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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Peptide-Based, Two-Fluorophore, Ratiometric Probe for Quantifying Mobile Zinc in Biological Solutions.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Small-molecule fluorescent sensors are versatile agents for detecting mobile zinc in biology. Capitalizing on the abundance of validated mobile zinc probes, we devised a strategy for repurposing existing intensity-based sensors for quantitative applications. Using solid-phase peptide synthesis, we conjugated a zinc-sensitive Zinpyr-1 derivative and a zinc-insensitive 7-hydroxycoumarin derivative onto opposite ends of a rigid P9K peptide scaffold to create HcZ9, a ratiometric fluorescent probe for mobile zinc. A plate reader-based assay using HcZ9 was developed, the accuracy of which is comparable to that of atomic absorption spectroscopy. We investigated zinc accumulation in prostatic cells and zinc levels in human seminal fluid. When normal and tumorigenic cells are bathed in zinc-enriched media, cellular mobile zinc is buffered and changes slightly, but total zinc levels increase significantly. Quantification of mobile and total zinc levels in human seminal plasma revealed that the two are positively correlated with a Pearson's coefficient of 0.73.
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Survivorship: screening for cancer and treatment effects, version 2.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provide screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for common physical and psychosocial consequences of cancer and cancer treatment. This portion of the guidelines describes recommendations regarding screening for the effects of cancer and its treatment. The panel created a sample screening tool, specifically for use in combination with the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship, to guide providers to topics that require more in-depth assessment. Effective screening and assessment can help providers deliver necessary and comprehensive survivorship care.
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Survivorship: nutrition and weight management, version 2.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, including attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding nutrition, weight management, and supplement use in survivors. Weight management recommendations are based on the survivor's body mass index and include discussions of nutritional, weight management, and physical activity principles, with referral to community resources, dietitians, and/or weight management programs as needed.
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American society of clinical oncology position statement on obesity and cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Rates of obesity have increased significantly over the last three decades in the United States and globally. In addition to contributing to heart disease and diabetes, obesity is a major unrecognized risk factor for cancer. Obesity is associated with worsened prognosis after cancer diagnosis and also negatively affects the delivery of systemic therapy, contributes to morbidity of cancer treatment, and may raise the risk of second malignancies and comorbidities. Research shows that the time after a cancer diagnosis can serve as a teachable moment to motivate individuals to adopt risk-reducing behaviors. For this reason, the oncology care team-the providers with whom a patient has the closest relationships in the critical period after a cancer diagnosis-is in a unique position to help patients lose weight and make other healthy lifestyle changes. The American Society of Clinical Oncology is committed to reducing the impact of obesity on cancer and has established a multipronged initiative to accomplish this goal by 1) increasing education and awareness of the evidence linking obesity and cancer; 2) providing tools and resources to help oncology providers address obesity with their patients; 3) building and fostering a robust research agenda to better understand the pathophysiology of energy balance alterations, evaluate the impact of behavior change on cancer outcomes, and determine the best methods to help cancer survivors make effective and useful changes in lifestyle behaviors; and 4) advocating for policy and systems change to address societal factors contributing to obesity and improve access to weight management services for patients with cancer.
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Survivorship: healthy lifestyles, version 2.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Healthy lifestyle habits have been associated with improved health outcomes and quality of life and, for some cancers, a reduced risk of recurrence and death. The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship therefore recommend that cancer survivors be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy lifestyle, with attention to weight management, physical activity, and dietary habits. This section of the NCCN Guidelines focuses on recommendations regarding physical activity in survivors, including assessment for the risk of exercise-induced adverse events, exercise prescriptions, guidance for resistance training, and considerations for specific populations (eg, survivors with lymphedema, ostomies, peripheral neuropathy). In addition, strategies to encourage health behavioral change in survivors are discussed.
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Cancer survivors' uptake and adherence in diet and exercise intervention trials: An integrative data analysis.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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The health benefits of diet and exercise interventions for cancer survivors are well documented. However, little is known regarding demographic and medical predictors of survivors' willingness to participate in diet and exercise intervention trials, study enrollment, intervention adherence, and study completion. To assist in interpreting the generalizability of trial findings and to improve the design of future trials, this study examined predictors of these process measures.
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Survivorship: immunizations and prevention of infections, version 2.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Cancer survivors are at an elevated risk for infection because of immune suppression associated with prior cancer treatments, and they are at increased risk of complications from vaccine-preventable diseases. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides recommendations for the prevention of infections in survivors through education, antimicrobial prophylaxis, and the judicious use of vaccines. These guidelines provide information about travel and gardening precautions and safe pet care/avoidance of zoonosis, and include detailed recommendations regarding vaccinations that should be considered and encouraged in cancer and transplant survivors.
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Survivorship: cognitive function, version 1.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Cognitive impairment is a common complaint among cancer survivors and may be a consequence of the tumors themselves or direct effects of cancer-related treatment (eg, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radiation). For some survivors, symptoms persist over the long term and, when more severe, can impact quality of life and function. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides assessment, evaluation, and management recommendations for cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Nonpharmacologic interventions (eg, instruction in coping strategies; management of distress, pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue; occupational therapy) are recommended, with pharmacologic interventions as a last line of therapy in survivors for whom other interventions have been insufficient.
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Survivorship: fatigue, version 1.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Many cancer survivors report that fatigue is a disruptive symptom even after treatment ends. Persistent cancer-related fatigue affects quality of life, because individuals become too tired to fully participate in the roles and activities that make life meaningful. Identification and management of fatigue remains an unmet need for many cancer survivors. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and management recommendations for fatigue in survivors. Management includes education and counseling, physical activity, psychosocial interventions, and pharmacologic treatments.
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Survivorship: sleep disorders, version 1.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Sleep disorders, including insomnia and excessive sleepiness, affect a significant proportion of patients with cancer and survivors, often in combination with fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Improvements in sleep lead to improvements in fatigue, mood, and quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, diagnosis, and management recommendations for sleep disorders in survivors. Management includes combinations of sleep hygiene education, physical activity, psychosocial interventions, and pharmacologic treatments.
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Linking adiponectin and autophagy in the regulation of breast cancer metastasis.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Adipokines within the tumor microenvironment may play important roles in regulating the early steps of breast cancer metastasis. Adiponectin (AdipoQ) is the most abundant adipokine and exists in multiple forms: full-length multimers (fAd) and a cleaved, globular isoform (gAd). While these isoforms are observed as having distinct biological properties, nearly all investigation into AdipoQ in breast cancer has focused on the antitumor roles of fAd, while mostly ignoring gAd. However, evidence from other disease settings suggests that gAd is linked to processes known to promote metastasis. Here, we discuss key areas in which knowledge about AdipoQ in breast cancer is lacking, expressly focusing on data suggesting that gAd is elevated in the microenvironment and may act directly on invasive breast cancer cells to support their initial metastatic progression. We discuss autophagy as a potential mechanism of action for this effect. Overall, given that AdipoQ and AdipoQ receptor agonists have been proposed as therapeutic strategies, it is necessary to better understand the various functions of these regulatory molecules in metastatic breast cancer. Doing so will help ensure the most effective approaches to treating this disease, for which there remain no curative options.
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Survivorship: pain version 1.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Many posttreatment cancer survivors experience chronic pain, often leading to psychological distress; decreased activity, motivation, and personal interactions; and an overall poor quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening and management recommendations for pain in survivors. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended, with a combination of pharmacologic treatments, psychosocial and behavioral interventions, physical therapy and exercise, and interventional procedures.
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Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of combined progressive exercise on metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors: rationale, design, and methods.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasingly present in breast cancer survivors, possibly worsened by cancer-related treatments, such as chemotherapy. MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, co-morbidities that could impair the survivorship experience, and possibly lead to cancer recurrence. Exercise has been shown to positively influence quality of life (QOL), physical function, muscular strength and endurance, reduce fatigue, and improve emotional well-being; however, the impact on MetS components (visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension) remains largely unknown. In this trial, we aim to assess the effects of combined (aerobic and resistance) exercise on components of MetS, as well as on physical fitness and QOL, in breast cancer survivors soon after completing cancer-related treatments.
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Diet and exercise intervention adherence and health-related outcomes among older long-term breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Diet and exercise interventions for cancer survivors result in health benefits; however, few studies have examined health outcomes in relation to adherence.
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Obesity is associated with higher 4E-BP1 expression in endometrial cancer.
Curr Biomark Find
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Obesity is associated with risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer (EC), and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway may play an instrumental role. We sought to explore the associations between cellular proliferation, Akt, and 4E binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) (a downstream target of mTORC1), in obese and nonobese women with and without EC.
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The association between adiposity and breast cancer recurrence and survival: A review of the recent literature.
Curr Nutr Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Breast Cancer (BC) is the most common and second deadliest malignancy among American women. Many factors contribute to BC prognosis but a key modifiable lifestyle factor is body weight. In this review, we update the reader on the association between adiposity and poor BC outcomes. We summarize the findings from studies that show obesity to be a risk factor for BC recurrence and reduced survival, including research that shows that treatment with aromatase inhibitors in hormone-receptor positive BC survivors who are obese may not be as effective as in normal weight women. In addition, we summarize the findings from studies that show that obesity-induced changes in glucose metabolism, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome contribute to negative outcomes in BC survivors. Given the evidence, there is a critical need to determine whether weight loss can improve outcomes in BC survivors.
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Daughters and Mothers Against Breast Cancer (DAMES): main outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of weight loss in overweight mothers with breast cancer and their overweight daughters.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Few studies to date have used the cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to promote healthy behavior changes in survivors of cancer and their family members. Given the role of obesity in the primary and tertiary prevention of breast cancer, the authors explored the feasibility of a mother-daughter weight loss intervention.
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Weight gain prior to entry into a weight-loss intervention study among overweight and obese breast cancer survivors.
J Cancer Surviv
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Changes in cancer therapy, in addition to changes in obesity prevalence, suggest the need for a current assessment of weight gain patterns following breast cancer diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with weight gain among breast cancer survivors prior to enrolling into a behavioral weight loss intervention.
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Light-intensity activity attenuates functional decline in older cancer survivors.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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While moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activities (MVPA) confer the greatest health benefits, evidence suggests that light-intensity activities are also beneficial, particularly for older adults and individuals with moderate to severe comorbidities.
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Diet, physical activity, and body composition changes during the first year of treatment for childhood acute leukemia and lymphoma.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Children who undergo treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoma are at risk for several long-term health problems. Obesity, for which survivors of ALL and lymphoma are also at risk, may further exacerbate these problems. This pilot study evaluates changes in physical activity and body composition among children being treated for ALL and lymphoma and their parents.
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Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism influences aggressive behavior in prostate cancer cells by deregulating cholesterol homeostasis.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
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High circulating cholesterol and its deregulated homeostasis may facilitate prostate cancer progression. Genetic polymorphism in Apolipoprotein (Apo) E, a key cholesterol regulatory protein may effect changes in systemic cholesterol levels. In this investigation, we determined whether variants of the Apo E gene can trigger defective intracellular cholesterol efflux, which could promote aggressive prostate cancer. ApoE genotypes of weakly (non-aggressive), moderate and highly tumorigenic (aggressive) prostate cancer cell lines were characterized, and we explored whether the ApoE variants were associated with tumor aggressiveness generated by intra-cellular cholesterol imbalance, using the expression of caveolin-1 (cav-1), a pro-malignancy surrogate of cholesterol overload. Restriction isotyping of ApoE isoforms revealed that the non-aggressive cell lines carried ApoE ?3/?3 or ?3/?4 alleles, while the aggressive cell lines carried the Apo?2/?4 alleles. Our data suggest a contrast between the non-aggressive and the aggressive prostate cancer cell lines in the pattern of cholesterol efflux and cav-1 expression. Our exploratory results suggest a relationship between prostate aggressiveness, ApoE isoforms and cholesterol imbalance. Further investigation of this relationship may elucidate the molecular basis for considering cholesterol as a risk factor of aggressive prostate tumors, and underscore the potential of the dysfunctional ApoE2/E4 isoform as a biomarker of aggressive disease.
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Flaxseed-derived enterolactone is inversely associated with tumor cell proliferation in men with localized prostate cancer.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Enterolactone and enterodiol, mammalian lignans derived from dietary sources such as flaxseed, sesame seeds, kale, broccoli, and apricots, may impede tumor proliferation by inhibiting activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We examined the associations between urinary enterolactone and enterodiol with prostatic tumor expression of NF?B, VEGF, and Ki67 among 147 patients with prostate cancer who participated in a presurgical trial of flaxseed supplementation (30 g/day) for ~30 days. Urinary enterolignans and tissue biomarkers were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and immunohistochemistry, respectively. After supplementation, we observed significant correlations between intakes of plant lignan and urinary concentrations of total enterolignans (?=0.677, P<.0001), enterolactone (?=0.676, P<.0001), and enterodiol (?=0.628, P<.0001). Importantly, we observed that total urinary enterolignans and enterolactone were significantly and inversely correlated with Ki67 in the tumor tissue (?=-0.217, P=.011, and ?=-0.230, P=.007, respectively), and a near-significant inverse association was observed for enterodiol (?=-0.159, P=.064). An inverse association was observed between enterolactone and VEGF (?=-0.143, P=.141), although this did not reach statistical significance. We did not observe an association between enterolignans and NF?B. In conclusion, flaxseed-derived enterolignans may hinder cancer cell proliferation via VEGF-associated pathways.
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Health-related quality of life, lifestyle behaviors, and intervention preferences of survivors of childhood cancer.
J Cancer Surviv
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at increased risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and chronic health conditions-both of which can be exacerbated by unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Developing a clearer understanding of the associations between HRQOL, lifestyle behaviors, and medical and demographic variables (e.g., age/developmental stage at time of diagnosis) is an important step toward developing more targeted behavioral interventions for this population.
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Aetiology, genetics and prevention of secondary neoplasms in adult cancer survivors.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Second and higher-order malignancies now comprise about 18% of all incident cancers in the USA, superseding first primary cancers of the breast, lung, and prostate. The occurrence of second malignant neoplasms (SMN) is influenced by a myriad of factors, including the late effects of cancer therapy, shared aetiological factors with the primary cancer (such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol intake, and obesity), genetic predisposition, environmental determinants, host effects, and combinations of factors, including gene-environment interactions. The influence of these factors on SMN in survivors of adult-onset cancer is reviewed here. We also discuss how modifiable behavioural and lifestyle factors may contribute to SMN, and how these factors can be managed. Cancer survivorship provides an opportune time for oncologists and other health-care providers to counsel patients with regard to health promotion, not only to reduce SMN risk, but to minimize co-morbidities. In particular, the importance of smoking cessation, weight control, physical activity, and other factors consonant with adoption of a healthy lifestyle should be consistently emphasized to cancer survivors. Clinicians can also play a critical role by endorsing genetic counselling for selected patients and making referrals to dieticians, exercise trainers, and others to assist with lifestyle change interventions.
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Androgenetic alopecia at various ages and prostate cancer risk in an equal-access multiethnic case-control series of veterans.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Epidemiological data are conflicting regarding the association between androgenetic alopecia (AA) and prostate cancer (CaP). We examined the relationship between these two conditions.
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Harvest for health gardening intervention feasibility study in cancer survivors.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Cancer survivors are at increased risk for second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and functional decline. Evidence suggests that a healthful diet and physical activity may reduce the risk of chronic disease and improve health in this population.
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Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants.
Int J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (?37 weeks of gestation) were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (?3rd tertile), those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile) were 130?g heavier at birth, (?-coefficient = 230, se = 58.0, P = 0.0001), after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ?30?kg/m(2); the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P ? 0.0004). Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.
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Current Evidence Linking Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Cancer Risk and Progression.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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There is increasing evidence that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a role in cancer risk and progression. The n-3 family of PUFAs includes alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) while the n-6 family includes linolenic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA). EPA and DHA are precursors for anti-inflammatory lipid mediators while AA is a precursor for pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. Collectively, PUFAs play crucial roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis, and perturbations in dietary intake or PUFA metabolism could result in cellular dysfunction and contribute to cancer risk and progression. Epidemiologic studies provide an inconsistent picture of the associations between dietary PUFAs and cancer. This discrepancy may reflect the difficulties in collecting accurate dietary data; however, it also may reflect genetic variation in PUFA metabolism which has been shown to modify physiological levels of PUFAs and cancer risk. Also, host-specific mutations as a result of cellular transformation could modify metabolism of PUFAs in the target-tissue. Clinical trials have shown that supplementation with PUFAs or foods high in PUFAs can affect markers of inflammation, immune function, tumor biology, and prognosis. Pre-clinical investigations have begun to elucidate how PUFAs may mediate cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis, and the signaling pathways involved in these processes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence linking PUFAs and their metabolites with cancer and the molecular mechanisms that underlie this association. Identifying the molecular mechanism(s) through which PUFAs affect cancer risk and progression will provide an opportunity to pursue focused dietary interventions that could translate into the development of personalized diets for cancer control.
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Social, demographic, and medical influences on physical activity in child and adolescent cancer survivors.
J Pediatr Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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This study evaluated associations between social, environmental, demographic, and medical predictors, and child and adolescent survivors physical activity (PA).
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Effect of low-fat diets on plasma levels of NF-?B-regulated inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors in men with prostate cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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Diet, nutritional status, and certain dietary supplements are postulated to influence the development and progression of prostate cancer. Angiogenesis and inflammation are central to tumor growth and progression, but the effect of diet on these processes remains uncertain. We explored changes in 50 plasma cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAF) in 145 men with prostate cancer enrolled in a preoperative, randomized controlled phase II trial with four arms: control (usual diet), low-fat (LF) diet, flaxseed-supplemented (FS) diet, and FS+LS diet. The mean duration of dietary intervention was 30 to 31 days. Among the individual arms, the largest number of significant changes (baseline vs. preoperative follow-up) was observed in the LF arm, with 19 CAFs decreasing and one increasing (P < 0.05). Compared with the control arm, 6 CAFs-including proangiogenic factors (stromal-cell derived-1?) and myeloid factors (granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor)-all decreased in the LF arm compared with controls; three and four CAFs changed in the FS and FS+LF arms, respectively. Weight loss occurred in the LF arms and significantly correlated with VEGF decreases (P < 0.001). The CAFs that changed in the LF arm are all known to be regulated by NF-?B, and a pathway analysis identified NF-?B as the most likely regulatory network associated with these changes in the LF arm but not in the FS-containing arms. These results suggest that a LF diet without flaxseed may reduce levels of specific inflammatory CAFs and suggests that the NF-?B pathway may be a mediator of these changes.
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Methylation variation at IGF2 differentially methylated regions and maternal folic acid use before and during pregnancy.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Folic acid (FA) supplementation before and during pregnancy has been associated with decreased risk of neural tube defects although recent reports suggest it may also increase the risk of other chronic diseases. We evaluated exposure to maternal FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in relation to aberrant DNA methylation at two differentially methylated regions (DMRs) regulating Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) expression in infants. Aberrant methylation at these regions has been associated with IGF2 deregulation and increased susceptibility to several chronic diseases. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we assessed FA intake before and during pregnancy in 438 pregnant women. Pyrosequencing was used to measure methylation at two IGF2 DMRs in umbilical cord blood leukocytes. Mixed models were used to determine relationships between maternal FA supplementation before or during pregnancy and DNA methylation levels at birth. Average methylation at the H19 DMR was 61.2%. Compared to infants born to women reporting no FA intake before or during pregnancy, methylation levels at the H19 DMR decreased with increasing FA intake (2.8%, p=0.03, and 4.9%, p=0.04, for intake before and during pregnancy, respectively). This methylation decrease was most pronounced in male infants (p=0.01). Methylation alterations at the H19 DMR are likely an important mechanism by which FA risks and/or benefits are conferred in utero. Because stable methylation marks at DMRs regulating imprinted genes are acquired before gastrulation, they may serve as archives of early exposures with the potential to improve our understanding of developmental origins of adult disease.
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Conducting cancer control and survivorship research via cooperative groups: a report from the American Society of Preventive Oncology.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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As the number of cancer survivors expands, the need for cancer control and survivorship research becomes increasingly important. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Groups may offer a viable platform to perform such research. Observational, preventive, and behavioral research can often be performed within the cooperative group setting, especially if resources needed for evaluation are fairly simple, if protocols are easily implemented within the typical clinical setting, and if interventions are well standardized. Some protocols are better suited to cooperative groups than are others, and there are advantages and disadvantages to conducting survivorship research within the cooperative group setting. Behavioral researchers currently involved in cooperative groups, as well as program staff within the NCI, can serve as sources of information for those wishing to pursue symptom management and survivorship studies within the clinical trial setting. The structure of the cooperative groups is currently changing, but going forward, survivorship is bound to be a topic of interest and one that perhaps may be more easily addressed using the proposed more centralized structure.
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Exercise among breast and prostate cancer survivors--what are their barriers?
J Cancer Surviv
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Despite proven benefits of regular physical activity, estimates indicate that few cancer survivors meet physical activity guidelines. The purpose of this paper is to identify and compare exercise barriers among cancer survivors, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally as they undergo home-based behavioral interventions.
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Long-term dietary outcomes of the FRESH START intervention for breast and prostate cancer survivors.
J Am Diet Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Cancer survivors are at increased risk for secondary cancers and other diseases. Healthy dietary practices may improve cancer survivors health and well-being.
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Scientific bias arising from sampling, selective recruitment, and attrition: the case for improved reporting.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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In human research, the ability to generalize study findings is incumbent not only on an accurate understanding of the study protocol and measures but also on a clear understanding of the study population. Differential recruitment and attrition has the potential of introducing bias and threatening the generalizability of study findings; yet, relatively few scientific publications report data on sampling, subject exclusion, and dropout. A 4-month census sampling (September-December 2009) of research articles and short communications in this journal (n=116) was no exception. Among articles in which such data were appropriate to report, only 44% documented response rates, 53% described subjects who were excluded, and 10% performed analyses on enrollee versus nonenrollee differences; moreover, of the 17 longitudinal or intervention studies evaluated, only 3 of 17 reported dropout rates, and of those, only 2 of 3 reported reasons for dropout or an analysis that compared the characteristics of dropouts with those of completers. Given Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Preventions mission to enhance the dissemination of unbiased scientific findings, we propose that guidelines regarding sample description, as defined by CONSORT, STROBE, or STREGA, be adopted by our journal for both observational and interventional studies that accurately describe the study population from the point of contact.
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Health behaviors and weight status of childhood cancer survivors and their parents: similarities and opportunities for joint interventions.
J Am Diet Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for chronic health conditions that may be influenced by their cancer treatment and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Despite the possibility that interventions targeting the survivor-parent dyad may hold promise for this population, a clearer understanding of the role of family factors and the lifestyle behaviors of both survivors and parents is needed. A mailed cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009 to assess weight status (body mass index), lifestyle behaviors (eg, diet, physical activity), and the quality of the parent-child relationship among 170 childhood cancer survivors who were treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center and 114 of their parents (80% mothers). Survivors were more physically active and consumed more fruits and vegetables than their parents. However, fewer than half of survivors or parents met national guidelines for diet and physical activity, and their weight status and fat intakes were moderately correlated (r=.30-.57; P<0.001). Multilevel models showed that, compared with survivors with better than average relationships, those with poorer than average relationships with their parents were significantly more likely to consume high-fat diets (P<0.05). Survivors and their parents may thus benefit from interventions that address common lifestyle behaviors, as well as issues in the family environment that may contribute to an unhealthy lifestyle.
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Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST).
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Folic acid (FA) added to foods during fortification is 70-85% bioavailable compared to 50% of folate occurring naturally in foods. Thus, if FA supplements also are taken during pregnancy, both mother and fetus can be exposed to FA exceeding the Institute of Medicines recommended tolerable upper limit (TUL) of 1,000 micrograms per day (?g/d) for adult pregnant women. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of women taking folic acid (FA) doses exceeding the TUL before and during pregnancy, and to identify correlates of high FA use.
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CYberinfrastructure for COmparative effectiveness REsearch (CYCORE): improving data from cancer clinical trials.
Transl Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2010
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Improved approaches and methodologies are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) in oncology. While cancer therapies continue to emerge at a rapid pace, the review, synthesis, and dissemination of evidence-based interventions across clinical trials lag in comparison. Rigorous and systematic testing of competing therapies has been clouded by age-old problems: poor patient adherence, inability to objectively measure the environmental influences on health, lack of knowledge about patients lifestyle behaviors that may affect cancers progression and recurrence, and limited ability to compile and interpret the wide range of variables that must be considered in the cancer treatment. This lack of data integration limits the potential for patients and clinicians to engage in fully informed decision-making regarding cancer prevention, treatment, and survivorship care, and the translation of research results into mainstream medical care. Particularly important, as noted in a 2009 report on CER to the President and Congress, the limited focus on health behavior-change interventions was a major hindrance in this research landscape (DHHS 2009). This paper describes an initiative to improve CER for cancer by addressing several of these limitations. The Cyberinfrastructure for Comparative Effectiveness Research (CYCORE) project, informed by the National Science Foundations 2007 report "Cyberinfrastructure Vision for 21(st) Century Discovery" has, as its central aim, the creation of a prototype for a user-friendly, open-source cyberinfrastructure (CI) that supports acquisition, storage, visualization, analysis, and sharing of data important for cancer-related CER. Although still under development, the process of gathering requirements for CYCORE has revealed new ways in which CI design can significantly improve the collection and analysis of a wide variety of data types, and has resulted in new and important partnerships among cancer researchers engaged in advancing health-related CI.
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Updated evidence in support of diet and exercise interventions in cancer survivors.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2010
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A growing body of evidence suggests that diet and exercise behaviors and body weight status influence health-related outcomes after a cancer diagnosis. This review synthesizes the recent progress in lifestyle interventions in light of current guidelines put forth by the American Cancer Society (ACS), the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM).
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Lifestyle counseling and supplementation with flaxseed or walnuts influence the management of metabolic syndrome.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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A healthy lifestyle may ameliorate metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, it remains unclear if incorporating nuts or seeds into lifestyle counseling (LC) has additional benefit. A 3-arm, randomized, controlled trial was conducted among 283 participants screened for MetS using the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. Participants were assigned to a LC on the AHA guidelines, LC + flaxseed (30 g/d) (LCF), or LC + walnuts (30 g/d) (LCW) group. After the 12-wk intervention, the prevalence of MetS decreased significantly in all groups: -16.9% (LC), -20.2% (LCF), and -16.0% (LCW). The reversion rate of MetS, i.e. those no longer meeting the MetS criteria at 12 wk, was not significantly different among groups (LC group, 21.1%; LCF group, 26.6%; and LCW group, 25.5%). However, the reversion rate of central obesity was higher in the LCF (19.2%; P = 0.008) and LCW (16.0%; P = 0.04) groups than in the LC group (6.3%). Most of the metabolic variables (weight, waist circumference, serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) B, ApoE, and blood pressure) were significantly reduced from baseline in all 3 groups. However, the severity of MetS, presented as the mean count of MetS components, was significantly reduced in the LCW group compared with the LC group among participants with confirmed MetS at baseline (P = 0.045). Our results suggest that a low-intensity lifestyle education program is effective in MetS management. Flaxseed and walnut supplementation may ameliorate central obesity. Further studies with larger sample sizes and of longer duration are needed to examine the role of these foods in the prevention and management of MetS.
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American College of Sports Medicine roundtable on exercise guidelines for cancer survivors.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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Early detection and improved treatments for cancer have resulted in roughly 12 million survivors alive in the United States today. This growing population faces unique challenges from their disease and treatments, including risk for recurrent cancer, other chronic diseases, and persistent adverse effects on physical functioning and quality of life. Historically, clinicians advised cancer patients to rest and to avoid activity; however, emerging research on exercise has challenged this recommendation. To this end, a roundtable was convened by American College of Sports Medicine to distill the literature on the safety and efficacy of exercise training during and after adjuvant cancer therapy and to provide guidelines. The roundtable concluded that exercise training is safe during and after cancer treatments and results in improvements in physical functioning, quality of life, and cancer-related fatigue in several cancer survivor groups. Implications for disease outcomes and survival are still unknown. Nevertheless, the benefits to physical functioning and quality of life are sufficient for the recommendation that cancer survivors follow the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, with specific exercise programming adaptations based on disease and treatment-related adverse effects. The advice to "avoid inactivity," even in cancer patients with existing disease or undergoing difficult treatments, is likely helpful.
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Extant health behaviors and uptake of standardized vs tailored health messages among cancer survivors enrolled in the FRESH START trial: a comparison of fighting-spirits vs fatalists.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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Cancer coping styles have been associated with several cancer-related outcomes. We examined whether baseline lifestyle behaviors differed between cancer survivors with fatalistic vs fighting-spirit coping styles, and whether there was differential response to two diet-exercise mailed-print interventions, one standardized and another individually tailored.
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Effect of intermittent fasting with or without caloric restriction on prostate cancer growth and survival in SCID mice.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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Caloric restriction (CR) delays cancer growth in animals, though translation to humans is difficult. We hypothesized intermittent fasting (i.e., intermittent extreme CR), may be better tolerated and prolong survival of prostate cancer (CaP) bearing mice.
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Promoting healthy lifestyles in older cancer survivors to improve health and preserve function.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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Currently, there are about 7 million cancer survivors in this country aged 65 and older, and this number is expected to increase rapidly, given trends toward aging and improvements in early detection and treatment. Unfortunately, cancer survivors are at risk for several comorbid conditions and accelerated functional decline. A previous cross-sectional study of 688 older breast and prostate cancer survivors found significant associations between lifestyle practices and levels of physical functioning, with positive associations noted for physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption and negative associations observed for dietary fat. In a more-recent cross-sectional study of 753 older survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer, significant associations were also observed between physical function, and physical activity (rho=0.22, P<.001) and diet quality (rho=0.07, P=.046), and a significant negative association was also found between physical function and body mass index (rho=-0.29, P<.001). Therefore, lifestyle interventions may be helpful in positively reorienting the trajectory of functional decline in this vulnerable population, although there are substantial barriers, such as travel, that must be overcome in delivering behavioral interventions to older cancer survivors. Previously reported results from the Pepper Center-funded Leading the Way in Exercise and Diet Project intervention development study suggested that an exercise and diet intervention delivered using telephone counseling and mailed materials was readily accepted and appeared to be of benefit. Larger trials, such as Reach-out to ENhancE Wellness in Older Survivors, have recently produced compelling data.
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Nutrition during and after cancer therapy.
Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2009
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Diet and nutritional factors play a large role in influencing both the quality and quantity of life after the diagnosis of cancer. The oncology nurse is well-positioned to: 1) help ensure that nutritional needs are met for patients who are newly diagnosed, undergoing active treatment, or have advanced disease; 2) facilitate referral of patients with more intensive nutritional needs to registered dietitians; and 3) promote the importance of weight management and a healthful plant-based diet, low in saturated fat and simple sugars, and high in fruits and vegetables and unrefined whole grains, to patients likely to join the ranks of an ever-expanding population of cancer survivors--who now constitute roughly 4% of the US population and number more than 11 million.
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Associations between lifestyle factors and quality of life among older long-term breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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Older cancer survivors are at increased risk for secondary cancers, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and functional decline and, thus, may benefit from health-related interventions. However, to the authors knowledge, little is known regarding the health behaviors of older cancer survivors and the associations of those behaviors with quality-of-life outcomes, especially during the long-term post-treatment period.
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Predictors of variation in serum IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels in healthy African American and white men.
J Natl Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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Individual variation in circulating insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF1) and its major binding protein, insulinlike growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3), have been etiologically linked to several chronic diseases, including some cancers. Factors associated with variation in circulating levels of these peptide hormones remain unclear.
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Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement on C-reactive protein, IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Phytoestrogens (including lignans and isoflavones) may enhance the management of diabetes and are hypothesized to act through inflammation pathways. The present study explored the effects of flaxseed-derived lignan on inflammatory factors and RBP4 concentrations in type 2 diabetics, who have higher levels of these biomarkers. Seventy community-dwelling diabetic patients (twenty-six men and forty-four post-menopausal women) with mild hypercholesterolaemia completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of supplementation with flaxseed-derived lignan capsules (360 mg/d) or placebo for 12 weeks, separated by an 8-week wash-out period. The participants maintained their habitual diets and levels of physical activity. Baseline to follow-up concentrations of CRP increased significantly within the placebo group (1.42 (sem 0.19) v. 1.96 (sem 0.22) mg/l, P < 0.001), but were comparatively unchanged in the lignan-supplemented group (1.67 (sem 0.19) v. 1.90 (sem 0.26) mg/l, P = 0.94); a significant difference was observed between treatments ( - 0.45 (95 % CI - 0.76, - 0.08) mg/l, P = 0.021). This effect was confined to women (P = 0.016), but not observed in men (P = 0.49). No between-treatment differences were found with regard to IL-6 or RBP4; though IL-6 concentrations increased significantly from baseline to follow-up in both groups (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001 following lignan and placebo treatments, respectively). The study suggests that lignan might modulate CRP levels in type 2 diabetics. These results need to be confirmed by further large clinical trials of longer duration.
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Meta-analysis of the effects of flaxseed interventions on blood lipids.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Several clinical trials have investigated the effects of flaxseed and flaxseed-derived products (flaxseed oil or lignans) on blood lipids; however, the findings have been inconsistent.
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The effects of varying dietary carbohydrate and fat content on survival in a murine LNCaP prostate cancer xenograft model.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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Numerous dietary factors elevate serum levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), both potent prostate cancer mitogens. We tested whether varying dietary carbohydrate and fat, without energy restriction relative to comparison diets, would slow tumor growth and reduce serum insulin, IGF-I, and other molecular mediators of prostate cancer in a xenograft model.
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Comparing the 7-day physical activity recall with a triaxial accelerometer for measuring time in exercise.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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The primary study aim was to evaluate associations of estimated weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity exercise from self-reports of the telephone-administered 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (7-Day PAR) with data captured by the RT3 triaxial accelerometer.
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Effects of home-based diet and exercise on functional outcomes among older, overweight long-term cancer survivors: RENEW: a randomized controlled trial.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Five-year survival rates for early stage colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer currently exceed 90% and are increasing. Cancer survivors are at greater risk for second malignancies, other comorbidities, and accelerated functional decline. Lifestyle interventions may provide benefit, but it is unknown whether long-term cancer survivors can modify their lifestyle behaviors sufficiently to improve functional status.
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Enterolactone inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling in human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cells.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Enterolactone, a major metabolite of plant-based lignans, has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer growth and development, but the mechanistic basis for its anticancer activity remains largely unknown. Activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor (IGF-1R) signaling is critical for prostate cancer cell growth and progression. This study examined whether the growth inhibitory effect of enterolactone was related to changes in the IGF-1/IGF-1R system in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. At nutritionally relevant concentrations (20-60 micromol/L), enterolactone inhibited IGF-1-induced activation of IGF-1R and its downstream AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-signal regulated kinase signaling pathways. Inhibition of AKT by enterolactone resulted in decreased phosphorylation of its downstream targets, including p70S6K1 and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta. Enterolactone also inhibited cyclin D1 expression. As a result, enterolactone inhibited proliferation and migration of PC-3 cells. Knockdown of IGF-1R by plasmids with siRNA (si) against IGF-1R mRNA resulted in inhibition of proliferation of PC-3 cells and cell numbers did not differ when the si-IGF-1R groups (cells transfected with plasmids containing siRNA against IGF-1R mRNA) were treated or untreated with enterolactone. These results suggest that enterolactone suppresses proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells, at least partially, through inhibition of IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling. The finding of this study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that enterolactone exerts against prostate cancer.
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Reach out to ENhancE Wellness in Older Cancer Survivors (RENEW): design, methods and recruitment challenges of a home-based exercise and diet intervention to improve physical function among long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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Cure rates for cancer are increasing, especially for breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Despite positive trends in survivorship, a cancer diagnosis can trigger accelerated functional decline that can threaten independence, reduce quality-of-life and increase healthcare costs, especially among the elderly who comprise the majority of survivors. Lifestyle interventions may hold promise in reorienting functional decline in older cancer survivors, but few studies have been conducted.
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Prostatic alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer: a relationship which may depend on genetic variation in ALA metabolism.
PLoS ONE
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Previous observational studies have reported associations between prostate cancer and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). However, few investigations have been able to study this relationship prospectively and in well-controlled settings. Moreover, no studies have determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence ALA metabolism are associated with this common cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between prostatic levels of ALA, SNPs and prostate cancer-specific biomarkers in samples collected from a previous randomized clinical trial conducted using a presurgical model and which tested the effects of flaxseed supplementation, a rich source of ALA, prior to prostatectomy (n?=?134). Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was determined and immunohistochemistry was used to assess tumor proliferation rate (Ki67). Prostatic ALA was determined with gas chromatography. Seven previously identified SNPs associated with delta-6 desaturase activity (rs99780, rs174537, rs174545, rs174572, rs498793, rs3834458 and rs968567) were tested for associations with prostatic ALA, PSA and Ki67. Despite consuming seven times more ALA per day, men in the flaxseed arm had similar amounts of prostatic ALA relative to men not consuming flaxseed. In unadjusted analysis, there were significant positive associations between prostatic ALA and PSA (??=?0.191, p?=?0.028) and Ki67 (??=?0.186, p?=?0.037). After adjusting for covariates (flaxseed, age, race, BMI and statin-use) the association between ALA and PSA remained (p?=?0.004) but was slightly attenuated for Ki67 (p?=?0.051). We did not observe associations between any of the SNPs studied and prostatic ALA; however, in models for PSA there was a significant interaction between rs498793 and ALA and for Ki67 there were significant interactions with ALA and rs99780 and rs174545. Independent and inverse associations were observed between rs174572 and Ki67. This study provides evidence that prostatic ALA, independent of the amount of ALA consumed, is positively associated with biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer and that genetic variation may modify this relationship.
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Reducing breast cancer recurrence with weight loss, a vanguard trial: the Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) Trial.
Contemp Clin Trials
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Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer among women in developed countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and mortality in both pre- and postmenopausal women. Co-morbid medical conditions are common among breast cancer survivors. The Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) study is a 4-year randomized clinical trial of 693 overweight/obese women aged ?21years diagnosed with any early stage breast cancer (stages I[?1cm]-III) within the previous five years, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving sustained weight loss and to examine the impact of weight loss on quality of life and co-morbidities, and to enable future exploration of biochemical mechanisms linking obesity to lower likelihood of disease-free survival. This trial is strategically designed as a vanguard for a fully-powered trial of women who will be evaluated for breast cancer recurrence and disease-free survival. Participants were recruited between 2010 and 2012 at four sites, had completed initial therapies, and had a body mass index between 25 and 45kg/m(2). The intervention featured a group-based cognitive-behavioral weight loss program with telephone counseling and tailored newsletters to support initial weight loss and subsequent maintenance, with the goal of 7% weight loss at two years. This study has high potential to have a major impact on clinical management and outcomes after a breast cancer diagnosis. This trial initiates the effort to establish weight loss support for overweight or obese breast cancer survivors as a new standard of clinical care.
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Effects of flaxseed supplementation on erythrocyte fatty acids and multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers among Chinese with risk factors of metabolic syndrome.
Eur J Nutr
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We investigated effects of ground whole flaxseed supplementation on erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and serum biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and thrombosis in Chinese with risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS).
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Obesity, energy balance, and cancer: new opportunities for prevention.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
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Obesity is associated with increased risk and poor prognosis for many types of cancer. The mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link are becoming increasingly clear and provide multiple opportunities for primary to tertiary prevention. Several obesity-related host factors can influence tumor initiation, progression and/or response to therapy, and these have been implicated as key contributors to the complex effects of obesity on cancer incidence and outcomes. These host factors include insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, cytokines, and inflammation-related molecules. Each of these host factors is considered in the context of energy balance and as potential targets for cancer prevention. The possibility of prevention at the systems level, including energy restriction, dietary composition, and exercise is considered as is the importance of the newly emerging field of stem cell research as a model for studying energy balance and cancer prevention.
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Cancer-specific concerns and physical activity among recently diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors.
Integr Cancer Ther
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Cancer treatment -related side effects may have a negative impact on quality of life among cancer survivors and may limit participation in physical activity (PA).
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Cognitive influences as mediators of family and peer support for pediatric cancer survivors physical activity.
Psychooncology
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The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which self-efficacy mediates the relations between social support and childhood cancer survivors physical activity (PA).
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Exercise and Cancer Treatment Symptoms in 408 Newly Diagnosed Older Cancer Patients.
J Geriatr Oncol
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While the benefits of exercise for managing cancer-and treatment-related side effects has been shown among various populations of cancer survivors, a relative dearth of information exists among older cancer patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of exercise participation during and after primary cancer treatment in older (?65 years) and the oldest (?80 years) cancer patients and to examine the relationships between exercise, symptoms, and self-rated health (SRH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 408 newly diagnosed older cancer patients (mean age=73, range=65-92) scheduled to receive chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy reported symptoms and SRH prior to, during, and 6 months after treatment, and exercise participation during and following treatment. RESULTS: Forty-six percent of older and 41% of the oldest patients reported exercising during treatment. Sixty percent of older and 68% of the oldest patients reported exercising in the 6 months thereafter. Older patients who exercised during treatment reported less shortness of breath and better SRH during treatment, and better SRH following treatment. The oldest patients who exercised during treatment reported less memory loss and better SRH during treatment and less fatigue and better SRH following treatment. The oldest patients who exercised following treatment reported less fatigue, skin problems, and total symptom burden following treatment. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a willingness of older cancer patients to attempt exercise during and after treatment. Exercise during these times is associated with less severe symptoms; further clinical research examining the efficacy of formal exercise interventions to reduce symptoms and improve SRH in older cancer patients is needed.
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Dietary patterns differ between urban and rural older, long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer and are associated with body mass index.
J Acad Nutr Diet
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Older adult cancer survivors are at greater risk of cancer recurrence and other comorbidities that can be prevented through improved diet and weight management. The tertiary prevention needs of rural-dwelling survivors can be even greater, yet little is known about rural and urban differences in lifestyle factors among this high-risk population.
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The role of obesity in cancer survival and recurrence.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Obesity and components of energy imbalance, that is, excessive energy intake and suboptimal levels of physical activity, are established risk factors for cancer incidence. Accumulating evidence suggests that these factors also may be important after the diagnosis of cancer and influence the course of disease, as well as overall health, well-being, and survival. Lifestyle and medical interventions that effectively modify these factors could potentially be harnessed as a means of cancer control. However, for such interventions to be maximally effective and sustainable, broad sweeping scientific discoveries ranging from molecular and cellular advances, to developments in delivering interventions on both individual and societal levels are needed. This review summarizes key discussion topics that were addressed in a recent Institute of Medicine Workshop entitled, "The Role of Obesity in Cancer Survival and Recurrence"; discussions included (i) mechanisms associated with obesity and energy balance that influence cancer progression; (ii) complexities of studying and interpreting energy balance in relation to cancer recurrence and survival; (iii) associations between obesity and cancer risk, recurrence, and mortality; (iv) interventions that promote weight loss, increased physical activity, and negative energy balance as a means of cancer control; and (v) future directions.
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Reach out to enhance wellness home-based diet-exercise intervention promotes reproducible and sustainable long-term improvements in health behaviors, body weight, and physical functioning in older, overweight/obese cancer survivors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Diet and exercise interventions have been tested in cancer survivors as a means to reduce late effects and comorbidity, but few have assessed adherence and health outcomes long term.
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Long-term outcomes of the FRESH START trial: exploring the role of self-efficacy in cancer survivors maintenance of dietary practices and physical activity.
Psychooncology
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This study examined whether changes in self-efficacy explain the effects of a mailed print intervention on long-term dietary practices of breast and prostate cancer survivors. The relationship between change in self-efficacy and long-term physical activity (PA) also was examined.
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Nutrition and physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors.
CA Cancer J Clin
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Cancer survivors are often highly motivated to seek information about food choices, physical activity, and dietary supplements to improve their treatment outcomes, quality of life, and overall survival. To address these concerns, the American Cancer Society (ACS) convened a group of experts in nutrition, physical activity, and cancer survivorship to evaluate the scientific evidence and best clinical practices related to optimal nutrition and physical activity after the diagnosis of cancer. This report summarizes their findings and is intended to present health care providers with the best possible information with which to help cancer survivors and their families make informed choices related to nutrition and physical activity. The report discusses nutrition and physical activity guidelines during the continuum of cancer care, briefly highlighting important issues during cancer treatment and for patients with advanced cancer, but focusing largely on the needs of the population of individuals who are disease free or who have stable disease following their recovery from treatment. It also discusses select nutrition and physical activity issues such as body weight, food choices, food safety, and dietary supplements; issues related to selected cancer sites; and common questions about diet, physical activity, and cancer survivorship.
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Weight management and its role in breast cancer rehabilitation.
Cancer
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Overweight and obesity are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, and many women diagnosed with breast cancer, irrespective of menopausal status, gain weight after diagnosis. Weight management plays an important role in rehabilitation and recovery because obesity and/or weight gain may lead to poorer breast cancer prognosis, as well as prevalent comorbid conditions (eg, cardiovascular disease and diabetes), poorer surgical outcomes (eg, increased operating and recovery times, higher infection rates, and poorer healing), lymphedema, fatigue, functional decline, and poorer health and overall quality of life. Health care professionals should encourage weight management at all phases of the cancer care continuum as a means to potentially avoid adverse sequelae and late effects, as well as to improve overall health and possibly survival. Comprehensive approaches that involve dietary and behavior modification, and increased aerobic and strength training exercise have shown promise in either preventing weight gain or promoting weight loss, reducing biomarkers associated with inflammation and comorbidity, and improving lifestyle behaviors, functional status, and quality of life in this high-risk patient population.
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Association of cord blood methylation fractions at imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), plasma IGF2, and birth weight.
Cancer Causes Control
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Altered methylation at Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) regulatory regions has previously been associated with obesity, and several malignancies including colon, esophageal, and prostate adenocarcinomas, presumably via changes in expression and/or loss of imprinting, but the functional significance of these DNA methylation marks have not been demonstrated in humans. We examined associations among DNA methylation at IGF2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), circulating IGF2 protein concentrations in umbilical cord blood (UCB) and birth weight in newborns.
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Insulin-like growth factor 2/H19 methylation at birth and risk of overweight and obesity in children.
J. Pediatr.
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To determine whether aberrant DNA methylation at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) regulating insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) expression in umbilical cord blood is associated with overweight or obesity in a multiethnic cohort.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.