurosphere cultures, but the drug only weakly inhibited the proliferation of either glioblastoma cell lines that were wild type for EGFR and stably transfected with PTEN (U87MG/PTEN) or normal neural progenitor cells and astrocytes. Additionally, G5-7 reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and endothelial cell migration and induced apoptosis in glioblastoma xenografts, thereby suppressing glioblastoma growth in vivo. Furthermore, G5-7 was more potent than EGFR or JAK2 inhibitors that interfere with either ligand or adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) binding at impeding glioblastoma cell proliferation, demonstrating that this allosteric JAK2 inhibitor may be an effective clinical strategy.
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Genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in two domestic chickens.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Domestic chickens are excellent models for investigating the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity, as numerous phenotypic changes in physiology, morphology, and behavior in chickens have been artificially selected. Genomic study is required to study genome-wide patterns of DNA variation for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypic traits. We sequenced the genomes of the Silkie and the Taiwanese native chicken L2 at ?23- and 25-fold average coverage depth, respectively, using Illumina sequencing. The reads were mapped onto the chicken reference genome (including 5.1% Ns) to 92.32% genome coverage for the two breeds. Using a stringent filter, we identified ?7.6 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 8,839 copy number variations (CNVs) in the mapped regions; 42% of the SNPs have not found in other chickens before. Among the 68,906 SNPs annotated in the chicken sequence assembly, 27,852 were nonsynonymous SNPs located in 13,537 genes. We also identified hundreds of shared and divergent structural and copy number variants in intronic and intergenic regions and in coding regions in the two breeds. Functional enrichments of identified genetic variants were discussed. Radical nsSNP-containing immunity genes were enriched in the QTL regions associated with some economic traits for both breeds. Moreover, genetic changes involved in selective sweeps were detected. From the selective sweeps identified in our two breeds, several genes associated with growth, appetite, and metabolic regulation were identified. Our study provides a framework for genetic and genomic research of domestic chickens and facilitates the domestic chicken as an avian model for genomic, biomedical, and evolutionary studies.
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Synthesis and SAR studies of praziquantel derivatives with activity against Schistosoma japonicum.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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The synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of praziquantel derivatives with activity against adult Schistosoma japonicum are described. Several of them showed better worm killing activity than praziquantel and could serve as leads for further optimization.
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[Study on THz spectra and vibrational modes of benzoic acid and sodium Benzoate].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy was employed to measure the terahertz absorption spectra of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate at room temperature. The origins of the measured features of benzoic acid were summarized based on previous study. Density functional theory was used to compute and analyze the molecular structure and vibrational modes of sodium benzoate in monomer. Based on the obtained results, the authors found that the THz spectral features can be used to distinguish benzoic acid and sodium benzoate totally; the essential reason for the THz spectral difference between benzoic acid and sodium benzoate is that the electrovalent bond of sodium benzoate affects the values of covalent bond lengths and bond angles, as well as the molecular interactions and arrangement in unit cell; the measured features of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate come from the collective vibrations except the peaks located at 107 cm-1 of benzoic acid and 54 cm-1 of sodium benzoate.
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Defects activated photoluminescence in two-dimensional semiconductors: interplay between bound, charged, and free excitons.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Point defects in semiconductors can trap free charge carriers and localize excitons. The interaction between these defects and charge carriers becomes stronger at reduced dimensionalities, and is expected to greatly influence physical properties of the hosting material. We investigated effects of anion vacancies in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides as two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors where the vacancies density is controlled by ?-particle irradiation or thermal-annealing. We found a new, sub-bandgap emission peak as well as increase in overall photoluminescence intensity as a result of the vacancy generation. Interestingly, these effects are absent when measured in vacuum. We conclude that in opposite to conventional wisdom, optical quality at room temperature cannot be used as criteria to assess crystal quality of the 2D semiconductors. Our results not only shed light on defect and exciton physics of 2D semiconductors, but also offer a new route toward tailoring optical properties of 2D semiconductors by defect engineering.
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Exosomes from CIITA-transfected CT26 cells enhance anti- tumor effects.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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To study anti-tumor effects of exosomes from class II transactivator (CIITA) gene transfected CT26 cells.
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Comparison of the effect of reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy with intravitreal bevacizumab and standard-fluence alone for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has previously been reported to be effective in treating polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), with satisfactory polyp regression. However, the optimum treatment protocol remains controversial. This study compared the effect of reduced-fluence PDT combined with intravitreal bevacizumab (rPDT/IVB) and standard-fluence PDT (sPDT) alone for treating symptomatic PCV in Chinese patients.
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Relationships between C3 plant foliar carbon isotope composition and element contents of grassland species at high altitudes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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Relationships of foliar carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) with foliar C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and their ratios of 219 C3 species leaf samples, obtained in August in 2004 to 2007 from 82 high altitude grassland sites on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau China, were examined. This was done with reference to the proposition that foliar ?(13)C increases with altitude and separately for the life-form groups of graminoids, forbs and shrubs and for the genera Stipa and Kobresia. For all samples, foliar ?(13)C was negatively related to foliar K, P and ?K+ Ca+ Mg, and positively correlated to foliar C, C/N and C/P. The significance of these correlations differed for the taxonomic and life-form groups. Lack of a relationship of foliar ?(13)C with foliar N was inconsistent with the majority of studies that have shown foliar ?(13)C to be positively related to foliar N due to a decrease of Ci/Ca (the ratio between intercellular and atmospheric concentration of CO2) and explained as a result of greater photosynthetic capacity at higher foliar N concentration. However this inconsistency relates to other high altitude studies that have found that photosynthetic capacity remains constant as foliar N increases. After accounting for the altitudinal relationship with foliar ?(13)C, of the elements only the K effect was significant and was most strongly expressed for Kobresia. It is concluded that factors critical to plant survival and growth at very high altitudes, such as low atmospheric pressure and low temperatures, may preclude expression of relationships between foliar ?(13)C and foliar elements that have been observed at lower altitudes.
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Team-level flexibility, work-home spillover, and health behavior.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Drawing on two waves of survey data conducted six months apart in 2006, this study examined the impacts of a team-level flexibility initiative (ROWE--results only work environment) on changes in the work-home spillover and health behavior of employees at the Midwest headquarters of a large U.S. corporation. Using cluster analysis, we identified three distinct baseline spillover constellations: employees with high negative spillover, high positive spillover, and low overall spillover. Within-team spillover measures were highly intercorrelated, suggesting that work teams as well as individuals have identifiable patterns of spillover. Multilevel analyses showed ROWE reduced individual- and team-level negative work-home spillover but not positive work-home spillover or spillover from home-to-work. ROWE also promoted employees health behaviors: increasing the odds of quitting smoking, decreasing smoking frequency, and promoting perceptions of adequate time for healthy meals. Trends suggest that ROWE also decreased the odds of excessive drinking and improved sleep adequacy and exercise frequency. Some health behavior effects were mediated via reduced individual-level negative work-home spillover (exercise frequency, adequate time for sleep) and reduced team-level negative work-home spillover (smoking frequency, exercise frequency, and adequate time for sleep). While we found no moderating effects of gender, ROWE especially improved the exercise frequency of singles and reduced the smoking frequency of employees with low overall spillover at baseline.
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STAT3 acetylation-induced promoter methylation is associated with downregulation of the ARHI tumor-suppressor gene in ovarian cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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ARHI is a Ras-related imprinted tumor-suppressor gene that inhibits cancer cell growth and motility. ARHI is downregulated in the majority of ovarian cancer cells, and promoter methylation is considered to be associated with its loss of expression. however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the specific functions of ARHI and its methylation in ovarian cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, we examined the possible role of acetylated STAT3 in modulating the expression of ARHI and its methylation. In accordance with the majority of previous studies, reduced ARHI expression was found in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and cancer cell lines as indicated by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. In addition, CpG islands I and II within ARHI promoter regions were partially methylated or hypermethylated in cancer cell lines (SKOV-3 and HO-8910) as analyzed by pyrosequencing assays, resulting in enhanced proliferation of the cancer cells. This proliferation was reversed by the administration of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Subsequently, we demonstrated that STAT3 acetylation was increased in HO-8910 cells, and the methylation status of CpG I was altered in response to the acetylation of STAT3 using western blotting. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and IP analysis indicated that acetylated STAT3 bound to the ARHI promoter and recruited DNA methyltransferase 1 for genetic modification. In conclusion, acetylated STAT3-induced promoter gene methylation accounts for the loss of ARHI expression and cancer cell proliferation.
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Continuous evolution of avian infectious bronchitis virus resulting in different variants co-circulating in Southern China.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Sixty field strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were isolated from chicken flocks in different regions of Guangxi from 1985 to 2012. Phylogenetic analysis of S1 subunit glycoprotein genes revealed that field isolates from 2009-2011 mostly belonged to the LX4 type, while those from 1985-2008 belonged to the HN08 type, and a few others belonged to the 4/91 type, the TW type and the Mass type. In addition, it is noteworthy that no obvious regional differences were found among these 60 strains isolated from six regions in Guangxi, while there was a high degree of sequence identity among the isolates in the same period of time.
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Co-delivery of ccl19 gene enhances anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P immunogenicity in mice by increasing dendritic cell migration to secondary lymphoid tissues.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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To investigate how co-delivery of the gene encoding C-C chemokine ligand-19 (CCL-19) affected the systemic immune responses to an anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P in mice.
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Negative Interference in Serum HBsAg ELISA from Rheumatoid Factors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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RF(Rheumatoid factor) is usually thought to cause positive interference in immunoassay. Recently, our study showed that high-concentration RFs caused negative interference as well as positive interference in serum HBsAg(Hepatitis B surface antigen) ELISA(Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), but it is unclear that RF causing negative interference is an anomaly produced by a certain ELISA kit or a common property of most of HBsAg ELISA kits.
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Intraoperative blood loss independently predicts survival and recurrence after resection of colorectal cancer liver metastasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although numerous prognostic factors have been reported for colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM), few studies have reported intraoperative blood loss (IBL) effects on clinical outcome after CRLM resection.
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Risk factors for progressive visual field loss in primary angle-closure glaucoma: a retrospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To investigate risk factors associated with progressive visual field (VF) loss in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG).
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Deep sequencing reveals transcriptome re-programming of Taxus × media cells to the elicitation with methyl jasmonate.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Plant cell culture represents an alternative source for producing high-value secondary metabolites including paclitaxel (Taxol®), which is mainly produced in Taxus and has been widely used in cancer chemotherapy. The phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can significantly increase the production of paclitaxel, which is induced in plants as a secondary metabolite possibly in defense against herbivores and pathogens. In cell culture, MeJA also elicits the accumulation of paclitaxel; however, the mechanism is still largely unknown.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.