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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Probucol combined with valsartan in immunoglobulin A nephropathy: a multi-centre, open labelled, randomized controlled study.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARBs) and anti-oxidants reduce urinary protein excretion and delay progression of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of probucol (an anti-oxidant) combined with valsartan (an ARB) on the progression of IgA nephropathy.
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Urinary messenger RNA of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB could be used to differentiate between minimal change disease and membranous nephropathy.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Abstract Podocyte damage and loss together have an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of glomerulonephritis. Glomerulonephritis patients and healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Biochemical, clinical and experimental procedures included measurement of total urinary protein, renal biopsy and gene expression analysis of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK). The urinary mRNA levels of RANK were significantly higher in the glomerulonephritis group compared to the controls. The urinary RANK level of glomerular subtypes was correlated significantly with proteinuria. The calculated area of RANK mRNA levels under the curve was 0.61 for minimal change disease (MCD), 0.97 for membranous nephropathy (MN), 0.65 for IgA nephropathy (IgAN), 0.70 for lupus nephritis (LN) and 0.70 for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The urinary mRNA of RANK might be used to differentiate histologic subtypes of glomerulonephritis, particularly between MCD and MN.
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Structural and functional studies of conserved nucleotide-binding protein LptB in lipopolysaccharide transport.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, which plays an essential role in protecting the bacteria from harsh conditions and antibiotics. LPS molecules are transported from the inner membrane to the outer membrane by seven LPS transport proteins. LptB is vital in hydrolyzing ATP to provide energy for LPS transport, however this mechanism is not very clear. Here we report wild-type LptB crystal structure in complex with ATP and Mg(2+), which reveals that its structure is conserved with other nucleotide-binding proteins (NBD). Structural, functional and electron microscopic studies demonstrated that the ATP binding residues, including K42 and T43, are crucial for LptB's ATPase activity, LPS transport and the vitality of Escherichia coli cells with the exceptions of H195A and Q85A; the H195A mutation does not lower its ATPase activity but impairs LPS transport, and Q85A does not alter ATPase activity but causes cell death. Our data also suggest that two protomers of LptB have to work together for ATP hydrolysis and LPS transport. These results have significant impacts in understanding the LPS transport mechanism and developing new antibiotics.
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Structural basis for outer membrane lipopolysaccharide insertion.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is essential for most Gram-negative bacteria and has crucial roles in protection of the bacteria from harsh environments and toxic compounds, including antibiotics. Seven LPS transport proteins (that is, LptA-LptG) form a trans-envelope protein complex responsible for the transport of LPS from the inner membrane to the outer membrane, the mechanism for which is poorly understood. Here we report the first crystal structure of the unique integral membrane LPS translocon LptD-LptE complex. LptD forms a novel 26-stranded ?-barrel, which is to our knowledge the largest ?-barrel reported so far. LptE adopts a roll-like structure located inside the barrel of LptD to form an unprecedented two-protein 'barrel and plug' architecture. The structure, molecular dynamics simulations and functional assays suggest that the hydrophilic O-antigen and the core oligosaccharide of the LPS may pass through the barrel and the lipid A of the LPS may be inserted into the outer leaflet of the outer membrane through a lateral opening between strands ?1 and ?26 of LptD. These findings not only help us to understand important aspects of bacterial outer membrane biogenesis, but also have significant potential for the development of novel drugs against multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria.
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Apocynin attenuates isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury and fibrogenesis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Oxidative stress is mechanistically implicated in the pathogenesis of myocardial injury and the subsequent fibrogenic tissue remodeling. Therapies targeting oxidative stress in the process of myocardial fibrogenesis are still lacking and thus remain as an active research area in myocardial injury management. The current study evaluated the effects of a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, on the production of reactive oxygen species and the development of myocardial fibrogenesis in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury mouse model. The results revealed a remarkable effect of apocynin on attenuating the development of myocardial necrotic lesions, inflammation and fibrogenesis. Additionally, the protective effects of apocynin against myocardial injuries were associated with suppressed expression of an array of genes implicated in inflammatory and fibrogenic responses. Our study thus provided for the first time the histopathological and molecular evidence supporting the therapeutic value of apocynin against the development of myocardial injuries, in particular, myocardial fibrogenesis, which will benefit the mechanism-based drug development targeting oxidative stress in preventing and/or treating related myocardial disorders.
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[Clinical analysis of 4 children with negative pressure pulmonary edema].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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To analyze the clinical characteristics of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE).
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Necroptosis, a novel form of caspase-independent cell death, contributes to renal epithelial cell damage in an ATP-depleted renal ischemia model.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by renal ischemia is a common clinical problem associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The present study investigated whether necroptosis was present in an in vitro renal ischemia model and whether the addition of necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) has a protective effect. In addition, whether autophagy was inhibited following the use of Nec-1 was also examined. When apoptosis was inhibited by z-VAD?fmk and energy was depleted with antimycin A for 1 h, the morphological abnormalities of human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells were markedly attenuated, and the cell viability was significantly improved following incubation with Nec-1. LC3-II/I ratios and LC3-II/GAPDH ratios demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in the Nec-1 + tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? + z-VAD-fmk + antimycin A (1 h) group compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study suggested that necroptosis was present in HK-2 cells subjected to TNF-? stimulation and energy depletion. Nec-1 inhibits a caspase?independent necroptotic pathway involving autophagy and may have therapeutic potential to prevent and treat renal ischemic injury.
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Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) inhibits breast cancer metastasis.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H. Chen (Araliaceae) has been extensively used as a therapeutic agent to treat a variety of diseases. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) consist of major therapeutically active components of Panax notoginseng. PNS inhibit the growth of a variety of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of PNS on breast cancer metastasis.
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[Renal expression of RANK-RANKL in a rat model of puromycin aminonucleoside nephropathy].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To investigate RANK-RANKL expression in the kidneys of a rat model of puromycin aminonucleoside nephropathy (PAN).
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Bidirectional regulation of angiogenesis and miR-18a expression by PNS in the mouse model of tumor complicated by myocardial ischemia.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) is the major class of active constituents of notoginseng, a natural product extensively used as a therapeutic agent in China. Tumor when accompanied by cardiovascular disorders poses a greater challenge for clinical management given the paradoxical involvement of angiogenesis, therefore gaining increased research attention. This study aim to investigate effects of PNS and its activity components in the mouse model of tumor complicated with myocardial ischemia.
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Gene-environment interaction among GSTT1, PON2 polymorphisms and organic solvents on gestational age in a Chinese women cohort.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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To investigate interactions on gestational age among two environmental risk factors and four maternal genetic polymorphisms: organic solvents, passive smoking, CYP1A1 rs4646903 (MspI), EPHX1 rs2234922 (His139Arg), GSTT1 and PON2 rs12026 (Ala148Gly).
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Serum amyloid A and clusterin as potential predictive biomarkers for severe hand, foot and mouth disease by 2D-DIGE proteomics analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) affects more than one million children, is responsible for several hundred child deaths every year in China and is the cause of widespread concerns in society. Only a small fraction of HFMD cases will develop further into severe HFMD with neurologic complications. A timely and accurate diagnosis of severe HFMD is essential for assessing the risk of progression and planning the appropriate treatment. Human serum can reflect the physiological or pathological states, which is expected to be an excellent source of disease-specific biomarkers. In the present study, a comparative serological proteome analysis between severe HFMD patients and healthy controls was performed via a two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) strategy. Fifteen proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the sera of the severe HFMD patients compared with the controls. The identified proteins were classified into different groups according to their molecular functions, biological processes, protein classes and physiological pathways by bioinformatics analysis. The up-regulations of two identified proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA) and clusterin (CLU), were confirmed in the sera of the HFMD patients by ELISA assay. This study not only increases our background knowledge about and scientific insight into the mechanisms of HFMD, but also reveals novel potential biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of severe HFMD.
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Notoginsenoside R1 attenuates atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE deficient mouse model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. The current study evaluated the interventional effects of a naturally occurring compound Notoginsenoside R1 (NR1) on atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice.
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MicroRNA profiling implies new markers of chemoresistance of triple-negative breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients with truly chemosensitive disease still represent a minority among all TNBC patients. The aim of the present study is to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that correlate with TNBC chemoresistance.
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MiR-142-3p attenuates the migration of CD4? T cells through regulating actin cytoskeleton via RAC1 and ROCK2 in arteriosclerosis obliterans.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The migration of CD4+ T cells plays an important role in arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). However, the molecular mechanisms involved in CD4+ T cell migration are still unclear. The current study is aimed to determine the expression change of miR-142-3p in CD4+ T cells from patients with ASO and investigate its role in CD4+ T cell migration as well the potential mechanisms involved. We identified by qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization that the expression of miR-142-3p in CD4+ T cells was significantly down-regulated in patients with ASO. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12), a common inflammatory chemokine under the ASO condition, was able to down-regulate the expression of miR-142-3p in cultured CD4+ T cells. Up-regulation of miR-142-3p by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer had a strong inhibitory effect on CD4+ T cell migration both in cultured human cells in vitro and in mouse aortas and spleens in vivo. RAC1 and ROCK2 were identified to be the direct target genes in human CD4+ T cells, which are further confirmed by dual luciferase assay. MiR-142-3p had strong regulatory effects on actin cytoskeleton as shown by the actin staining in CD4+ T cells. The results suggest that the expression of miR-142-3p is down-regulated in CD4+ T cells from patients with ASO. The down-regulation of miR-142-3p could increase the migration of CD4+ T cells to the vascular walls by regulation of actin cytoskeleton via its target genes, RAC1 and ROCK2.
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High-resolution structure of the N-terminal endonuclease domain of the Lassa virus L polymerase in complex with magnesium ions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lassa virus (LASV) causes deadly hemorrhagic fever disease for which there are no vaccines and limited treatments. LASV-encoded L polymerase is required for viral RNA replication and transcription. The functional domains of L-a large protein of 2218 amino acid residues-are largely undefined, except for the centrally located RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) motif. Recent structural and functional analyses of the N-terminal region of the L protein from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), which is in the same Arenaviridae family as LASV, have identified an endonuclease domain that presumably cleaves the cap structures of host mRNAs in order to initiate viral transcription. Here we present a high-resolution crystal structure of the N-terminal 173-aa region of the LASV L protein (LASV L173) in complex with magnesium ions at 1.72 Å. The structure is highly homologous to other known viral endonucleases of arena- (LCMV NL1), orthomyxo- (influenza virus PA), and bunyaviruses (La Crosse virus NL1). Although the catalytic residues (D89, E102 and K122) are highly conserved among the known viral endonucleases, LASV L endonuclease structure shows some notable differences. Our data collected from in vitro endonuclease assays and a reporter-based LASV minigenome transcriptional assay in mammalian cells confirm structural prediction of LASV L173 as an active endonuclease. The high-resolution structure of the LASV L endonuclease domain in complex with magnesium ions should aid the development of antivirals against lethal Lassa hemorrhagic fever.
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The protective effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang in salt-sensitive hypertension rats.
Clin. Exp. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Abstract Hypertension is considered as a chronic and complex disease relating to multiple systemic systems. Apart from lowering blood pressure, the final purpose of the treatment lies in reducing the variability of blood pressure and other risk factors. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history of treating hypertension. This study was designed to determine the effect of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Fang (L-W-D-H-F), a compound used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, to treat salt-sensitive hypertension (SSHT) induced by a high-salt and high-fat diet. L-W-D-H-F was prepared from six plant extracts. It was dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution prior to use. Male Sprague-Dawley (6 weeks) rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet (CON); HSF (Without Drug Intervention); VAL (Valsartan 13.33?mg/kg/day); and LW (L-W-D-H-F 8.13?g/kg/day). Six weeks after blood pressure treatment, plasma biochemical analyses and histological and functional examination of the kidney were performed. L-W-D-H-F decreased the levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FG), insulin (INS), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and angiotensin II (Ang II) from plasma and Ang II and renin from kidney. It also promoted the excretion of urinary Na(+), reducing the loss of urinary K(+) and microalbuminuria (MAU), and improved the glomerular afferent arteriole, arterioles and each kidney unit. Together, these results suggest that L-W-D-H-F is capable of moderately reducing MAP in salt-sensitive hypertension and can work at different levels on multiple differential targets.
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Necrostatin-1 Attenuates Ischemia Injury Induced Cell Death in Rat Tubular Cell Line NRK-52E through Decreased Drp1 Expression.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) inhibits necroptosis and is usually regarded as having no effect on other cell deaths. Here, this study explored whether the addition of Nec-1 has an effect on cell death induced by simulated ischemia injury in rat tubular cell line NRK-52E. In addition, we also investigated the mechanism of Nec-1 attenuates cell death in this renal ischemia model. The NRK-52E cells were incubated with TNF-? + antimycinA (TA) for 24 h with or without Nec-1. Cell death was observed under fluorescent microscope and quantified by flow cytometry. Cell viabilities were detected by MTT assay. The protein expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. Increased cell death in simulated ischemia injury of NRK-52E cells were markedly attenuated in the Nec-1 pretreated ischemia injury group. Meanwhile, cell viability was significantly improved after using Nec-1. In addition, we also observed that the protein expression of Drp1, a mediator of mitochondrial fission, was significantly increased in simulated ischemia injury group. Increased Drp1 expression in the ischemia injury group can be abolished by Nec-1 or Drp1-knock down, accompanied with decreased cell death and improved cell viabilities. These results suggest that Nec-1 may inhibit cell death induced by simulated ischemia injury in the rat tubular cell line NRK-52E through decreased Drp1 expression.
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Accuracy of end-tidal CO2 measurement through the nose and pharynx in nonintubated patients during digital subtraction cerebral angiography.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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To determine the accuracy of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) obtained in the nose through the Smart CapnoLine and in the pharynx through the modified Filterline H Set with supplemental oxygen at 5 L/min in nonintubated patients undergoing digital subtraction cerebral angiography (DSA).
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[11R-VIVIT inhibits the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in podocytes].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To observe the effect of 11R-VIVIT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in podocytes.
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TaqI polymorphism of VDR gene contributes to breast cancer risk.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Previous studies on the association of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) TaqI gene polymorphism with breast carcinogenesis have yielded inconsistent and inconclusive findings. The current meta-analysis was performed to provide a more precise assessment on the role of VDR TaqI polymorphism in breast cancer risk. 20 eligible case-control studies involving 9,055 cases and 10,516 controls were identified after a comprehensive literature search of the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Wanfang databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was calculated. Stratified analyses by ethnicity and study quality were conducted for further estimation. All statistical analyses were conducted by use of STATA (STATA Corporation, College Station, TX, Version 11.0). The overall ORs showed that the variant t allele and tt genotype were related to an increased risk of breast cancer (ORt vs. T?=?1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.10, P OR?=?0.025; ORtt vs. TT?=?1.12, 95 % CI 1.03-1.23, P OR?=?0.011; ORtt vs. Tt + TT?=?1.10, 95 % CI 1.01-1.20, P OR?=?0.023). Stratified analyses of studies in Caucasians and with high-quality further confirmed the results. However, no significant relationship was observed among Asians. This meta-analysis suggests that the VDR TaqI polymorphism confers risk effect on the breast cancer development, particularly in Caucasians.
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NFAT2 inhibitor ameliorates diabetic nephropathy and podocyte injury in db/db mice.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Podocyte injury plays a key role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We have recently shown that 11R-VIVIT, an inhibitor of cell-permeable nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), attenuates podocyte apoptosis induced by high glucose in vitro. However, it is not known whether 11R-VIVIT has a protective effect on DN, especially podocyte injury, under in vivo diabetic conditions. Hence, we examined the renoprotective effects of 11R-VIVIT in diabetic db/db mice and the possible mechanisms underlying its protective effects on podocyte injury in vivo and in vitro.
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Structures of arenaviral nucleoproteins with triphosphate dsRNA reveal a unique mechanism of immune suppression.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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A hallmark of severe Lassa fever is the generalized immune suppression, the mechanism of which is poorly understood. Lassa virus (LASV) nucleoprotein (NP) is the only known 3-5 exoribonuclease that can suppress type I interferon (IFN) production possibly by degrading immune-stimulatory RNAs. How this unique enzymatic activity of LASV NP recognizes and processes RNA substrates is unknown. We provide an atomic view of a catalytically active exoribonuclease domain of LASV NP (LASV NP-C) in the process of degrading a 5 triphosphate double-stranded (ds) RNA substrate, a typical pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecule, to induce type I IFN production. Additionally, we provide for the first time a high-resolution crystal structure of an active exoribonuclease domain of Tacaribe arenavirus (TCRV) NP. Coupled with the in vitro enzymatic and cell-based interferon suppression assays, these structural analyses strongly support a unified model of an exoribonuclease-dependent IFN suppression mechanism shared by all known arenaviruses. New knowledge learned from these studies should aid the development of therapeutics against pathogenic arenaviruses that can infect hundreds of thousands of individuals and kill thousands annually.
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Pulmonary hypertension as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and events in hemodialysis patients.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Hemodialysis patients are at an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been recently reported as a new entity and unrecognized threat in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, whether PH predicts CV mortality and events in this population remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the value of PH in predicting CV mortality and events in a prospective cohort of MHD patients.
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NFAT2 mediates high glucose-induced glomerular podocyte apoptosis through increased Bax expression.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Hyperglycemia promotes podocyte apoptosis and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanisms that mediate hyperglycemia-induced podocyte apoptosis is still far from being fully understood. Recent studies reported that high glucose activate nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in vascular smooth muscle or pancreatic ?-cells. Here, we sought to determine if hyperglycemia activates NFAT2 in cultured podocyte and whether this leads to podocyte apoptosis. Meanwhile, we also further explore the mechanisms of NFAT2 activation and NFAT2 mediates high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis. Methods: Immortalized mouse podocytes were cultured in media containing normal glucose (NG), or high glucose (HG) or HG plus cyclosporine A (a pharmacological inhibitor of calcinerin) or 11R-VIVIT (a special inhibitor of NFAT2). The activation of NFAT2 in podocytes was detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. The role of NFAT2 in hyperglycemia-induced podocyte apoptosis was further evaluated by observing the inhibition of NFAT2 activation by 11R-VIVIT using flow cytometer. Intracellular Ca(2+) was monitored in HG-treated podcocytes using Fluo-3/AM. The mRNA and protein expression of apoptosis gene Bax were measured by real time-qPCR and western blotting. Results: HG stimulation activated NFAT2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in cultured podocytes. Pretreatment with cyclosporine A (500nM) or 11R-VIVIT (100nM) completely blocked NFAT2 nuclear accumulation. Meanwhile, the apoptosis effects induced by HG were also abrogated by concomitant treatment with 11R-VIVIT in cultured podocytes. We further found that HG also increased [Ca(2+)]i, leading to activation of calcineurin, and subsequent increased nuclear accumulation of NFAT2 and Bax expression in cultured podocytes. Conclusion: Our results identify a new finding that HG-induced podocyte apoptosis is mediated by calcineurin/NFAT2/Bax signaling pathway, which may present a promising target for therapeutic intervention.
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1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) inhibits podocyte uPAR expression and reduces proteinuria.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Accumulating studies have demonstrated that 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)2D3) reduces proteinuria and protects podocytes from injury. Recently, urokinase receptor (uPAR) and its soluble form have been shown to cause podocyte injury and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here, our findings showed that 1,25(OH)2D3 did inhibit podocyte uPAR expression and attenuate proteinuria and podocyte injury.
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Salt bridges regulate both dimer formation and monomeric flexibility in HdeB and may have a role in periplasmic chaperone function.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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Escherichia coli and Gram-negative bacteria that live in the human gut must be able to tolerate rapid and large changes in environmental pH. Low pH irreversibly denatures and precipitates many bacterial proteins. While cytoplasmic proteins are well buffered against such swings, periplasmic proteins are not. Instead, it appears that some bacteria utilize chaperone proteins that stabilize periplasmic proteins, preventing their precipitation. Two highly expressed and related proteins, HdeA and HdeB, have been identified as acid-activated chaperones. The structure of HdeA is known and a mechanism for activation has been proposed. In this model, dimeric HdeA dissociates at low pH, and the exposed dimeric interface binds exposed hydrophobic surfaces of acid-denatured proteins, preventing their irreversible aggregation. We now report the structure and biophysical characterization of the HdeB protein. The monomer of HdeB shares a similar structure with HdeA, but its dimeric interface is different in composition and spatial location. We have used fluorescence to study the behavior of HdeB as pH is lowered, and like HdeA, it dissociates to monomers. We have identified one of the key intersubunit interactions that controls pH-induced monomerization. Our analysis identifies a structural interaction within the HdeB monomer that is disrupted as pH is lowered, leading to enhanced structural flexibility.
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MicroRNA-29c is a signature microRNA under high glucose conditions that targets Sprouty homolog 1, and its in vivo knockdown prevents progression of diabetic nephropathy.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Although several recent publications have suggested that microRNAs contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, the role of miRNAs in vivo still remains poorly understood. Using an integrated in vitro and in vivo comparative miRNA expression array, we identified miR-29c as a signature miRNA in the diabetic environment. We validated our profiling array data by examining miR-29c expression in the kidney glomeruli obtained from db/db mice in vivo and in kidney microvascular endothelial cells and podocytes treated with high glucose in vitro. Functionally, we found that miR-29c induces cell apoptosis and increases extracellular matrix protein accumulation. Indeed, forced expression of miR-29c strongly induced podocyte apoptosis. Conversely, knockdown of miR-29c prevented high glucose-induced cell apoptosis. We also identified Sprouty homolog 1 (Spry1) as a direct target of miR-29c with a nearly perfect complementarity between miR-29c and the 3-untranslated region (UTR) of mouse Spry1. Expression of miR-29c decreased the luciferase activity of Spry1 when co-transfected with the mouse Spry1 3-UTR reporter construct. Overexpression of miR-29c decreased the levels of Spry1 protein and promoted activation of Rho kinase. Importantly, knockdown of miR-29c by a specific antisense oligonucleotide significantly reduced albuminuria and kidney mesangial matrix accumulation in the db/db mice model in vivo. These findings identify miR-29c as a novel target in diabetic nephropathy and provide new insights into the role of miR-29c in a previously unrecognized signaling cascade involving Spry1 and Rho kinase activation.
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Separation and determination of ?-casomorphins by using glass microfluidic chip electrophoresis together with laser-induced fluorescence detection.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2010
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A simple, reliable and reproducible method for the separation and determination of five ?-casomorphins (?-CMs, namely TPGN, PGPI, TPGI, TPGP and TPPG) based on glass microfluidic chip electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection is first described in here. The microfluidic chip electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection system consisted of a home-made glass "double-T" microchip and a simple LIF detector with excitation and emission wavelengths of 473 and 525 nm, respectively. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was used as the precolumn derivatization reagent to label fluorophore on five ?-CMs, and the optimum conditions of FITC-derivatization reaction and MCE separation were investigated in detail. Under optimum conditions, five ?-CMs were completely separated and detected within 30 min with a detection limit of 18.7-75.1 nmol/L and an RSD (n=5) of 3.0-5.9%, respectively. The proposed method has been successfully used to detect ?-CMs in real cheese sample with a recovery of 89-109%, suggesting that our method is sensitive and reliable. These features, as well as its low cost, operation convenience, stability and reusability, make it a promising alternative to ?-CMs detection methods.
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Liquid chromatography on a monolithic column microfluidic chip coupled with "three-T" sample injection mode and amperometric detection.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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An LC microfluidic chip (LC chip) with amperometric detection was developed. The LC chip employed a 7.5 cm long reversed-phase polymethacrylate monolithic column as a stationary phase and a "three-T" injection mode. A convenient interface was designed to conduct pump pressure into the microfluidic chip to drive solution, and a home-made device was used to control the distance between the working electrode and the LC chip accurately. The "three-T" sample injection mode completely avoided the problem of sample dilution and sample leakage during separation, which is usually observed in traditional and "T" type LC chip, without the using of valve and finally results in a better resolution, reproducibility and relatively high sensitivity. Using the proposed LC chip system, we have successfully separated two isomers, catechol and hydroquinone, within 12 min with a RSD (n=3) <3.0% for retention time and <2.4% for peak area. We have also successfully separated and determined 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine within 25 min with a RSD (n=3) <5% (for peak area) and a detection limit of 0.16-0.51 ?mol/L.
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Identification of microRNA-93 as a novel regulator of vascular endothelial growth factor in hyperglycemic conditions.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a dimeric glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in microvascular complications of diabetes, including diabetic nephropathy. However, the precise regulatory mechanisms governing VEGF expression in the diabetic milieu are still poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that microRNA-93 (miR-93) regulates VEGF expression in experimental models of diabetes both in vitro and in vivo. Comparative microRNA expression profile arrays identified miR-93 as a signature microRNA in hyperglycemic conditions. We identified VEGF-A as a putative target of miR-93 in the kidney with a perfect complementarity between miR-93 and the 3-untranslated region of vegfa in several species. When cotransfected with a luciferase reporter construct containing the mouse vegfa 3-untranslated region, expression of miR-93 markedly decreased the luciferase activity. We showed that forced expression of miR-93 in cells abrogated VEGF protein secretion. Conversely, anti-miR-93 inhibitors increased VEGF release. Transfection of miR-93 also prevented the effect of high glucose on VEGF downstream targets. Using transgenic mice containing VEGF-LacZ bicistronic transcripts, we found that inhibition of glomerular miR-93 by peptide-conjugated morpholino oligomers elicited increased expression of VEGF. Our findings also indicate that high glucose decreases miR-93 expression by down-regulating the promoter of the host MCM7 gene. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the role of miR-93 in VEGF signaling pathway and offer a potentially novel target in preventing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
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Cap binding and immune evasion revealed by Lassa nucleoprotein structure.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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Lassa virus, the causative agent of Lassa fever, causes thousands of deaths annually and is a biological threat agent, for which there is no vaccine and limited therapy. The nucleoprotein (NP) of Lassa virus has essential roles in viral RNA synthesis and immune suppression, the molecular mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of Lassa virus NP at 1.80?Å resolution, which reveals amino (N)- and carboxy (C)-terminal domains with structures unlike any of the reported viral NPs. The N domain folds into a novel structure with a deep cavity for binding the m7GpppN cap structure that is required for viral RNA transcription, whereas the C domain contains 3-5 exoribonuclease activity involved in suppressing interferon induction. To our knowledge this is the first X-ray crystal structure solved for an arenaviral NP, which reveals its unexpected functions and indicates unique mechanisms in cap binding and immune evasion. These findings provide great potential for vaccine and drug development.
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Antithrombotic effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Proanthocyanidins are abundantly found in grape seeds and have been suggested to inhibit the pathogenesis of systemic diseases. We investigated the antithrombotic effects of proanthocyanidins in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and examined the underlying mechanisms.
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?-Arrestins: multifunctional signaling adaptors in type 2 diabetes.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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?-arrestins are not only well-known negative regulators of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, but also important adaptors in modulating the strength and duration of cellular signaling by scaffolding and interacting with a lot of cytoplasmic proteins. While ?-arrestins are rather well described signal-mediated molecules, they are not generally associated with insulin signaling. But recent work has confirmed the difference from original thought. The current review aims to explore the emerging roles for ?-arrestins in regulating insulin action, inflammatory signal pathway and other cellular signaling which are associated with type 2 diabetes.
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1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) prevents puromycin aminonucleoside-induced apoptosis of glomerular podocytes by activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-signaling pathway.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D and its analogs reduce proteinuria and slow the decline in kidney function in chronic kidney disease. Given a rich literature identifying podocyte apoptosis as an early step in the pathophysiological progression to proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis, we hypothesized that vitamin D protects podocytes from undergoing apoptosis.
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The calcineurin-NFAT pathway allows for urokinase receptor-mediated beta3 integrin signaling to cause podocyte injury.
J. Mol. Med.
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Circulating and podocyte-bound urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a mediator of podocyte injury, proteinuria, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) allowing pathological activation of the uPAR-?3 integrin signaling axis. Clinically, calcineurin inhibitors (e.g., cyclosporine A, CsA) are known to suppress T cells, yet are also being used to reduce proteinuria in FSGS, suggesting the possibility of signal cross talk between uPAR and calcineurin. Calcineurin is known to facilitate the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Accordingly, in vivo conditional NFATc1 activation in podocytes leads to proteinuria in mice, yet the downstream targets of NFAT remain unclear. Here, we show that inducible podocyte-specific expression of constitutively active NFATc1 increased podocyte uPAR expression by binding to the Plaur gene promoter (encoding uPAR) in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Pathological uPAR signals in podocytes are independent of T cells and affect cell motility via activation, but not expression, changes of the ?3 integrin and can be blocked by CsA, NFAT-siRNA, or the cell-permeable NFAT inhibitor (11R-VIVIT) using rodent models of glomerular disease (LPS; 5/6 nephrectomized rats). Taken together, these findings identify podocyte uPAR as a downstream target of NFAT and provide further insights into the pathogenesis of FSGS.
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Receptor activator of NF-kappaB and podocytes: towards a function of a novel receptor-ligand pair in the survival response of podocyte injury.
PLoS ONE
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Glomerulosclerosis correlates with reduction in podocyte number that occurs through mechanisms which include apoptosis. Podocyte injury or podocyte loss in the renal glomerulus has been proposed as the crucial mechanism in the development of glomerulosclerosis. However, the mechanism by which podocytes respond to injury is poorly understood. TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies are important in the pathogenesis of podocyte injury and apoptosis. The ligand of receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANKL) and receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) are members of the TNF and receptor superfamilies. We investigated whether RANK-RANKL is a receptor-ligand complex for podocytes responding to injury.
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Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces secretion of interleukin-1? by macrophages via reactive oxygen species-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
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Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a critical mediator of atherogenesis. Macrophage uptake of ox-LDL and their subsequent development into foam cells is the principal event in atherosclerosis. Interleukin-1? (IL-1?), a prototypic multifunctional cytokine involved in inflammation, has an important effect on the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. Here we show that the phagocytosis of ox-LDL can induce human macrophages to secrete IL-1? by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome, and we further show that the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is dependent on the generation of reactive oxygen species and is related to the cathepsin B pathway. Furthermore, ox-LDL can upregulate the expression of the pro-IL-1? protein, thus priming IL-1? secretion. Therefore, our results suggest that the role of ox-LDL in atherosclerosis-related inflammation may involve the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
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Deletion of scavenger receptor A protects mice from progressive nephropathy independent of lipid control during diet-induced hyperlipidemia.
Kidney Int.
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Scavenger receptor A (SR-A) is a key transmembrane receptor in the endocytosis of lipids and contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. To assess its role in hyperlipidemic chronic kidney disease, wild-type and SR-A-deficient (knockout) mice underwent uninephrectomy followed by either normal or high-fat diet. After 16 weeks of diet intervention, hyperlipidemic wild-type mice presented characteristic features of progressive nephropathy: albuminuria, renal fibrosis, and overexpression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1/Smad. These changes were markedly diminished in hyperlipidemic knockout mice and attributed to reduced renal lipid retention, oxidative stress, and CD11c(+) cell infiltration. In vitro, overexpression of SR-A augmented monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release and TGF-?1/Smad activation in HK-2 cells exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein. SR-A knockdown prevented lipid-induced cell injury. Moreover, wild-type to knockout bone marrow transplantation resulted in renal fibrosis in uninephrectomized mice following 16 weeks of the high-fat diet. In contrast, knockout to wild-type bone marrow transplantation led to markedly reduced albuminuria, CD11c(+) cell infiltration, and renal fibrosis compared to wild-type to SR-A knockout or wild-type to wild-type bone marrow transplanted mice, without difference in plasma lipid levels. Thus, SR-A on circulating leukocytes rather than resident renal cells predominantly mediates lipid-induced kidney injury.
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Mitochondrial fission triggered by hyperglycemia is mediated by ROCK1 activation in podocytes and endothelial cells.
Cell Metab.
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Several lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of microvascular complications of diabetes, including diabetic nephropathy. However, the signaling pathways by which hyperglycemia leads to mitochondrial dysfunction are not fully understood. Here we examined the role of Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) on mitochondrial dynamics by generating two diabetic mouse models with targeted deletions of ROCK1 and an inducible podocyte-specific knockin mouse expressing a constitutively active (cA) mutant of ROCK1. Our findings suggest that ROCK1 mediates hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial fission by promoting dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) recruitment to the mitochondria. Deletion of ROCK1 in diabetic mice prevented mitochondrial fission, whereas podocyte-specific cA-ROCK1 mice exhibited increased mitochondrial fission. Importantly, we found that ROCK1 triggers mitochondrial fission by phosphorylating Drp1 at serine 600 residue. These findings provide insights into the unexpected role of ROCK1 in a signaling cascade that regulates mitochondrial dynamics.
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