JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of electrochemical dissolution and deposition order on lithium dendrite formation: a top view investigation.
Faraday Discuss.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rechargeable metallic lithium batteries are the ultimate solution to electrochemical storage due to their high theoretical energy densities. One of the key technological challenges is to control the morphology of metallic lithium electrode during electrochemical dissolution and deposition. Here we have investigated the morphology change of metallic lithium electrode after charging and discharging in nonaqueous batteries by ex situ SEM techniques from a top view. Formation of the hole structure after lithium dissolution and the filling of dendrite-like lithium into the holes has been observed for the first time. In addition, an in situ SEM investigation using an all-solid Li/Li2O/super aligned carbon nanotube set-up indicates that lithium ions could diffuse across through the surface oxide layer and grow lithium dendrites after applying an external electric field. The growth of lithium dendrites can be guided by electron flow when the formed lithium dendrite touches the carbon nanotube.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of Heart Failure Among Postmenopausal Women: A Secondary Analysis of the Randomized Trial of Vitamin D Plus Calcium of the Women's Health Initiative.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
-Vitamin D supplementation may be an inexpensive intervention to reduce heart failure (HF) incidence. However, there are insufficient data to support this hypothesis. This study evaluates whether vitamin D plus calcium (CaD) supplementation is associated with lower rates of HF in post-menopausal women and whether the effects differ between those at high versus low risk for HF.
Related JoVE Video
Diet quality and survival after ovarian cancer: results from the women's health initiative.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Survival after an ovarian cancer diagnosis is poor. Given the high mortality in these patients, efforts to identify modifiable lifestyle behaviors that could influence survival are needed. Earlier evidence suggests a protective role for vegetables, but no prior studies have evaluated overall dietary quality and ovarian cancer survival. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the role of prediagnosis diet quality in ovarian cancer survival.
Related JoVE Video
Availability of Tanning Beds on US College Campuses.
JAMA Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Indoor tanning is widespread among young adults in the United States despite evidence establishing it as a risk factor for skin cancer. The availability of tanning salons on or near college campuses has not been formally evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
[Advances in actinobacterial proteomics].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Protein is the executor of physiological function, and direct embodiment of the life phenomena. Proteomics aims to systematically clarify all or parts of proteins' role and function in life movement. In post genome era, proteomics began to play more important role in life science field. Actinobacteria are closely linked to human production and life, which have produced many clinically important secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, antitumorals and enzymes. Actinobacterial systematics and its model organism Streptomyces coelicolor in 2001 genome sequence laid the foundation for further functional genomic studies. Actinobacterial proteomics was more directly and exactly to interpret the activity of life than genomics and transcriptomics, which grew much faster and received so much attention from scientists in the near years. Complex morphological differention, stronge environment adaptiveness, nitrogen-fixing capacity, metabolic mechanism, pathogenicity and natural produces' discovery were systematically reviewed in this study, which was expected to be the basis for promoting Actinobacterial proteomics study in the near future.
Related JoVE Video
Opposite Neural Trajectories of Apolipoprotein E ?4 and ?2 Alleles with Aging Associated with Different Risks of Alzheimer's Disease.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 allele is a confirmed genetic risk factor and the APOE ?2 allele is a protective factor related to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intriguingly, recent studies demonstrated similar brain function alterations between APOE ?2 and ?4 alleles, despite their opposite susceptibilities to AD. To address this apparent discrepancy, we recruited 129 cognitively normal elderly subjects, including 36 ?2 carriers, 44 ?3 homozygotes, and 49 ?4 carriers. All subjects underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. We hypothesized that aging could influence the APOE ?2 and ?4 allele effects that contribute to their appropriate AD risks differently. Using the stepwise regression analysis, we demonstrated that although both ?2 and ?4 carriers showed decreased functional connectivity (FC) compared with ?3 homozygotes, they have opposite aging trajectories in the default mode network-primarily in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex. As age increased, ?2 carriers showed elevated FC, whereas ?4 carriers exhibited decreased FC. Behaviorally, the altered DMN FC positively correlated with information processing speed in both ?2 and ?4 carriers. It is suggested that the opposite aging trajectories between APOE ?2 and ?4 alleles in the DMN may reflect the antagonistic pleiotropic properties and associate with their different AD risks.
Related JoVE Video
A Gain-of-Function Mutation in Tnni2 Impeded Bone Development through Increasing Hif3a Expression in DA2B Mice.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Distal arthrogryposis type 2B (DA2B) is an important genetic disorder in humans. However, the mechanisms governing this disease are not clearly understood. In this study, we generated knock-in mice carrying a DA2B mutation (K175del) in troponin I type 2 (skeletal, fast) (TNNI2), which encodes a fast-twitch skeletal muscle protein. Tnni2K175del mice (referred to as DA2B mice) showed typical DA2B phenotypes, including limb abnormality and small body size. However, the current knowledge concerning TNNI2 could not explain the small body phenotype of DA2B mice. We found that Tnni2 was expressed in the osteoblasts and chondrocytes of long bone growth plates. Expression profile analysis using radii and ulnae demonstrated that Hif3a expression was significantly increased in the Tnni2K175del mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that both wild-type and mutant tnni2 protein can bind to the Hif3a promoter using mouse primary osteoblasts. Moreover, we showed that the mutant tnni2 protein had a higher capacity to transactivate Hif3a than the wild-type protein. The increased amount of hif3a resulted in impairment of angiogenesis, delay in endochondral ossification, and decrease in chondrocyte differentiation and osteoblast proliferation, suggesting that hif3a counteracted hif1a-induced Vegf expression in DA2B mice. Together, our data indicated that Tnni2K175del mutation led to abnormally increased hif3a and decreased vegf in bone, which explain, at least in part, the small body size of Tnni2K175del mice. Furthermore, our findings revealed a new function of tnni2 in the regulation of bone development, and the study of gain-of-function mutation in Tnni2 in transgenic mice opens a new avenue to understand the pathological mechanism of human DA2B disorder.
Related JoVE Video
[The normative combined therapy for recurrent sinusitis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the treatment outcome after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in patients with recurrent sinusitis and to research which factors could influence the clinical outcome.
Related JoVE Video
[Fungal diversity and enzyme activities in marine sediments in the South China sea].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We studied species diversity and enzyme activities of fungi from 11 marine sediment samples in the South China Sea.
Related JoVE Video
Obesity, physical activity, and their interaction in incident atrial fibrillation in postmenopausal women.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with increased risk of stroke and death. Obesity is an independent risk factor for AF, but modifiers of this risk are not well known. We studied the roles of obesity, physical activity, and their interaction in conferring risk of incident AF.
Related JoVE Video
Lewis Base Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative Intermolecular Azide-Zwitterion Cycloaddition.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The discovery of a novel aerobic oxidative intermolecular azide-zwitterion reaction catalyzed by an organocatalyst is presented. It is demonstrated that the merger of the Lewis base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene and electron-deficient olefins generates reactive zwitterion intermediates, which readily participate in cycloaddition reactions with an array of azides, thus providing facile entry to fully or highly substituted 1,2,3-triazole frameworks. The reaction features an excellent substrate scope, and the products are obtained with high yields and excellent regioselectivities. It is demonstrated that some of these products can be transformed into pharmaceutically important agents. In addition to the experimental results, a detailed mechanistic survey is also provided, including MS studies rationalizing the origin of regioselective control.
Related JoVE Video
Highly recombinant VGII Cryptococcus gattii population develops clonal outbreak clusters through both sexual macroevolution and asexual microevolution.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An outbreak of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii began in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the late 1990s. This outbreak consists of three clonal subpopulations: VGIIa/major, VGIIb/minor, and VGIIc/novel. Both VGIIa and VGIIc are unique to the PNW and exhibit increased virulence. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of isolates from these three groups, as well as global isolates, and analyzed a total of 53 isolates. We found that VGIIa/b/c populations show evidence of clonal expansion in the PNW. Whole-genome sequencing provided evidence that VGIIb originated in Australia, while VGIIa may have originated in South America, and these were likely independently introduced. Additionally, the VGIIa outbreak lineage may have arisen from a less virulent clade that contained a mutation in the MSH2 ortholog, but this appears to have reverted in the VGIIa outbreak strains, suggesting that a transient mutator phenotype may have contributed to adaptation and evolution of virulence in the PNW outbreak. PNW outbreak isolates share genomic islands, both between the clonal lineages and with global isolates, indicative of sexual recombination. This suggests that VGII C. gattii has undergone sexual reproduction, either bisexual or unisexual, in multiple locales contributing to the production of novel, virulent subtypes. We also found that the genomes of two basal VGII isolates from HIV(+) patients contain an introgression tract spanning three genes. Introgression substantially contributed to intra-VGII polymorphism and likely occurred through sexual reproduction with VGI. More broadly, these findings illustrate how both microevolution and sexual reproduction play central roles in the development of infectious outbreaks from avirulent or less virulent progenitors. Importance: Cryptococcus gattii is the causative agent responsible for ongoing infections in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and western Canada. The incidence of these infections increased dramatically in the 1990s and remains elevated. These infections are attributable to three clonal lineages of C. gattii, VGIIa, VGIIb, and VGIIc, with only VGIIa identified once previously in the Pacific Northwest prior to the start of the outbreak, albeit in a less virulent form. This study addresses the origin and emergence of this outbreak, using whole-genome sequencing and comparison of both outbreak and global isolates. We show that VGIIa arose mitotically from a less virulent clonal group, possibly via the action of a mutator phenotype, while VGIIb was likely introduced from Australia, and VGIIc appears to have emerged in the United States or in an undersampled locale via sexual reproduction. This work shows that multiple processes can contribute to the emergence of an outbreak.
Related JoVE Video
Mineral compositions in breast milk of healthy Chinese lactating women in urban areas and its associated factors.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Optimal mineral intakes are important for infant growth and development. However, data on mineral compositions of breast milk in Chinese women are scarce, and most were acquired before 1990. The objectives of this study were three-fold: (1) to investigate the mineral compositions of Chinese healthy mothers' breast milk in different lactation stages; (2) to explore correlations among mineral concentrations in breast milk; and (3) to explore the associated factors affecting mineral compositions in breast milk.
Related JoVE Video
Utilitarian walking, neighborhood environment, and risk of outdoor falls among older adults.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined the roles of utilitarian and recreational walking in relation to occurrence of outdoor falls in older adults.
Related JoVE Video
[Canalplasty for stenosis or atresia of the external auditory canal].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report the experience of canalplasty in treatment of stenosis or atresia of the external auditory canal.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondrial KATP Channels Control Glioma Radioresistance by Regulating ROS-Induced ERK Activation.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malignant glioma is the most prevalent form of malignant brain tumor. Although radiotherapy is widely used in glioma treatment, the radioresistance of glioma cells limits the success of the glioma treatment. The lack of effective targets and signaling pathways to reverse glioma radioresistance is the critical obstacle in successful treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels (mtKATP channels) are overexpressed in glioma cells and are closely related to the malignancy grade and the overall survival of the patients. Importantly, we showed that mtKATP channels could control glioma radioresistance by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced ERK activation. The inhibition of mtKATP channels suppresses glioma radioresistance by inhibiting ERK activation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings reveal the important roles of the mitochondria and mtKATP channels as key regulators in the radioresistance of glioma cells, and suggest that mtKATP channel blockers and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors are potential targets for drug development of glioma treatments.
Related JoVE Video
Preoperative Pain and Function Profiles Reflect Consistent TKA Patient Selection Among US Surgeons.
Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As the number of primary total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) performed in the United States increases, policymakers have questioned whether the indications and timing of TKA have evolved so that surgery is offered earlier.
Related JoVE Video
Nutritional status of breast-fed and non-exclusively breast-fed infants from birth to age 5 months in 8 Chinese cities.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of infants aged 0 to 5 months by different feeding approaches. A cross-sectional study on infant nutrition was performed in eight cities in China. A total of 622 infants from birth to 2 months of age and 456 infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were included in this study. Mix-fed infants received breast milk and complementary foods from birth to 2 months of age. Approximately 38.2% of mix-fed infants received excessive vitamin A, and 15.6% of infants exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) of zinc. For artificially fed infants who received only complementary foods, approximately 20% and 12.5% infants received inadequate dietary vitamin A and zinc intakes, respectively. The vitamin A and zinc intakes of half of the infants exceeded the ULs. Results showed that the usual intake distribution of the infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were similar to that of the infants from birth to 2 months of age. The common vitamin A and zinc intakes were also severely imbalanced. In addition, higher disease prevalence and lower Z scores of length-forage, weight-for-age, and weight-for-length were found in artificially fed infants and mix-fed infants compared with those in breast-fed infants. In conclusion, the usual nutrient intakes were adequate for the majority of Chinese infants, except for an important number of infants at risk for imbalance of vitamin A and zinc intakes.
Related JoVE Video
[Biodiversity and enzymes of culturable facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria in saline-alkaline soil in Fukang, Xinjiang].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to analyze the biodiversity of cultivable facultative-alkaliphilic actinobacteria and the enzymes they produced.
Related JoVE Video
Breast milk macronutrient composition and the associated factors in urban Chinese mothers.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infancy is a critical period of growth and physiological development, in which breast milk is the best source of nutrients. Compared to western countries, research on breast milk of Chinese population are limited. Thus, it is necessary to measure breast milk energy and macronutrient concentrations of healthy urban Chinese mothers at different lactation stages, to expand the database of milk composition of Chinese population, and to examine whether dietary or other maternal factors can affect the levels of macronutrients in breast milk.
Related JoVE Video
An enantioselective cascade reaction between ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes and malonic half-thioesters: a rapid access to chiral ?-lactones.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We disclose a novel efficient enantioselective organocatalytic cascade reaction for the preparation of ?-lactones in good to excellent yields (69-93%) and with high to excellent enantioselectivities (88-96% ee).
Related JoVE Video
TRPC1 is involved in Ca²? influx and cytotoxicity following Pb²? exposure in human embryonic kidney cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lead (Pb(2+)) is a divalent heavy metal ion which causes severe damage to almost all life forms and is therefore considered a notorious toxicant. Exposure to Pb(2+) is associated with poor cognitive development in children at relatively low levels that previously were thought to be safe. The mechanism through which Pb(2+) enters cells, however, is unclear. Previous studies have showed that Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) protein 1 (Orai1), a component of store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCs), contributes to Pb(2+) cellular entry. Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC1) channel 1 is a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel which is sometimes referred to as a SOC. The present study was designed to investigate the role of TRPC1 in Pb(2+) entry and toxicity in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). Additionally, changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were determined through Fluo-4 and Mag-fluo-4 fluorescent Ca(2+) imaging. Following Pb(2+) exposure, there was a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Overexpression of TRPC1 increased Pb(2+)-induced cell death, while knockdown of this channel attenuated cell death. There was increased entry of Pb(2+), as measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), following overexpression of TRPC1. Conversely, knockdown of TRPC1 led to a decrease in Pb(2+) influx. Down-regulation of STIM1 by RNA interference attenuated the Pb(2+) influx, and transfection with a mutant STIM1, which could not gate TRPC1, had a similar effect. Co-transfection of mutant STIM1 and mutant TRPC1, which restore the electrostatic interaction between STIM1 and TRPC1, resumed Pb(2+) entry in HEK293 cells. Down-regulation of TRPC1 by RNA interference decreased Ca(2+) influx whilst its overexpression increased Ca(2+) entry in HEK293 cells. These results suggest that TRPC1 is involved in the cytotoxicity and entry of Pb(2+) through molecular interactions with STIM1 and subsequent Ca(2+) influx in HEK293 cells.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of dietary modification on incident carotid artery disease in postmenopausal women: results from the women's health initiative dietary modification trial.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Because the diagnosis and treatment of carotid artery disease may reduce the rate of stroke, the aim of this study was to determine whether a diet intervention was associated with incident carotid artery disease.
Related JoVE Video
Access to Healthy Food Stores Modifies Effect of a Dietary Intervention.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that opening a grocery store in a food desert does not translate to better diet quality among community residents.
Related JoVE Video
Aberrant functional connectivity in Papez circuit correlates with memory performance in cognitively intact middle-aged APOE4 carriers.
Cortex
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The main objective of this study is to detect the early changes in resting-state Papez circuit functional connectivity using the hippocampus as the seed, and to determine the associations between altered functional connectivity (FC) and the episodic memory performance in cognitively intact middle-aged apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) carriers who are at risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty-six cognitively intact, middle-aged participants, including 20 APOE4 carriers and 26 age-, sex-, and education-matched noncarriers were studied. The resting-state FC of the hippocampus (HFC) was compared between APOE4 carriers and noncarriers. APOE4 carriers showed significantly decreased FC in brain areas that involve learning and memory functions, including the frontal, cingulate, thalamus and basal ganglia regions. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between HFC and the episodic memory performance. Conjunction analysis between neural correlates of memory and altered HFC showed the overlapping regions, especially the subcortical regions such as thalamus, caudate nucleus, and cingulate cortices involved in the Papez circuit. Thus, changes in connectivity in the Papez circuit may be used as an early risk detection for AD.
Related JoVE Video
Central memory CD8+ T lymphocytes mediate lung allograft acceptance.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Memory T lymphocytes are commonly viewed as a major barrier for long-term survival of organ allografts and are thought to accelerate rejection responses due to their rapid infiltration into allografts, low threshold for activation, and ability to produce inflammatory mediators. Because memory T cells are usually associated with rejection, preclinical protocols have been developed to target this population in transplant recipients. Here, using a murine model, we found that costimulatory blockade-mediated lung allograft acceptance depended on the rapid infiltration of the graft by central memory CD8+ T cells (CD44(hi)CD62L(hi)CCR7+). Chemokine receptor signaling and alloantigen recognition were required for trafficking of these memory T cells to lung allografts. Intravital 2-photon imaging revealed that CCR7 expression on CD8+ T cells was critical for formation of stable synapses with antigen-presenting cells, resulting in IFN-? production, which induced NO and downregulated alloimmune responses. Thus, we describe a critical role for CD8+ central memory T cells in lung allograft acceptance and highlight the need for tailored approaches for tolerance induction in the lung.
Related JoVE Video
The impact of cyclin D1 overexpression on the prognosis of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the relationship between cyclin D1 overexpression and bladder cancer prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Chloride and other anions inhibit dichloroacetate-induced inactivation of human liver GSTZ1 in a haplotype-dependent manner.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The in vivo elimination rate of dichloroacetate (DCA), an investigational drug; is determined by the rate of its biotransformation to glyoxylate, catalyzed by glutathione transferase ?1 (GSTZ1). DCA is a mechanism-based inactivator of GSTZ1, thus elimination of DCA is slowed with repeated dosing. We observed that chloride, a physiologically important anion, attenuated DCA-induced GSTZ1 inactivation in human liver cytosol in a concentration and GSTZ1 haplotype-dependent way. In the absence of chloride, incubation with 0.5mM DCA resulted in inactivation of GSTZ1 with a half-life of 0.4h (samples with the KRT haplotype) to 0.5h (EGT haplotype). At the hepatic physiological chloride concentration, 38mM, samples with the EGT haplotype retained more activity (80%) following a 2-h incubation with 0.5mM DCA than those possessing the KRT haplotype (55%). The chloride concentration that protected 50% of the GSTZ1 activity following 2-h incubation with 0.5mM DCA (EC50) was 15.0±3.1mM (mean±S.D., n=3) for EGT samples and 36.2±2.2mM for KRT samples. Bromide, iodide and sulfite also protected GSTZ1 from inactivation by DCA, however fluoride, sulfate, carbonate, acetate, cyanide did not. Protection by bromide varied by GSTZ1 haplotype: EC50 was 1.3±0.3mM for the EGT haplotype and 5.0±0.60mM for the KRT haplotype. The EC50 values for iodide and sulfite in liver cytosol samples with EGT haplotype were respectively 0.14±0.06mM and 9.6±1.1mM (mean±S.D., n=3). Because the in vivo half-life of DCA is determined by the fraction of active GSTZ1 in the liver, identifying factors that regulate GSTZ1 activity is important in determining appropriate DCA dosing in humans.
Related JoVE Video
Tailoring community-based wellness initiatives with latent class analysis--Massachusetts Community Transformation Grant projects.
Prev Chronic Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Community-based approaches to preventing chronic diseases are attractive because of their broad reach and low costs, and as such, are integral components of health care reform efforts. Implementing community-based initiatives across Massachusetts' municipalities presents both programmatic and evaluation challenges. For effective delivery and evaluation of the interventions, establishing a community typology that groups similar municipalities provides a balanced and cost-effective approach.
Related JoVE Video
Eukaryotic microbial communities in hypersaline soils and sediments from the alkaline hypersaline Huama Lake as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In hypersaline ecosystems, microbial assemblages are structurally distinctive and play important roles in many microbiological and ecological processes. Here, eukaryotic microorganisms in hypersaline samples were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene libraries. In total, 4,645, 1,677, and 5,912 reads were obtained from ITS libraries of waterlogged samples, salt crusts, and saline loess from the alkaline Huama Lake in Shaanxi, China. Analyses of pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant genera were Dunaliella, Alternaria and Chlamydomonas, which dominated the microbial assemblages in the waterlogged sediments, the salt crusts and the saline loess from the lake banks, respectively. The various infrequent species were not commonly shared by the three types of samples, demonstrating that the eukaryotic microbial compositions of the different environments were distinct. However, the micro-eukaryotic assemblages associated with similar environmental conditions shared some components and were phylogenetically related. The eukaryotic microbial community composition was correlated with the pH value of the site (p = 0.001; r(2) = 0.99), but not with the concentration of total nitrogen or the inorganic ions investigated in this study. The results of this study demonstrated that the hypersaline ecosystems hosted surprisingly diverse eukaryotic microbial community.
Related JoVE Video
Asymmetric synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines through a [3+2] cycloaddition controlled by dienamine catalysis.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A dienamine-mediated enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition catalyzed by a chiral prolinol silyl ether catalyst has been developed. Removal of the benzamide group of the intermediates could furnish chiral C-1 substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines (see scheme) in high yields and excellent stereoselectivities.
Related JoVE Video
Association between gestational weight gain according to prepregnancy body mass index and short postpartum weight retention in postpartum women.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to assess the relationship among prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and postpartum weight retention, and to clarify the predictors of the amount of weight retained by Chinese women after pregnancy.
Related JoVE Video
Amine-catalyzed enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of aldehydes to C,N-cyclic azomethine imines.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Amine-catalyzed enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of aldehydes to C,N-cyclic azomethine imines were developed. The reactions between diversely substituted C,N-cyclic azomethine imines and aldehydes proceeded smoothly in the presence of chiral prolinol silyl ether catalyst and gave the C-1-substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines in a highly stereoselective manner. These tetrahydroisoquinolines could be efficiently transformed to several other useful polycyclic frameworks.
Related JoVE Video
Smokeless tobacco products sold in Massachusetts from 2003 to 2012: trends and variations in brand availability, nicotine contents and design features.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sales of smokeless tobacco products have increased in the USA. More than one in eight males in the 12th grade are current users of smokeless tobacco. Surveillance data examining nicotine levels of smokeless tobacco subsequent to 2006 have not been reported in the literature.
Related JoVE Video
Recent increases in efficiency in cigarette nicotine delivery: implications for tobacco control.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent increases in nicotine yield of cigarettes sold in the United States have been attributed by tobacco manufacturers to natural variation in agricultural products. We tested this assertion using data reported by the manufacturers.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of the coexistence of late-life depression and mild cognitive impairment on white matter microstructure.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Late-life depression (LLD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are associated with white matter (WM) disruptions of the fronto-limbic and interhemispheric tracts implicated in mood regulation and episodic memory functions. This work investigates the extent of these WM abnormalities in patients LLD and aMCI when these diseases occur alone and when they coexist.
Related JoVE Video
Pontibacter diazotrophicus sp. nov., a novel nitrogen-fixing bacterium of the family Cytophagaceae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few diazotrophs have been found to belong to the family Cytophagaceae so far. In the present study, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that forms red colonies, was isolated from sands of the Takalamakan desert. It was designated H4XT. Phylogenetic and biochemical analysis indicated that the isolate is a new species of the genus Pontibacter. The 16S rRNA gene of H4XT displays 94.2-96.8% sequence similarities to those of other strains in Pontibacter. The major respiratory quinone is menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The DNA G+C content is 46.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids are iso-C15?0, C16?1?5c, summed feature 3 (containing C16?1?6c and/or C16?1?7c) and summed feature 4 (comprising anteiso-C17?1B and/or iso-C17?1I). The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), one aminophospholipid (APL) and some unknown phospholipids (PLs). It is interesting to see that this bacterium can grow very well in a nitrogen-free medium. PCR amplification suggested that the bacterium possesses at least one type of nitrogenase gene. Acetylene reduction assay showed that H4XT actually possesses nitrogen-fixing activity. Therefore, it can be concluded that H4XT is a new diazotroph. We thus referred it to as Pontibacter diazotrophicus sp. nov. The type strain is H4XT (?=?CCTCC AB 2013049T?=?NRRL B-59974T).
Related JoVE Video
Streptomyces zhaozhouensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from candelabraaloe (Aloe arborescens Mill).
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-LZS-5T, was isolated from the leaf of candelabraaloe (Aloe arborescens Mill) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain NEAU-LZS-5T belongs to the genus Streptomyces and exhibited 99.51% and 97.37% gene sequence similarities to Streptomyces sedi YIM 65188T and Streptomyces specialis GW41-1564T, respectively, whereas low sequence similarity values (< 97%) distinguished strain NEAU-LZS-5T from all other Streptomyces species with validly published names. Two tree-making algorithms also supported the position that strain NEAU-LZS-5T formed a distinct clade with S. sedi YIM 65188T and S. specialis GW41-1564T. However, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NEAU-LZS-5T and S. sedi YIM 65188T and S. specialis GW41-1564T were found to be 45.59% and 31.9%, respectively. A comparative study between strain NEAU-LZS-5T and the closest related Streptomyces type strains revealed that it differed from them in morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Therefore, strain NEAU-LZS-5T represents a novel Streptomyces species, for which the name Streptomyces zhaozhouensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Streptomyces zhaozhouensis is NEAU-LZS-5T (=CGMCC 4.7095T =DSM 42101T).
Related JoVE Video
Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary patterns and risk of sudden cardiac death in postmenopausal women.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets are characterized by higher intake of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and unsaturated fatty acids. All of these foods and nutrients may affect cholesterol, inflammation, the development of atherosclerosis, and, therefore, risk of cardiac death.
Related JoVE Video
Patient-reported outcomes after total knee replacement vary on the basis of preoperative coexisting disease in the lumbar spine and other nonoperatively treated joints: the need for a musculoskeletal comorbidity index.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although the majority of patients report substantial gains in physical function following primary total knee replacement, the degree of improvement varies widely. To understand the potential role of preoperative pain due to other musculoskeletal conditions on postoperative outcomes, we quantified bilateral knee and hip pain and low back pain before primary total knee replacement and evaluated its association with physical function at six months after total knee replacement.
Related JoVE Video
Direct access to triazole-olefins through catalytic cycloaddition of azides to unsaturated aldehydes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In situ formed dienamines as HOMO-raising dipolarophiles react with azides to afford the corresponding triazole-olefins in good to excellent yields via a catalytic inverse-electron-demand 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition process.
Related JoVE Video
[Diversity of crenarchaeota in terrestrial hot springs and their surrounding environments in Kamchatka, Russia].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Crenarchaeota is a major archaeal lineage in terrestrial hot springs and important in biogeochemical cycles of life-essential elements. In this study, we investigated the diversity of Crenarchaeota in hot springs and the surrounding environments in Kamchatka, Russia. In addition, we compared crenarchaeotal community structures in Kamchatka, Russia and Yunnan province, China.
Related JoVE Video
Cyclooxygenase 2 promoted the tumorigenecity of pancreatic cancer cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the world. It is very urgent to find new therapeutic targets and improve the treatment. Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2), a regulator of inflammation signaling, has been found to be involved in tumorigenesis of various tumor types. However, its biological functions in pancreatic cancer cells are not fully understood. Here, we found that the expression of Cox2 was elevated in pancreatic cancer tissues compared with that in the paired normal tissues. The over-expression of Cox2 in pancreatic cancer cells promoted cell proliferation and migration, while the knockdown of the expression of Cox2 inhibited the tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, Cox2 regulated the expression of multiple genes involved in cell growth, migration, and cell apoptosis. Taken together, our study revealed the pivotal function of Cox2 in pancreatic cancer, and Cox2 might be an important therapeutic target for the treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Unisexual and heterosexual meiotic reproduction generate aneuploidy and phenotypic diversity de novo in the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aneuploidy is known to be deleterious and underlies several common human diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders such as trisomy 21 in Downs syndrome. In contrast, aneuploidy can also be advantageous and in fungi confers antifungal drug resistance and enables rapid adaptive evolution. We report here that sexual reproduction generates phenotypic and genotypic diversity in the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, which is globally distributed and commonly infects individuals with compromised immunity, such as HIV/AIDS patients, causing life-threatening meningoencephalitis. C. neoformans has a defined a-? opposite sexual cycle; however, >99% of isolates are of the ? mating type. Interestingly, ? cells can undergo ?-? unisexual reproduction, even involving genotypically identical cells. A central question is: Why would cells mate with themselves given that sex is costly and typically serves to admix preexisting genetic diversity from genetically divergent parents? In this study, we demonstrate that ?-? unisexual reproduction frequently generates phenotypic diversity, and the majority of these variant progeny are aneuploid. Aneuploidy is responsible for the observed phenotypic changes, as chromosome loss restoring euploidy results in a wild-type phenotype. Other genetic changes, including diploidization, chromosome length polymorphisms, SNPs, and indels, were also generated. Phenotypic/genotypic changes were not observed following asexual mitotic reproduction. Aneuploidy was also detected in progeny from a-? opposite-sex congenic mating; thus, both homothallic and heterothallic sexual reproduction can generate phenotypic diversity de novo. Our study suggests that the ability to undergo unisexual reproduction may be an evolutionary strategy for eukaryotic microbial pathogens, enabling de novo genotypic and phenotypic plasticity and facilitating rapid adaptation to novel environments.
Related JoVE Video
Weight gain prevention in the school worksite setting: Results of a multi-level cluster randomized trial.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe the effectiveness, reach and implementation of a weight gain prevention intervention among public school employees.
Related JoVE Video
Simvastatin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.
Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung cancer is the one of the most frequent causes of malignant tumors. In recent years, it has been documented that statins have anticancer and cancer chemopreventive properties. However, the mechanism of simvastatin on lung cancer is still unclear. In this study, the human lung cancer cell line A549 cells were incubated with simvastatin. Simvastatin inhibited the survival of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, decreased Bcl-2 protein expression, and increased Bax protein expression time and dose dependently. In addition, simvastatin blocked cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, downregulated cyclin D1 and CDKs protein expression, mediated the mitochondria-dependent caspase cascade by increasing caspase-3, -8, and -9 mRNA and protein expression, downregulated Xiap levels to induce cells apoptosis. Importantly, simvastatin suppressed decreased MMP-9 protein expression and suppressed NF-?B activation in A549 cells. Taken together, these results showed that the anticancer effect of simvastatin in lung cancer A549 cells via the inhibiting cell proliferation, influencing the cell cycle, downregulating cyclin D1 and CDKs expression, inducing apoptosis, and decreasing MMP-9 levels, possibly by inhibiting the activation of NF-?B. Statins contribute to lung cancer therapy and may be an ideal anticancer and cancer chemopreventive agent for lung cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Polyporales genomes reveal the genetic architecture underlying tetrapolar and bipolar mating systems.
Mycologia
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The process of mating in Basidiomycota is regulated by homeodomain-encoding genes (HD) and pheromones and G protein-coupled pheromone receptor genes (P/R). Whether these genes are actually involved in determining mating type distinguishes mating systems that are considered tetrapolar (two locus) from bipolar (one locus). Polyporales are a diverse group of wood-decay basidiomycetes displaying high variability in mating and decay systems. Many of the bipolar species appear to be brown-rot fungi, and it has been hypothesized that there is a functional basis for this correlation. Here we characterize mating genes in recently sequenced Polyporales and other Agaricomycete genomes. All Agaricomycete genomes encode HD and pheromone receptor genes regardless of whether they are bipolar or tetrapolar. The HD genes are organized into a MAT-HD locus with a high degree of gene order conservation among neighboring genes, with the gene encoding mitochondrial intermediate peptidase consistently syntenic but no linkage to the P/R genes. To have a complete dataset of species with known mating systems we determined that Wolfiporia cocos appears to be bipolar, using the criterion that DNA polymorphism of MAT genes should be extreme. Testing the correlation of mating and decay systems while controlling for phylogenetic relatedness failed to identify a statistical association, likely due to the small number of taxa employed. Using a phylogenetic analysis of Ste3 proteins, we identified clades of sequences that contain no known mating type-specific receptors and therefore might have evolved novel functions. The data are consistent with multiple origins of bipolarity within the Agaricomycetes and Polyporales, although the alternative hypothesis that tetrapolarity and bipolarity are reversible states needs better testing.
Related JoVE Video
Binuclear phthalocyanine-based sandwich-type rare earth complexes: unprecedented two ?-bridged biradical-metal integrated SMMs.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mini-magnets: Sandwich-type rare earth complexes involving two fused bis(phthalocyaninato) dysprosium(III) units, represent the first example of biradical-metal single molecule magnets (SMMs). These materials were synthesized and structurally characterized. Comparative investigation reveals the effective suppression of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) by the ?-bridged biradical-based antiferromagnetic interaction in the di-dysprosium-ion-based SMM.
Related JoVE Video
Challenges in sodium intake reduction and meal consumption patterns among participants with metabolic syndrome in a dietary trial.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dietary guidelines suggest limiting daily sodium intake to <2,300 mg for the general population, and <1,500 mg/d for those with certain cardiovascular risk factors. Despite these recommendations, few Americans are able to achieve this goal. Identifying challenges in meeting these guidelines is integral for successful compliance. This analysis examined patterns and amount of daily sodium intake among participants with metabolic syndrome enrolled in a one-year dietary intervention study.
Related JoVE Video
Sex differences in circumstances and consequences of outdoor and indoor falls in older adults in the MOBILIZE Boston cohort study.
BMC Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite extensive research on risk factors associated with falling in older adults, and current fall prevention interventions focusing on modifiable risk factors, there is a lack of detailed accounts of sex differences in risk factors, circumstances and consequences of falls in the literature. We examined the circumstances, consequences and resulting injuries of indoor and outdoor falls according to sex in a population study of older adults.
Related JoVE Video
Protective efficacy of a global HIV-1 mosaic vaccine against heterologous SHIV challenges in rhesus monkeys.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The global diversity of HIV-1 represents a critical challenge facing HIV-1 vaccine development. HIV-1 mosaic antigens are bioinformatically optimized immunogens designed for improved coverage of HIV-1 diversity. However, the protective efficacy of such global HIV-1 vaccine antigens has not previously been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of bivalent HIV-1 mosaic antigens to protect rhesus monkeys against acquisition of infection following heterologous challenges with the difficult-to-neutralize simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-SF162P3. Adenovirus/poxvirus and adenovirus/adenovirus vector-based vaccines expressing HIV-1 mosaic Env, Gag, and Pol afforded a significant reduction in the per-exposure acquisition risk following repetitive, intrarectal SHIV-SF162P3 challenges. Protection against acquisition of infection correlated with vaccine-elicited binding, neutralizing, and functional nonneutralizing antibodies, suggesting that the coordinated activity of multiple antibody functions may contribute to protection against difficult-to-neutralize viruses. These data demonstrate the protective efficacy of HIV-1 mosaic antigens and suggest a potential strategy for the development of a global HIV-1 vaccine. PAPERCLIP:
Related JoVE Video
Long-term effects on cognitive function of postmenopausal hormone therapy prescribed to women aged 50 to 55 years.
JAMA Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Postmenopausal hormone therapy with conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs) may adversely affect older women’s cognitive function. It is not known whether this extends to younger women.
Related JoVE Video
Association of BDNF gene polymorphisms with schizophrenia and clinical symptoms in a Chinese population.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis is well established in schizophrenia. Accumulating evidence has shown that BDNF may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This study aimed to investigate the potential association of BDNF gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to schizophrenia and with the psychopathological symptoms in patients with schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population. Three polymorphisms (rs6265, rs12273539, and rs10835210) of the BDNF gene were analyzed in a case-control study of 709 Han Chinese individuals (375 patients and 334 controls). The patients psychopathology was assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). We found no significant differences in the genotype and allele distributions of all three polymorphisms between the patient and control groups; however, we found a trend toward to significant overall difference in the estimated haplotype frequencies, with more frequent haplotype ATC of rs6265-rs12273539-rs10835210 in the schizophrenic patients than in controls (P?=?0.027). The quantitative trait analysis by the UNPHASED program showed significant associations between the rs6265 (A)-rs12273539 (C)-rs10835210 (A) haplotype and negative symptom scores from the PANSS (x(2) ?=?5.79, P?=?0.016). Our findings suggest that the BDNF gene polymorphisms may play a small effect on susceptibility to schizophrenia, but may contribute to the negative symptoms of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
Astroglial PTEN Loss Disrupts Neuronal Lamination by Dysregulating Radial Glia-guided Neuronal Migration.
Aging Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PTEN plays an important role not only in tumorigenesis but also in the normal development of central nervous system. PTEN loss in neural progenitor cells during embryogenesis disrupts migration and proper formation of the brain laminar structure. We generated a conditional PTEN knockout mouse by crossing mice that express Cre recombinase driven by the human GFAP promoter to a floxed PTEN gene to investigate the role of astroglial PTEN signaling pathway in neuronal patterning and lamination. We found PTEN loss not only in astroglial cells, but also in radial glia-derived neurons in hGFAP-Cre(+/-)/PTEN(loxp/loxp) transgenic mice. Homozygous hGFAP-Cre(+/-)/PTEN(loxp/loxp) transgenic mice showed progressive brain enlargement with cellular disorganization that occurred predominantly in hippocampus and cerebellum and died by postnatal day 20. Confocal images show that nestin-positive radial glial cells were observed in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum at postnatal day 0 in homozygous hGFAP-Cre(+/-)/PTEN(loxp/loxp), but not in heterozygous hGFAP-Cre(+/-)/PTEN(loxp/-) and hGFAP-Cre(-/-)/PTEN(loxp/loxp) mice. Homozygous hGFAP-Cre(+/-)/PTEN(loxp/loxp) transgenic mouse eyes, which lack radial glial lineage, were able to develop normal architectonics after birth. In addition, we also found that neuronal progenitor migration was defected at postnatal day 0 in homozygous hGFAP-Cre(+/-)/PTEN(loxp/loxp) mice. These results suggest that PTEN has a critical role in regulating radial glial differentiation, proliferation, maturation, and eventually neuronal patterning in central nervous system in a spatio-temporal dependent manner.
Related JoVE Video
Use of practice-based research network data to measure neighborhood smoking prevalence.
Prev Chronic Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs) and health systems may provide timely, reliable data to guide the development and distribution of public health resources to promote healthy behaviors, such as quitting smoking. The objective of this study was to determine if PBRN data could be used to make neighborhood-level estimates of smoking prevalence.
Related JoVE Video
A haplotype map of genomic variations and genome-wide association studies of agronomic traits in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important grain crop that is grown in arid regions. Here we sequenced 916 diverse foxtail millet varieties, identified 2.58 million SNPs and used 0.8 million common SNPs to construct a haplotype map of the foxtail millet genome. We classified the foxtail millet varieties into two divergent groups that are strongly correlated with early and late flowering times. We phenotyped the 916 varieties under five different environments and identified 512 loci associated with 47 agronomic traits by genome-wide association studies. We performed a de novo assembly of deeply sequenced genomes of a Setaria viridis accession (the wild progenitor of S. italica) and an S. italica variety and identified complex interspecies and intraspecies variants. We also identified 36 selective sweeps that seem to have occurred during modern breeding. This study provides fundamental resources for genetics research and genetic improvement in foxtail millet.
Related JoVE Video
[Role of calcium dyshomeostasis in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced apoptosis of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the role of calcium dyshomeostasis in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP?)-induced apoptosis of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term alcohol and caffeine intake and risk of sudden cardiac death in women.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alcohol and caffeine intakes may play a role in the development of sudden cardiac death (SCD) because of their effects on cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate variability, and inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical technique for lung retransplantation in the mouse.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microsurgical cuff techniques for orthotopic vascularized murine lung transplantation have allowed for the design of studies that examine mechanisms contributing to the high failure rate of pulmonary grafts. Here, we provide a detailed technical description of orthotopic lung retransplantation in mice, which we have thus far performed in 144 animals. The total time of the retransplantation procedure is approximately 55 minutes, 20 minutes for donor harvest and 35 minutes for the implantation, with a success rate exceeding 95%. The mouse lung retransplantation model represents a novel and powerful tool to examine how cells that reside in or infiltrate pulmonary grafts shape immune responses.
Related JoVE Video
Transient focal cerebral ischemia induces long-term cognitive function deficit in an experimental ischemic stroke model.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vascular dementia ranks as the second leading cause of dementia in the United States. However, its underlying pathophysiological mechanism is not fully understood and no effective treatment is available. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate long-term cognitive deficits induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to tMCAO or sham surgery. Behavior tests for locomotor activity and cognitive function were conducted at 7 or 30days after stroke. Hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) and involvement of GABAergic neurotransmission were evaluated at 30days after sham surgery or stroke. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses were conducted to determine the effect of tMCAO on cell signaling in the hippocampus. Transient MCAO induced a progressive deficiency in spatial performance. At 30days after stroke, no neuron loss or synaptic marker change in the hippocampus were observed. LTP in both hippocampi was reduced at 30days after stroke. This LTP impairment was prevented by blocking GABAA receptors. In addition, ERK activity was significantly reduced in both hippocampi. In summary, we identified a progressive decline in spatial learning and memory after ischemic stroke that correlates with suppression of hippocampal LTP, elevation of GABAergic neurotransmission, and inhibition of ERK activation. Our results indicate that the attenuation of GABAergic activity or enhancement of ERK/MAPK activation in the hippocampus might be potential therapeutic approaches to prevent or attenuate cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke.
Related JoVE Video
Isolation and characterization of endophytic fungi from Camptotheca acuminata.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, a total of 161 endophytic fungal isolates from Camptotheca acuminata were obtained and classified to 16 taxa according to morphological and molecular analysis. These taxa were composed of 2 frequent genera (Botryosphaeria and Fusarium) and 14 infrequent groups such as Xylaria, Diaporthe, Rhizopus, Epicoccum, and Preussia, demonstrating that fungal endophytes in C. acuminata were highly abundant and diverse. Antimicrobial activity screening using filter-paper diffusion method showed that 47.6 % of the tested isolates had antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test microorganisms. Screening of fungal endophyte-derived camptothecin analogues by TLC and LC-MS/MS³ demonstrated that a strain Botryosphaeria dothidea, X-4 could produce 9-methoxycamptothecin (9-MCPT) when cultured in Sabourauds dextrose broth for 12 days under shake flask and bench-scale fermention conditions. This work showed that the fungal endophytes from C. acuminata could be an alternative source for the production of 9-MCPT and other natural antimicrobial compounds.
Related JoVE Video
Structural modulation of gut microbiota in life-long calorie-restricted mice.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Calorie restriction has been regarded as the only experimental regimen that can effectively lengthen lifespan in various animal models, but the actual mechanism remains controversial. The gut microbiota has been shown to have a pivotal role in host health, and its structure is mostly shaped by diet. Here we show that life-long calorie restriction on both high-fat or low-fat diet, but not voluntary exercise, significantly changes the overall structure of the gut microbiota of C57BL/6 J mice. Calorie restriction enriches phylotypes positively correlated with lifespan, for example, the genus Lactobacillus on low-fat diet, and reduces phylotypes negatively correlated with lifespan. These calorie restriction-induced changes in the gut microbiota are concomitant with significantly reduced serum levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, suggesting that animals under calorie restriction can establish a structurally balanced architecture of gut microbiota that may exert a health benefit to the host via reduction of antigen load from the gut.
Related JoVE Video
Adaptation of herders to droughts and privatization of rangeland-use rights in the arid Alxa Left Banner of Inner Mongolia.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Residents of arid areas have developed their own adaptive strategies and adaptive capability to cope with an unstable environment that experiences frequent droughts. These strategies and this capability are based on traditional practices that developed from a profound understanding of their environment, but both the strategies and the capability have been affected by institutional change. Specifically, rangeland-use rights in the Alxa Left Banner were privatized in 1996, and the implementation of this policy decreased the ability of local herders to use traditional solutions. In this paper, we describe the change in their adaptive capability after implementation of this policy. Traditionally, local knowledge of the heterogeneity of resources and of key resources based on a deep understanding of the local environment, combined with tight social relationships, let herders use three traditional grazing strategies (seasonal migration, long-distance migration, and raising a diversity of livestock species) to mitigate the impacts of drought. But privatization has nearly eliminated their ability to rely on these traditional strategies and has weakened the forms of social and other capital that supported these strategies and provided a high adaptive capability. We argue that this institutional change has adversely affected traditional practices and undermined the adaptive capability of herders. Consequently, managers of the Alxa Left Banner must find ways to restore the various forms of capital to restore the herders adaptive capability, particularly given the growing need to account for future climate change.
Related JoVE Video
Association of the dopamine ?-hydroxylase 19 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism with positive symptoms but not tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia.
Hum Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Overactivity of dopaminergic neurotransmission is a putative mechanism of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) is a key enzyme in the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, and plasma DBH activity is altered in TD patients. This study examined whether the functional DBH 5-Ins/Del polymorphism was associated with TD severity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
Stiffness control of balance during dual task and prospective falls in older adults: the MOBILIZE Boston Study.
Gait Posture
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Outdoor fallers differ from indoor fallers substantially in demographics, lifestyle, health condition and physical function. Biomechanical predictors of outdoor falls have not been well characterized. Current validated measures of postural deficits, which describe only the overall postural behavior, are predictive of indoor falls but not outdoor falls. We hypothesized that a model-based description of postural muscle tone and reflexes, particularly during dual tasking, would predict outdoor falls. We tested whether postural stiffness and damping from an inverted pendulum model were predictive of future indoor and outdoor falls among older adults from the MOBILIZE Boston Study. The center of pressure data during standing were obtained from 717 participants aged 77.9±5.3 years. Participants stood barefoot with eyes open for 30s per trial, in two sets of five standing trials. One set included a serial subtractions task. Postural stiffness and damping values were determined from the postural sway data. After the postural measurements, falls were monitored prospectively using a monthly mail-in calendar over 6-36 months. Associations of postural measures with fall rates were determined using negative binomial regressions. After covariate adjustments, postural stiffness (p=0.02-0.05) and damping (p=0.007-0.1) were associated with lower outdoor falls risk, but not with indoor falls. Results were invariant by direction (anteroposterior versus mediolateral) or by condition (quiet standing versus dual task). Outdoor fall risk may be tied to postural control more so than indoor falls. Dual tasking is likely related to fall risk among older and sicker older adults, but not those relatively healthy.
Related JoVE Video
Intravital 2-photon imaging, leukocyte trafficking, and the beating heart.
Trends Cardiovasc. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intravital two-photon microscopy allows for the analysis of single-cell dynamics within intact tissues. As it is well recognized that molecular cues that regulate leukocyte trafficking into inflammatory sites differ between various tissues, it is important to study organ-specific responses. Recently, intravital two-photon microscopy has been expanded to moving organs in the mouse such as beating hearts. Unlike previous experimental approaches to image cardiac tissue explants or isolated perfused heart preparations by two-photon microscopy, intravital imaging accounts for the mechanical force transmitted to vessels by the heartbeat and accurately assesses dynamic leukocyte behavior in the coronary vessels and myocardial tissue. Intravital two-photon imaging of beating hearts is a promising experimental tool that will help elucidate cellular and molecular immune processes that contribute to a variety of cardiovascular diseases.
Related JoVE Video
The apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer induced by cisplatin through modulation of STIM1.
Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) is one of the most active antitumor agents used in human chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer. Cisplatin forms crosslinked DNA adducts and its cytotoxicity has been shown to be mediated by propagation of DNA damage recognition signals to downstream pathways prompting apoptosis. The steps involved in the process include changes in Ca(2+) signaling with dysregulated tumor cell turn-over. Stromal interaction molecules 1 (STIM1), as one of the most potent tumor suppressor genes, are identified as the endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) sensor controlling store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in non-excitable cells, which is main pathway to extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Its role in STIM1 cisplatin-induced apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer was the focus of study with focus on SOCE inhibitors 2-APB- and SKF96365-cisplatin-induced apoptosis in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines A549 and H460. In this experimental model, cisplatin-induced apoptosis and decreased concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) was demonstrated. The expression of STIM1 was significantly higher in carcinoma tissue than in the adjacent non-neoplastic lung tissue. These findings support the conclusion that STIM1 may play an important role in the development of NSCLC which makes drugs that repress the expression of STIM1 to be a potential target for lung cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Tailored system to deliver behavioral intervention and manage data in randomized trials.
J. Med. Internet Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The integrity of behavioral intervention trials depends on consistent intervention delivery, and uniform, comprehensive process data collection. It can be challenging in practice due to complex human interactions involved.
Related JoVE Video
Impacts of Nomad Sedentarization on Social and Ecological Systems at Multiple Scales in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China.
Ambio
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chinas government is now promoting the Nomad Sedentarization Project (NSP) in large areas of grassland as a solution for ecological restoration and poverty alleviation. To examine the effects of this policy, we conducted in-depth interviews at two of the projects sites and examined the social and ecological systems at village, county, and catchment scales in Jinghe County of Xinjiang. We found that (1) the NSP in one village greatly improved the household standard of living and changed their resource utilization modes; (2) the success in this village can be attributed to resources imported from the social and ecological systems at larger scales, and could not be repeated in a second nearby village with different constraints; and (3) the NSP is poorly adapted to local ecosystem characteristics, and may therefore have negative impacts at larger scales. To avoid these problems, holistic assessments are necessary to judge the NSPs impacts on social and ecological systems at multiple scales, and the program must be implemented cautiously to account for the potential risks in ecologically vulnerable areas.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.