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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hexagonal Ag nanoarrays induced enhancement of blue light emission from amorphous oxidized silicon nitride via localized surface plasmon coupling.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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A significant enhancement of blue light emission from amorphous oxidized silicon nitride (a-SiNx:O) films is achieved by introduction of ordered and size-controllable arrays of Ag nanoparticles between the silicon substrate and a-SiNx:O films. Using hexagonal arrays of Ag nanoparticles fabricated by nanosphere lithography, the localized surface plasmons (LSPs) resonance can effectively increase the internal quantum efficiency from 3.9% to 13.3%. Theoretical calculation confirms that the electromagnetic field-intensity enhancement is through the dipole surface plasma coupling with the excitons of a-SiNx:O films, which demonstrates a-SiNx:O films with enhanced blue emission are promising for silicon-based light-emitting applications by patterned Ag arrays.
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Simultaneous determination by UPLC-MS/MS of seven bioactive compounds in rat plasma after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba tablets: application to a pharmacokinetic study.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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A rapid, reliable, and sensitive method was developed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source for determination of seven bioactive compounds in rat plasma after oral administration of Ginkgo biloba tablets (GBTs). The method simultaneously detects bilobalide (BB), ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide C (GC), quercetin (QCT), kaempferol (KMF), and isorhamnetin (ISR) for pharmacokinetic study. The analytes and internal standard (IS) were extracted from rat plasma by acetidin. An MS/MS detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and operating in the negative ionization mode. The calibration curve ranges were 5-500, 5-500, 2.5-250, 1-100, 1-100, 1-100, and 1-100 ng/ml for BB, GA, GB, GC, QCT, KMF, and ISR, respectively. The mean recovery of the analytes ranged from 68.11% to 84.42%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range of 2.33%-9.86% and the accuracies were between 87.67% and 108.37%. The method was used successfully in a pharmacokinetic study of GBTs. The pharmacokinetic parameters of seven compounds were analyzed using a non-compartment model. Plasma concentrations of the seven compounds were determined up to 48 h after administration, and their pharmacokinetic parameters were in agreement with previous studies.
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The Superoxide Dismutase from Red Claw Crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus: Molecular Cloning and Characterization Analysis.
Zool. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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In the present study, an extracellular copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD) gene and a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD) gene were cloned from hemocytes of red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. The open reading frame (ORF) of ecCuZnSOD is 498 bp and encodes a 166 amino acids (aa) protein, whereas the ORF of mtMnSOD is 654 bp and encodes a 218 aa protein. The amino acid sequences of C. quadricarinatus ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD showed high similarities with those of ecCuZnSODs and mtMnSODs of other crustaceans, respectively. Both ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD of C. quadricarinatus were highly expressed in hepatopancreas, hemocytes, intestine, and gill; low transcript levels were seen in other tissues (heart, muscle, and nerve). The immune responses of ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD were studied following inoculation with Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Aeromonas hydrophila. After S. eriocheiris or A. hydrophila challenge, mRNA transcription of ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD in hemocytes and gill was upregulated. mRNA transcription of ecCuZnSOD in the hepatopancreas was also upregulated after S. eriocheiris or A. hydrophila inoculation. mtMnSOD in hepatopancreas was upregulated after A. hydrophila inoculation, whereas this was down-regulated after S. eriocheiris challenge. After S. eriocheiris and A. hydrophila challenge, total SOD activity and CuZnSOD activity both increased compared to control group. The results showed that these SODs from C. quadricarinatus likely play an important role in protecting some tissues from reactive oxygen intermediates produced during challenge from S. eriocheiris and A. hydrophila.
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Baseline Factors Associated with Mortality within Six Months after Admission among Hospitalized HIV-1 Patients in Shenyang, China.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Objective Short-term mortality rates remain high among critically ill human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) patients though long-term mortality rates have dropped. Baseline risk factors for short-term mortality have not yet been determined in China. In this paper, we herein describe clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, causes of clinical deterioration, and risk factors associated with mortality among HIV-1 patients within six months after hospital admission. Methods We carried out a prospective study of hospitalized patients in advanced stages of HIV infection. These patients started antiretroviral therapy three or four weeks after admission. Follow-up was conducted for a period of six months. We used a multivariate logistic-regression analysis to identify risk factors associated with mortality. Results A total of 141 patients met our inclusion criteria. The mean age was 41 years. Fever and weight loss were the most common clinical manifestations of advanced HIV disease. Oral candidiasis, tuberculosis, cytomegaloviremia, and pneumocystis pneumonia were the most common opportunistic infections. Significantly decreased CD4+ T-cell counts, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, hyponatremia, as well as elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutamic alanine transaminase levels were common laboratory test abnormalities. The mortality rate was 21.3%. The patients who died were more likely than the survivors to have low CD4+ T-cell counts as well as low creatinine, hemoglobin, albumin, and serum sodium levels while also having longer intervals of fever and higher CRP levels. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the independent risk factors for mortality were active tuberculosis [odds ratio (OR): 2.681; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.006-7.142; p=0.049], hyponatremia (OR: 3.027; 95% CI, 1.238-7.401; p=0.015), and being at clinical stage 4 (as defined by the World Health Organization) (OR: 9.492; 95% CI, 1.200-75.065; p=0.033) within the first six months of admission. Conclusion Special consideration should be given to patients who have active tuberculosis, are at clinical stage 4, and present with hyponatremia upon admission as these were found to be important factors associated with mortality within six months of hospital admission in HIV-1 patients.
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The value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in detecting minute renal cell carcinoma.
Discov Med
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the detection of minute renal cell carcinoma (MRCC) compared to conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT).
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Postsynaptic insertion of AMPA receptor onto cortical pyramidal neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex after peripheral nerve injury.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the key cellular mechanism for physiological learning and pathological chronic pain. Postsynaptic accumulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluA1 plays an important role for injury-related cortical LTP. However, there is no direct evidence for postsynaptic GluA1 insertion or accumulation after peripheral injury. Here we report nerve injury increased the postsynaptic expression of AMPAR GluA1 in pyramidal neurons in the layer V of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), including the corticospinal projecting neurons. Electrophysiological recordings show that potentiation of postsynaptic responses was reversed by Ca2+ permeable AMPAR antagonist NASPM. Finally, behavioral studies show that microinjection of NASPM into the ACC inhibited behavioral sensitization caused by nerve injury. Our findings provide direct evidence that peripheral nerve injury induces postsynaptic GluA1 accumulation in cingulate cortical neurons, and inhibits postsynaptic GluA1 accumulation which may serve as a novel target for treating neuropathic pain.
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Health risk assessment of Chinese consumers to nickel via dietary intake of foodstuffs.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to characterise the health risk from nickel (Ni) via dietary exposure for Chinese consumers. Ni contamination in foods was investigated by conducting a survey and a literature review. The daily diet of the public was categorised into nine food groups and the consumption data for each group were obtained from a nationwide survey. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were applied to calculate the target hazard quotients (THQs) by comparing the estimated dietary Ni intake with respect to the tolerable daily intake (TDI). The average estimated daily Ni intake (?g kg(-1) bw day(-1)) for men, women, 2-3-year-old children and 4-17-year-old children were 7.2, 7.3, 17.1 and 10.0, respectively. The consumption of cereals, beans, vegetables and marine products contributed significantly to the total daily intake of Ni. The mean THQ values (95% confidence interval) and the probability of dietary Ni exposure higher than the TDI were 0.60 (0.58-0.62) and 8.2% for men, 0.61 (0.59-0.63) and 8.4% for women, 1.35 (1.32-1.39) and 72.0% for 2-3-year-old children, and 0.87 (0.82-0.91) and 28.5% for 4-17-year-old children, respectively. This study showed a potential health risk from Ni via dietary exposure for Chinese consumers, especially among children.
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Effects of a mandibular advancement device on genioglossus in obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnea syndrome.
Eur J Orthod
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Summary OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of mandibular advancement device (MAD) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) on the genioglossus contractile properties and fibre-type distribution.
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A Novel Wireless and Temperature-Compensated SAW Vibration Sensor.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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A novel wireless and passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) based temperature-compensated vibration sensor utilizing a flexible Y-cut quartz cantilever beam with a relatively substantial proof mass and two one-port resonators is developed. One resonator acts as the sensing device adjacent to the clamped end for maximum strain sensitivity, and the other one is used as the reference located on clamped end for temperature compensation for vibration sensor through the differential approach. Vibration directed to the proof mass flex the cantilever, inducing relative changes in the acoustic propagation characteristics of the SAW travelling along the sensing device, and generated output signal varies in frequency as a function of vibration.  A theoretical mode using the Rayleigh method was established to determine the optimal dimensions of the cantilever beam. Coupling of Modes (COM) model was used to extract the optimal design parameters of the SAW devices prior to fabrication. The performance of the developed SAW sensor attached to an antenna towards applied vibration was evaluated wirelessly by using the precise vibration table, programmable incubator chamber, and reader unit.  High vibration sensitivity of ~10.4 kHz/g, good temperature stability, and excellent linearity were observed in the wireless measurements.
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Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production from an MCM-41-immobilized photosensitizer-[Fe-Fe] hydrogenase mimic dyad.
Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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A covalently linked photosensitizer-catalytic center dyad Ps-Hy, consisting of two bis(2-phenylpyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine)iridium(iii) chromophores (Ps) and a diiron hydrogenase mimic (Hy) was constructed by using click reaction. Ps-Hy was incorporated into K(+)-exchanged molecular sieve MCM-41 to form a composite (Ps-Hy@MCM-41), which has been successfully applied to the photochemical production of hydrogen. The catalytic activity of Ps-Hy@MCM-41 is ?3-fold higher as compared with that of Ps-Hy in the absence of MCM-41. The incorporation of Ps-Hy into MCM-41 stabilizes the catalyst, and consequently, advances the photocatalysis. The present study provides a potential strategy for improving catalytic efficiency of artificial photosynthesis systems using mesoporous molecular sieves.
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The association of gallstone disease and diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis.
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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To assess the association between diabetes mellitus and gallstone disease (GSD) by meta-analysis.
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[Analysis of trends and characteristics of mortality of ischemic heart disease over the age of 35 years old in China, 2004-2011].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To analyze the features of distribution and variation trends of mortality of ischemic heart disease over the age of 35 years old in China, 2004-2011.
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The relationship between the plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and alternative oxidase in tomato basal defense against Tobacco mosaic virus.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen attack. The SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense, which is pathogenesis-related protein-independent but involves an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1)-mediated RNA silencing mechanism and/or an alternative oxidase (AOX)-associated defense pathway. However, the relationship between these two viral defense-related pathways remains unclear. In this study, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) inoculation onto Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) leaves induced a rapid induction of the SlAOX1a transcript level as well as the total and CN-resistant respiration at 0.5 dpi, followed by an increase in SlRDR1 gene expression at 1 dpi in the upper uninoculated leaves. Silencing SlRDR1 using virus-induced gene silencing system significantly reduced SlRDR1 expression and tomato defense against TMV but had no evident effect on SlAOX1a transcription. Conversely, silencing SlAOX1a not only effectively reduced the AOX1a transcript level, but also blocked the TMV-induced SlRDR1 expression and decreased the basal defense against TMV. Furthermore, the application of an exogenous AOX activator on empty vector-silenced control plants greatly induced the accumulation of SlRDR1 and SlAOX1a transcript and reduced TMV viral RNA accumulation, but failed to have such effects on SlRDR1-silenced plants. Moreover, RDR1-overexpressed transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants enhanced defense against TMV than the empty vector-transformed plants, but these effects were not affected by the exogenous AOX activator or inhibitor. These results indicate that RDR1 is involved in the AOX-mediated defense pathway against TMV infection and plays a crucial role in enhancing RNA silencing to limit virus systemic spread.
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[Burden on blood-pressure-related diseases among the Chinese population, in 2010].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To quantify the burden of disease related to high blood pressure in the Chinese population.
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Elevated microRNA-185 is associated with high vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression levels and high microvessel density in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a number of biological processes, including tumor biology. Previous studies have demonstrated that miRNA-185 regulates signaling downstream of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and, consequently, angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential relationship between miRNA-185, VEGFR-2, and angiogenesis in samples from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. Tumor tissue was obtained from 82 patients. The miRNA-185 and VEGFR-2 gene expression levels were analyzed by PCR, and the protein concentrations of VEGFR-2 were detected by ELISA. Angiogenesis, visualized by the endothelial cell marker CD34 combined with caldesmon, was assessed by immunohistochemistry and the microvessel density (MVD) technique. In situ hybridization was performed for miRNA-185. Tumors were classified as low or high miRNA-185-expressing using the median as the cutoff. The median gene expression levels of VEGFR-2 were significantly lower in the tumors expressing low levels of miRNA-185, 0.31 (95 % CI, 0.25-0.37), compared to those expressing high levels of miRNA-185, 0.47 (95 % CI, 0.27-0.59), p?=?0.02. A positive association was certified with VEGFR-2 protein levels, p?=?0.06. The median MVD was significantly lower in the tumors expressing low levels of miRNA-185, 6.8 (95 % CI, 6.33-7.67), compared to those expressing high levels, 8.0 (95 % CI, 6.33-9.00), p?
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Papillary breast lesions on contrast-enhanced ultrasound: morphological enhancement patterns and diagnostic strategy.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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To identify features which determine the papillary nature of breast lesions by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) based on morphological and pathological correlations, and predict which papillomas are malignant.
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Assessment of liver fibrosis: The relationship between point shear wave elastography and quantitative histological analysis.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Traditional pathological scoring systems for liver fibrosis progression are predominantly based on the description of architectural changes with no consideration of the amount of collagen fiber deposition. Our purpose was to explore a true histological standard in accordance with the liver stiffness measured by point shear wave elastography (PSWE) in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
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Triphasic and epithelioid minimal fat renal angiomyolipoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma: qualitative and quantitative CEUS characteristics and distinguishing features.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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To determine the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) characteristics of minimal fat renal angiomyolipoma (AML) (triphasic and epithelioid) and compare them to each other and to clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) to explore their differential diagnostic clue.
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Novel myeloid differentiation factor 88, EsMyD88, exhibits EsTube-binding activity in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a universal and essential adapter protein that participates in the activation of the Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor-mediated signaling pathway. In the present study, a new MyD88 gene (named EsMyD88) was identified in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. The cDNA of EsMyD88 was 2210?bp long with a 1416?bp open reading frame that encoded a protein with 472 amino acids. Predicted EsMyD88 protein had a death domain at the N-terminal and a TIR domain at the C-terminal. BLASTP and phylogenetic analysis results showed that EsMyD88 was clustered in one group together with other crustaceans MyD88 (SpMyD88, FcMyD88, LvMyD88, and LvMyD88-1). EsMyD88 was detected in all the examined tissues of healthy crabs, and was mainly expressed in the hemocytes and nerves. When normal crabs were challenged with lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, or Aeromonas hydrophila, the expression levels of EsMyD88 significantly increased either in the hepatopancreas or hemocytes. Results of the pull-down assay showed that EsMyD88 could bind to downstream cytosolic adaptor EsTube. Overexpression of EsMyD88 protein in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells led to the activation of antimicrobial peptide genes. RNA interference assay showed that EsMyD88 is involved in regulating the transcription of ALF1 and ALF2, Cru1 and Cru2, and Lys in crab challenged with V. parahaemolyticus. All the results mentioned earlier indicated that EsMyD88 gene has a key function in antibacterial innate immune defense.
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Anti-peroxynitrite treatment ameliorated vasorelaxation of resistance arteries in aging rats: involvement with NO-sGC-cGKs pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Declined vasorelaxation function in aging resistance arteries is responsible for aging-related multiple organ dysfunctions. The aim of the present study is to explore the role of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) in aging resistance arterial vasorelaxation dysfunction and the possible mechanism. In the present study, young (3-4 months olds) and aging (20 months olds) male SD rats were randomized to receive vehicle (Saline) or FeTMPyP (ONOO- scavenger) for 2 weeks. The vasorelaxation of resistance arteries was determined in vitro; NOx level was tested by a colorimetric assay; the expression of nitrotyrosine (NT), soluble Guanylate Cyclase (sGC), vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), phosphorylated VASP (P-VASP) and cGMP in resistance arteries were detected by immunohistochemical staining. In the present study, endothelium-dependent dilation in aging resistance arteries was lower than in those from young rats (young vs. aging: 68.0% ± 4.5% vs. 50.4% ± 2.9%, P<0.01). And the endothelium-independent dilation remained constant. Compared with young rats, aging increased nitrative stress in resistance arteries, evidenced by elevated NOx production in serum (5.3 ± 1.0 nmol/ml vs. 3.3 ± 1.4 nmol/ml, P<0.05) and increased NT expression (P<0.05). ONOO- was responsible for the vasorelaxation dysfunction, evidenced by normalized vasorelaxation after inhibit ONOO- or its sources (P<0.05) and suppressed NT expression after FeTMPyP treatment (P<0.05). The expression of sGC was not significantly different between young and aging resistance arteries, but the cGMP level and P-VASP/VASP ratio (biochemical marker of NO-sGC-cGKs signaling) decreased, which was reversed by FeTMPyP treatment in vivo (P<0.05). The present study suggested that ONOO- mediated the decline of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of aging resistance arteries by induction of the NO-sGC-cGKs pathway dysfunction.
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ATP synthase: an identified target gene of bantam in paired female Schistosoma japonicum.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. An increasing number of schistosome miRNAs have been identified and are expected possibly involved in differentiation, development, and metabolism. However, limited information is available concerning the target genes of schistosome miRNAs. In the present study, the key target genes of bantam, an abundant miRNA found in paired female Schistosoma japonicum, were predicted by bioinformatics analysis and Solexa technology. Luciferase reporter assay and bantam mimic assay were applied in combination to further verify the targets of bantam. Results showed that ATP synthase (CAX76793.1), one of the three selected predicted targets, was confirmed as the target of bantam; bantam mimic assay results also showed that the two other predicted targets, namely, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-related (XP_002571630.1), and ribosomal protein L30 (CAX72575.1), were not confirmed as targets. This research proposed the design and significance of reasonable biological experiments that could be performed to identify miRNA target genes in schistosomes.
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Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance in the men who have sex with men HIV patient cohort, Beijing, China, 2008-2011.
Viral Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is an ongoing public health problem in HIV disease treatment. However, little is known about TDR among men who have sex with men (MSM) patients in China. In addition, TDR prevalence among patients with acute HIV infection (AHI) or early HIV infection (EHI) was believed higher than that of patients with chronic HIV infection (CHI), but as AHI is typically either unidentified or crudely defined in large populations, very few direct comparisons have been made. We did a retrospective analysis of TDR in 536 antiretroviral-naive MSM patients from our immunodeficiency clinics at You'an Hospital, Capital Medical University (CMU), in Beijing, China, 2008-2011. The cohort included 266 patients with AHI/EHI and 270 patients with CHI. We analyzed the subtype, estimated the TDR prevalence, and characterized the model of TDR and the predicted drug sensitivity. Additionally, we made a comparison of TDR between the patients with AHI/EHI and patients with CHI. Our results indicated that among the 536 patients, HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE accounted for 52.1%, subtype B accounted for 24.8%, CRF07_BC/ CRF08_BC accounted for 21.6% (116/536), and 1.3% were denoted as unique recombinant forms (URFs). A total of 7.8% patients had one or more transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance mutations, representing 6.2% for PI-related mutations, 0.9% for NRTI-related mutations, and 1.7% for NNRTI-related mutations. Although patients with AHI/EHI had a higher TDR prevalence as compared to that of patients with CHI, the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in TDR model and predicted drug susceptibility between the two groups of patients either. This study provides important strategic information for public health planning by healthcare officials in China and warrants a comprehensive study with larger patient cohorts from various healthcare centers within China.
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Predicting Subtypes of Thymic Epithelial Tumors Using CT: New Perspective based on a Comprehensive Analysis of 216 Patients.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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It is highly necessary to identify low versus high risk thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) before operation to guide optimal treatment strategies. Current CT diagnostic parameters could not effectively achieve this goal. We evaluated three parameters of CT scan in a cohort of 216 TETs patients. Parameters of contrast enhancement, risk of aggressiveness, and nodule with fibrous septum were evaluated in low (A, AB) versus high risk (B1, B2, B3 and thymic carcinoma) TETs. Grade of contrast enhancement showed predictive value in classifying low and high risk TETs well. A maximal contrast-enhanced range of 25.5?HU could produce 78.8% sensitivity and 68.5% specificity in determining low risk subtypes. Additionally, risk of aggressiveness parameter was demonstrated to be associated with TETs subtype (r = 0.801, P < 0.001) and may add confidence in determining low versus high risk subtypes. Furthermore, multiple nodule with fibrous septum could suggest subtype AB. Findings from this study support role of studied parameters of CT manifestations in predicting the low and high risk stages of TETs. These findings provide empirical evidence for incorporating these parameters in clinical practice for identifying TETs stage before operation, if validated in additional studies.
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An update of the goat genome assembly using dense radiation hybrid maps allows detailed analysis of evolutionary rearrangements in Bovidae.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The domestic goat (Capra hircus), an important livestock species, belongs to a clade of Ruminantia, Bovidae, together with cattle, buffalo and sheep. The history of genome evolution and chromosomal rearrangements on a small scale in ruminants remain speculative. Recently completed goat genome sequence was released but is still in a draft stage. The draft sequence used a variety of assembly packages, as well as a radiation hybrid (RH) map of chromosome 1 as part of its validation.
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Phytophthora sojae TatD nuclease positively regulates sporulation and negatively regulates pathogenesis.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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During pathogenic interactions, both the host and pathogen are exposed to conditions that induce programmed cell death (PCD). Certain aspects of PCD have been recently examined in eukaryotic microbes but not in oomycetes. Here, we identified conserved TatD proteins in Phytophthora sojae; the proteins are key components of DNA degradation in apoptosis. We selected PsTatD4 for further investigation because the enzyme is unique to the oomycete branch of the phylogenetic tree. The purified protein exhibited DNase activity in vitro. Its expression was upregulated in sporangia and later infective stages but downregulated in cysts and during early infection. Functional analysis revealed that the gene was required for sporulation and zoospore production, and the expression levels were associated with the numbers of hydrogen-peroxide-induced terminal dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells. Furthermore, overexpression of PsTatD4 gene reduced the virulence in a susceptible soybean cultivar. Together, these data suggest that apoptosis may play different roles in the early and late infective stages of P. sojae, and that PsTatD4 is a key regulator of infection. The association of PsTatD4 and apoptosis will lay a foundation to understanding the basic biology of apoptosis and its roles in P. sojae disease cycle.
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Co-circulation of Hantaan, Kenkeme, and Khabarovsk Hantaviruses in Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island, China.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was first recognized in far eastern Asia in the 1930s, and has been highly prevalent in this region ever since. To reveal the molecular epidemiology of hantaviruses in this region, a total of 374 small mammals (eight species of rodents and one species of shrew) were captured in the Chinese part of the Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island (Heilongjiang Province). Hantavirus sequences were recovered from three striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius), 11 Maximowicz's voles (Microtus maximowiczii), and one flat-skulled shrew (Sorex roboratus). Genetic and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of three viruses: Hantaan virus (HTNV), Khabarovsk virus (KHAV), and Kenkeme virus (KKMV). HTNV sequences recovered from A. agrarius were closely related to those identified in Apodemus mice from the surrounding areas, while a new lineage of KHAV was present in M. maximowiczii. Additionally, while the viral sequences recovered from one flat-skulled shrew were most closely related to KKMV, their divergence to the prototype strain suggests that they represent a new viral subtype. Overall, these results suggest that Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island harbors considerable hantavirus diversity.
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MiRNA-34a inhibits EGFR-signaling-dependent MMP7 activation in gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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The molecular mechanism underlying cancer invasiveness and metastasis of gastric carcinoma remains elusive. Here, we reported significant decrease in microRNA (miRNA)-34a and significant increase in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) in the resected gastric carcinoma from the patients, compared with adjacent normal tissue. Moreover, strong correlation was detected among these three factors. To examine whether a causal link exists, we used two human gastric carcinoma lines, SNU-5 and HGC27, to study the molecular basis of miRNA-34a, EGFR signaling, and MMP7 activation. We found that EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation in SNU-5 or HGC27 cells activated MMP7 and consequently cancer invasiveness. Both an inhibitor for EGFR and an inhibitor for Akt significantly inhibited the EGF-induced activation of MMP7, suggesting a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade dependent pathway. Moreover, miRNA-34a levels were not affected by EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation. However, overexpression of miRNA-34a antagonized EGF-induced MMP7 activation without affecting EGFR phosphorylation in SNU-5 or HGC27 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that miRNA-34 inhibits EGFR signaling via downstream PI3K signaling cascades to regulate MMP7 expression in gastric carcinoma. Thus, miRNA-34a, EGFR, and MMP7 appear to be promising therapeutic targets for preventing the metastasis of gastric carcinoma.
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MiR-221 accentuates IFN?s anti-HCV effect by downregulating SOCS1 and SOCS3.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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MiR-221 was reported to be upregulated and play roles in tumorigenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of miR-221 in HCV infection remains unknown. In this study, it was found that miR-221 was upregulated in serum of HCV chronic hepatitis patients and Huh7.5.1 cells infected with HCVcc. Further studies indicated that miR-221 mimic could accentuate anti-HCV effect of IFN-? in HCVcc model, miR-221 mimic could further repressed 10% HCV RNA expression and 35-42% HCV core or NS5A protein expression in HCVcc infected Huh7.5.1 cells treated with 100IU/mL IFN-?, and miR-221 inhibitor resulted in the reverse effects. Furthermore, two members of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family, SOCS1 and SOCS3, which are well established inhibitory factors on IFN/JAK/STAT pathway, were identified as the targets of miR-221 and were involved in the effect of miR-221. In conclusion, miR-221 could accentuate IFN?s anti-HCV effect by targeting SOCS1 and SOCS3.
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iTRAQ-based proteomic study of the effects of Spiroplasma eriocheiris on Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis hemocytes.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Spiroplasma eriocheiris is as a novel pathogen of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis tremor disease. The hemocytes have been shown to be major target cells in S. eriocheiris infection. The aim of this study was to examine the hemocytes' immune response at the protein levels. The differential proteomes of the crab hemocytes were analyzed immediately prior to injection with the pathogen, and at 10 d post-injection by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantization (iTRAQ) labeling, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 1075 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and de novo sequencing data. Using a 1.2-fold change in expression as a physiologically significant benchmark, 76 differentially expressed proteins (7.07%) were reliably quantified by iTRAQ analysis. Thirty-five (3.26%) proteins were up-regulated and 41 (3.81%) proteins were down-regulated resulting from a S. eriocheiris infection. Approximately 20 differential proteins in hemocytes were involved in the stress and immune responses. Up-regulated proteins included alpha-2-macroglobulin (?2M), prostaglandin D synthase (GST), ferritin, and heat shock protein 60. Down-regulated proteins included two lectins (mannose-binding protein and hemocytin), three kinds of serine proteinase inhibitors (two serpins and pacifastin), three different kinds of serine proteases, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), and two thioredoxins (Trx), crustin, etc. Selected bioactive factors (?2M, GST, ferritin, tubulin, crustin, thioredoxin, clip domain serine protease and serpin) are verified by their immune roles in the S. eriocheiris infection using Real-time PCR. The variation trend of immune gene's mRNA expression is similar with the result of iTRAQ, except the tubulin. The prophenoloxidase-activating system, antimicrobial action and antioxidant system involved in the immune responses of E. sinensis is believed to be a resistance to S. eriocheiris infection. This is the first report of the proteome response of crab hemocytes against S. eriocheiris infection. These findings contribute to our understanding of tremor disease processes in crabs, and provide the first evidence to promote a search for potential biomarkers of the disease.
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Small nucleolar RNA 113-1 suppresses tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Emerging evidence suggests that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis. The roles of small nucleolar RNA 113-1 (SNORD113-1) on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown.
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Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced sonography in the assessment of breast tumor angiogenesis: correlation with microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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The purpose of this study was to differentiate perfusion and vascular characteristics between benign and malignant breast lesions by 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced sonography and evaluate their correlation with microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression for further clinical exploration.
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[Preparation and optimization of zhitong micro-emulsion formula].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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To prepare Zhitong micro-emulsion in this study, with the empirical formula of Zhitong preparation as the model medicine, the essential oil in the formula as the oil phase, and the water decoction as the water phase. The types of surfactant and co-surfactant were investigated. The changes in micro-emulsion conductivity and construction, the water percentage in the micro-emulsion system, the changing curve of conductivity and the fine pseudo-ternary phase diagram of micro-emulsion were drawn to determine the surfactant-co-surfactant mass ratio (K(m)). Subsequently, the D-mixture design was used to optimize Zhitong Micro-emulsion formula, with particle size and surface tension of micro-emulsion as the indexes. Finally, efforts were made to determine part of physical parameters of Zhitong micro-emulsion and preliminarily detect its stability. The results showed that the micro-emulsion was optimal with the EL-35-tween 20 ratio of 4:1 in surfactant, whereas the absolute ethyl alcohol was recommended as the co-surfactant. The ratio between surfactant and co-surfactant (K(m)) was 1.5. The finalized micro-emulsion formula contains 12% surfactant, 8% co-surfactant, 70% 1 g x mL(-1) water decoction and 8% oil. The results of the preliminary stability experiment showed a better stability of Zhitong micro-emulsion.
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S-nitrosylation of Cofilin-1 Serves as a Novel Pathway for VEGF-stimulated Endothelial Cell Migration.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) mediates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated endothelial cytoskeleton remodeling and migration; however, the underlying mechanisms are elusive. Covalent adduction of a NO moiety (NO(•) ) to cysteines called S-nitrosylation (SNO) is a key NO signaling pathway. The small actin-binding protein cofilin-1 (CFL1) is essential for actin cytoskeleton remodeling. We investigated whether S-nitrosylation regulates CFL1 function and endothelial cytoskeleton remodeling and migration upon VEGF stimulation. VEGF rapidly stimulated S-nitrosylation of CFL1, which was blocked by NO Synthase inhibition and eNOS knockdown by specific eNOS-siRNA. Cys80 and Cys139 were identified as the major SNO-sites in CFL1 by LC-MS/MS. The actin severing activity of recombinant SNO-mimetic CFL1 (C80/139A DMA-CFL1), but not SNO-deficient CFL1 (C80/139S DMS-CFL1), was significantly greater than that of wild-type CFL1 (wt-CFL1). When wt-CFL1 and its mutants were overexpressed in endothelial cells, basal actin bound wt-CFL1 was undetectable but significantly increased by VEGF; basal actin bound DMA-CFL1 was readily high and basal actin bound DMS-CFL1 was detectable but low, and both were unresponsive to VEGF. Treatment with VEGF significantly increased filamentous (F-) actin and filopodium formation and cell migration in endothelial cells. Overexpression of wt-CFL1 inhibited VEGF-induced F-actin formation. Overexpression of DMA but not DMS CFL1 decreased basal but not VEGF-stimulated F-actin formation. Overexpression of DMA but not DMS CFL1 suppressed VEGF-stimulated filopodium formation and migration in endothelial cells. Thus, S-nitrosylation of CFL1 provides a novel signaling pathway post-NO biosynthesis via eNOS-derived NO for endothelial cytoskeleton remodeling and migration upon VEGF stimulation. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Combined effects of lanthanum (III) chloride and acid rain on photosynthetic parameters in rice.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Rare earth elements (REEs) pollution and acid rain are environmental issues, and their deleterious effects on plants attract worldwide attention. These two issues exist simultaneously in many regions, especially in some rice-growing areas. However, little is known about the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plants. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3), one type of REE salt, and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice were investigated. We showed that the combined treatment of 81.6 ?M LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 4.5 increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatic conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), Hill reaction activity (HRA), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) in rice. The combined treatment of 81.6 ?M LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 3.5 began to behave toxic effects on photosynthesis (decreasing Pn, Gs, HRA, AQY and CE, and increasing Ci), and the maximally toxic effects were observed in the combined treatment of 2449.0 ?M LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 2.5. Moreover, the combined effects of LaCl3 and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice depended on the growth stage of rice, with the maximal effects occurring at the booting stage. Furthermore, the combined treatment of high-concentration LaCl3 and low-pH acid rain had more serious effects on photosynthesis in rice than LaCl3 or acid rain treatment alone. Finally, the combined effect of LaCl3 and acid rain on Pn in rice resulted from the changes in stomatic (Gs, Ci) and non-stomatic (HRA, AQY and CE) factors.
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Postoperative haemodynamic changes in transplanted liver: Long-term follow-up with ultrasonography.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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To investigate haemodynamic changes in the transplanted liver without postoperative complications.
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Analysis of apparent integrated backscatter coefficient and backscattered spectral centroid shift in Calcaneus in vivo for the ultrasonic evaluation of osteoporosis.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The purposes of our study were to evaluate the correlation among apparent integrated backscatter coefficient (AIB), spectral centroid shift (SCS) of ultrasonic backscatter signals and bone mineral density (BMD) and to examine the effectiveness of ultrasound variables as predictors of osteoporosis. A total of 1011 persons aged 21-80 y old were included. All study participants underwent BMD measurements of the lumbar spine (LSBMD) and the femoral neck (FNBMD). The participants also underwent calcaneal measurements to determine AIB and SCS with central frequencies of 3.5 (one transducer) and 5.0 MHz (the other transducer). AIB decreased with age and was positively correlated with BMD, while SCS increased with age and was negatively correlated with BMD. The correlation coefficient of SCS with LSBMD and FNBMD at 3.5 MHz was -0.72 and -0.70, respectively. The correlation coefficient at 5.0 MHz was -0.75 and -0.74, respectively. The correlation coefficient of AIB with LSBMD and FNBMD at 3.5 MHz was 0.65 and 0.63. The correlation coefficient at 5.0 MHz was 0.59 and 0.55, respectively. The correlation between SCS and BMD was significantly better than the correlation between AIB and BMD. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, a significant difference was found between the areas under the curve for SCS and AIB at 3.5 MHz (0.781 vs. 0.715, respectively, p < 0.05), as well as at 5.0 MHz (0.782 vs. 0.709, respectively, p < 0.05). The optimum T-score threshold for SCS was -1.3 for both transducers. The sensitivity and specificity of SCS at 3.5 MHz and 5.0 MHz for the optimum threshold were 64%, 85%, 63% and 86%, respectively. In conclusion, the correlations among the ultrasound parameters and BMDs are strong. SCS performs better than AIB in differentiating patients with osteoporosis. Ultrasound variables may be taken into consideration as predictors of osteoporosis in the future considering its portability.
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ERCC1 expression and tumor regression predict survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients receiving combined trimodality therapy.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Combined trimodality therapy with neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery has shown promising results for locally advanced operable esophageal cancer. DNA repair proteins may affect treatment efficacy through repairing DNA damage induced by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We evaluated the associations of XRCC1, ERCC1 and MGMT expression with histopathologic response and survival in patients with locally advanced operable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation.
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Diagnostic value of automated 3D ultrasound for incisional hernia.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The automated volume scanning system (AVSS) has been applied in breast diseases, but its use in incisional hernias has not been reported. In this study, conventional handheld B-mode ultrasound (HHUS) and AVSS examined a total of 122 hernia defects in 78 patients. The results from two modalities were then compared with surgical findings for the purpose of assessing the diagnostic value of AVSS. Statistics showed that surgeries identified 38 small, 23 medium and 17 large incisional hernias. The results of AVSS completely agreed with surgical findings; however, HHUS misidentified nine large hernias as medium and seven medium hernias as large. AVSS proved to be more accurate than HHUS in measuring the length and width of the hernia. It also outperformed HHUS in both detecting the incisional hernias (91.8% vs. 78.7%, p = 0.00) and determining hernia contents (89.3% vs. 68.0%, p = 0.00). Moreover, the coronal images AVSS obtained clearly displayed the shapes of the hernias, with 46 being regular and 32 irregular. Overall, AVSS can be used as a promising diagnostic modality for incisional hernias.
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Cytotoxicity and enhancement activity of essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. as a natural transdermal penetration enhancer.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The aim of this present study is to investigate the effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum oil (essential oil from Z. bungeanum Maxim.) on cytotoxicity and the transdermal permeation of 5-fluorouracil and indomethacin. The cytotoxicity of Z. bungeanum oil on dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes was studied using an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The rat skin was employed to determine the percutaneous penetration enhancement effect of Z. bungeanum oil on hydrophilic and lipophilic model drugs, i.e., 5-fluorouracil and indomethacin. The secondary structure changes of the rat stratum corneum (SC) were determined using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and saturated solubilities and SC/vehicle partition coefficients of two model drugs with and without Z. bungeanum oil were also measured to understand its related mechanisms of action. It was found that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Z. bungeanum oil were significantly lower in HaCaT and CCC-ESF-1 cell lines compared to the well-established and standard penetration enhancer Azone. The Z. bungeanum oil at various concentrations effectively facilitated the percutaneous penetration of two model drugs across the rat skin. In addition, the mechanisms of permeation enhancement by Z. bungeanum oil could be explained with saturated solubility, SC/vehicle partition coefficient, and secondary structure changes of SC.
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Single-stage surgical repair of airway gastric fistula after esophagectomy.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Airway gastric fistula (AGF) is a rare but catastrophic complication after esophagectomy. Surgical repair with viable tissue interposed between the airway and alimentary tracts remains the definitive treatment. However, it is challenging for surgeons, and only anecdotally described in sporadic case reports due to the complexity of the techniques necessary for successful surgical intervention. Here, we report two cases successfully managed via single-stage surgical re-exploration. On outpatient follow-up, the two Chinese patients were progressing satisfactorily without complaint of any dyspnea or dysphagia.
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Contribution of contrast-enhanced sonography in the detection of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of contrast-enhanced sonography in the diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma up to 3 cm and analyze its dynamic enhancement patterns.
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Effect of perioperative glucocorticoid administration on postoperative complications following esophagectomy: A meta-analysis.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Perioperative corticosteroid administration is a controversial therapy for improving the short-term prognosis following surgery. The objective of the current meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of the perioperative use of corticosteroids during esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma. A comprehensive study was performed using references selected from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid databases), EMBASE and three Chinese databases (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals). Eligible studies were restricted to randomized clinical trials that reported data from patients undergoing esophagectomy. In addition, treated groups of patients received perioperative corticosteroid administration and control groups received a placebo infusion, such as saline water. The studies evaluated the incidence of postoperative complications and the variation of inflammatory mediators. All extracted data underwent meta-analysis using Review Manager 5.1 software. Only six studies were eligible for selection. The following parameters were found to be reduced following the use of methylprednisolone: Interleukin (IL)-6 immediately following surgery and on postoperative days (PODs) 1 and 3; IL-8 immediately following surgery; and PaO2/FiO2 on POD 3. Moreover, organ failure, cardiovascular complications and pulmonary morbidity were all reduced in patients with corticosteroid usage. Certain factors showed no significant differences between the treated and control groups, including IL-8 on POD 1, IL-6 prior to surgery and on POD 5, PaO2/FiO2 following surgery, mortality, anastomotic leakage, severe infection and renal and hepatic failure. Prophylactic administration of methylprednisolone during the perioperative period may reduce the incidence of specific types of postoperative complications and inhibit the postoperative inflammatory reaction. Additional randomized controlled trials must be performed.
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Tailoring Subunit Vaccine Immunity with Adjuvant Combinations and Delivery Routes Using the Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Receptor-Binding Domain as an Antigen.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The development of an effective vaccine is critical for prevention of a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) pandemic. Some studies have indicated the receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein of MERS-CoV spike (S) is a good candidate antigen for a MERS-CoV subunit vaccine. However, highly purified proteins are typically not inherently immunogenic. We hypothesised that humoral and cell-mediated immunity would be improved with a modification of the vaccination regimen. Therefore, the immunogenicity of a novel MERS-CoV RBD-based subunit vaccine was tested in mice using different adjuvant formulations and delivery routes. Different vaccination regimens were compared in BALB/c mice immunized 3 times intramuscularly (i.m.) with a vaccine containing 10 µg of recombinant MERS-CoV RBD in combination with either aluminium hydroxide (alum) alone, alum and polyriboinosinic acid (poly I:C) or alum and cysteine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). The immune responses of mice vaccinated with RBD, incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) and CpG ODN by a subcutaneous (s.c.) route were also investigated. We evaluated the induction of RBD-specific humoral immunity (total IgG and neutralizing antibodies) and cellular immunity (ELISpot assay for IFN-? spot-forming cells and splenocyte cytokine production). Our findings indicated that the combination of alum and CpG ODN optimized the development of RBD-specific humoral and cellular immunity following subunit vaccination. Interestingly, robust RBD-specific antibody and T-cell responses were induced in mice immunized with the rRBD protein in combination with IFA and CpG ODN, but low level of neutralizing antibodies were elicited. Our data suggest that murine immunity following subunit vaccination can be tailored using adjuvant combinations and delivery routes. The vaccination regimen used in this study is promising and could improve the protection offered by the MERS-CoV subunit vaccine by eliciting effective humoral and cellular immune responses.
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Morphological evidence for a neurotensinergic periaqueductal gray-rostral ventromedial medulla-spinal dorsal horn descending pathway in rat.
Front Neuroanat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Neurotensin (NT) is an endogenous neuropeptide that exerts potent opioid-independent analgesic effects, most likely via the type 2 NT receptor (NTR2). Previous morphological and electrophysiological studies suggested that the NT-NTR2 system is primarily localized in structures that constitute the descending pain control pathway, such as the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), and the spinal dorsal horn (SDH). However, relevant morphological evidence for this neurotensinergic (NTergic) circuit is lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to morphologically elucidate the potential sites and connections in the NT-NTR2 system that are involved in the descending pain control pathway. Based on light and electron microscopy combined with anterograde and retrograde tracing, we found evidence that NTR2-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the RVM receive NT-IR projections originating from the PAG; express NT, serotonin (5-HT), or both; and send projections that terminate in laminae I and II of the SDH. These results suggest that NTR2 may contribute to pain control by binding to NT in the PAG-RVM-SDH pathway. In conclusion, our data provide morphological evidence for an NTergic PAG-RVM-SDH pathway, implicating novel mechanisms of NT-induced analgesia.
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HIF-1? signaling activation by post-ischemia treatment with astragaloside IV attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, we evaluated the effect of astragaloside IV (Ast IV) post-ischemia treatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI). We also examined whether hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and its downstream gene-inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) play roles in the cardioprotective effect of Ast IV. Cultured cardiomyocytes and perfused isolated rat hearts were exposed to Ast IV during reperfusion in the presence or absence of the HIF-1? inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2). The post-ischemia treatment with Ast IV protected cardiomyocytes from the apoptosis and death induced by simulated IRI (SIRI). Additionally, in cardiomyocytes, 2-MeOE2 and HIF-1? siRNA treatment each not only abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of post-ischemia treatment with Ast IV but also reversed the upregulation of HIF-1? and iNOS expression. Furthermore, after treatment with Ast IV, post-ischemic cardiac functional recovery and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the coronary flow (CF) were improved, and the myocardial infarct size was decreased. Moreover, the number of apoptotic cells was reduced, and the upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Caspase3 were reversed. 2-MeOE2 reversed these effects of Ast IV on IR-injured hearts. These results suggest that post-ischemia treatment with Ast IV can attenuate IRI by upregulating HIF-1? expression, which transmits a survival signal to the myocardium.
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Prevalence and genetic diversity analysis of human coronavirus OC43 among adult patients with acute respiratory infections in Beijing, 2012.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine the prevalence, epidemiology and genetic diversity of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) among adult patients with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Beijing,five hundred and fifty-nine nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from adult patients with ARI in Beijing. The prevalence of HCoV-OC43 infection among these patients was assessed using two different OneStep reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. The epidemiological profiles of the patients with HCoV-OC43 infection were described. Partial S and N genes of HCoV-OC43 circulating strains were sequenced followed by phylogenetic analysis and amino acid alignment. Our results showed that the prevalence of HCoV-OC43 infection was 12.52% (95% CI: 9.78-15.26%), and the epidemic peak occurred in autumn. Fifty partial S and 40 partial N fragments were obtained from these patients. Phylogenetic analysis based on neighbour-joining method showed that at least three distinct clusters (A, B, C/D) of HCoV-OC43 strains were circulating among adult patients with ARI in Beijing. In addition, some novel unique clusters (UNT) of HCoV-OC43 were found in the S- and N-based phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, consensus amino acids substitutes for each cluster were also found after alignment of partial S or N sequence coding region in this study. In conclusion, we herein describe the prevalence of HCoV-OC43 among adult patients and provide substantial evidence for the genetic diversity of HCoV-OC43 circulating in Beijing.
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Morroniside improves microvascular functional integrity of the neurovascular unit after cerebral ischemia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Treating the vascular elements within the neurovascular unit is essential for protecting and repairing the brain after stroke. Acute injury on endothelial systems results in the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), while post-ischemic angiogenesis plays an important role in delayed functional recovery. Here, we considered alterations in microvessel integrity to be targets for brain recovery, and tested the natural compound morroniside as a therapeutic approach to restore the vascular elements of injured tissue in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, and morroniside was then administered intragastrically once a day at doses of 30, 90, and 270 mg/kg. BBB integrity and associated factors were analyzed to identify cerebrovascular permeability 3 days after MCAO. The recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), the expression of angiogenic factors and the new vessel formation in the peri-infarct cortex of rats were examined 7 days after MCAO to identify the angiogenesis. We demonstrated that at 3 days post-ischemia, morroniside preserved neurovascular unit function by ameliorating BBB injury. By 7 days post-ischemia, morroniside amplified angiogenesis, in part by enhancing endothelial progenitor cell proliferation and expression of angiogenic factors. Morever, the increase in the amount of vWF+ vessels induced by ischemia could be extended to 28 days after administration of morroniside, indicating the crucial role of morroniside in angiogenesis during the chronic phase. Taken together, our findings suggested that morroniside might offer a novel therapeutic approach for promoting microvascular integrity recovery and provide a thoroughly new direction for stroke therapy.
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Distinct cerebellar engrams in short-term and long-term motor learning.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Cerebellar motor learning is suggested to be caused by long-term plasticity of excitatory parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses associated with changes in the number of synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs). However, whether the AMPARs decrease or increase in individual PF-PC synapses occurs in physiological motor learning and accounts for memory that lasts over days remains elusive. We combined quantitative SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling for AMPAR and physical dissector electron microscopy with a simple model of cerebellar motor learning, adaptation of horizontal optokinetic response (HOKR) in mouse. After 1-h training of HOKR, short-term adaptation (STA) was accompanied with transient decrease in AMPARs by 28% in target PF-PC synapses. STA was well correlated with AMPAR decrease in individual animals and both STA and AMPAR decrease recovered to basal levels within 24 h. Surprisingly, long-term adaptation (LTA) after five consecutive daily trainings of 1-h HOKR did not alter the number of AMPARs in PF-PC synapses but caused gradual and persistent synapse elimination by 45%, with corresponding PC spine loss by the fifth training day. Furthermore, recovery of LTA after 2 wk was well correlated with increase of PF-PC synapses to the control level. Our findings indicate that the AMPARs decrease in PF-PC synapses and the elimination of these synapses are in vivo engrams in short- and long-term motor learning, respectively, showing a unique type of synaptic plasticity that may contribute to memory consolidation.
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Distinct kinetics of synaptic structural plasticity, memory formation, and memory decay in massed and spaced learning.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Long-lasting memories are formed when the stimulus is temporally distributed (spacing effect). However, the synaptic mechanisms underlying this robust phenomenon and the precise time course of the synaptic modifications that occur during learning remain unclear. Here we examined the adaptation of horizontal optokinetic response in mice that underwent 1 h of massed and spaced training at varying intervals. Despite similar acquisition by all training protocols, 1 h of spacing produced the highest memory retention at 24 h, which lasted for 1 mo. The distinct kinetics of memory are strongly correlated with the reduction of floccular parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses but not with AMPA receptor (AMPAR) number and synapse size. After the spaced training, we observed 25%, 23%, and 12% reduction in AMPAR density, synapse size, and synapse number, respectively. Four hours after the spaced training, half of the synapses and Purkinje cell spines had been eliminated, whereas AMPAR density and synapse size were recovered in remaining synapses. Surprisingly, massed training also produced long-term memory and halving of synapses; however, this occurred slowly over days, and the memory lasted for only 1 wk. This distinct kinetics of structural plasticity may serve as a basis for unique temporal profiles in the formation and decay of memory with or without intervals.
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Antinociceptive Effect of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in a Rat Model of Cancer-induced Bone Pain.
Pain Physician
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe chronic pain that is less than adequately controlled by conventional analgesics. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) has been considered as a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer and its transmembrane isoform has been reported to play an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, it remains unknown whether it has an analgesic effect on CIBP and what are the underlying mechanisms.
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Antioxidant Therapy for Pain Relief in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Pain Physician
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Currently, there is no specific therapy for chronic pancreatitis (CP). The treatment of micronutrient antioxidant therapy for painful CP has been sporadically used for more than 30 years, however, its efficacy are still poorly understood.
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Preoperative colonic lesion localization with charcoal nanoparticle tattooing for laparoscopic colorectal surgery.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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The efficiency and safety of charcoal nanoparticle tattooing in localizing unpalpable colonic small lesions for later laparoscopy is described. Twenty six patients were enrolled for this prospective study. Tumor sites were localized with charcoal nanoparticles during colonoscopy for later laparoscopic colorectal operations. In all patients, the entire colon was examined preoperatively by colonoscopy and 0.5 ml (5 mg) of charcoal nanoparticle was injected submucosally near lesions or polypectomy sites. During laparoscopic colorectal operations for these biopsy-proven tumors, tumors were easily identified. The mean resection margin was 3.13 +/- 2.01 cm. The mean length of resected intestinal segment was 12.69 +/- 4.39 cm. No tumor was found at the resection line as indicated by postoperative pathological examination. Most importantly, no wrong segment was resected. Thus we show that easy identification of tumor can be achieved by preoperative tattooing with charcoal nanoparticles. Further studies regarding the long-term tattooing of tumor with charcoal nanoparticles are warranted.
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[Effect of microemulsion technology on release of compounds in Zhitong cataplasm and content variation].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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To study the varieties of adhesives in gels on the basis of previous studies, dosage of adhesives required for forming of gels by using the single factor design, as well as the drug loading capacity of gels with the adhesiveness and stickiness as the scoring indicators, in order to determine the forming method of analgesic micro-emulsion gel. Subsequently, the improved Franz diffusing cell method was adopted to study the release of water-soluble components and liposoluble components in analgesic gels, with imperatorin and ferulic acid as index components. The results showed that analgesic micro-emulsion gel could promote the release of imperatorin and ferulic acid. Finally, HPLC was used to detect that the loss amount of volatile components in analgesic micro-emulsion gel was 23.13% lower than that in the original analgesic gel. In the experiment, we finally prepared finished products of micro-emulsion gel, discovered that the micro-emulsion technology is helpful to improve the synchronous release of water-soluble components and liposoluble components in prescriptions and can reduce the loss of volatile components.
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Diagnostic Performances of Various Gray-Scale, Color Doppler, and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Findings in Predicting Malignant Thyroid Nodules.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Background: Ultrasonography is the most frequently used clinical tool for the identification, assessment, and follow-up of thyroid nodules. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the value of diagnostic ultrasonography indicators, to obtain rankings of the most valuable indicators in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and to analyze the optimal diagnostic points and clinical values. Methods: One hundred forty-four patients with 172 thyroid nodules underwent preoperative ultrasonography examinations, including gray-scale ultrasonography (GSUS), color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS), and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Fourteen indicators of thyroid nodules on GSUS, CDUS, and CEUS were selected to evaluate all thyroid nodules. The differences between the benign and malignant thyroid nodules in all indicators were analyzed by the chi-squared test; the diagnostic ultrasonography values were obtained by logistic regression; and the optimal diagnostic points were explored by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Of the 172 thyroid nodules that were surgically removed, 78 were benign and 94 were malignant. Ten indicators of GSUS and CEUS showed significant differences between the benign and malignant nodules (p<0.05), whereas four CDUS indicators had no value. The rankings of the valuable indicators were obtained according to their odds ratios (ORs). The top four indicators were ring enhancement and homogeneity of enhancement on CEUS, and microcalcification and halo on GSUS. These indicators were the most valuable, with ORs of greater than 20 in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The other six indicators-the relative arrival time of the nodule on CEUS, interior echogenicity on GSUS, peak interior echogenicity on CEUS, shape on GSUS, peak peripheral echogenicity on CEUS, and orientation on GSUS-were also valuable, with ORs less than 20. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for GSUS, CEUS, and the combination of GSUS and CEUS in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules were 0.936, 0.910, and 0.966, respectively. Five positive features of the 10 valuable indicators on GSUS and CEUS defined the cut-off for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules, with a sensitivity of 89.4% (84/94), specificity of 93.6% (73/78), and accuracy of 91.3% (157/172). Conclusions: The ring enhancement and homogeneity of enhancement of thyroid nodules on CEUS and the microcalcification and halo on GSUS were the four most valuable indicators in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Conjoint analysis of specific features of thyroid nodules on GSUS and CEUS could enhance the diagnostic value of thyroid nodules.
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[Study on in vitro release and percutaneous absorption for Zhitong cataplasm].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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To evaluate in vitro release and transdermal behaviors of Zhitong cataplasm, modified Franz diffusion cell method was applied to investigate in vitro transdermal absorption of Zhitong cataplasm and the content of tetrahydropalmatine was determined by HPLC. In 24 hours, accumulative release rate of tetrahydropalmatine was 81. 9%, transmission rate was 2.26 microg x cm(-2) x h(-1). In 48 hours, accumulative transdermal rate and transmission rate of tetrahydropalmatine were 20.31%, 0.22 pg x cm(-2) x h(-1). So Zhitong cataplasm had a good release and transdermal properties and transdermal actions were consistent with zero-order kinetics process.
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[Studies on evaluation of sustained release tablets of extracts of Ginkgo biloba releasing rate in vitro by pharmacological indicatrix].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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Using sustained release tablets of Ginkgo bibolia extract as model drug,discuss technical feasibility of using biotic index to evaluate sustained release tablets. Chosing two pharmacological indicatrix: antioxidant ability and inhibition of platelet aggregation, to investigate the influence factors on experimental result, optimize the method and experiment condition, and set up pharmacological indicatrix evaluation method. Using those methods to determinate biological effects of dissolved liquid. Drawing release curves and biological effects curves, discussing their correlation. A good correlation was observed, illustrating that pharmacological indicatrix could evaluate sustained release tablets.
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Modeling the thermoultrasound inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw peeled shrimps.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been identified as a causative agent for seafoodborne diseases worldwide. The effect of thermoultrasound treatment on the survival of V. parahaemolyticus in raw peeled shrimps was investigated in this study as an alternative bacterial inactivation method in seafood as part of the postharvest washing process. Raw peeled shrimps inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus were treated with mild heat (47, 50, and 53°C) combined with ultrasound (0, 96, 150, and 204 W) based on a 3 × 4 full factorial design, and the bacterial survival curves were fitted with a Weibull model. Because of the high correlations of the shape parameter n and the scale parameter ? in the Weibull model, an overall n was estimated from the whole set of bacterial inactivation data and ? values were estimated for each set of inactivation curves accordingly. A response surface model was generated to describe the scale parameter as a function of temperature and ultrasonic power. The results indicated that the Weibull model with the overall n value could be used to describe the bacterial reduction with the time of exposure to the thermoultrasound treatments, which was well supported by the small root mean square errors (RMSE) and the high coefficients of determination (R(2)). The quadratic model was validated with independent experiments within the prediction range. Statistical indices (R(2) = 0.99; P < 0.0001; RMSE = 0.17) and validation parameters (bias factor = 0.97; accuracy factor = 1.03) indicated satisfactory performance of the quadratic model. The results indicated that the thermoultrasound treatment is effective, simple, and cost-effective for inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus in shrimps during the postharvest washing process.
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Real-time calibration of laser absorption spectrometer using spectral correlation performed with an in-line gas cell.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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A real-time drift correction and calibration method using spectral correlation based on a revolving in-line gas cell for laser-based spectroscopic trace-gas measurements has been developed and evaluated experimentally. This technique is relatively simple to implement in laser spectroscopy systems and assures long-term stability of trace-gas measurements by minimizing the effects of external sources of drift in real-time. Spectroscopic sensitivity sufficient for environmental monitoring and effective drift suppression has been achieved for long-term measurements of CO? with a quantum cascade laser based spectrometer.
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Hypertension control in community health centers across china: analysis of antihypertensive drug treatment patterns.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Blood pressure (BP) control in China is generally poor. It is assumed that an important cause of this unsatisfactory situation is the present standard of care provided by primary care physicians.
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[Trend analysis on the mortality of cardiovascular diseases from 2004 to 2010 in China].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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To explore the trend and characteristics of cardiovascular disease mortality in China.
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Tunable focusing of sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated cosh-Gaussian beams by one spiral optical vortex.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Optical intensity distributions in the focal region play an important role in many optical systems. In this paper, the tunable focusing properties of linearly polarized hyperbolic-cosine-Gaussian beams with sine-azimuthal variation wavefront were investigated by adding a spiral optical vortex. It was found that the focal patterns can be altered very considerably by changing the charge number of the optical vortex under a different phase parameter that indicates the phase change frequency upon increasing the azimuthal angle. The symmetry of focal patterns also changes remarkably upon increasing the charge number. And some novel focal patterns may appear, including a multiple-peak array, wheel focal pattern, or swallow-tailed focal pattern.
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Ongoing spillover of Hantaan and Gou hantaviruses from rodents is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in China.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Longquan City, Zhejiang province, China, has been seriously affected by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) since the first cases were registered in 1974. To understand the epidemiology and emergence of HFRS in Longquan, which may be indicative of large parts of rural China, we studied long-term incidence patterns and performed a molecular epidemiological investigation of the causative hantaviruses in human and rodent populations.
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Analysis of Transcriptomes of Three Orb-Web Spider Species Reveals Gene Profiles Involved in Silk and Toxin.
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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As an ancient arthropod with a history of 390 million years (Ma), spiders evolved numerous morphological forms resulted from adaptation to different environments. The venom and silk of spiders, which have promising commercial applications in agriculture, medicine and engineering fields, are of special interests to researchers. However, little is known about their genomic components, which hinders not only understanding spider biology but also utilizing their valuable genes. Here we report on deep sequenced and de novo assembled transcriptomes of three orb-web spider species, Gasteracantha arcuata, Nasoonaria sinensis and Gasteracantha hasselti which are distributed in tropical forests of south China. With Illumina paired-end RNA-seq technology, 54,871, 101,855 and 75,455 unigenes for the three spider species were obtained respectively, among which 9,300, 10,001 and 10,494 unique genes are annotated respectively. From these annotated unigenes, we comprehensively analyzed silk and toxin gene components and structures for the three spider species. Our study provides valuable transcriptome data for three spider species which previously lack any genetic/genomic data. The results have laid the first fundamental genomic basis for exploiting gene resources from these spiders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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An LDLa domain-containing C-type lectin is involved in the innate immunity of Eriocheir sinensis.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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C-type lectins (CTLs) have crucial functions in recognizing and eliminating pathogens in innate immunity. This study identified a novel low-density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLa) domain-containing CTL, designated as EsCTLDcp, from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. The EsCTLDcp cDNA is 1258bp long, with a 975bp open reading frame that encodes a 324-amino acid protein. EsCTLDcp contains a signal peptide, an LDLa, and a single C-type lectin-like domain. EsCTLDcp was only expressed in the hepatopancreas of normal crabs, and its expression was regulated following crab challenge with pathogen-associated molecular patterns and with bacteria. The recombinant EsCTLDcp agglutinates Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila) in the presence of calcium. rEsCTLDcp also binds to various bacteria including S. aureus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Vibrio natriegens, V. parahaemolyticus, and A. hydrophila. The rEsCTLDcp protein helped the crabs clear the virulent Gram-negative bacterium V. parahaemolyticus in vivo, as well as interacted with VP24, an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). These data suggest that EsCTLDcp functions as a pattern-recognition receptor involved in the innate immunity of E. sinensis.
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New Bone Formation and Microstructure Assessed by Combination of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy.
Calcif. Tissue Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Bone is a mineralized connective tissue that is continuously and microstructurally remodeled. Altered bone formation and microstructure arise in pathological bone conditions such as osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, fracture repair, and Paget disease of bone. A proper and objective assessment of bone formation and microstructure will provide insight into the understanding of bone pathogenesis and remodeling. Here, new bone formation ex vitro and its microstructure were evaluated in in vivo multiple sequential polychrome-labeled samples using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which generated clearer and more reliable images of thick bone sections than conventional fluorescence microscopy (CFM). Intriguingly, fine details of the bone microstructural features, including the mineralization fronts, quiescent versus active osteons, and Volkmanns channel, were elucidated using CLSM, which defines the relationship between morphological changes and function, when combined with differential interference contrast microscopy. Furthermore, CLSM provided objective evaluations of bone formation, such as the ratio of labeled areas of new bone formation in a rabbit model when compared with CFM. Altogether, new bone formation and its microstructure can be evaluated more adequately using a combination of CLSM and DIC microscopies.
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Quantitative detection and proliferation dynamics of a novel Spiroplasma eriocheiris pathogen in the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Spiroplasma eriocheiris disease control based on sensitive quantitative methods has become a priority. A SYBR Green real-time PCR that can simultaneously detect and quantify S. eriocheiris in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii was produced and evaluated. In the asymptomatic crayfish, hemolymph exhibited the statistically greatest number of S. eriocheiris copies indicating a tissue-specific pathogen infection characteristic. The curve of the pathogen amount change in vivo assumed a very similar shape with the typical one-step growth curve. A turning point from chronic infection to acute infection was suggested from 3 to 4 days when the S. eriocheiris copies in hemolymph increased substantially.
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Alleviation of hyperglycemia induced vascular endothelial injury by exenatide might be related to the reduction of nitrooxidative stress.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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We will investigate the effects of exenatide on vascular endothelial injury and nitrooxidative stress in hyperglycemia both in vivo and in vitro and explore the role of nitrooxidative stress in endothelium-protective action of exenatide. Healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM) model, low dose of exenatide treatment, and high dose of exenatide treatment. In vitro study showed that, compared with control group, the DM rats exhibited a lowered endothelium-dependent relaxation and damaged structural integrity of thoracic aortas, and there was a significant increase in plasma nitrotyrosine concentration. These parameters were improved after treatment with either low dose or high dose of exenatide for 45 days. In vitro study showed that exendin-4 (the active ingredient of exenatide) attenuated HUVECs injury induced by high glucose, with improving cell viability and attenuating cell apoptosis. Exendin-4 also significantly alleviated the increased malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrotyrosine content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression induced by high glucose in HUVECs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exenatide treatment can alleviate the vascular endothelial injury, as well as attenuating the nitrooxidative stress in hyperglycemia, implying that the endothelium-protective effect of exenatide might be related to the reduction of nitrooxidative stress.
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Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and chemotherapy-related tumor marker expression in non-small cell lung cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The chemotherapy resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a clinic challenge and is closely associated with several biomarkers including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ( Drugs 72(Suppl 1):28--36, 012.), p53 ( Med Sci Monit 11(6):HY11--HY20, 2005.) and excision repair cross complementing gene 1 (ERCC1) ( J Thorac Oncol 8(5):582--586, 2013.). Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG--PET) is the best non-invasive surrogate for tumor biology with the maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax) being the most important paradigm. However, there are limited data correlating FDG-PET with the chemotherapy resistant tumor markers. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of chemotherapy related tumor marker expression with FDG--PET SUVmax in NSCLC.
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Phytoestrogen ?-Zearalanol attenuates homocysteine-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The enhanced nitrative stress plays an important role in homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction. Previous studies have showed that phytoestrogen ? -zearalanol alleviated endothelial injury in ovariectomized hyperhomocysteinemic rats; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be clarified. This study was to investigate the effects of ? -zearalanol on homocysteine-induced endothelial apoptosis in vitro and explore the possible role of nitrative stress in these effects. Results showed that homocysteine (500? ? mol/L, 24?h) induced the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) obviously, and this effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with ? -zearalanol (10(-8)~10(-6)?mol/L). Moreover, ? -zearalanol downregulated proapoptotic protein Bax, upregulated antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, and decreased the expression and activity of caspase-9. These findings demonstrated that ? -zearalanol could effectively alleviate homocysteine-induced endothelial apoptosis, and this antiapoptosis effect might be related to the inhibition of the intrinsic pathway. Western blot indicated an enhanced 3-nitrotyrosine expression in HUVECs when challenged with homocysteine, which was attenuated by pretreatment with ? -zearalanol. This result implied that inhibition of nitrative stress might play a role in the protective effect of ? -zearalanol on endothelial cells. Such discovery may shed a novel light on the antiatherogenic activities of ? -zearalanol in hyperhomocysteinemia.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.