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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Plasma and tissue free amino acid profiles and their concentration correlation in patients with lung cancer.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Variation of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) is an essential feature of protein metabolic abnormalities in cancer patients. But there still little data about the cancer tissue free amino acid (TFAAs) profiles, including their patterns and correlations with PFAAs. To evaluate the variation in PFAAs and cancer TFAAs in patients with lung cancer, including their patterns and correlations, we investigated the concentrations of free amino acids in lung cancer tissues (n=27), paired lung paracarcinomous tissues (n=27) and plasma (n=27) using an automatic amino acid analyzer after pre-treatment. Within the PFAAs, the concentrations of five amino acids (tryptophan, glycine, citrulline, ornithine and proline) were significantly decreased, while that of phenylalanine was markedly increased compared with control subjects. Within the TFAAs, the concentrations of three amino acids (taurine, glutamic acid and glycine) were increased, while the concentrations of two amino acids (lysine and ornithine) were decreased significantly in lung cancer tissues compared with the paracarcinomous tissues. The amino acid patterns in PFAAs and TFAAs had similar trends, but percentage variations were diverse. Additionally, the concentrations of five amino acids (lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, serine, and alanine) in PFAAs correlated with those in lung cancer TFAAs, but no amino acids in PFAAs were correlated with those in lung paracarcinomous TFAAs. Thus, PFAA profiles may reflect the status of cancer tissues, which may provide more information about the metabolic statuses and prognoses of patients with lung cancer.
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Lin28 promotes Her2 expression and Lin28/Her2 predicts poorer survival in gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The main purpose of this study is to investigate the interactions between Lin28 and Her2 in gastric cancer. Lin28 and Her2 expression were evaluated in surgically resected samples of 298 gastric cancer patients using immunohistochemical staining. The correlations between Lin28/Her2 expression and clinical variables were retrospectively analyzed. The mRNA level of LIN28 and HER2 was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Among all gastric cancer patients, 33.9 % (101/298) were determined as Her2-positive, and 43.0 % (128/298) were defined as Lin28-positive. Lin28 was significantly associated with Her2, advanced tumor stage, lesion size, and Ki67 level (p?
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Characterization of the secreted cathepsin B cysteine proteases family of the carcinogenic liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESP) have gained high attentions because of their potential to be vaccine candidates and drug targets in C. sinensis prevention. In this study, we extensively profiled the characteristics of four C. sinensis cathepsin B cysteine proteases (CsCB1, CsCB2, CsCB3, and CsCB4). Bioinformatics analysis showed all CsCBs contained signal peptides at the N-terminal. Functional domains and residues were found in CsCB sequences. We expressed four CsCBs and profiled immune responses followed by vaccine trials. Recombinant CsCBs could induce high IgG titers, indicating high immunogenicity of CsCB family. Additionally, ELISA results showed that both IgG1 and IgG2a levels apparently increased post-immunization with all four CsCBs, showing that combined Th1/Th2 immune responses were triggered by CsCB family. Both Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting confirmed that four CsCBs have distinct expression patterns in C. sinensis life stages. More importantly, we validated our hypothesis that CsCBs were C. sinensis excretory/secretory products. CsCBs could be recognized by C. sinensis-infected sera throughout the infection period, indicating that secreted CsCBs are immune triggers during C. sinensis infection. The protective effect was assessed by comparing the worm burden and egg per gram (EPG) between CsCB group and control group, showing that worm burden (P?
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Systemic and local mucosal immune responses induced by orally delivered Bacillus subtilis spore expressing leucine aminopeptidase 2 of Clonorchis sinensis.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Human clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) has been increasingly prevalent in recent years so that an effective measure is essential and urgent to control the infectious disease. Oral delivery of antigens from C. sinensis may be an important approach to effectively induce both systemic and local immune responses to anti-infection of the parasite. In the current study, we used Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores as a delivery vehicle to introduce leucine aminopeptidase 2 of C. sinensis (CsLAP2), an excretory/secretory antigen with high immunogenicity, expressing on their surface. SDS-PAGE, western blotting, and flow cytometry indicated that CsLAP2 was successfully expressed on the surface of B. subtilis spores (CotC-CsLAP2 spores). BALB/c mice were treated with spores intragastrically. On day 31 after the treatment, we found that mice intragastrically treated with CotC-CsLAP2 spores exhibited higher IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA level in sera as well as higher sIgA level in bile and intestinal lavage fluid compared to mice orally administrated with spores not expressing CsLAP2 (CotC spores) and naïve mice. The peak titer of IgG/IgA presented on day 31/49 after oral administration. IgG1 level was lower than IgG2a in group administrated with CotC-CsLAP2 spores. sIgA-secreting cells were obviously observed in intestinal epithelium of mice orally treated with CotC-CsLAP2 spores. After incubated with CotC-CsLAP2, the levels of IFN-?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and TNF significantly increased in the supernatant of splenocytes isolated from mice orally treated with CotC-CsLAP2 spores, while there was no statistically significant difference of IL-4 level representing Th2 response among the groups. Our study demonstrated that oral administration of CsLAP2 delivered by B. subtilis spore elicited obvious systemic and local mucosal immunity. Secretory IgA and Th1-Th17 cellular immunity might involved in mechanisms of the immune response.
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Proteomic identification of potential Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products capable of binding and activating human hepatic stellate cells.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Epidemiological and experimental evidence demonstrated that Clonorchis sinensis is an important risk factor of hepatic fibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma. C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (CsESPs) are protein complex including proteases, antioxidant enzymes, and metabolic enzymes, which may contribute to pathogenesis of liver fluke-associated hepatobiliary diseases. However, potential CsESP candidates involved into hepatic fibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma still remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we performed proteomic identification of CsESP candidates capable of binding and activating human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the interaction of CsESPs with LX-2 cell membrane. LX-2 cells could be stimulated by CsESPs from 24 h post incubation (p?
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Identification, immunolocalization, and immunological characterization of nitric oxide synthase-interacting protein from Clonorchis sinensis.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Recently, accumulating evidences indicate that nitric oxide (NO) is a potent mediator with diverse roles in regulating cellular functions, signaling pathways, and variety of pathological processes. In the present study, using data from the published genomic for Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), we investigated a gene encoding nitric oxide synthase-interacting protein (NOSIP) of C. sinensis. Recombinant CsNOSIP (rCsNOSIP) was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli BL21. The open reading frame of CsNOSIP comprises 867 bp which encodes 289 amino acids and shares 72.9, 45.2, 47, 46.4, and 45.8% identity with NOSIP from Schistosoma mansoni, Xenopus laevis, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the full-length sequence contains an eNOS-interacting domain and numerous B-cell epitopes. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that CsNOSIP differentially transcribed throughout the adult worms, metacercariae, and egg stages of C. sinensis, and were highly expressed in the adult worms. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that the rCsNOSIP could be detected by the serum from BALB/c mice infected with C. sinensis and the serum from BALB/c mice immunized with excretory/secretory products (ESPs). Furthermore, immunolocalization assay showed that CsNOSIP was specifically localized in the intestine, vitellarium, and eggs of adult worm. Both immunoblot and immunolocalization results demonstrated that CsNOSIP was one component of ESPs of C. sinensis, which could be supported by SignalP analysis. Moreover, analysis of the antibody subclass and cytokine profile demonstrated that subcutaneously immunized BALB/c mice with rCsNOSIP could significantly enhance serum IgG1 level and up-regulate expression of IL-4 and IL-6 in the splenocytes. Our results suggested that CsNOSIP was an important antigen exposed to host immune system and probably involved in immune regulation of host by inducing Th2-polarized immune response.
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Molecular characterization and serological reactivity of a vacuolar ATP synthase subunit ?-like protein from Clonorchis sinensis.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The vacuolar ATPase enzyme complex (V-ATPase) pumps protons across membranes, energized by hydrolysis of ATP. Extensive investigations on structural and biochemical features of these molecules have implied their importance in the physiological process. In this study, a full-length sequence encoding a vacuolar ATP synthase subunit ?-like protein of Clonorchis sinensis (CsATP-?) was isolated from our cDNA library. The hypothetical 226 amino acid sequence shared 76% identity with ATP-? proteins of Schistosoma japonicum and above 55% identity with ATP-? proteins from human and other eukaryotes. Characteristic Asp??? amino acid residues and seven B-cell epitopes were predicted in this sequence. The complete coding sequence of the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant CsATP-? (rCsATP-?) protein could be probed by anti-rCsATP-? rat serum and C.sinensis-infected human serum in Western blotting experiment, indicating that it is an antigen of strong antigenicity. The high level of antibody titers (1:204,800) showed that CsATP-? has a powerful immunogenicity. Both the increased level and the change trend of IgG1/IgG2a subtypes in serum showed that the rCsATP-? can induce strong combined Th1/Th2 immune responses in rats and stimulate the immune response changes to the dominant Th2 from Th1 along with long time infection. The results of immunoblot and immunolocalization demonstrated that CsATP-? was consecutively expressed at various developmental stages of the parasite, which was supported by real-time PCR analysis. In immunohistochemistry, CsATP-? was localized on the intestine, vitellarium, and testicle of an adult worm and excretory bladder of metacercaria, implying that CsATP-? may relate to energy intake and metabolism. This fundamental study would contribute to further researches that are related to growth and development and immunomodulation of C. sinensis.
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Construction of the Chinese Veteran Clinical Research (CVCR) platform for the assessment of non-communicable diseases.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Based on the excellent medical care and management system for Chinese veterans, as well as the detailed medical documentation available, we aim to construct a Chinese Veteran Clinical Research (CVCR) platform on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and carry out studies of the primary disabling NCDs.
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FOLFOX versus EOX as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with advanced gastric cancer.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the preferred treatment of advanced gastric cancer. However, the choice of an optimal regimen remains controversial. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of preoperative chemotherapy with EOX and FOLFOX in Chinese patients with advanced gastric cancer. A total of 87 and 26 patients underwent FOLFOX and EOX regimens, respectively, for advanced gastric cancer between July 2004 and September 2012. Clinicopathological characteristics, pathological T stage, N stage and pathological response to tumour regression were retrospectively compared between the two groups. Following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, a higher number of patients manifested deeper invasive cancer in the FOLFOX group than those in the EOX group (P=0.047). In addition, a higher number of patients also exhibited metastatic lymph nodes in the FOLFOX group (67.8%) than in the EOX group (57.7%) (P=0.000). In the FOLFOX and EOX groups, 4 (4.6%) and 3 (11.5%) cases of complete regression were observed, respectively. A higher number of patients (38.5%) also exhibited tumour regression grades of 3 and 4 in the EOX group than in the FOLFOX group (19.5%) (P=0.047). Results of the present study suggest that the EOX regimen may be more effective than the FOLFOX regimen as preoperative chemotherapy for Chinese patients with advanced gastric cancer. The EOX regimen may be suitable for younger patients subjected to individual neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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Surface display of Clonorchis sinensis enolase on Bacillus subtilis spores potentializes an oral vaccine candidate.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infections remain the common public health problem in freshwater fish consumption areas. New effective prevention strategies are still the urgent challenges to control this kind of foodborne infectious disease. The biochemical importance and biological relevance render C. sinensis enolase (Csenolase) as a potential vaccine candidate. In the present study, we constructed Escherichia coli/Bacillus subtilis shuttle genetic engineering system and investigated the potential of Csenolase as an oral vaccine candidate for C. sinensis prevention in different immunization routes. Our results showed that, compared with control groups, both recombinant Csenolase protein and nucleic acid could induce a mixed IgG1/IgG2a immune response when administrated subcutaneously (P<0.001), intraperitoneally (P<0.01) and intramuscularly (P<0.001) with worm reduction rate of 56.29%, 15.38% and 37.42%, respectively. More importantly, Csenolase could be successfully expressed as a fusion protein (55kDa) on B. subtilis spore indicated by immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays. Killed spores triggered reactive Th1/Th2 immune response and exhibited protective efficacy against C. sinensis infection. Csenolase derived oral vaccine conferred worm reduction rate and egg reduction rate at 60.07% (P<0.001) and 80.67% (P<0.001), respectively. The shuttle genetic engineering system facilitated the development of oral vaccine with B. subtilis stably overexpressing target protein. Comparably vaccinal trails with Csenolase in different immunization routes potentialize Csenolase an oral vaccine candidate in C. sinensis prevention.
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RNAi-mediated silencing of enolase confirms its biological importance in Clonorchis sinensis.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection is still a common public health problem in freshwater fish consumption areas in Asian countries. More molecular evidence are required to speed up the prevention strategies to control this kind of infectious disease. In the present study, to confirm the biological importance of Csenolase followed by our previous observations of the key metabolic enzyme, we explored the RNA silence effect of the Csenolase-derived RNA interference (RNAi) in C. sinensis. The extramembranous region aa105-226 was selected as the target sequence of RNA silence. Csenolase-derived double strand RNA (dsRNA-Csenolase, 366 bp) was synthetized and delivered into C. sinensis by soaking approach. The penetration of dsRNA into adult worms and metacercariae was tracked using fluorescently labeled RNA. Western blotting and qRT-PCR experiments were performed to determine dsRNA-Csenolase-silencing effect. Our results showed that, after incubating for 120 h, dsRNA-Csenolase could effectively target and downregulate the expression of Csenolase in both adult worms (P < 0.001) and metacercariae (P < 0.01), resulting in a remarkable killing effect on C. sinensis adult worms (P < 0.01). Fluorescent Cy3-labeled dsRNA was mostly deposited in the uterus and vitellarium of adult worm and in the cyst wall of metacercaria. The present study is the first report of RNAi trials in C. sinensis, allowing further applications in identifying functional genes in C. sinensis.
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Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of Clonorchis sinensis hexokinase, an unusual trimeric 50-kDa glucose-6-phosphate-sensitive allosteric enzyme.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Clonorchiasis, which is induced by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is highly associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Because the available examination, treatment and interrupting transmission provide limited opportunities to prevent infection, it is urgent to develop integrated strategies to prevent and control clonorchiasis. Glycolytic enzymes are crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK), the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was characterized in this study. The calculated molecular mass (Mr) of CsHK was 50.0 kDa. The obtained recombinant CsHK (rCsHK) was a homotrimer with an Mr of approximately 164 kDa, as determined using native PAGE and gel filtration. The highest activity was obtained with 50 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 10 and 100 mM Tris-HCl at pH 8.5 and 10. The kinetics of rCsHK has a moderate thermal stability. Compared to that of the corresponding negative control, the enzymatic activity was significantly inhibited by praziquantel (PZQ) and anti-rCsHK serum. rCsHK was homotropically and allosterically activated by its substrates, including glucose, mannose, fructose, and ATP. ADP exhibited mixed allosteric effect on rCsHK with respect to ATP, while inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) displayed net allosteric activation with various allosteric systems. Fructose behaved as a dose-dependent V activator with the substrate glucose. Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) displayed net allosteric inhibition on rCsHK with respect to ATP or glucose with various allosteric systems in a dose-independent manner. There were differences in both mRNA and protein levels of CsHK among the life stages of adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria and egg of C. sinensis, suggesting different energy requirements during different development stages. Our study furthers the understanding of the biological functions of CsHK and supports the need to screen for small molecule inhibitors of CsHK to interfere with glycolysis in C. sinensis.
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Reduced miR-9 and miR-181a expression down-regulates Bim concentration and promote osteoclasts survival.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tibial plateau fractures are often the result of blunt trauma and are associated with severe soft-tissue injury. Operative management of high-energy fractures remains difficult and challenging because the injuries often associated with serious complications. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the class of short noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression. miRNAs contribute to every step of osteogenesis from embryonic bone development to maintenance of adult bone tissue, and disturbed miRNAs expression are identified related to osteoporosis, osteosarcoma, post-traumatic arthritis and bone remodeling. But our understandings about the roles of miRNAs in tibial plateau fractures repairing process are rare. In this study, we first detect seven candidate miRNAs expression in the SF cells of the mouse model. The results indicated that miR-9 and miR-181a were down-regulated significantly five days after injury. By using dual luciferase assay and western blot, we confirmed that the expression of Cbl is repressed by miR-9 and miR-181a. Meanwhile, the amount of ubiquitinated Bim was raised and the total Bim was reduced by miRNA inhibitors. Further functional study indicated that reduced miR-9 and miR-181a expression can active RAW264.7 cells migration ability and raise the primary mouse osteoclasts survival rate in vitro. To our understood, this is the first study about the function of disturbed miRNAs in the tibial plateau fracture mouse model, and may expand our understanding about post tibial plateau fracture recover and post-traumatic sequelae generation.
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Molecular Characterization of Severin fromClonorchis sinensis Excretory/Secretory Products and Its Potential Anti-apoptotic Role in Hepatocarcinoma PLC Cells.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
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Clonorchiasis, caused by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is a kind of neglected tropical disease, but it is highly related to cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been well known that the excretory/secretory products of C. sinensis (CsESPs) play key roles in clonorchiasis associated carcinoma. From genome and transcriptome of C. sinensis, we identified one component of CsESPs, severin (Csseverin), which had three putative gelsolin domains. Its homologues are supposed to play a vital role in apoptosis resistance of tumour cell.
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Molecular characterization and immune modulation properties of Clonorchis sinensis-derived RNASET2.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs) is a trematode parasite that often causes chronic cumulative infections in the hepatobiliary ducts of the host and can lead to pathological changes by continuously released excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs). A T2 ribonuclease in trematode ESPs, has been identified as a potent regulator of dendritic cell (DCs) modulation. We wondered whether there was a counterpart present in CsESPs with similar activity. To gain a better understanding of CsESPs associated immune responses, we identified and characterized RNASET2 of C. sinensis (CsRNASET2) in this paper.
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Efficacy of anterior cervical decompression and fusion procedures for monomelic amyotrophy treatment: a prospective randomized controlled trial: clinical article.
J Neurosurg Spine
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Monomelic amyotrophy (MMA) is a benign, self-limiting lower motor neuron disease. Optimal surgical strategies-discectomy decompression and fusion (DDF) or corpectomy decompression and fusion (CDF)-for patients with aggravated symptoms (within 6 months of presentation) are controversial, particularly in those who are ineligible for conventional treatment. These 2 methods of anterior cervical decompression and fusion for MMA in patients unwilling or unable to wear a conventional cervical collar long term were evaluated.
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Long-term controlled release of (125)I-tagged BMP-2 by mesoporous bioactive glass with ordered nanopores.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of mesoporous bioactive glass with ordered nanopores (80S MBG) to adsorb and provide the delayed release of (125)I-tagged bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). A 50 mg piece of 80S MBG was produced, which comprised SiO2, CaO and P2O5 in a component molar ratio of 80:15:5. Each MBG piece adsorbed 30 ?g (125)I-BMP-2. Persistent radioactivity in the MBG was periodically measured in simulated body fluid. The total amount of BMP-2 released and the mean amount released per day were calculated. A delayed release curve of BMP-2 was constructed. SPSS 15.0 software was used to perform a statistical analysis. The amount of BMP-2 released in the first two days was one-quarter of the total load. A line equation, y = 490.55×(1/2) + 7268.82, was obtained from the square root of protein release doses value at 3-94 days. The total amount of BMP-2 released over 94 days was 11.894 ?g, which was ~39.6% of the total load. The half-life of the release time was 248 days. From the second week, the rate of BMP release had stabilized to a mean of 37.42±18.67 ng/day and the difference of the mean amount released per day had no statistical significance (P>0.05). High adsorption and delayed release effects of BMP-2 were observed in 80S MBG. The delayed release conforms to the Higuchi equation, which indicates possible applications in promoting bone healing.
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Cervical spondylotic myelopathy with vitamin B12 deficiency: Two case reports.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Although it has been observed that a vitamin B12 (VB12) deficiency may lead to defects in the nervous system, there is a lack of studies elucidating whether VB12 has a role in the pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The present study describes two cases of CSM observed in the clinic, where the patients presented with common characteristics of the typical clinical symptoms; however, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging examinations revealed that although the degree of spinal cord compression was not serious, the spinal cord exhibited significant high signal changes. At the same time, the serum VB12 levels of the two patients were lower compared with those of normal controls. The symptoms of the patients improved following anterior cervical decompression surgery and VB12 replacement therapy. The incidence of CSM in the two patients may have been correlated with a lack of VB12. Therefore, it is recommended that the serum VB12 levels are checked in cases of CSM where the standard imaging and clinical manifestations do not fully match.
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Potential health risks of heavy metals in cultivated topsoil and grain, including correlations with human primary liver, lung and gastric cancer, in Anhui province, Eastern China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Environmental exposure to heavy metals is a well-known risk factor for cancers. To evaluate potential health risks of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, As and Hg) and Se in cultivated topsoil and grains, we investigated the concentrations of Hg, As and Se using atomic fluorescence spectrometry and Cr, Cd and Pb using inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-MS). We also analyzed human cancer tissues for heavy metals. Potential health risks for local residents were evaluated by calculating the hazard index (HI) and the total carcinogenic risk (TCR) for soil heavy metals and the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the carcinogenic risk (CR) for grain heavy metals. A bioconcentration factor (BCF) was applied to quantify the bioaccumulation of heavy metals. Our results demonstrated that the mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil were all within the safety limits set by FAO/WHO and Chinese regulations; however, the mean concentrations of Cr and Hg in grain exceeded the safety limits. HI and TCR for soil heavy metals were all within acceptable levels, but the THQ for four grain heavy metals exceeded the target value of 1 (Cr, 2.64; Pb, 1.41; As, 1.24; Hg, 1.07; Cd, 0.39). The grain CR for Cr, Pb and As exceeded the accepted risk level of 10(-6). BCF values indicated that the bioaccumulation capacity decreased in the following sequence: Hg>Se>Cd>Cr>Pb>As. We also observed statistically significant correlations of topsoil Pb concentration with human gastric cancer and grain Hg with human liver cancer. Therefore, long-term low dose exposure of heavy metals may play a key role in tumorigenesis, and it may not be necessary to accumulate a high concentration of heavy metals in the human body for those metals to induce tumorigenesis.
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The carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis: new assembly, reannotation and analysis of the genome and characterization of tissue transcriptomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), an important food-borne parasite that inhabits the intrahepatic bile duct and causes clonorchiasis, is of interest to both the public health field and the scientific research community. To learn more about the migration, parasitism and pathogenesis of C. sinensis at the molecular level, the present study developed an upgraded genomic assembly and annotation by sequencing paired-end and mate-paired libraries. We also performed transcriptome sequence analyses on multiple C. sinensis tissues (sucker, muscle, ovary and testis). Genes encoding molecules involved in responses to stimuli and muscle-related development were abundantly expressed in the oral sucker. Compared with other species, genes encoding molecules that facilitate the recognition and transport of cholesterol were observed in high copy numbers in the genome and were highly expressed in the oral sucker. Genes encoding transporters for fatty acids, glucose, amino acids and oxygen were also highly expressed, along with other molecules involved in metabolizing these substrates. All genes involved in energy metabolism pathways, including the ?-oxidation of fatty acids, the citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and fumarate reduction, were expressed in the adults. Finally, we also provide valuable insights into the mechanism underlying the process of pathogenesis by characterizing the secretome of C. sinensis. The characterization and elaborate analysis of the upgraded genome and the tissue transcriptomes not only form a detailed and fundamental C. sinensis resource but also provide novel insights into the physiology and pathogenesis of C. sinensis. We anticipate that this work will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis.
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Identification and biochemical characterization of adenylate kinase 1 from Clonorchis sinensis.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Adenylate kinase 1 is responsible for the conversion of AMP into ADP involved in purine metabolism. In the present study, adenylate kinase 1 gene (CsADK1) was isolated from an adult cDNA library of Clonorchis sinensis, and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. Bioinformatics analysis implied that the putative protein contained 197 amino acids, and some residues in conservative binding sites of CsADK1 were substituted. The structure modeling analysis showed that CsADK1 was composed of a core domain, an NMP-binding domain, and a LID domain, which was just a small loop. It demonstrated that CsADK1 was a short isoform of ADKs. Moreover, CsADK1 was identified as an excretory/secretory product by western blot analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that expression level of CsADK1 at the stage of excysted metacercaria was higher than those of adult worm (18.8-folds, P<0.01), metacercariae (1.5-folds, P<0.01), and eggs (5.6-folds, P<0.01). In addition, histochemistry analysis showed that CsADK1 was extensively distributed in metacercariae and in the vitellaria and eggs of adult worms. The Km and Vmax value for substrate ADP were 2.2 mM and 0.9 mM/min, respectively. The optimal temperature and pH value were 37 °C and from 7.5 to 8.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was highly dependent on Mg2+, and the optimal concentration of Mg2+ was 2 mM. However, the enzyme activity was slightly activated by Ca2+, and Mn2+ has no effect on activity. For monovalent ions, activity was highly activated by K+ and NH4+, but slightly by Li+. Taken together, CsADK1 was a metal ion-dependent enzyme involved in purine metabolism, which was important for development and reproduction, and might be a potential candidate for drug target for clonorchiasis.
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Low Divergence of Clonorchis sinensis in China Based on Multilocus Analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Clonorchis sinensis, an ancient parasite that infects a number of piscivorous mammals, attracts significant public health interest due to zoonotic exposure risks in Asia. The available studies are insufficient to reflect the prevalence, geographic distribution, and intraspecific genetic diversity of C. sinensis in endemic areas. Here, a multilocus analysis based on eight genes (ITS1, act, tub, ef-1a, cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5 [4.986 kb]) was employed to explore the intra-species genetic construction of C. sinensis in China. Two hundred and fifty-six C. sinensis isolates were obtained from environmental reservoirs from 17 provinces of China. A total of 254 recognized Multilocus Types (MSTs) showed high diversity among these isolates using multilocus analysis. The comparison analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeny supports separate clusters in a nuclear dendrogram. Genetic differentiation analysis of three clusters (A, B, and C) showed low divergence within populations. Most isolates from clusters B and C are geographically limited to central China, while cluster A is extraordinarily genetically diverse. Further genetic analyses between different geographic distributions, water bodies and hosts support the low population divergence. The latter haplotype analyses were consistent with the phylogenetic and genetic differentiation results. A recombination network based on concatenated sequences showed a concentrated linkage recombination population in cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5, with spatial structuring in ITS1. Coupled with the history record and archaeological evidence of C. sinensis infection in mummified desiccated feces, these data point to an ancient origin of C. sinensis in China. In conclusion, we present a likely phylogenetic structure of the C. sinensis population in mainland China, highlighting its possible tendency for biogeographic expansion. Meanwhile, ITS1 was found to be an effective marker for tracking C. sinensis infection worldwide. Thus, the present study improves our understanding of the global epidemiology and evolution of C. sinensis.
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Molecular characterization and expression of a cysteine protease from Clonorchis sinensis and its application for serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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Cysteine proteases play essential roles in parasite physiology as well as in host-parasite interactions through their modulation of various biological and pathobiological events. In the present study, a full-length sequence encoding cysteine protease of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCP) was isolated from our adult cDNA library. The open reading frame contains 984 bp encoding 327 amino acids. The present amino acid sequence shared 68% identity with two known CsCP genes and 29-49% identity with that of other species. Bioinformatics analysis showed that conserved domains and characteristic amino acid residues of cysteine proteases were observed in this sequence. Real-time PCR experiments revealed that CsCP was consecutively transcribed in various developmental stages of the parasite, including adult worm, excysted juvenile, metacercaria and egg. Recombinant CsCP (rCsCP) could be probed by rat anti-CsCP serum, rabbit anti-excretory-secretory products (ESP) serum and serum from human infected with Clonorchis sinensis in Western blot. The result of immunolocalization showed that CsCP was mainly located in the oral sucker, excretory bladder and tegument of cercariae and metacercariae, as well as the intestine of adult worm. The rCsCP-based IgG and its isotypes were all detected in sera from human infected with C. sinensis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the level of IgG1 is the highest. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the most appropriate cut-off value that yielded the high sensitivity (86.96%) and specificity (70.42%). These results revealed that CsCP may play an important role in the biology of C. sinensis and could be a diagnostic candidate for clonorchiasis.
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Molecular expression and characterization of a novel protein phosphatase 2A gene from Clonorchis sinensis.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is a critical mechanism involved in physiological function of organisms, including Clonorchis sinensis. In the present study, One cDNA clone encoding protein phosphatase 2A (CsPP2A) was isolated from a C. sinensis adult cDNA plasmid library. The open reading frame of the novel gene contains 924 bp and encoded a putative protein of 307 amino acids. A similarity analysis showed high homology with Schistosoma japonicum (76.3%) and Homo sapiens (84.4%), respectively. Recombinant CsPP2A (rCsPP2A) was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli BL21 using pET28a (+) as an expression vector. CsPP2A showed higher transcript level in adult worm but excysted metacercaria (P > 0.05), metacercaria (P < 0.05), and egg (P < 0.05) using real-time RT-PCR. Western blotting analysis showed that rCsPP2A could be identified by anti-rCsPP2A rat serum, C. sinensis-infected rat serum, and the serum from the rats immunized with excretory-secretory products of C. sinensis. Immunohistochemical assay showed that CsPP2A was deposited at the egg, the vitellarium of adult worm, and the excretory bladder of metacercaria. Collectively, the results of this study suggested that CsPP2A may be involved in the development of adult and metacercaria of C. sinensis.
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Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel ras-related protein (rap2) from Clonorchis sinensis.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2011
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Ras are key components of diverse signal transduction pathways and play important roles in growth and development. To know about growth regulation in Clonorchis sinensis, we have identified a full-length sequence encoding a ras-related protein (rap2) from our adult cDNA library. The open reading frame contains 561 bp encoding 186 amino acids. The hypothetical amino acid sequence shared high identities with rap2 proteins from Schistosoma japonicum and Homo sapiens. Conserved domains of small guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins and characteristic amino acid residues of rap2 proteins were observed in this sequence. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed that rap2 transcribed in adult worm, metacercaria, and eggs of C. sinensis. Recombinant rap2 protein was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. rap2 could be probed by C. sinensis-infected rat serum in western blotting experiment. By immunohistochemistry, rap2 was localized on the tegument of adult worm and metacercaria of C. sinensis. This fundamental study might contribute to further researches in signaling systems that are related to growth control and development of C. sinensis and other parasites.
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Identification and molecular characterization of a novel signaling molecule 14-3-3 epsilon in Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Increasing evidence shows that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in many biology events in addition to signal transduction. Extensive investigations on structural and biochemical features of these signaling molecules have implied their importance in the biological process. In the present study, we have identified and characterized the 14-3-3 epsilon (Cs14-3-3) in Clonorchis sinensis that causes human clonorchiasis. Recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Immunoblot results revealed that Cs14-3-3 was a component of excretory/secretory products. Ligand blot assay indicated that 14-3-3 epsilon could bind C. sinensis MAPKAPK 2 in a nonphosphorylation-dependent manner. This protein could be detected at four stages of the life cycle by RT-PCR experiments and immunolocalization showed that Cs14-3-3 was extensively distributed in C. sinensis, especially at the outer surface and the sucker of adult worm and cyst wall of metacercaria. Taken together, 14-3-3 epsilon might play some roles in the development of the parasites. In addition, Cs14-3-3 epsilon should be addressed for the diagnostic value in C. sinensis infection in consideration of high sensitivity and specificity. As an immune stimulus, C. sinensis 14-3-3 epsilon was found to provoke a Th1/Th2 balanced immune response by inducing high levels of both IgG1 and IgG2a. Recombinant Cs14-3-3 conferred effective protection both in worm reduction rate and egg reduction rate, suggesting that the signaling molecule Cs14-3-3 was a promising vaccine candidate against C. sinensis infection.
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Molecular characterization of cathepsin B from Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products and assessment of its potential for serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Cathepsin cysteine proteases play multiple roles in the life cycle of parasites such as food uptake, immune invasion and pathogenesis, making them valuable targets for diagnostic assays, vaccines and drugs. The purpose of this study was to identify a cathepsin B of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCB) and to investigate its diagnostic value for human helminthiases.
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Clonorchis sinensis enolase: identification and biochemical characterization of a glycolytic enzyme from excretory/secretory products.
Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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Enolase plays a key role in energy metabolism and development of most organisms. We isolated a gene encoding enolase from Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) adult cDNA library and expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. C. sinensis enolase (Csenolase) was identified as both an excretory/secretory product and a tegumental component of C. sinensis by western blot analysis. The transcriptional level of Csenolase was examined at adult worm, metacercaria, cercaria and egg of C. sinensis, and results showed that Csenolase is transcribed at the four life stages of C. sinensis while showing a significant higher expression level at the stage of adult worm. Immunohistochemical localization indicated that Csenolase was specifically deposited on the tegument of adult worm and cyst wall of metacercaria. Ligand blot assay revealed a specific characteristic of dose-dependent plasminogen-binding activity of Csenolase and kinetic parameters were explored using 2-phospho-D-glycerate (2-PGA) as the primary substrate by monitoring the conversion of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). In addition, Csenolase exhibited active enzyme activity in catalytic reactions while the anti-Csenolase serum inhibited the enzyme activity. In vitro incubation experiments revealed that Csenolase might play key roles in the growth of the parasites. In conclusion, Csenolase is an important glycolytic enzyme required for the development of C. sinensis, and may be a potential vaccine candidate and drug target against C. sinensis infection.
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Genetic polymorphisms of p53 codon 72 and bladder cancer susceptibility: a hospital-based case-control study.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Background: p53 is one of the most widely investigated molecular markers in bladder cancer and its polymorphisms have been related to individual cancer risks. The objective of this study was to explore the association of p53 codon 72 polymorphism with susceptibility and clinicopathologic characteristics of bladder cancer in a Chinese population. Methods: We investigated the impact of p53 codon 72 polymorphism in a hospital-based case-control study of bladder cancer. We tested peripheral blood samples from 120 patients with bladder cancer and 120 healthy individuals of similar age and from the same geographical region. The polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Results: There was an association between smoking status and bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR]?=?2.25; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]?=?1.31, 3.87; p?=?0.003). Patients with bladder cancer had a significantly lower frequency of Arg/Arg (OR?=?0.53; 95% CI?=?0.31, 0.89; p?=?0.02) and Arg allele (OR?=?0.66; 95% CI?=?0.45, 0.95; p?=?0.03) than controls. Patients with invasive bladder cancer had a significantly lower frequency of Arg/Arg (OR?=?0.29; 95% CI?=?0.10, 0.88; p?=?0.03) than those with superficial bladder cancer. When stratifying by the grade and histological type of bladder cancer, we found no statistical association. Conclusions: These data suggest that the p53 codon 72 Arg/Arg genotype and Arg allele are associated with a lower risk of bladder cancer in Chinese population.
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The draft genome of the carcinogenic human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke that is widespread in Asian countries. Increasing infection rates of this neglected tropical disease are leading to negative economic and public health consequences in affected regions. Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma and the infection rate of C. sinensis. To aid research into this organism, we have sequenced its genome.
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Molecular cloning, expression, and immunolocalization of the NAD(+)-dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) from Clonorchis sinensis.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
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Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) plays an important role in the energy metabolism and nutrition metabolism. In order to know about the biological functions of GPD of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), we identified a complete gene coding GPD from C. sinensis metacercaria cDNA library. This novel cDNA sequence contains 1,056 bp with a putative open reading frame of 351 amino acids and shares 74% identity with GPD from Schistosoma mansoni. Recombinant CsGPD was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blot analysis displayed that recombinant CsGPD can be recognized by anti-CsGPD serum and C. sinensis-infected serum. RT-PCR and immunolocalization analysis confirmed that GPD expressed both at the stage of adult worm and metacercaria of C. sinensis and immunolocated at the tegument of adult worm, tegument and tegumentary cells of metacercaria. Our current study has paved the way for the further researches about the biological functions involved in the growth of C. sinensis.
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Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase P1 and bladder cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2010
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Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) is an important phase II enzyme involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and whose polymorphisms have been related to individual cancer risks. The objective of this study was to explore the association of GSTP1 A1578G (Ile105Val) polymorphism with susceptibility and clinicopathologic characteristics of bladder cancer in a Chinese population.
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Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 26 studies.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2010
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Studies investigating the association between glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) polymorphism and bladder cancer risk report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the evidence for such a relationship. We performed a systematic search of the National Library of Medline and Embase databases. This meta-analysis included 26 case-control studies, which included 5029 bladder cancer cases and 6680 controls. The combined results based on all studies showed that the GSTM1 null genotype was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer (OR=1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.35, 1.57). When stratifying for race, results were similar among Asians (OR=1.60, 95% CI=1.27, 2.01) and Caucasians (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.33, 1.57) except Africans (OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.76, 2.06). When stratifying by the smoking, stage, grade, and histological type of bladder cancer, we found no statistical association. Our meta-analysis suggests that the GSTM1 null genotype is associated with a modest increase in the risk of bladder cancer.
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Experimental model in rats for study on transmission dynamics and evaluation of Clonorchis sinensis infection immunologically, morphologically, and pathologically.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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This study aims to gain a better insight into the transmission patterns and immunologic profile of Clonorchis sinensis infection and make a headway on the pathogenesis regarding cholangiocarcinoma and hepatic lesions. Experimental models orally infected by C . sinensis metacercariae were constructed in rats. Immunological assays were performed to measure serum level of IgA, IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, IFN-gamma, and IL-4. Infection parameters were assessed by worm recovery rate, eggs per gram faece and worm size. Pathological sections with livers were managed with immunofluorescence, hematoxylin, eosin, and Massons trichrome staining to evaluate the hepatic pathological changes. Interestingly, rats infected with only one C . sinensis metacercariae even gained a high worm recovery rate of 83.3% compared with rats infected with more metacercariae. Serological changes according to different infection doses indicated that immune response presented a tendency to Th2 type by expressing transient high level of IgG1, IL-4, and IgE. Hepatic tissues appeared inflammatory and fibrotic, revealed by different stainings. Intrahepatic bile ducts displayed cholangiectasis and proliferation with excreted/secreted antigen histologically located. C . sinensis, as a fish-borne zoonosis, presented novel transmission patterns which explained high infection rate in endemic areas; infection rate of C . sinensis was frequency-dependent and dose-related. Humoral immunity played a prevalent role in resisting to C . sinensis based on the rat models. C . sinensis infection played an undoubted role in biliary and hepatic diseases.
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LRRK2 R1628P variant is a risk factor of Parkinsons disease among Han-Chinese from mainland China.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
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Mutations in LRRK2, the gene that encodes leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), are associated with autosomal dominant and sporadic forms of Parkinsons disease (PD) and are the most common genetic causes of PD. Recently, a R1628P variant has been reported as a risk factor for PD in Taiwan and Singapore. To determine the association of this variant and PD in the Han-Chinese population from mainland China, we analyzed its frequency in a cohort of 600 patients and 459 unrelated healthy controls. Forty (6.7%) patients were heterozygous and 3 (0.5%) homozygous for the R1628P variant, which was significantly more frequent than in the controls [2.4% heterozygous and 0.0% homozygous, Odds ratio = 3.14, 95%CI: 1.60-6.17, P < 0.01]. Considering the age at onset, this difference was found only in late-onset PD (older than 50) [Odds ratio = 3.76, 95% CI: 1.90-7.45, P < 0.01]. Our data confirms that the LRRK2 R1628P variant is associated with an increased risk to develop late onset PD in the ethnic Han-Chinese population.
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The biochemical and immunological characterization of two serpins from Clonorchis sinensis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
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Serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are evidenced to regulate numerous biological processes such as immunoregulation in parasitic helminths. The functions of serpins from Clonorchis sinensis remain unclear to date. In this study, two serpin genes, respectively denominated as CsproSERPIN and CsSERPIN2, had been selected from metacercaria cDNA library of C. sinensis. The biochemical activities of both recombinant proteins (rCsproSERPIN and rCsSERPIN2) were analyzed by assays of inhibition on some serine or cysteine proteases, the results showed that rCsproSERPIN significantly inhibited trypsin, chymotrypsin and thrombin, while rCsSERPIN2 inhibited only chymotrypsin. Moreover, cytokine and antibody measurements indicated that rats subcutaneously immunized with rCsproSERPIN and rCsSERPIN2 respectively developed a strong IFN-? production and IgG2a levers of sera were higher than IgG1. Besides, immunoblot assays revealed that the rCsproSERPIN and rCsSERPIN2 could be recognized by the sera of rats infected with C. sinensis and the sera of rabbits immunized by excretory/secretory products. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays illuminated the two were similarly localized in the reproductive organs such as vitelline glands, testis and eggs in adult stage. In short, all the results collectively indicated that CsproSERPIN and CsSERPIN2 might play important role in the parasite development by preventing the parasite from digestion by exogenous serine proteases, as well as CsproSERPIN and CsSERPIN2 probably involved in immunoregulation of host by inducing Th1-biased type cytokines in rats.
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Axillary artery lesions from humeral neck fracture: A study in relation to repair.
Exp Ther Med
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Whether axillary artery injuries associated with proximal humeral fractures must be repaired is uncertain. The present study reports three cases treated with various approaches. In case 1, the left humeral surgical neck was broken, the radial pulse disappeared and the arm temperature was significantly reduced. Computerized tomography angiography (CTA) revealed a 3-cm filling deficiency in the axillary artery. The injured artery was reconstructed with a segment of the greater saphenous vein after the fracture was reduced and fixed with a plate. In case 2, the axillary artery was compressed by the broken humeral segment, which caused the right hand to become cool. The fracture was fixed but the axillary artery embolism was not treated. In case 3, the humeral neck was broken with injury to the brachial plexus, although the patients hand remained warm. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed that the axillary artery was injured badly but there was extensive collateral circulation. The proximal humeral fracture was reduced and fixed without artery reconstruction. The three cases all resulted in a good outcome with the bone healed and limb alive. No ischemic necrosis occurred. However, the neurapraxia did not dissappear completely. Axillary artery injury resulting from humeral neck fracture is a rare but disabling traumatic event. Early diagnosis based on signs of acute ischemia of the arm enables early treatment and a favourable outcome. An angiogram is the best way to diagnose the artery injury and evaluate the condition of the collateral circulation. The injured artery in a cold arm should be repaired, while in a warm arm reconstruction is unnecessary due to rich collateral circulation.
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Inhibition of nephrin activation by c-mip through Csk-Cbp-Fyn axis plays a critical role in Angiotensin II-induced podocyte damage.
Cell. Signal.
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It has been demonstrated that nephrin inactivation plays a critical role in Angiotensin II (AngII)-induced podocyte damage both in in vitro and in vivo, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, c-maf inducing protein (c-mip) has been identified as a key component in the molecular pathogenesis of acquired podocyte diseases. In this study, the role of c-mip on AngII-induced nephrin inactivation and podocyte damage was explored in a mouse podocyte cell line. AngII stimulation caused podocyte damage, presenting with a time and dose dependent cell apoptosis increment, and obvious reorganization of actin cytoskeleton, both of which was remarkably prevented by knockdown of c-mip (siCmip). In AngII stimulated podocyte, c-mip and Csk expressions increased obviously at protein level, and nephrin phosphorylation decreased while Cbp phosphorylation increased. AngII-induced Csk increment and nephrin inactivation was remarkably inhibited by siCmip treatment. AngII stimulation increased the interaction of c-mip and Csk, as well as Csk and Cbp. Notably, the binding of Csk to active form pY418 decreased while the binding of Csk to inactive form pY530 of Src kinase Fyn increased in AngII-stimulated podocyte. Nevertheless, c-mip knockdown prevented AngII-induced reduction of pY418 and increase of pY530. In addition, AngII stimulation significantly decreased the expression of phosphor-Akt (Ser473) and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, whereas increased the expression of apoptotic proteins caspase-3 and BAD, all of which were prevented by siCmip treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrated that AngII induced nephrin inactivation and podocyte damage by the novel podocyte protein c-mip through Csk-Cbp-Fyn signaling pathway.
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Stage-specific expression, immunolocalization of Clonorchis sinensis lysophospholipase and its potential role in hepatic fibrosis.
Parasitol. Res.
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Lysophospholipase, belonging to the complex family of phospholipases, is supposed to play a vital role in virulence and pathogenesis of parasites and fungi. In the current study, the potential role of Clonorchis sinensis lysophospholipase (CslysoPLA) in hepatic fibrosis induced by C. sinensis was explored for the first time. In the liver of the cat infected with C. sinensis, CslysoPLA was recognized in the lumen between adult worms and surrounding bile duct epithelia together with some inside the cells by means of immunolocalization. Both Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay) and cell cycle analysis of human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 showed that a higher percentage of cells were at proliferation phase after incubation with lower concentrations of recombinant CslysoPLA (rCslysoPLA). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated an upregulation in fibrogenic genes of smooth muscle ?-actin, collagen III, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase II in LX-2 treated with rCslysoPLA. Moreover, human biliary epithelial cell line 5100 proliferated significantly in response to rCslysoPLA. Notably, CslysoPLA was localized in the adenomatoid hyperplastic tissue within the intrahepatic bile duct of experimentally infected rats by immunolocalization analysis. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR implied that CslysoPLA was differentially expressed at the developmental stages of C. sinensis (metacercariae, adult worms and eggs), with the highest level at metacercariae stage. Immunolocalization analysis showed that CslysoPLA was distributed in the intestine, vitelline gland, tegument and eggs in the adult worms and in the tegument and vitelline gland in the metacercariae, respectively. Collectively, it suggests that CslysoPLA might be involved in the initiation and promotion of C. sinensis-related human hepatic fibrosis and advance future studies on its promotion to C. sinensis-induced cholangiocarcinogenesis.
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Identification, sequence analysis and characterization of Clonorchis sinensis ubiquitin.
Exp. Parasitol.
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Ubiquitin is a functionally important protein expressed in eukaryotic cells usually encoded by multigenic families containing two types of genes, ubiquitin extension genes and polyubiquitin genes. One independent monomeric locus and two independent polyubiquitin loci were firstly identified from the genome of carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis). The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of C. sinensis polyubiquitin, especially polyubiquitin with five tandem ubiquitin repeats (CsPUB5), were analyzed. We obtained recombinant CsPUB5 (rCsPUB5) and anti-rCsPUB5 IgG. The ubiquitin transcripts in life cycle of C. sinensis were investigated. In addition, we found that ubiquitin or ubiquitination was ubiquitous in adult worm of C. sinensis and significantly observed in the content of biliary tract and intrahepatic biliary epithelium of liver from C. sinensis infected rat. We confirmed that rCsPUB5 could bind to human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cell by immunofluorescence in vitro. It was considered that ubiquitin family constitutively expressed in C. sinensis for variety of cellular processes and might be implicated in the genesis and progression of cholangiocarcinoma induced by the infection of C. sinensis.
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Effect of brief mindfulness intervention on tolerance and distress of pain induced by cold-pressor task.
Stress Health
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A number of studies have demonstrated that short-term meditation intervention can lead to greater tolerance and lower pain or distress ratings of experimentally induced pain. However, few attempts have been made to examine the effects of short-term mindfulness-based intervention on the tolerance and distress of pain, when delivered in a therapist-free form. The present research explored the effect of brief mindfulness intervention using pre-recorded instruction on pain experimentally induced by the cold-pressor task. The effects of the mindfulness strategy, the distraction strategy and spontaneous strategy, all through the instructions of pre-recorded voices, were compared. The subjects were drawn from healthy college students and randomly assigned to the aforementioned three groups. Our results showed that compared with using spontaneous strategies, the mindfulness intervention significantly improved the participants pain tolerance and reduced their immersion distress. The distraction strategy also significantly improved the participants pain tolerance. However, it did not have a significant effect on the participants level of distress during the immersion period. Our results suggest that brief mindfulness intervention without a therapists personal involvement is capable of helping people cope with pain induced by the cold-pressor task.
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Identification and characterization of myophilin-like protein: a life stage and tissue-specific antigen of Clonorchis sinensis.
Parasitol. Res.
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Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis infection, has been an important public health problem in China. More messages about biology and pathogenicity of C. sinensis will be better for development of new strategies for clonorchiasis control. In the current study, using data from the published genomic and cDNA sequences for C. sinensis, we identify a gene encoding a myophilin-like protein (Cs myophilin-like). The cDNA sequence is 573 bp in length which encoded a protein of 190 amino acids. DNA sequence of Cs myophilin-like consists of four extrons and three introns. By mapping the draft genome of C. sinensis, single copy of myophilin-like gene is annotated. Bioinformatic analysis shows Cs myophilin-like comprises a calponin homology domain and three actin binding surfaces. It expresses at the life stage of adult worm and metacercaria but not in eggs. It intensively distributes in muscular locations such as oral sucker and pharynx of adult worm and sucker of metacercaria. The transcript level of Cs myophilin-like in oral sucker and pharynx is significantly higher than that in the rest of adult worm. Moreover, recombinant Cs myophilin-like is obtained and of antigenicity and immunoreactivity. It can be probed by sera from patients infected with trematode or cestode. Our data suggests that Cs myophilin-like may be involved in the host tissue invasion besides regulating the contraction of smooth muscle and movement of worm body. Taken together, the stable and soluble expression in Escherichia coli and immunogenicity of recombinant Cs myophilin-like proteins suggest that Cs myophilin-like may be a potential candidate for vaccine and drug target for clonorchiasis.
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Molecular identification and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase 2, an excretory-secretory product of Clonorchis sinensis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
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Aminopeptidases serve vital roles in metabolism of hormones, neurotransmission, turnover of proteins and immunological regulations. Leucine aminopeptidases catalyze the hydrolysis of amino-acid residues from the N-terminus of proteins and peptides. In the present study, leucine aminopeptidase 2 (LAP2) gene of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) was isolated and identified from an adult cDNA library of C. sinensis. Recombinant CsLAP2 was expressed and purified in Escherichia coli BL21. The open reading frame of LAP2 contains 1,560 bp equivalent to 519 amino acids, a similarity analysis showed a relatively low homology with Homo sapiens (19.0 %), Trypanosoma cruzi (18.0 %), Mus musculus (19.3 %), and relatively high homology with Schistosoma mansoni (65.6 %). The optimum condition of rCsLAP2 enzyme activity was investigated using a fluorescent substrate of Leu-MCA at 37 °C and pH 7.5. The K (m) and V (max) values of rCsLAP2 were 18.2 ?M and 10.7 ?M/min, respectively. CsLAP2 gene expression can be detected at the stages of the adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria and egg of C. sinensis using real-time PCR, no difference was observed at the stages of the adult worm, metacercaria and egg. However, CsLAP2 showed a higher expression level at the stage of excysted metacercaria than the adult worm (3.90-fold), metacercaria (4.60-fold) and egg (4.59-fold). Histochemistry analysis showed that CsLAP2 was located at the tegument and excretory vesicle of metacercaria, and the tegument and intestine of adult worm. The immune response specific to rCsLAP2 was characterized by a mixed response patterns of Th1 and Th2, indicating a compounded humoral and cellular immune response. The combined results from the present study indicate that CsLAP2 was an important antigen exposed to host immune system, and probably implicated as potential role in interaction with host cells in clonorchiasis.
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Identification and characterization of paramyosin from cyst wall of metacercariae implicated protective efficacy against Clonorchis sinensis infection.
PLoS ONE
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Human clonorchiasis has been increasingly prevalent in recent years and results in a threat to the public health in epidemic regions, motivating current strategies of vaccines to combat Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis). In this study, we identified C. sinensis paramyosin (CsPmy) from the cyst wall proteins of metacercariae by proteomic approaches and characterized the expressed recombinant pET-26b-CsPmy protein (101 kDa). Bioinformatics analysis indicated that full-length sequences of paramyosin are conserved in helminthes and numerous B-cell/T-cell epitopes were predicted in amino acid sequence of CsPmy. Western blot analysis showed that CsPmy was expressed at four life stages of C. sinensis, both cyst wall proteins and soluble tegumental components could be probed by anti-CsPmy serum. Moreover, immunolocalization results revealed that CsPmy was specifically localized at cyst wall and excretory bladder of metacercaria, as well as the tegument, oral sucker and vitellarium of adult worm. Both immunoblot and immunolocalization results demonstrated that CsPmy was highly expressed at the stage of adult worm, metacercariae and cercaria, which could be supported by real-time PCR analysis. Both recombinant protein and nucleic acid of CsPmy showed strong immunogenicity in rats and induced combined Th1/Th2 immune responses, which were reflected by continuous high level of antibody titers and increased level of IgG1/IgG2a subtypes in serum. In vaccine trials, comparing with control groups, both CsPmy protein and DNA vaccine exhibited protective effect with significant worm reduction rate of 54.3% (p<0.05) and 36.1% (p<0.05), respectively. In consistence with immune responses in sera, elevated level of cytokines IFN-? and IL-4 in splenocytes suggested that CsPmy could induce combined cellular immunity and humoral immunity in host. Taken together, CsPmy could be a promising vaccine candidate in the prevention of C. sinensis regarding its high immunogenicity and surface localization.
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