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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Study on the Anti-Gout Activity of Chlorogenic Acid: Improvement on Hyperuricemia and Gouty Inflammation.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Gout is a metabolic disorder associated with hyperuricemia resulting in the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints and tissues. Lowering serum uric acid (Sur) levels and anti-inflammation are highly essential in treating gout. Chlorogenic acid (CA), as one of the most abundant polyphenols in the Chinese medicines, has been rarely reported to have an anti-gout effect. The model of potassium oxonate (PO)-induced hyperuricemia in mice and MSU crystal-induced inflammation in rats has been established in this study. The potential beneficial effects and mechanisms of CA on hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis were elucidated. The results demonstrated that CA significantly decreased the Sur level by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity but not increasing the urinary uric acid (Uur) level. In addition, CA also exhibited the effect of suppressing paw swelling. Further investigation indicated that CA improved the symptoms of inflammation induced by MSU crystals by inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). The present study suggests that CA may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application.
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Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy with or without Induction Chemotherapy versus Chemotherapy Alone in Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The role of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in the management of locally advanced pancreatic cancer is controversial. We aimed to explore this issue by retrospectively comparing the efficacy of concurrent CRT with or without induction (CT) versus CT alone in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC).
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Impaired Neural Differentiation Potency by Retinoic Acid Receptor-? Pathway Defect in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Abstract Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reprogrammed from somatic cells via ectopic gene expression and, similarly to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), possess powerful abilities to self-renew and differentiate into cells of various lineages. However, the neural differentiation potency of iPSCs remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the neural differentiation ability of iPSCs compared with ESCs using an retinoic acid (RA) induction system. The neural differentiation efficiency of iPSCs was obviously lower than that of ESCs. Retinoic acid receptor-? (RAR?) was critical in the RA-induced neural differentiation of iPSCs, and the effect of RAR? was confirmed by applying a specific RAR? antagonist ER50891 to ESCs. These findings indicate that iPSCs do not possess the complete properties that ESCs have.
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Generality and cultural variation in the experience of regret.
Emotion
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Regret is the prototypical decision-related emotion. Most theory and research on regret comes from the United States and Europe, but recent research has suggested potential cross-cultural differences in regret. We examined generality and cultural variation in the experience of regret. A cross-cultural study compared experiences of regret with those of disappointment and guilt as reported by participants from the United States (n = 143), the Netherlands (n = 147), Israel (n = 148), and Taiwan (n = 115). We found strong evidence for generality of the distinct emotion components of regret, compared with those of disappointment and guilt. We also found cultural variation in the frequency and intensity of regret in intrapersonal situations (regrets about outcomes affecting the self) and interpersonal regrets (regrets about outcomes affecting others). Whereas in the U.S. sample, regret was experienced more intensely in intrapersonal than interpersonal situations, both emotions were experienced more intensely in interpersonal situations in the Taiwanese sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Huntingtin promotes mTORC1 signaling in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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In patients with Huntington's disease (HD), the protein huntingtin (Htt) has an expanded polyglutamine (poly-Q) tract. HD results in early loss of medium spiny neurons in the striatum, which impairs motor and cognitive functions. Identifying the physiological role and molecular functions of Htt may yield insight into HD pathogenesis. We found that Htt promotes signaling by mTORC1 [mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1] and that this signaling is potentiated by poly-Q-expanded Htt. Knocking out Htt in mouse embryonic stem cells or human embryonic kidney cells attenuated amino acid-induced mTORC1 activity, whereas overexpressing wild-type or poly-Q-expanded Htt in striatal neuronal cells increased basal mTOR activity. Striatal cells expressing endogenous poly-Q-expanded Htt showed an increase in the number and size of mTOR puncta on the perinuclear regions compared to cells expressing wild-type Htt. Pull-down experiments indicated that amino acids stimulated the interaction of Htt and the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rheb (a protein that stimulates mTOR activity), and that Htt forms a ternary complex with Rheb and mTOR. Pharmacologically inhibiting PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) or knocking down Rheb abrogated mTORC1 activity induced by expression of a poly-Q-expanded amino-terminal Htt fragment. Moreover, striatum-specific deletion of TSC1, encoding tuberous sclerosis 1, a negative regulator of mTORC1, accelerated the onset of motor coordination abnormalities and caused premature death in an HD mouse model. Together, our findings demonstrate that mutant Htt contributes to the pathogenesis of HD by enhancing mTORC1 activity.
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Precision Structural Engineering of Self-Rolled-up 3D Nanomembranes Guided by Transient Quasi-Static FEM Modeling.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Micro- and nanoscale tubular structures can be formed by strain-induced self-rolled-up nanomembranes. Precision engineering of the shape and dimension determines the performance of devices based on this platform for electronic, optical, and biological applications. A transient quasi-static finite element method (FEM) with moving boundary conditions is proposed as a general approach to design diverse types of three-dimensional (3D) rolled-up geometries. This method captures the dynamic release process of membranes through etching driven by mismatch strain and accurately predicts the final dimensions of rolled-up structures. Guided by the FEM modeling, experimental demonstration using silicon nitride membranes was achieved with unprecedented precision including controlling fractional turns of a rolled-up membrane, anisotropic rolling to form helical structures, and local stress control for 3D hierarchical architectures.
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Toward Intelligent Synthetic Neural Circuits: Directing and Accelerating Neuron Cell Growth by Self-Rolled-Up Silicon Nitride Microtube Array.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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In neural interface platforms, cultures are often carried out on a flat, open, rigid, and opaque substrate, posing challenges to reflecting the native microenvironment of the brain and precise engagement with neurons. Here we present a neuron cell culturing platform that consists of arrays of ordered microtubes (2.7-4.4 ?m in diameter), formed by strain-induced self-rolled-up nanomembrane (s-RUM) technology using ultrathin (<40 nm) silicon nitride (SiNx) film on transparent substrates. These microtubes demonstrated robust physical confinement and unprecedented guidance effect toward outgrowth of primary cortical neurons, with a coaxially confined configuration resembling that of myelin sheaths. The dynamic neural growth inside the microtube, evaluated with continuous live-cell imaging, showed a marked increase (20×) of the growth rate inside the microtube compared to regions outside the microtubes. We attribute the dramatic accelerating effect and precise guiding of the microtube array to three-dimensional (3D) adhesion and electrostatic interaction with the SiNx microtubes, respectively. This work has clear implications toward building intelligent synthetic neural circuits by arranging the size, site, and patterns of the microtube array, for potential treatment of neurological disorders.
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Comparative study of different latent infections of herpes simplex virus type I in a murine model.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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This study aims to compare the different latent infections of herpes simplex virus type I in a murine model. One hundred and twenty BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into either of three groups: intravenous inoculation group, ocular abrasion group, and intranasal inoculation group. Six weeks later, the trigeminal ganglia (TG) were removed to detect the expression of HSV-I antigen. HSV DNA in TG was also detected by polymerase chain reaction to confirm latent infection. The rate of HSV DNA in TG detected in the intravenous inoculation group was 18/22 and 22/26 in the ocular abrasion group, both of which were higher than the rate detected in the intranasal inoculation group (18/30). The expression of HSV antigen in TG in these three groups was all negative. Mortality rate in the intravenous inoculation group was 8/30, which was much higher than those of the two other groups. Intranasal virus dripping, cornea abrasion, and intravenous injection can detect latent HSV-I infection in a murine model. Compared to two other groups, the cornea abrasion group showed less severe signs, a quicker recovery rate in acute infection, and higher incidence rate of latent infection. Therefore, it is an ideal method in the presence of latent HSV-I infection.
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Impact of body mass index on plasma N-terminal ProB-type natriuretic peptides in Chinese atrial fibrillation patients without heart failure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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An inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and circulating levels of N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been demonstrated in subjects with and without heart failure. Obesity also has been linked with increased incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF), but its influence on NT-proBNP concentrations in AF patients remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of BMI on NT-proBNP levels in AF patients without heart failure.
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Indicators of perceived useful dementia care assistive technology: Caregivers' perspectives.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The study aims to investigate the caregivers' context-specific perceived usefulness of available assistive technology (AT) devices and the professionals' perspectives on the usefulness indicators of AT devices for home-dwelling individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia.
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Identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas by deep sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulatory processes in various organisms. To date many studies have been performed in the investigation of miRNAs of numerous bilaterians, but limited numbers of miRNAs have been identified in the few species belonging to the clade Lophotrochozoa. In the current study, deep sequencing was conducted to identify the miRNAs of Crassostrea gigas (Lophotrochozoa) at a genomic scale, using 21 libraries that included different developmental stages and adult organs. A total of 100 hairpin precursor loci were predicted to encode miRNAs. Of these, 19 precursors (pre-miRNA) were novel in the oyster. As many as 53 (53%) miRNAs were distributed in clusters and 49 (49%) precursors were intragenic, which suggests two important biogenetic sources of miRNAs. Different developmental stages were characterized with specific miRNA expression patterns that highlighted regulatory variation along a temporal axis. Conserved miRNAs were expressed universally throughout different stages and organs, whereas novel miRNAs tended to be more specific and may be related to the determination of the novel body plan. Furthermore, we developed an index named the miRNA profile age index (miRPAI) to integrate the evolutionary age and expression levels of miRNAs during a particular developmental stage. We found that the swimming stages were characterized by the youngest miRPAIs. Indeed, the large-scale expression of novel miRNAs indicated the importance of these stages during development, particularly from organogenetic and evolutionary perspectives. Some potentially important miRNAs were identified for further study through significant changes between expression patterns in different developmental events, such as metamorphosis. This study broadened the knowledge of miRNAs in animals and indicated the presence of sophisticated miRNA regulatory networks related to the biological processes in lophotrochozoans.
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Synthesis, preferentially hypoxic apoptosis and anti-angiogenic activity of 1,2,4-benzotrazin-3-amine 1,4-dioxide bearing alkyl linkers with 1,2,4-benzotrazin-3-amine 1-oxide derivatives.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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3-(Aminoalkylamino)-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide-extended derivatives were carried out by structural modifications of 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide (tirapazamine, TPZ) that incorporated the homologue-alkyl linkers further with or without an extended 1,2,4-benzotrazin-3-amine 1-oxide moiety at 3-position of TPZ. After sequentially evaluated for preferentially normoxic and hypoxic cytotoxicities against MCF-7, NCI-H460 and HCT-116, most of the synthesized compounds showed more potent hypoxic cytotoxicity than or comparable to that of TPZ. Among them, compound 9a and 9b were more potent inhibitory proliferation of MCF-7, NCI-H460 and HCT-116 in hypoxia than that of TPZ. The representative 9a showed the most potent hypoxic cytotoxicity in comparison to TPZ, mediated by cell cycle arrest, induction of DNA damage, activation of caspase 3/7 and the cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-related apoptosis, which were conducted at HCT-116 cells in both normoxia and hypoxia, respectively. In vitro anti-angiogenic assay of co-cultured HUVECs and fibroblasts exposed to the selected 7b, 8g, 9a and 9b had 80-90% inhibition of tube formation at 20 ?M, whereas TPZ inhibited about 50% tube formation at 20 ?M. At 2 ?M, 9a and 9b still had significant decrease in area, length, path and joint of tube formation of 70-80% and 45-50%, respectively. These results indicated that TPZ derivatives were more potent anti-angiogenesis.
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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory caffeoyl phenylpropanoid and secoiridoid glycosides from Jasminum nervosum stems, a Chinese folk medicine.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Eight compounds including four caffeoyl phenylpropanoid glycosides, jasnervosides A-D (1-4), one monoterpenoid glycoside, jasnervoside E (5), and three secoiridoid glycosides, jasnervosides F-H (10-12), were isolated from the stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour. (Oleaceae), along with four known compounds, poliumoside (6), verbascoside (7), ?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-(?-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1?6)-1-O-E-caffeoyl-?-d-glucopyranoside (8), and jaspolyanthoside (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of their physicochemical and spectroscopic properties. Compounds 1, 2, 4 and 11 displayed potent antioxidant activities in the DPPH assay, while 2 and 3 displayed good activities against LPS-induced TNF-? and IL-1? production in BV2 cells. Compounds 1-5 and 10-12 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines (A-549, Bel-7402, and HCT-8), but none displayed significant activity.
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Levofloxacin-resistant haemophilus influenzae, Taiwan, 2004-2010.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Levofloxacin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae has increased significantly in Taiwan, from 2.0% in 2004 to 24.3% in 2010 (p<0.001). Clinical and molecular investigations of 182 levofloxacin-resistant isolates revealed that the increase was mainly the result of the spread of several clones in the elderly population in different regions.
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Do soy isoflavones improve cognitive function in postmenopausal women? A meta-analysis.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Several studies have demonstrated that soy isoflavone (SIF) supplementation can improve aspects of cognitive function. However, these findings remain controversial. We aimed to quantify the effects of SIF supplementation on improving cognitive function in postmenopausal women.
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Intrapopulation genome size variation in D. melanogaster reflects life history variation and plasticity.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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We determined female genome sizes using flow cytometry for 211 Drosophila melanogaster sequenced inbred strains from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, and found significant conspecific and intrapopulation variation in genome size. We also compared several life history traits for 25 lines with large and 25 lines with small genomes in three thermal environments, and found that genome size as well as genome size by temperature interactions significantly correlated with survival to pupation and adulthood, time to pupation, female pupal mass, and female eclosion rates. Genome size accounted for up to 23% of the variation in developmental phenotypes, but the contribution of genome size to variation in life history traits was plastic and varied according to the thermal environment. Expression data implicate differences in metabolism that correspond to genome size variation. These results indicate that significant genome size variation exists within D. melanogaster and this variation may impact the evolutionary ecology of the species. Genome size variation accounts for a significant portion of life history variation in an environmentally dependent manner, suggesting that potential fitness effects associated with genome size variation also depend on environmental conditions.
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Mutational Analyses of the FMR1 Gene in Chinese Pediatric Population of Fragile X Suspects: Low Tolerance for Point Mutation.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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CGG repeat expansion is the most common cause of fragile X syndrome. Numerous efforts have been made to identify novel mutations in patients with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and/or autism. To evaluate the mutational spectrum in the at-risk Chinese population, 60 pediatric patients presenting fragile X traits but normal-sized CGG repeats were sequenced for all 17 exons and regulatory regions in FMR1. A c.879A>C mutation, reported to alter a neighboring splicing, was detected in a severely retarded male and his normal mother. However, the exon junction appears unaffected. A 237-kb deletion covering the entire FMR1 was identified to cause moderate intellectual disability and marked hyperactivity in an 8-year-old boy. The 5' and 3' breakpoints were buried in the surrounding long interspersed and short interspersed elements, respectively. In general, missense mutations do not commonly cause fragile X syndrome, whereas deletions should be considered with caution in patient referrals presenting with developmental delay and/or ordinary retardation.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pampus nozawae (Perciformes: Stromateidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pampus nozawae was presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,556?bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of Pampus nozawae mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 30.01% of A, 27.51% of C, 27.29% of T and 15.18% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and seven tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand.
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Endosonographic features of histologically proven gastric ectopic pancreas.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Gastric ectopic pancreas is an uncommon developmental anomaly and its histological diagnosis is usually difficult by using a conventional biopsy forceps. In the literature, most cases of gastric ectopic pancreas were usually diagnosed by gross pattern during endoscopic examination or features of endoscopic ultrasound. In contrast, this disease was seldom diagnosed by histology in clinical practice. Although the typical endoscopic ultrasonographic features of ectopic pancreas include heterogeneous echogenicity, indistinct borders, and a location within 2 or more layers, it can also exhibit hypoechoic homogeneous echogenicity and a distinct border within the fourth sonographic layer (muscularis propria) similar to the endoscopic ultrasonographic features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In our study, we found that 53% of gastric ectopic pancreas originated within the fourth sonographic layer, demonstrating hypoechoic, homogeneous echogenicity, and distinct borders. Therefore, recognizing endoscopic ultrasonographic features, combining with deep biopsy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration/core needle biopsy can prevent conducting unnecessary resection. Surgical resection is the mainstay treatment for symptomatic gastric ectopic pancreas, but endoscopic resection using endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection technique provides an alternative method of removing superficial-type and deep-type gastric ectopic pancreas.
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Stent-Graft Placement with Early Debridement and Antibiotic Treatment for Femoral Pseudoaneurysms in Intravenous Drug Addicts.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Explore the application of endovascular covered stent-graft (SG) placement in femoral pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug addicts.
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A 1400-year terrigenous dust record on a coral island in South China Sea.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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We present analyses of a lacustrine sediment core (DY6) on Dongdao Island, which provides high-resolution paleoclimate records for the South China Sea (SCS). Results of element analyses indicate that the concentrations of Ti and Al in DY6 are much higher than the background on the island. Morphological characteristics of acidic insoluble particles are similar to aeolian in East China. Sr and Nd isotope compositions in these particles are consistent with those in Asian aeolian dust. We inferred that dust in DY6 may have been transported by East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) from inland Asia. The continuous dust records for the past 1400 years in North SCS were presented based on the measured Ti flux, which revealed an opposite trend to the variations in the EAWM for the past 50 years. A comparison of wind fields between cold and warm years shows that north surface wind in southeast China was stronger in cold years. However, 850?hPa wind vector along the east coast of China, the key level of wind for long-distance dust transmission, weakened in cold years. We conclude that differences in the EAWM records can be attributed to the 850?hPa wind pattern in different areas.
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Theoretical study of thermoelectric properties of few-layer MoS2 and WSe2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2) are prototypical layered two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide materials, with each layer consisting of three atomic planes. We refer to each layer as a trilayer (TL). We study the thermoelectric properties of 1-4TL MoS2 and WSe2 using a ballistic transport approach based on the electronic band structures and phonon dispersions obtained from first-principles calculations. Our results show that the thickness dependence of the thermoelectric properties is different under n-type and p-type doping conditions. Defining ZT1st?peak as the first peak in the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT as doping levels increase from zero at 300 K, we found that ZT1st?peak decreases as the number of layers increases for MoS2, with the exception of 2TL in n-type doping, which has a slightly higher value than 1TL. However, for WSe2, 2TL has the largest ZT1st?peak in both n-type and p-type doping, with a ZT1st?peak value larger than 1 for n-type WSe2. At high temperatures (T > 300 K), ZT1st?peak dramatically increases when the temperature increases, especially for n-type doping. The ZT1st?peak of n-type 1TL-MoS2 and 2TL-WSe2 can reach 1.6 and 2.1, respectively.
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Haloemodin as novel antibacterial agent inhibiting DNA gyrase and bacterial topoisomerase I.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Drug-resistant bacterial infections and lack of available antibacterial agents in clinical practice are becoming serious risks to public health. We synthesized a new class of haloemodins by modifying a traditional Chinese medicine component, emodin. The novel haloemodin exerts strong inhibitory activity on bacterial topoisomerase I and DNA gyrase, and not on the topoisomerases of human origin. In principle, it shows remarkable antibacterial activities against laboratory and clinically isolated Gram-positive bacteria, including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We further expanded its antibacterial spectrum into against Gram-negative bacteria with the assistance of polymyxin B nonapeptide, which helps haloemodin to penetrate through the bacterial outer membrane. Finally, the therapeutic effect of haloemodin in vivo was confirmed in curing S. aureus-induced keratitis on rabbit model. With distinctive structural difference from the antibiotics we used, the haloemodins are of value as promising antibacterial pharmacophore, especially for combat the infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens.
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Compositions and constituents of freshwater dissolved organic matter isolated by reverse osmosis.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from riverine and lacustrine water was isolated using a reverse osmosis (RO) system. Solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) was used to quantitatively evaluate the compositions and constituents of DOM, which are compared with previous investigations on marine DOM. Results indicated that concentration factor (CF) was a key metric controlling yield and sorption of DOM on the RO system. The sorption was likely non-selective, based on the (13)C NMR and ?(13)C analyses. Carbohydrates and lipids accounted for 25.0-41.5% and 30.2-46.3% of the identifiable DOM, followed by proteins (18.2-19.8%) and lignin (7.17-12.8%). The freshwater DOM contained much higher alkyl and aromatic C but lower alkoxyl and carboxyl C than marine DOM. The structural difference was not completely accounted for by using structure of high molecular weight (HMW) DOM, suggesting a size change involved in transformations of DOM during the transport from rivers to oceans.
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Natural variation in genome architecture among 205 Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel lines.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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The Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) is a community resource of 205 sequenced inbred lines, derived to improve our understanding of the effects of naturally occurring genetic variation on molecular and organismal phenotypes. We used an integrated genotyping strategy to identify 4,853,802 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1,296,080 non-SNP variants. Our molecular population genomic analyses show higher deletion than insertion mutation rates and stronger purifying selection on deletions. Weaker selection on insertions than deletions is consistent with our observed distribution of genome size determined by flow cytometry, which is skewed toward larger genomes. Insertion/deletion and single nucleotide polymorphisms are positively correlated with each other and with local recombination, suggesting that their nonrandom distributions are due to hitchhiking and background selection. Our cytogenetic analysis identified 16 polymorphic inversions in the DGRP. Common inverted and standard karyotypes are genetically divergent and account for most of the variation in relatedness among the DGRP lines. Intriguingly, variation in genome size and many quantitative traits are significantly associated with inversions. Approximately 50% of the DGRP lines are infected with Wolbachia, and four lines have germline insertions of Wolbachia sequences, but effects of Wolbachia infection on quantitative traits are rarely significant. The DGRP complements ongoing efforts to functionally annotate the Drosophila genome. Indeed, 15% of all D. melanogaster genes segregate for potentially damaged proteins in the DGRP, and genome-wide analyses of quantitative traits identify novel candidate genes. The DGRP lines, sequence data, genotypes, quality scores, phenotypes, and analysis and visualization tools are publicly available.
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Sonic hedgehog and androgen signaling in tumor and stromal compartments drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer.
Scand J Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Abstract Objective. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, androgens and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are related to prostate cancer (PCa) progression. The aim of this study was to investigate how Shh and androgen [dihydrotestosterone (DHT)] signaling act in prostate epithelial and stromal compartments and whether this signaling pathway drives EMT and promotes PCa progression. Material and methods. LNCaP, normal prostate fibroblast (NPF) and cancer-associated prostate fibroblast (CPF) cells were studied with DHT and/or the Shh signaling inhibitor cyclopamine. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to evaluate the expressions of a potential Shh target gene, osteonectin (ON) and EMT-associated markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin). Immunohistochemical studies using PCa prostatectomy samples were performed to assess the expression levels of ON, Gli-1, androgen receptor, Shh, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin. Results. While DHT enhanced cell proliferation in CPF more than LNCaP or NPF, cyclopamine inhibited cell proliferation enhanced by DHT in CPF. Real-time RT-PCR showed whereas both Shh and DHT induced N-cadherin and vimentin, DHT also induced the expression of osteonectin in LNCaP and cyclopamine blocked these expressions in osteonectin, N-cadherin and vimentin (p = 0.0084, 0.0002 and 0.0373, respectively). Immunohistochemistry showed that high expression of stromal, but, not epithelial, ON was significantly correlated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (p = 0.031), and high expression of Gli-1 and low expression of stromal ON with PSA recurrence (p = 0.0114 and p = 0.0005, respectively). Conclusions. Shh and androgen signaling in prostate tumor and stromal compartments drives EMT, and thus may play some role in PCa progression. Cyclopamine may be one therapeutic strategy for PCa.
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In-situ partitioning and bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among water, suspended particulate matter, and fish in the Dongjiang and Pearl Rivers and the Pearl River Estuary, China.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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The partitioning and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and fish samples from the Dongjiang River (DR), Pearl River (PR), and the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) were examined. Although PAHs are much lower in PRE than in DR or PR, PAHs in some fish species are significantly higher in PRE than in DR or PR. Aqueous or particulate PAHs respectively show significant correlations with dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic matter, and chlorophyll a, suggesting that biological pumping effect regulates their distribution. The in situ partitioning coefficients (logKoc) for PAHs are one order magnitude higher than the empirical logKoc-logKow correlation. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is slightly higher for the marine fish than for the freshwater fish. The above phenomena indicate that BCF may vary due to the diversity of fish species, feeding habits, and metabolism of PAHs in fish.
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No overall increased risk of cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a nationwide dynamic cohort study in Taiwan.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cancer is still controversial. This study aimed to estimate cancer incidence (both overall and site-specific) among patients with RA and to determine whether their cancer risk was higher than in the general population. We used the nationwide dynamic cohort from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan and obtained a total of 30,504 patients with no history of cancer who were newly diagnosed with RA between 1996 and 2008; they were followed up until 2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) by age for various types of cancer were calculated in 5-year calendar periods by 5-year age intervals (quinquinquennium) to compare elevated risk of increasing age and increased cancer rate in later calendar years in Taiwan. During 225,432 person-years of follow-up, 1,595 cancers occurred, corresponding to 7.08 per 1,000 person-years. The SIR for all cancers was 0.93 (95 % CI 0.88-0.97). Most cancers were found in the first 2 years after diagnosis of RA, but the incidence decreased afterward. A significant excess of Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 3.31, 95 % CI 1.24-8.81) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 3.18, 95 % CI 2.64-3.83) was seen among patients with RA, whereas the risk of colorectal cancer was 29 % lower than the general population. In conclusion, this study showed that patients with RA do not have increased overall risk of cancers but have higher risk of hematologic malignancies and lower risk of colorectal cancer, than the general population.
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Synthesis and anti-influenza activities of novel baicalein analogs.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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A series of novel flavones derivatives were synthesized based on modification of the active ingredients of a traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI and screened for anti-influenza activity. The synthetic baicalein (flavone) analogs, especially with the B-rings substituted with bromine atoms, were much more potent than oseltamivir or ribavirin against H1N1 Tamiflu-resistant (H1N1 TR) virus and usually with more favorable selectivity. The most promising were 5b, 5c, 6b and 6c, all displaying an 50% effective concentration (EC50) at around 4.0-4.5?µM, and a selective index (SI=50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50)/EC50)>70. For seasonal H3N2-infected influenza virus, both 5a and 5b with SI >17.3 indicated superior to ribavirin. The flavonoids having both not-naturally-occurring bromo-substituted B-rings and appropriate hydroxyls positioning on the A-rings might be critical in determining the activity and selectivity against H1N1-Tamiflu-resistant infected influenza viruses.
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Oral lovastatin attenuates airway inflammation and mucus secretion in ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Lovastatin is an effective inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis. A previous study demonstrated that lovastatin can also suppress airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in murine model of asthma. We aimed to investigate the effect of lovastatin on mucus secretion and inflammation-associated gene expression in the lungs of murine model of asthma.
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Photovoltaic enhancement due to surface-plasmon assisted visible-light absorption at the inartificial surface of lead zirconate-titanate film.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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PZT film of 300 nm thickness was deposited on tin indium oxide (ITO) coated quartz by a sol-gel method. Four metal electrodes, such as Pt, Au, Cu and Ag, were used as top electrodes deposited on the same PZT film by sputtering at room temperature. In ITO-PZT-Ag and ITO-PZT-Au structures, the visible light (400-700 nm) can be absorbed partially by a PZT film, and the maximum efficiency of photoelectric conversion of the ITO-PZT-Ag structure was enhanced to 0.42% (100 mW cm(-2), AM 1.5G), which is about 15 times higher than that of the ITO-PZT-Pt structure. Numerical simulations show that the natural random roughness of polycrystalline-PZT-metal interface can offer a possibility of coupling between the incident photons and SPs at the metal surface. The coincidence between the calculated SP properties and the measured EQE spectra reveals the SP origin of the photovoltaic enhancement in these ITO-PZT-metal structures, and the improved photocurrent output is caused by the enhanced optical absorption in the PZT region near the metal surface, rather than by the direct charge-transfer process between two materials.
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Risky alcohol use among migrant women in entertainment venues in China.
Alcohol Alcohol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The aims of this study are to describe the prevalence of hazardous drinking among migrant women working in entertainment venues in an urban setting in China and to identify specific risk factors and locations where hazardous drinking occurs.
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IL-10 Deficiency Increases Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
Nephron Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Background: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a frequent cause of acute kidney injury, which results in high morbidity and mortality. Inflammation is an important factor that is involved in kidney repair after renal IR injury. IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that inhibits inflammatory pathways, but the role of IL-10 in repairing renal IR injury is not known. Here, we investigated the role of IL-10 in kidney repair after renal IR injury. Methods: We used an IL-10(-/-) mouse model and examined the serologic and histomorphology of kidney after IR injury. We also measured ki67, TNF-?, IL-6, and macrophages with immunohistochemistry or Western blotting. Results: There was a greater increase in serum creatinine in IL-10(-/-) mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. And compared with WT mice, IL-10(-/-) mice had increased histologic renal injury and decreased proliferation. Moreover, the expression of TNF-?, IL-6 and macrophages was clearly increased in IL-10(-/-) mice compared with the WT mice. Conclusion: These data reveal an important role for IL-10 in the improvement of renal IR injury, acting through suppression of inflammatory mediators, and that IL-10 would be a crucial target for the treatment of IR injury. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Human Fatality Due to Thallium Poisoning: Autopsy, Microscopy, and Mass Spectrometry Assays(.)
J. Forensic Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Thallium has been responsible for many intoxications since its discovery; however, toxicological profiles for thallium in human fatalities have not been updated recently. Autopsy, microscopic investigations, and toxicological analyses were performed on a married couple who died from thallium sulfate intended homicidal poisoning. The distribution of thallium was established by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with hair samples showing the highest thallium concentration. Electron microscopy revealed a dystrophic condition of hair with disorganized cuticle and atrophy of the hair bulb. Thallium interacts with cells at different levels, with prominent ultrastructural injuries in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and high concentration of electron dense granules observed in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of several organs. Alopecia, toxic encephalopathy, and peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed in the victims and suggested to be crucial implications for thallium poisoning. The analytical procedures used in this case are of considerable forensic importance in the diagnosis of thallium poisoning.
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PPAR agonist-mediated protection against HIV Tat-induced cerebrovascular toxicity is enhanced in MMP-9-deficient mice.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The strategies to protect against the disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) in HIV-1 infection are not well developed. Therefore, we investigated the potential of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists to prevent enhanced BBB permeability induced by HIV-1-specific protein Tat. Exposure to Tat via the internal carotid artery (ICA) disrupted permeability across the BBB; however, this effect was attenuated in mice treated with fenofibrate (PPAR? agonist) or rosiglitazone (PPAR? agonist). In contrast, exposure to GW9662 (PPAR? antagonist) exacerbated Tat-induced disruption of the BBB integrity. Increased BBB permeability was associated with decreased tight junction (TJ) protein expression and activation of ERK1/2 and Akt in brain microvessels; these effects were attenuated by cotreatment with fenofibrate but not with rosiglitazone. Importantly, both PPAR agonists also protected against Tat-induced astrogliosis and neuronal loss. Because disruption of TJ integrity has been linked to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, we also evaluated Tat-induced effects in MMP-9-deficient mice. Tat-induced cerebrovascular toxicity, astrogliosis, and neuronal loss were less pronounced in MMP-9-deficient mice as compared with wild-type controls and were further attenuated by PPAR agonists. These results indicate that enhancing PPAR activity combined with targeting MMPs may provide effective therapeutic strategies in brain infection by HIV-1.
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Robinetinidol?flavone attenuates cholesterol synthesis in hepatoma cells via inhibition of 3?hydroxy?3?methylglutaryl?coenzyme A reductase.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Robinetinidol?(4?,2')?tetrahydroxy?flavone (RBF) is an oligomeric condensed polyphenol that has been shown to exhibit anti?obesity effects in mice. However, little is know regarding its effect on cholesterol synthesis. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effect of RBF on cholesterol synthesis. It was determined that RBF decreased serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats by 25.9 and 50.8%, respectively (P<0.001). These results strengthen evidence for the hypothesis that RBF exerts anti?atherogenic effects in vivo. Furthermore, RBF decreased cholesterol synthesis by 72%, when measured using a 3 h period of radiolabeled acetate incorporation into cholesterol, but not when using radiolabelled mevalonate, suggesting that RBF?mediated inhibition occurred largely at or above the level of 3?hydroxy?3?methylglutaryl?coenzymeA (HMG?CoA) reductase. The mechanism by which RBF inactivates HMG?CoA reductase may be attributed to the induction of phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)?kinase, since these results showed that RBF increased phosphorylation of AMP?kinase and HMG?CoA reductase by 2.1? and 3.2?fold, respectively, within 30 min of addition. These results suggest that RBF may be a potential therapeutic agent for hypercholesteremia.
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Heavy metals in particulate and colloidal matter from atmospheric deposition of urban Guangzhou, South China.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Suspended particulate matter (SPM) and colloidal matter (COM) in annual dry and wet deposition samples in urban Guangzhou were for the first time collected, and their trace metals were investigated by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The deposition flux of SPM and of metal elements varied largely among the investigated seasons, and reached the maximum in spring. The correlation analysis indicated that significant correlations existed among some of the metal elements in the deposition samples. The enrichment factors (EF) of metals in COM in the deposition ranging from 79.66 to 130,000 were much higher than those of SPM ranging from 1.65 to 286.48, indicating the important role of COM. The factor analysis showed that emissions from street dust, non-ferrous metal production, and heavy fuel oil were major sources of the trace metals. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used to quantitatively estimate anthropogenic source.
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Elevated activation of CaMKII? in the CPEB3-knockout hippocampus impairs a specific form of NMDAR-dependent synaptic depotentiation.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 3 (CPEB3) is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that confines the strength of glutamatergic synapses by translationally downregulating the expression of multiple plasticity-related proteins (PRPs), including the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95). CPEB3 knockout (KO) mice exhibit hippocampus-dependent abnormalities related not only to long-term spatial memory but also to the short-term acquisition and extinction of contextual fear memory. In this study, we identified a specific form of NMDAR-dependent synaptic depotentiation (DPT) that is impaired in the adult CPEB3 KO hippocampus. In parallel, cultured KO neurons also exhibited delayed morphological and biochemical responses under NMDA-induced chemical long-term depression (c-LTD). The c-LTD defects in the KO neurons include elevated activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha subunit (CaMKII?), increased Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 and slow degradation of PSD95 and GluA1. Because transient pharmacological suppression of CaMKII? activity during the DPT-initiating phase successfully reversed the LTP in the KO hippocampus, DPT and c-LTD in the two different systems shared common molecular defects due to the absence of CPEB3. Together, our results suggest that CPEB3 deficiency imbalances NMDAR-activated CaMKII? signaling, which consequently fails to depress synaptic strength under certain stimulation conditions.
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Long noncoding RNA GHET1 promotes the development of bladder cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In spite of the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer, the prognosis of bladder cancer remains relatively poor. As a result, it is vital to identify novel diagnostic and prognostic marker of bladder cancer. A growing volume of literature has implicated the vital role of long noncoding RNA in the development of cancer. GHET1, a recently identified lncRNA, was initially characterized in gastric cancer. However, its role in bladder cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that GHET1 was upregulated in bladder cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues and its over-expression correlates with tumor size, advanced tumor and lymph node status, and poor survival. GHET1 knockdown suppressed the proliferation and invasion of bladder cancer cells in vitro. In the meantime, inhibition of GHET1 reversed the epithelial-mesenchymal-transition in bladder cancer cell line. Taken together, our study suggests that the potential use of GHET1 as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target of bladder cancer.
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Clinicopathologic features of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ovarian Stertoli-Ledig cell tumor (SLCT) is a rare type of sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovary. The present study was to evaluate clinicalopahologic features and prognosis of patients with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor treated by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy during short term follow-up.
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Genome-wide association analysis of tolerance to methylmercury toxicity in Drosophila implicates myogenic and neuromuscular developmental pathways.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Methylmercury (MeHg) is a persistent environmental toxin present in seafood that can compromise the developing nervous system in humans. The effects of MeHg toxicity varies among individuals, despite similar levels of exposure, indicating that genetic differences contribute to MeHg susceptibility. To examine how genetic variation impacts MeHg tolerance, we assessed developmental tolerance to MeHg using the sequenced, inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). We found significant genetic variation in the effects of MeHg on development, measured by eclosion rate, giving a broad sense heritability of 0.86. To investigate the influence of dietary factors, we measured MeHg toxicity with caffeine supplementation in the DGRP lines. We found that caffeine counteracts the deleterious effects of MeHg in the majority of lines, and there is significant genetic variance in the magnitude of this effect, with a broad sense heritability of 0.80. We performed genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for both traits, and identified candidate genes that fall into several gene ontology categories, with enrichment for genes involved in muscle and neuromuscular development. Overexpression of glutamate-cysteine ligase, a MeHg protective enzyme, in a muscle-specific manner leads to a robust rescue of eclosion of flies reared on MeHg food. Conversely, mutations in kirre, a pivotal myogenic gene identified in our GWA analyses, modulate tolerance to MeHg during development in accordance with kirre expression levels. Finally, we observe disruptions of indirect flight muscle morphogenesis in MeHg-exposed pupae. Since the pathways for muscle development are evolutionarily conserved, it is likely that the effects of MeHg observed in Drosophila can be generalized across phyla, implicating muscle as an additional hitherto unrecognized target for MeHg toxicity. Furthermore, our observations that caffeine can ameliorate the toxic effects of MeHg show that nutritional factors and dietary manipulations may offer protection against the deleterious effects of MeHg exposure.
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Honokiol enhances paclitaxel efficacy in multi-drug resistant human cancer model through the induction of apoptosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Resistance to chemotherapy remains a major obstacle in cancer therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanism and efficacy of honokiol in inducing apoptosis and enhancing paclitaxel chemotherapy in pre-clinical multi-drug resistant (MDR) cancer models, including lineage-derived human MDR (KB-8-5, KB-C1, KB-V1) and their parental drug sensitive KB-3-1 cancer cell lines. In vitro analyses demonstrated that honokiol effectively inhibited proliferation in KB-3-1 cells and the MDR derivatives (IC50 ranging 3.35 ± 0.13 µg/ml to 2.77 ± 0.22 µg/ml), despite their significant differences in response to paclitaxel (IC50 ranging 1.66 ± 0.09 ng/ml to 6560.9 ± 439.52 ng/ml). Honokiol induced mitochondria-dependent and death receptor-mediated apoptosis in MDR KB cells, which was associated with inhibition of EGFR-STAT3 signaling and downregulation of STAT3 target genes. Combined treatment with honokiol and paclitaxel synergistically augmented cytotoxicity in MDR KB cells, compared with treatment with either agent alone in vitro. Importantly, the combined treatment significantly inhibited in vivo growth of KB-8-5 tumors in a subcutaneous model. Tumor tissues from the combination group displayed a significant inhibition of Ki-67 expression and an increase in TUNEL-positive cells compared with the control group. These results suggest that targeting multidrug resistance using honokiol in combination with chemotherapy drugs may provide novel therapeutic opportunities.
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Identification and functional characterization of two executioner caspases in Crassostrea gigas.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Caspase-3 and caspase-7 are two key effector caspases that play important roles in apoptotic pathways that maintain normal tissue and organ development and homeostasis. However, little is known about the sequence, structure, activity, and function of effector caspases upon apoptosis in mollusks, especially marine bivalves. In this study, we investigated the possible roles of two executioner caspases in the regulation of apoptosis in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. A full-length caspase-3-like gene named Cgcaspase-3 was cloned from C.gigas cDNA, encoding a predicted protein containing caspase family p20 and p10 domain profiles and a conserved caspase active site motif. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that both Cgcaspase-3 and Cgcaspase-1 may function as effector caspases clustered in the invertebrate branch. Although the sequence identities between the two caspases was low, both enzymes possessed executioner caspase activity and were capable of inducing cell death. These results suggested that Cgcaspase-3 and Cgcaspase-1 were two effector caspases in C. gigas. We also observed that nucleus-localized Cgcaspase-3, may function as a caspase-3-like protein and cytoplasm-localized Cgcaspase-1 may function as a caspase-7-like protein. Both Cgcaspase-3 and Cgcaspase-1 mRNA expression increased after larvae settled on the substratum, suggesting that both caspases acted in several tissues or organs that degenerated after oyster larvae settlement. The highest caspase expression levels were observed in the gills indicating that both effector caspases were likely involved in immune or metabolic processes in C. gigas.
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Correlation between FMR1 expression and clinical phenotype in discordant dichorionic-diamniotic monozygotic twin sisters with the fragile x mutation.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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The clinical phenotypes of females with fragile X full mutations vary drastically. Comparisons of discordant monozygotic twins provide opportunities to ascertain crucial factors that influence disease phenotype penetrance.
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[Concentration, profile distribution and source identification of PCDD/Fs in environmental medium around a HSWI].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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The concentration and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the environmental air, soil and plant samples around a hospital solid waste incinerator (HSWI) in Northwest of China were determined by HRGC/HRMS, and the flue gas samples of the HSWI were also involved. The results showed that the average concentration (I-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs in the exhaust gas was 184 ng x m(-3), which seriously exceeds the emission standard (0.5 ng x m(-3)). And the average concentration of PCDD/ Fs was 7.30 pg x m(-3) in the ambient air samples, 52.5 pg x g(-1) in the soil samples, and 146 pg x g(-1) in the leaves samples. All of them were at quite high levels. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air samples of downwind were obviously higher than those of upwind. The concentration increased and then decreased with the increase of distance from the HSWI, and the highest concentration occurred at the distance of 700 m from the HSWI. The mass concentration (I-TEQ) proportional distributions of 2, 3, 7, 8 substitution toxic dioxins in downwind air and soil samples was similar to those in the exhaust gas samples. The analysis results of PCDD/Fs concentrations, profiles distributions and principal components all showed that the major source of PCDD/Fs in this area was from the HSWI flue gas emissions.
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3D hierarchical architectures based on self-rolled-up silicon nitride membranes.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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This study presents the superior structural versatility of strained silicon nitride (SiNx) membranes as a platform for three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical tubular architectures. The effects of compressive and tensile stressed SiNx layer thickness on the self-rolled-up tube curvature, the sacrificial layer etching anisotropy on rolling direction and chirality, and stress engineering by localized thickness control or thermal treatment, are explored systematically. Using strained SiNx membranes as an electrically insulating and optically transparent mechanical support, compact 3D hierarchical architectures involving carbon nanotube arrays and passive electronic components are demonstrated by releasing the functional structures deposited and patterned in 2D. These examples highlight the uniqueness of this platform that exploits 2D processing and self-assembly to achieve highly functional 3D structures.
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Deletion of CPEB3 enhances hippocampus-dependent memory via increasing expressions of PSD95 and NMDA receptors.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Long-term memory requires activity-dependent synthesis of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) to strengthen synaptic efficacy and consequently consolidate memory. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB)3 is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that regulates translation of several PRP RNAs in neurons. To understand whether CPEB3 plays a part in learning and memory, we generated CPEB3 knock-out (KO) mice and found that the null mice exhibited enhanced hippocampus-dependent, short-term fear memory in the contextual fear conditioning test and long-term spatial memory in the Morris water maze. The basal synaptic transmission of Schaffer collateral-CA1 neurons was normal but long-term depression evoked by paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation was modestly facilitated in the juvenile KO mice. Molecular and cellular characterizations revealed several molecules in regulating plasticity of glutamatergic synapses are translationally elevated in the CPEB3 KO neurons, including the scaffolding protein PSD95 and the NMDA receptors along with the known CPEB3 target, GluA1. Together, CPEB3 functions as a negative regulator to confine the strength of glutamatergic synapses by downregulating the expression of multiple PRPs and plays a role underlying certain forms of hippocampus-dependent memories.
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Pyogenic liver abscess as a warning sign for primary liver cancer: a nationwide population-based study.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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There have been no large-scale population-based studies to estimate the subsequent risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) among patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). This study aimed to provide relevant data.
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Matrine attenuates allergic airway inflammation and eosinophil infiltration by suppressing eotaxin and Th2 cytokine production in asthmatic mice.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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Matrine has been isolated from Sophora flavescens, and found to show anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and anti-cachectic effects in hepatomas. The present study investigated whether matrine suppressed eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in mice, and decreased the inflammatory response of tracheal epithelial cells.
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The training and learning process of transseptal puncture using a modified technique.
Europace
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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As the transseptal (TS) puncture has become an integral part of many types of cardiac interventional procedures, its technique that was initial reported for measurement of left atrial pressure in 1950s, continue to evolve. Our laboratory adopted a modified technique which uses only coronary sinus catheter as the landmark to accomplishing TS punctures under fluoroscopy. The aim of this study is prospectively to evaluate the training and learning process for TS puncture guided by this modified technique.
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Attitude of medical school students in China towards genetic testing and counseling issues in FXS.
J Genet Couns
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. However, genetic testing protocols and genetic counseling guidelines for FXS are not yet established in mainland China. In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis using a self-administered questionnaire among students at the Xiangya medical school to investigate their attitude towards genetic testing and counseling issues of FXS. We have gained a general understanding of the attitudes of medical students towards these FXS issues in China. This information is of immense importance to develop appropriate genetic tests and to train counselors for FXS. As the medical school students surveyed are prospective physicians who will be a part of the Chinese health system, our survey was focused on the basic knowledge of FXS, population-based FXS screening, confidentiality and reproductive options for mutation carriers. The study demonstrated that only less than one third of the participants had heard about FXS. 94.6 % of participants were in favor of FXS screening for women in their reproductive age who had a genetic history of FXS. Furthermore, only half of the participants would inform their families about their genetic status in case of positive test results, and more than half of the participants supported natural conception and prenatal diagnosis for FXS mutation carriers. Additional findings and research implications are also discussed. This survey targeting potential doctors provides important information for the development of FXS genetic test and counselor training for the Chinese health system.
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Differential diagnosis of colorectal polyps with respect to similar capabilities of white light colonoscopy and narrow-band imaging.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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The responses of polyps to light essentially determine the diagnostic capability of an endoscopy system in differentiating adenomas from hyperplastic polyps. Compared with white light colonoscopy (WLC), narrow-band imaging (NBI) is expected to improve the diagnostic capability. The diagnostic capabilities of WLC and NBI are evaluated and compared based on the polyp responses.
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Alleviation of hyperglycemia induced vascular endothelial injury by exenatide might be related to the reduction of nitrooxidative stress.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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We will investigate the effects of exenatide on vascular endothelial injury and nitrooxidative stress in hyperglycemia both in vivo and in vitro and explore the role of nitrooxidative stress in endothelium-protective action of exenatide. Healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM) model, low dose of exenatide treatment, and high dose of exenatide treatment. In vitro study showed that, compared with control group, the DM rats exhibited a lowered endothelium-dependent relaxation and damaged structural integrity of thoracic aortas, and there was a significant increase in plasma nitrotyrosine concentration. These parameters were improved after treatment with either low dose or high dose of exenatide for 45 days. In vitro study showed that exendin-4 (the active ingredient of exenatide) attenuated HUVECs injury induced by high glucose, with improving cell viability and attenuating cell apoptosis. Exendin-4 also significantly alleviated the increased malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrotyrosine content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression induced by high glucose in HUVECs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exenatide treatment can alleviate the vascular endothelial injury, as well as attenuating the nitrooxidative stress in hyperglycemia, implying that the endothelium-protective effect of exenatide might be related to the reduction of nitrooxidative stress.
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[Study on absorption and accumulation of mercury in rats by repeated administration of Yuhong ointment].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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To study in vivo mercury absorption and accumulation through repeated transdermal administration of Yuhong ointment containing calomel, in order to provide scientific evidences for clinical safe medication.
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Metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein and microalbuminuria in a rural Chinese population: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria is an early marker of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Previous studies have shown that either metabolic syndrome (MetS) or chronic inflammation is related to renal impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MetS, C-reactive protein (CRP) and microalbuminuria in a rural Chinese population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Handan Eye Study. MetS was defined according to the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) criteria. CRP levels >= 3 mg/L were classified as high CRP. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) of 30--300 mg/g. RESULTS: We included 4191 subjects aged >= 30 years in this analysis. The prevalence of MetS and microalbuminuria in the group was 25.7% and 15.6%, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of microalbuminuria in subjects with MetS was 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03 - 1.51) compared with those without microalbuminuria. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, high blood pressure (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.10 - 1.67) and high fasting blood glucose (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.17 - 1.76) were independently associated with microalbuminuria. Subjects with high CRP and MetS had a 1.46-fold greater risk of having microalbuminuria compared with those with low CRP without MetS (95% CI: 1.06 - 2.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this rural Chinese population aged >=30 years, MetS and microalbuminuria were independently related and the combination of high CRP and MetS was associated with an increased risk of microalbuminuria.
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Penguin tissue as a proxy for relative krill abundance in East Antarctica during the Holocene.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key component of the Southern Ocean food web. It supports a large number of upper trophic-level predators, and is also a major fishery resource. Understanding changes in krill abundance has long been a priority for research and conservation in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we performed stable isotope analyses on ancient Adélie penguin tissues and inferred relative krill abundance during the Holocene epoch from paleodiets of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), using inverse of ?¹?N (ratio of ¹?N/¹?N) value as a proxy. We find that variations in krill abundance during the Holocene are in accord with episodes of regional climate changes, showing greater krill abundance in cold periods. Moreover, the low ?¹?N values found in modern Adélie penguins indicate relatively high krill availability, which supports the hypothesis of krill surplus in modern ages due to recent hunt for krill-eating seals and whales by humans.
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Risk factors associated with the occurrence of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis of the lower limb.
Phlebology
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to investigate the prevalence of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis in the lower limbs and to evaluate the associated risk factors. METHODS: A total of 322 patients with acute deep venous thrombosis confirmed by CT venography or Doppler ultrasonography were studied. The diagnosis of silent pulmonary embolism was established by computed tomography pulmonary arteriography (CTPA). The association between covariates and the prevalence of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs were assessed using chi-square test and multivariable regression. RESULTS: The incidence of silent pulmonary embolism was 33.5% (108 in 322 patients) in all patients with deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs. Chi-square test showed male gender, the right lower limb, proximal location of the thrombus, unprovoked venous thrombosis and coexisting heart diseases were related to a higher incidence of silent pulmonary embolism in patients with deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs. The multivariate regression analysis confirmed that the risk factors associated with silent pulmonary embolism in deep venous thrombosis patients included the right side and proximal location of the thrombus (odds ratio: 2.023, 95% CI: 1.215-3.368; odds ratio: 3.610, 95% CI: 1.772-7.354), unprovoked venous thrombosis (odds ratio: 2.037, 95% CI: 1.188-3.493), coexisting heart diseases (odds ratio: 4.507, 95% CI: 2.667-7.618). CONCLUSION: Silent pulmonary embolism occurred frequently in patients with deep venous thrombosis in lower limbs. The right side, the proximal location of the thrombus, unprovoked venous thrombosis and coexisting heart diseases increased the risk for the occurrence of silent pulmonary embolism.
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Synthesis of diosgenin-ibuprofen derivatives and their activities against insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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The synthesis and anti-diabetes activities of diosgenin-ibuprofen derivatives were investigated. Ibuprofen (IBU) was chemically coupled with diosgenin either directly or through amino acid esters linkers. The effects of these compounds on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) generation were assessed. The results showed spirost-5-en-3?-yl (2-(4-isobutyl-phenyl)-propionate) (4) was of better activity to suppress the production of NO in the supernatant of LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo investigation on nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice indicated that compound 4 decreased the incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM; type 1 diabetes) of NOD mice which suggested a potential activity of compound 4 against type 1 diabetes.
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Determination of deltonin in rat plasma by using HPLC-MS/MS and the application of this method in pharmacokinetic studies.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Deltonin is a naturally occurring spirostanol glycoside from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine. It exerts strong cytotoxic effect on C26 cells, inhibits C26 derived-tumor growth, and prolongs the survival of tumor-bearing mice after its oral administration, indicating its potential for use as an anti-tumor drug. To investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of deltonin, a rapid, sensitive, and simplified high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for the determination of deltonin in rat plasma. After acetonitrile-mediated plasma protein precipitation, chromatographic separation of deltonin was achieved using a reversed phase Hypersil Gold column (150mm×2.1mm, 5?m), with gradient elution using 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. Thereafter, deltonin was quantified using MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 200?L/min, and the retention time was 9.03min for deltonin and 6.31min for the internal standard (IS: 20(S)-ginsenoside Rb1). The linear range of the calibration curve was 2-5000ng/mL (r(2)>0.99), and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.46ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day accuracies ranged from -2.8% to 11.1% and precisions (RSD) were within 13.1%. Deltonin was found to be stable under short-term temperature conditions, post-preparative temperature conditions, and after 3 freeze-thaw cycles conditions. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats after oral administration of deltonin (50 and 100mg/kg). The pharmacokinetics is characterized by high apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F).
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Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions induced by 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in mouse.
J. Dermatol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Th2 cells are overexpressed in the skin and serum of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. Previously, we found that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) decreased eosinophil infiltration in asthmatic mice through the suppression of Th2-associated cytokines. Therefore, we hypothesized that DHEA might improve the symptoms of AD syndrome.
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Hypoxia induces connexin 43 dysregulation by modulating matrix metalloproteinases via MAPK signaling.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a major structural protein found in the gap junctions of the ventricular myocardium and a major determinant of its electrical properties. The effects of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, transcription factor NF-kB, and activator protein-1 (AP-1)/c-Jun on the regulation of Cx43 gene expression in H9c2 cardiomyocytes were assessed. The MAPK signaling pathway (MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K) and transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1/c-Jun were inhibited, then Cx43 expression was assessed using Western blot analysis, and MMP-9 activity was assessed using gelatin zymography. Hypoxia decreased the Cx43 protein level by approximately 30-50 %. Doxycycline (10 ?g/mL), an inhibitor of MMP, markedly attenuated the hypoxia-induced downregulation of Cx43 protein expression at 6 h. The hypoxia-induced decrease in Cx43 protein expression was significantly reversed by U0126 (10 ?M), a MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitor, at 6 and 12 h; LY294002 (30 ?M), a PI3K inhibitor, downregulated Cx43 expression. Hypoxia-induced MMP-9 activation was inhibited by treatment with LY294002, U0126, and, most especially, U0126. JSH-23 (30 ?M), an NF-kB inhibitor, and SP600125 (10 ?M), an AP-1/c-Jun inhibitor, attenuated the loss of Cx43. These results suggest that MAPK signaling and the activities NF-kB and MMPs play an important roles in the regulation of Cx43 expression.
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Functional thyrotropin receptor expression in the ventricle and the effects on ventricular BNP secretion.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Elevated thyrotropin (TSH) and hypercholesterolemia commonly coexist in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, which can cause and aggravate heart disease. However, it is unclear whether TSH has a direct effect on cardiac function. To determine the expression of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and the effects of TSH on ventricular function, we analyzed the ventricular tissues and thyroid glands from normal rats and mice and the H9c2 cardiomyocyte cell line. The results revealed that TSHR was expressed at the transcriptional and protein levels by PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The mRNA levels of ?-MHC and the expression of pCREB and HMGCR in the ventricle were significantly lower in Tshr (-/-) mice than in wild-type (WT) mice (p < 0.05), but serum NT-proBNP levels were similar between WT and Tshr (-/-) mice. After synchronization, H9c2 cells were stimulated with several concentrations of TSH for various time periods. TSH up-regulated ?-MHC mRNA expression in H9c2 cells. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and downstream signaling, such as pCREB and HMGCR expression and NT-proBNP secretion, increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. The TSH-stimulated effects were suppressed by an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor and HMGCR inhibitors (all p < 0.05). The data indicate functional TSHR is expressed in ventricular myocytes and mediates TSH-induced BNP secretion and HMGCR up-regulation through the cAMP/PKA/pCREB signaling pathway. Our findings suggest a potentially novel pathophysiological role of TSH in heart failure-associated hypothyroidism.
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Transplantation of differentiated bone marrow stromal cells promotes motor functional recovery in rats with stroke.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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To investigate the effects of transplantation into rats with stroke of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).
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Micro-flowers changing to nano-bundle aggregates by translocation of the sugar moiety in Janus TA nucleosides.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We designed and synthesized the Janus-type TA nucleosides (1-3) by using a transglycosylation protocol. Surprisingly, the subtle translocation of the ribose from N8 to N1 by about 230 pm in space leads to the formation of entirely different shaped superstructures, micro-flowers for J-AT and nano-bundles for J-TA.
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Detection and distribution of Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate on the East Antarctic ice sheet.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Use of PBDEs (Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers) has been restricted in Europe and North America in recent years. As substitute products with similar properties, OPEs (Organophosphate Esters) are now used as alternatives to PBDEs. Recent research has revealed that, similar to PBDEs, OPEs are also environmentally hazardous like PBDEs. Thus knowledge of their distribution and transport is needed to understand the extent of risk. However, studies on environmental OPEs mainly focus on Europe and North America. Knowledge in the southern hemisphere is very limited. In this study, we analyzed fresh snow samples collected along the transect from Zhongshan Station to Kunlun Station, East Antarctica. Several OPEs were detected in this transect, among which Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) had the highest frequency of quantification. It was quantified in most samples from the coastal half of the transect and was detected but not quantified in most samples in the inland half. We show that TCEP at this transect probably originated from the ocean around Antarctica. This study is the first to report the presence of TCEP on the Antarctica ice sheet, providing evidence of its long range transport from the source regions. This work also indicate that TCEP can transport hundreds of kilometers in the Antarctica.
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Effects of preservation methods on amino acids and 5-nucleotides of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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In this study, the proximate composition, free amino acids content and 5-nucleotides in frozen, canned and salted Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) were investigated. We found that the three kinds of A. bisporus products were good sources of protein, with amount varying in the ranges of 16.54-24.35g/100g (dry weight). Freezing, canning and salting process, followed by 6months of storage led to a significant reduction in free amino acids, especially tyrosine, alanine, glutamine and cysteine. There were medium levels of MSG-like amino acids in frozen A. bisporus and canned A. bisporus, and low levels of MSG-like amino acids in salted A. bisporus. The mount of flavor 5-nucleotides in frozen A. bisporus was higher than that of canned and salted A. bisporus. The present study thus suggests that freezing is beneficial for the preservation of A. bisporus.
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Laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy with trans-orally inserted anvil (OrVil™): a single institution experience.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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To investigate the feasibility of laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy (LATG) using trans-orally inserted anvil (OrVil™) in terms of operative characteristics and short term outcomes.
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Sex and litter effects on anxiety and DNA methylation levels of stress and neurotrophin genes in adolescent rats.
Dev Psychobiol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Maternal care variations associate with DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene, Nr3c1, in hippocampus at a nerve-growth factor-inducible protein 1 binding site. Epigenetic regulation of brain-derived neurotrophin factor is affected by early stress. These systems contribute to anxiety and fear. Early stress has sex-dependent effects perhaps reflecting sex differences in maternal care. Altering litter gender composition affects maternal behavior and DNA methylation levels of another gene in hippocampus and nucleus accumbens (NAc). We now test if DNA methylation levels of Nr3c1, Egr1, and Bdnf differ by litter composition or sex. Rats from mixed- or single-sex litters were tested for anxiety and fear on postnatal day 35. Brain tissues were collected and analyzed using direct sequencing methods. Females showed hypermethylation of Nr3c1 of hippocampal DNA and litter composition modified sex effects on methylation of Egr1 in NAc. Few differences were seen for Bdnf. LGC modified some sex differences in behavior. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol.
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Organophosphorus esters in the oceans and possible relation with ocean gyres.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Four organophosphorus esters (OPEs) were detected in aerosol samples collected in the West Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the Southern Ocean from 2009 to 2010, suggesting their circumpolar and global distribution. In general, the highest concentrations were detected near populated regions in China, Australia and New Zealand. OPE concentrations in the Southern Ocean were about two orders of magnitude lower than those near major continents. Additionally, relatively high OPE concentrations were detected at the Antarctic Peninsula, where several scientific survey stations are located. The four OPEs investigated here are significantly correlated with each other, suggesting they may derive from the same source. In the circumpolar transect, OPE concentrations were associated with ocean gyres in the open ocean. Their concentrations were positively related with average vorticity in the sampling area suggesting that a major source of OPEs may be found in ocean gyres where plastic debris is known to accumulate.
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