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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mechanisms of TNF? antagonist-induced lupus in a murine model.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Objective. TNF? antagonists are effective for treating rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases, but their use can be complicated by lupus-like phenomena. We investigated the role of TNF? in murine lupus. Methods. TLR7 ligand-driven lupus was induced in B6 and B6- TNF?(-/-) mice using pristane. Autoantibodies and type I interferon (IFN-I) production were measured and the effects on IFN-I-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), Ly6C(hi) monocytes, and TNF?-producing neutrophils were determined. Results. TNF?(-/-) mice did not spontaneously develop autoantibodies or clinical manifestations, suggesting that TNF? deficiency alone is insufficient to cause lupus. Although IFN-I levels were comparable in untreated TNF?(-/-) and B6 mice, untreated TNF?(-/-) mice had increased circulating pDCs and "pDC-like" cells, enhancing their potential to make IFN-I. When treated with pristane, TNF?(-/-) mice developed more severe lupus than controls with increased levels of anti-Sm/RNP autoantibodies, IFN-I, pDCs, and peritoneal inflammatory (Ly6C(hi) ) monocytes. Neutrophils, which promoted resolution of inflammation, were decreased considerably in pristane-treated TNF?(-/-) mice, whereas the inflammatory monocyte and pDC responses and IFN-I were increased and prolonged. Conclusions. Low levels of TNF? increased circulating pDC numbers, enhancing the potential to make IFN-I. But this did not lead to IFN-I production or autoimmunity unless there was concomitant exposure to endogenous TLR7 ligands released from dead cells following pristane treatment. In patients, the rate of clearance of dead cells along with TNF? levels may influence who will develop lupus when treated with TNF? inhibitors. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
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Serum autoantibodies in pristane induced lupus are regulated by neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The onset of autoantibodies in systemic autoimmunity can be the result of a breakdown in tolerance at multiple checkpoints. Genetic, hormonal, and immunological factors can combine with environmental influences to accelerate the onset of disease and aggravate disease outcome. Here, we describe a novel mechanism relating to the regulatory role of Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in modulating the levels of autoantibodies in pristane induced lupus. Following a single injection of pristane intraperitoneally, NGAL expression was induced in both the serum and spleen. Furthermore, NGAL deficient mice were more susceptible to the induction of pristane stimulated autoimmunity, and displayed higher numbers of autoantibody secreting cells and increased expression of activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and other inflammatory mediators in the spleen. In contrast, kidney damage was milder in NGAL deficient mice, indicating that NGAL was detrimental in autoantibody mediated kidney disease. These studies indicate that NGAL plays differential roles in different tissues in the context of lupus, and suggest a previously unrecognized role for NGAL in adaptive immunity.
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Induced murine models of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Induced mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been developed to complement the spontaneous models. This chapter describes the methods used in the pristane-induced model and the chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) model, both of which have been extensively used. We will also outline the specific mechanisms of systemic autoimmunity that can be best characterized using each of these models.
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Toll-like receptor 7-stimulated tumor necrosis factor ? causes bone marrow damage in systemic lupus erythematosus.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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To define the pathogenesis of bone marrow (BM) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
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Reduced levels of CCL2 and CXCL10 in systemic lupus erythematosus patients under treatment with prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil, or hydroxychloroquine, except in a high STAT1 subset.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Our recent data showed that signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) were significantly elevated in a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohort compared to healthy donors. High and low STAT1 subsets were identified in SLE patient visits. The present study analyzed the correlation of common treatments used in SLE with the levels of these biomarkers.
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Elevated signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 correlates with increased C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 levels in peripheral blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The present study examines the levels of recently reported biomarkers, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR), C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), and miR-146a in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients over multiple visits.
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The reprogrammed pancreatic progenitor-like intermediate state of hepatic cells is more susceptible to pancreatic beta cell differentiation.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for cell therapy. However, their low efficiency of lineage-specific differentiation and tumorigenesis severely hinder clinical translation. We hypothesized that reprogramming of somatic cells into lineage-specific progenitor cells might allow for large-scale expansion, avoiding the tumorigenesis inherent with iPSCs and simultaneously facilitating lineage-specific differentiation. Here we aimed at reprogramming rat hepatic WB cells, using four Yamanaka factors, into pancreatic progenitor cells (PPCs) or intermediate (IM) cells that have characteristics of PPCs. IM clones were selected based on their specific morphology and alkaline phosphatase activity and stably passaged under defined culture conditions. IM cells did not have iPSC properties, could be stably expanded in large quantity, and expressed all 14 genes that are used to define the PPC developmental stage. Directed differentiation of IM and WB cells by Pdx1-Ngn3-MafA (PNM) into pancreatic beta-like cells revealed that the IM cells are more susceptible to directed beta cell differentiation because of their open chromatin configuration, as demonstrated by expression of key pancreatic beta cell genes, secretion of insulin in response to glucose stimulation, and easy access to exogenous PNM proteins at the rat insulin 1 and Pdx1 promoters. This notion that IM cells are superior to their parental cells is further supported by the epigenetic demonstration of accessibility of Pdx1 and insulin 1 promoters. In conclusion, we have developed a strategy to derive and expand PPC cells from hepatic WB cells using conventional cell reprogramming. This proof-of-principal study may offer a novel, safe and effective way to generate autologous pancreatic beta cells for cell therapy of diabetes.
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Positive Correlation of STAT1 and miR-146a with Anemia in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Anemia is one of the most common hematological manifestations in SLE patients, occurring in about 50 % of active cases. STAT1 is a critical signaling molecule required for the production of type-1 interferon (I-IFN), CCL2, and CXCL10, all of which are upregulated in SLE. Overexpression of STAT1 has been described to be involved in anemia in animal models. The aim of this study is to analyze how these components are involved in SLE-associated anemia.
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Maintenance of anti-Sm/RNP autoantibody production by plasma cells residing in ectopic lymphoid tissue and bone marrow memory B cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Although ectopic lymphoid tissue formation is associated with many autoimmune diseases, it is unclear whether it serves a functional role in autoimmune responses. 2,6,10,14-Tetramethylpentadecane causes chronic peritoneal inflammation and lupus-like disease with autoantibody production and ectopic lymphoid tissue (lipogranuloma) formation. A novel transplantation model was used to show that transplanted lipogranulomas retain their lymphoid structure over a prolonged period in the absence of chronic peritoneal inflammation. Recipients of transplanted lipogranulomas produced anti-U1A autoantibodies derived exclusively from the donor, despite nearly complete repopulation of the transplanted lipogranulomas by host lymphocytes. The presence of ectopic lymphoid tissue alone was insufficient, as an anti-U1A response was not generated by the host in the absence of ongoing peritoneal inflammation. Donor-derived anti-U1A autoantibodies were produced for up to 2 mo by plasma cells/plasmablasts recruited to the ectopic lymphoid tissue by CXCR4. Although CD4(+) T cells were not required for autoantibody production from the transplanted lipogranulomas, de novo generation of anti-U1A plasma cells/plasmablasts was reduced following T cell depletion. Significantly, a population of memory B cells was identified in the bone marrow and spleen that did not produce anti-U1A autoantibodies unless stimulated by LPS to undergo terminal differentiation. We conclude that 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane promotes the T cell-dependent development of class-switched, autoreactive memory B cells and plasma cells/plasmablasts. The latter home to ectopic lymphoid tissue and continue to produce autoantibodies after transplantation and in the absence of peritoneal inflammation. However, peritoneal inflammation appears necessary to generate autoreactive B cells de novo.
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Breast implant-associated ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a case report and discussion of possible pathogenesis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a recently recognized clinical entity, with only 39 well-documented cases reported worldwide, including 3 fatalities. Because of its rarity, the clinical and pathologic features of this malignancy have yet to be fully defined. Moreover, the pathogenesis of ALCL in association with textured silicone gel breast implants is poorly understood. Here we report a case of BIA-ALCL arising in a 67-year-old woman with a mastectomy due to breast cancer followed by implantation of textured silicone gel breast prosthesis. The patient presented with breast enlargement and tenderness 8 years following reconstructive surgery. MRI revealed a fluid collection surrounding the affected breast implant. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of malignant ALCL T cells that were CD30+, CD8+, CD15+, HLA-DR+, CD25+ ALK- and p53. A diagnosis of indolent BIA-ALCL was made since tumor cells were not found outside of the capsule. Interestingly, an extensive mixed lymphocytic infiltrate and ectopic lymphoid tissue (lymphoid neogenesis) adjacent to the fibrous implant capsule were present. The patient was treated with capsulectomy and implantation of new breast prostheses. Six months later, the patient was found to have BIA-ALCL involvement of an axillary lymph node with cytogenetic evolution of the tumor. To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case of aggressive BIA-ALCL. Unique features of this case include the association with lymphoid neogenesis and the in vivo cytogenetic progression of the tumor. This case provides insight into the potential role of chronic inflammation and genetic instability in the pathogenesis of BIA-ALCL.
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Novel autoantigens in type 1 diabetes.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by recognition of beta cell proteins as self-antigens, called autoantigens (AAgs), by patients own CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and/or the products of self-reactive B cells, called autoantibodies. These AAgs are divided into two categories on the basis of beta-cell-specificity. The list of the targets associated with beta cell-specific AAgs is continuously growing. Many T1DM-associated AAgs are well characterized and have important clinical applications for disease prediction, diagnosis, and antigen-specific tolerance immunotherapy. Identification of T1DM-associated AAgs provides insight into the pathogenesis of T1DM and to understanding the clinical aspects of the disease. Since many excellent reviews have covered the previously identified T1DM-associated AAgs exhaustedly, here we only focus on several recently discovered T1DM-AAgs (PDX1, ZnT8, CHGA, and IAAP).
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Novel detection of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 autoantibodies (PAA) in human sera using luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) assay.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We have previously identified pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) autoantibodies (PAA) in sera from both non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and human type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients. A suitable non-radioactive, sensitive and specific assay is needed for large-scale testing to determine the clinical utility of PAA. Here we reported a liquid-phase luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) assay by generating a renilla luciferase (Rluc)-Pdx1 fusion protein as a sensitive non-radioactive antigen from mammalian cells combined with immunoprecipitation to detect PAA in human sera. Sera from healthy donors and the University of Florida Pathology Laboratories, Endocrine Autoantibody Laboratory were used to validate the LIPS assay for PAA. Antigenic specificity to Pdx1 was confirmed by using a Rluc-only control compared to Rluc-Pdx1 fusion antigen and by competition assays using purified recombinant Pdx1 protein. We then used the LIPS assay to assess the prevalence of triple autoantibodies (GADA, IA-2A, and IA-2?A), and PAA in non-T1D control sera, recent onset (RO)-T1D sera (mean duration of T1D = 9.5 weeks), and long standing (LS)-T1D sera. Compared to clinical radioimmunoprecipitation assays (RIPA), the LIPS assay showed comparable sensitivity and specificity for detection of GADA and IA-2A. PAA were detectable in human serum samples and higher in triple-positive T1D autoantibodies (21% PAA positive in triple positive sera and 4% PAA positive in triple negative sera). Interestingly, PAA were found to be highest in the non-T1D population, suggesting that PAA might have a clinical utility in screening high-risk population susceptible for developing T1D. In conclusion, we have developed a liquid-phase, non-radioactive, sensitive and specific LIPS assay to detect PAA in human sera, providing a useful tool for evaluating the clinical relevance of PAA.
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Pathogenic role of B cells in the development of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage induced by pristane.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is an uncommon, yet often fatal, complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Advances in the treatment of alveolar hemorrhage have been hampered because of the heterogeneity of clinical findings and the lack of suitable animal models. A single intraperitoneal injection of pristane induces a lupus-like syndrome characterized by lupus-related autoantibodies and glomerulonephritis in non-autoimmune-prone strains of mice. In addition, C57BL/6 (B6) mice frequently develop alveolar hemorrhage within a few weeks of pristane injection. Immunopathogenesis of pristane-induced alveolar hemorrhage was investigated in the present study. Early (2-4 weeks after injection) mortality due to hemorrhage was unique to C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 strains of mice. Recruitment of the macrophages and neutrophils preceded the hemorrhage by several days, and hemorrhage started 3-7 days after pristane injection in some mice, peaked at 2 weeks (84% in B6) and then resolved by 4 weeks in a majority of mice. Alveolar hemorrhage was independent of MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88), or TLR7 pathways, in contrast to autoantibody production and glomerulonephritis, and was also independent of Fc?R or Fas. Rag1(-/-) mice had a reduced prevalence of alveolar hemorrhage compared with B6 (P=0.01) congenics. However, T-cell receptor-deficient mice developed alveolar hemorrhage at a rate comparable to wild-type controls, whereas B6 Ig?(-/-) mice surprisingly had a strikingly reduced prevalence (7% vs 84% in B6, P<0.0001). Reconstitution of B6 Ig?(-/-) mice with wild-type B cells increased the prevalence to 50% (P=0.028). Pristane-induced alveolar hemorrhage is a useful model to study the pathogenesis and develop new therapy for this underappreciated and often life-threatening complication of SLE.
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Defective response of CD4(+) T cells to retinoic acid and TGF? in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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CD25(+) FOXP3(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are induced by transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) and further expanded by retinoic acid (RA). We have previously shown that this process was defective in T cells from lupus-prone mice expressing the novel isoform of the Pbx1 gene, Pbx1-d. This study tested the hypothesis that CD4(+) T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients exhibited similar defects in Treg induction in response to TGF? and RA, and that PBX1-d expression is associated with this defect.
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Critical role for CXC ligand 10/CXC receptor 3 signaling in the murine neonatal response to sepsis.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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Previous studies have suggested that neonates rely heavily on innate immunity for their antimicrobial response to bacterial infections. However, the innate immune response by neonates to bacterial infection remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that in a murine model of neonatal polymicrobial sepsis, CXC ligand 10 (CXCL10) concentrations increase in the blood and peritoneum concordant with the peritoneal recruitment of granulocytes and macrophages. Additionally, CXC receptor 3 (CXCR3) expression on elicited peritoneal macrophages and granulocytes increases following sepsis. Blockade of CXCL10 worsens not only recruitment and phagocytic function of peritoneal granulocytes and macrophages but also survival. Deletion of CXCR3 also significantly increases mortality to a septic challenge. Finally, we demonstrate that the protective adjuvant effect of pretreatment with a Toll-like receptor 4 agonist to neonatal sepsis is dependent on an endogenous CXCL10 response and that pretreatment of neonates with CXCL10 can also significantly improve macrophage and granulocyte function and modestly improve outcome to polymicrobial sepsis. Together, these data suggest a critical role for CXCL10 signaling during neonatal sepsis.
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Autoantibodies to survival of motor neuron complex in patients with polymyositis: immunoprecipitation of D, E, F, and G proteins without other components of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Autoantibodies in the systemic rheumatic diseases are clinically useful biomarkers of the diagnosis or of certain clinical characteristics. An unusual pattern of immunoprecipitation, in which the D, E, F, and G proteins of small nuclear RNPs (snRNP) but without other components of the snRNP, was noticed at the autoantibody screening. The purpose of this study was to examine the target antigens and clinical manifestations associated with this specificity.
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Atypical clinical presentation of a subset of patients with anti-RNA polymerase III--non-scleroderma cases associated with dominant RNA polymerase I reactivity and nucleolar staining.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Anti-RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) antibodies are highly specific markers of scleroderma (systemic sclerosis, SSc) and associated with a rapidly progressing subset of SSc. The clinical presentation of anti-RNAP III positive patients, onset of Raynauds phenomenon (RP) and SSc in unselected patients in a rheumatology clinic were evaluated.
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Altered miR-146a expression in Sjögrens syndrome and its functional role in innate immunity.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, are known to play key roles in regulating immune responses and autoimmunity. We investigated miR-146a expression in Sjögrens syndrome (SjS) patients as well as in the SjS-prone C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mouse model, to elucidate its involvement in SjS pathogenesis. Expression of miR-146a was examined in the PBMCs of 25 SjS patients and ten healthy donors, as well as in PBMCs, salivary and lacrimal glands of SjS-prone mice and WT C57BL/6J mice. Functional assays using THP-1 human monocytes were conducted to determine the biological roles of miR-146a in innate immunity. Expression of miR-146a was significantly increased in SjS patients compared with healthy controls, and was upregulated in the salivary glands and PBMCs of the SjS-prone mouse at both 8?wk (prior to disease onset) and 20?wk (full-blown disease) of age. More importantly, functional analysis revealed roles for miR-146a in increasing phagocytic activity and suppressing inflammatory cytokine production while migration, nitric oxide production and expression of antigen-presenting/costimulatory molecules are not affected in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that abnormal expression/regulation of microRNAs in innate immunity may contribute to, or be indicative of, the initiation and progression of SjS.
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Gender and ethnicity differences in the prevalence of scleroderma-related autoantibodies.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2011
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Autoantibodies to topoisomerase I (topo I), RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII), centromere, U3RNP/fibrillarin, Th, PM-Scl, and U1RNP found in scleroderma (SSc) are associated with unique clinical subsets. The effects of race and gender on autoantibody prevalence and clinical manifestations were examined. Autoantibodies in sera from 105 SSc (include 75 Caucasian, 24 African-American, 6 others; 89 females and 16 males) were analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation. Clinical information was from database. SSc-related autoantibodies seldom coexist except for anti-topo I and anti-U1RNP. Anti-topo I (35% vs 15%), anti-U3RNP (30% vs 3%, p?=?0.0005), and anti-U1RNP (30% vs 13%) were more common in African-Americans vs Caucasians. Anti-centromere (17%) and anti-PM-Scl (only in 8% of female) were found only in Caucasians. In race/gender combination, all three African-American males had anti-topo I (p?=?0.04). Anti-U3RNP (35% vs 3%, p?=?0.0005) and anti-U1RNP were common in African-American females. In African-American, all nucleolar dominant staining sera had anti-U3RNP; nuclear pattern was topo I (50%), U1RNP (19%), and RNAPIII (13%). In Caucasian, nucleolar was anti-Th (43%) and PM-Scl (29%); nuclear pattern was RNAPIII (29%), topo I (24%), and U1RNP (18%). Anti-topo I, anti-RNAPIII, and anti-U3RNP were associated with diffuse SSc while anti-centromere, anti-Th, and anti-U1 with limited disease. Proximal scleroderma was less common in African-American with anti-topo I (38% vs 91% in Caucasian, p?=?0.04). The production of SSc-related autoantibodies is gender and race dependent, and this can be highly relevant in understanding their clinical significance.
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Frequent coexistence of anti-topoisomerase I and anti-U1RNP autoantibodies in African American patients associated with mild skin involvement: a retrospective clinical study.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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The presence of anti-topoisomerase I (topo I) antibodies is a classic scleroderma (SSc) marker presumably associated with a unique clinical subset. Here the clinical association of anti-topo I was reevaluated in unselected patients seen in a rheumatology clinic setting.
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IL-1? modulates neutrophil recruitment in chronic inflammation induced by hydrocarbon oil.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2010
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Exposure to naturally occurring hydrocarbon oils is associated with the development of chronic inflammation and a wide spectrum of pathological findings in humans and animal models. The mechanism underlying the unremitting inflammatory response to hydrocarbons remains largely unclear. The medium-length alkane 2,6,10,14 tetramethylpentadecane (also known as pristane) is a hydrocarbon that potently elicits chronic peritonitis characterized by persistent infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes. In this study, we reveal the essential role of IL-1? in sustaining the chronic recruitment of neutrophils following 2,6,10,14 tetramethylpentadecane treatment. IL-1? and IL-1R signaling promote the migration of neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a CXCR2-dependent manner. This mechanism is at least partially dependent on the production of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL5. Moreover, although chronic infiltration of inflammatory monocytes is dependent on a different pathway requiring TLR-7, type I IFN receptor, and CCR2, the adaptor molecules MyD88, IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)-4, IRAK-1, and IRAK-2 are shared in regulating the recruitment of both monocytes and neutrophils. Taken together, our findings uncover an IL-1?-dependent mechanism of neutrophil recruitment in hydrocarbon-induced peritonitis and illustrate the interactions of innate immune pathways in chronic inflammation.
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Monocyte surface expression of Fcgamma receptor RI (CD64), a biomarker reflecting type-I interferon levels in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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More than half of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients show evidence of excess type I interferon (IFN-I) production, a phenotype associated with renal disease and certain autoantibodies. However, detection of IFN-I proteins in serum is unreliable, and the measurement of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression is expensive and time consuming. The aim of this study was to identify a surrogate marker for IFN-I activity in clinical samples for monitoring disease activity and response to therapy.
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Extraordinary antigenicity of the human Ro52 autoantigen.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Autoantibody levels to the SSA complex, composed of Ro52 and Ro60 proteins, are commonly measured in the diagnoses of Sjögrens Syndrome (SjS), as well as other rheumatological diseases. One of these proteins, Ro52, is an interferon-inducible member of the tripartite motif family bearing a RING motif functioning as an E3 ligase that ubiquitinates interferon regulatory factor 8 and other proteins. Using Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) we explored the antigenicity of Ro52 in detail. Analysis of antibody responses against Ro52 and 20 other established antigens revealed that Ro52 had the highest antibody titers and most likely represents one of the most immunogenic human proteins. While the antibody titers in many of the SjS patients were significantly and substantially higher than the controls, all healthy individuals had anti-Ro52 autoantibodies. N- and C-terminal fragments of Ro52 showed immunoreactivity in these serum samples, but the sums of these antibody titers were significantly lower than the antibody titers directed against the full-length Ro52. Antibody profiling of controls and SjS patients with three different N-terminal fragments of Ro52 revealed that the coiled-coil region was the most useful diagnostic (66% sensitivity), followed by the B-box (31% sensitivity), and then the RING-finger (24% sensitivity). The C-terminal region of Ro52, containing the B30.2 domain, showed higher antibody titers in SjS patients compared to controls and this region was responsible for the high level of Ro52 immunoreactivity in healthy individuals. Analysis of immunoreactivity to TRIM5, a Ro52-related protein, and the B30.2 domain from BTN1 and pyrin, failed to show significant antibody titers with the control or SjS patient serum. These results highlight the unusually high level of Ro52 antigenicity and demonstrate that autoantibodies are directed at both linear and conformational epitopes spanning the entire molecule.
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Endogenous type-I interferon activity is not associated with depression or fatigue in systemic lupus erythematosus.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) often suffer from depression and fatigue in addition to the physical manifestations of the autoimmune disease. Elevated production of type-I interferons (IFN-I) has been found in lupus patients and IFN-I can precipitate a variety of neuropsychiatric side effects. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between dysregulated IFN-I production and the presence of depression or fatigue in lupus patients. Through cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis we found no significant correlation between abnormal IFN-I levels (as measured by peripheral blood expression of IFN-I-stimulated genes) and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Elevation of endogenous serum IFN-I levels is unlikely to account for the depression and fatigue associated with SLE.
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Monocyte and macrophage abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2010
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with profound effects on multiple organ systems. In patients with SLE, the immune system is subverted to target numerous self antigens and the ensuing inflammatory response elicits a vicious cycle of immune-cell activation and tissue damage. Both genetic and environmental factors are essential for the development of this debilitating condition, although the exact cause remains unclear. Early studies on the pathogenesis of lupus centered on the adaptive immune system as lymphocyte abnormalities were thought to be the primary cause of autoimmunity. In the past decade, however, this paradigm has shifted with rapid advances in the field of innate immunity. These developments have yielded important insights into how the autoimmune response in SLE is initiated and maintained. Monocytes and macrophages are an essential arm of the innate immune system with a multitude of immunological functions, including antigen presentation, phagocytosis, and cytokine production. Aberrations of monocyte/macrophage phenotype and function are increasingly recognized in SLE and animal models of the disease. In this review we summarize the current knowledge of monocyte/macrophage abnormalities in human SLE and discuss their implications for understanding the pathogenesis of lupus.
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Formation of GW/P bodies as marker for microRNA-mediated regulation of innate immune signaling in THP-1 cells.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2009
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GW bodies (GWB or P bodies) are cytoplasmic foci thought to result from microRNA (miRNA) regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) targets and subsequent mRNA degradation. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of human monocytes on GWB formation, miRNA induction, miRNA target regulation and downstream cytokine and chemokine expression. In response to LPS stimulation, the number of GWB consistently increased by twofold at 8 h after stimulation and this increase was abolished when the miRNA-effector proteins Rck/p54 or argonaute 2 were depleted. As the level of miR-146a increased from 19-fold up to 100-fold during LPS stimulation, the transfection of a miR-146a mimic into THP-1 cells was examined to determine whether miR-146a alone can induce similar changes in GWB. The results showed transfected miR-146a could produce a comparable increase in the number of GWB and this was accompanied by a reduction in major cytokines/chemokines induced by LPS. These data show that the increase in size and number of GWB may serve as a biomarker for miRNA-mediated gene regulation, and miR-146a has a significant role in the regulation of LPS-induced cytokine production in THP-1 cells.
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Pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 protein is a novel beta-cell-specific autoantigen for type I diabetes.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2009
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Pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) protein is a key transcription factor involved in the regulation of insulin gene expression that is expressed at high levels in the beta-cells of the pancreatic islets. We asked whether Pdx1 is a target of anti-islet autoimmunity in type I diabetes (T1D). Pdx1 autoantibodies (PAAs) were detected in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice using ELISA, western blotting, and radioimmunoprecipitation of [(35)S]-labeled insulinoma cell line-derived Pdx1 protein. PAAs were detected as early as at 5 weeks of age, and generally peaked before the onset of clinically overt diabetes in diabetes-prone female NOD mice. Levels declined substantially after the onset of diabetes. PAAs were not detected in the sera of NOD-scid, C57BL/6, or BALB/c mice. The titers of PAAs in NOD mouse sera were as high as 1/93 750 by ELISA. The fine specificity of PAAs was determined by western blotting using a series of truncated recombinant Pdx1 proteins. The immunodominant epitopes were located to the C-terminus of the Pdx1 (p200-283) in NOD mice. PAAs also were detected in sera from human T1D patients, but the major epitopes were localized to amino acids 159-200 as well as the same region (p200-283) recognized by PAAs from NOD mice. Using [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, the p83 fragment of Pdx1 specifically stimulated proliferation of splenic T cells from recent-onset diabetic NOD mice. The presence of PAAs in prediabetic NOD mice and human T1D patients, and Pdx1-specific T-cell proliferation in NOD mice provide a strong rationale for further investigation of the pathogenic role of immune responses against Pdx1 in T1D.
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Citrulline dependence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus as a marker of deforming/erosive arthritis.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2009
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Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies are a serological marker for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); up to 10%-15% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are also positive. While anti-CCP in RA is citrulline-dependent, anti-CCP in some other diseases is citrulline-independent and reacts with both CCP and the unmodified (arginine-containing) cyclic arginine peptide (CAP). We investigated the citrulline dependence of anti-CCP and its significance in the arthritis of SLE.
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Type I interferon modulates monocyte recruitment and maturation in chronic inflammation.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
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Chronic inflammation is characterized by continuous recruitment and activation of immune cells such as monocytes in response to a persistent stimulus. Production of proinflammatory mediators by monocytes leads to tissue damage and perpetuates the inflammatory response. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for the sustained influx of monocytes in chronic inflammation are not well defined. In chronic peritonitis induced by pristane, the persistent recruitment of Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes into the peritoneum was abolished in type I interferon (IFN-I) receptor-deficient mice but was unaffected by the absence of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, or interleukin-1. IFN-I signaling stimulated the production of chemokines (CCL2, CCL7, and CCL12) that recruited Ly6C(hi) monocytes via interactions with the chemokine receptor CCR2. Interestingly, after 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane treatment, the rapid turnover of inflammatory monocytes in the inflamed peritoneum was associated with a lack of differentiation into Ly6C(lo) monocytes/macrophages, a more mature subset with enhanced phagocytic capacity. In contrast, Ly6C(hi) monocytes differentiated normally into Ly6C(lo) cells in IFN-I receptor-deficient mice. The effects of IFN-I were specific for monocytes as granulocyte migration was unaffected in the absence of IFN-I signaling. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel role of IFN-I in promoting the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes via the chemokine receptor CCR2. Continuous monocyte recruitment and the lack of terminal differentiation induced by IFN-I may help sustain the chronic inflammatory response.
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Rapid serological detection of autoantibodies associated with Sjögrens syndrome.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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Sjögrens syndrome (SjS) is a relatively common autoimmune disease characterized by oral and ocular dryness. There is an increasing need for simple, sensitive and rapid technologies for the diagnosis of SjS and other autoimmune diseases. Here we investigated whether a quick version of luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (QLIPS) could be used to produce a rapid, specific and quantitative test to detect autoantibodies associated with SjS.
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Induction of autoimmunity by pristane and other naturally occurring hydrocarbons.
Trends Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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Tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD, or commonly known as pristane)-induced lupus is a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Renal disease and autoantibody production strictly depend on signaling through the interferon (IFN)-I receptor. The major source of IFN-I is immature monocytes bearing high levels of the surface marker Ly6C. Interferon production is mediated exclusively by signaling through TLR7 and the adapter protein MyD88. It is likely that endogenous TLR7 ligands such as components of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes are involved in triggering disease. Lupus autoantibodies are produced in ectopic lymphoid tissue developing in response to TMPD. This model is well suited for examining links between dysregulated IFN-I production and the pathogenesis of human SLE, which like TMPD-lupus, is associated with high levels of IFN-I.
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B cell proliferation, somatic hypermutation, class switch recombination, and autoantibody production in ectopic lymphoid tissue in murine lupus.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2009
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Intraperitoneal exposure of nonautoimmune mice to 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD) causes lupus and the formation of ectopic lymphoid tissue. Although associated with humoral autoimmunity, it is not known whether Ab responses develop within ectopic lymphoid tissue or if B cells only secondarily migrate there. We show that ectopic lymphoid tissue induced by TMPD not only resembles secondary lymphoid tissue morphologically, but it also displays characteristics of germinal center reactions. Proliferating T and B lymphocytes were found within ectopic lymphoid tissue, activation-induced cytidine deaminase was expressed, and class-switched B cells were present. The presence of circular DNA intermediates, a hallmark of active class switch recombination, suggested that class switching occurs within the ectopic lymphoid tissue. Individual collections of ectopic lymphoid tissue ("lipogranulomas") from the same mouse contained different B cell repertoires, consistent with local germinal center-like reactions. Class-switched anti-RNP autoantibody-producing cells were also found in the lipogranulomas. Somatic hypermutation in the lipogranulomas was T cell-dependent, as was the production of isotype-switched anti-Sm/RNP autoantibodies. Thus, ectopic lymphoid tissue induced by TMPD recapitulates many of the functional characteristics of secondary lymphoid tissue and contains autoantibody-secreting cells, which may escape from normal censoring mechanisms in this location.
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Autoantibody to NA14 is an independent marker primarily for Sjogrens syndrome.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed)
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Nuclear Autoantigen of 14 kDa (NA14) was originally identified using the serum of a Sjögrens syndrome (SS) patient as probe in screening a human testis cDNA expression library. To date there is no report in the systematic analysis of the prevalence of autoantibodies to NA14. In this study, anti-NA14 was determined in several rheumatic diseases from independent cohorts in the US and Japan. The prevalence of anti-NA14 were 18/132 (13.6%) in primary SS, 0/50 (0%) secondary SS, 2/100 (2%) SLE, 1/43 (2.3%) scleroderma, 0/54 (0%) rheumatoid arthritis, 1/29 (3.4%) polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and 0/58 (0%) normal healthy controls. The frequencies of anti-NA14 positive sera in primary SS are statistically greater than normal healthy controls (p=0.006), secondary SS (p=0.044), and other rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, among 11 anti-NA14 positive primary SS sera, 4/11 (36.3%) sera were negative for both anti-SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La antibodies. Thus anti-NA14 autoantibodies may be useful for the discrimination of primary versus secondary SS and serve as a diagnostic marker for primary SS especially in seronegative (anti-SS-A/Ro and anti-SS-B/La antibodies negative) patients with SS.
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Indole-3-carbinol improves survival in lupus-prone mice by inducing tandem B- and T-cell differentiation blockades.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), derived from cruciferous vegetables, alters estrogen metabolism. Since lupus is estrogen dependent, we reasoned that I3C might be effective in SLE. I3C significantly thwarted disease progression and prolonged survival in (NZBxNZW) F1 mice. Immunofluorescent and serologic analyses in treated animals indicated a transient blockade in B-cell maturation with increased immature B cells, decreased mature B cells, and a significant reduction of certain autoantibodies. Subsequently, a delay in T-cell maturation occurred in the treated group, manifested by significantly increased naive T cells, decreased mature and memory T cells, and decreased CD4:CD8 T-cell ratios. T cells from the I3C cohort, stimulated in vitro with various mitogens, exhibited enhanced responsiveness. Con A-stimulated T cells from I3C-treated mice produced Th1 cytokines, whereas those from control animals produced Th2 cytokines. Our studies suggest immunological mechanisms by which I3C ameliorates SLE in mice and provide a rationale for its use as an adjunctive therapy for human lupus.
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Increased expression of FcgammaRI/CD64 on circulating monocytes parallels ongoing inflammation and nephritis in lupus.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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The high-affinity receptor for IgG Fcgamma/CD64 is critical for the development of lupus nephritis (LN). Cross-linking Fc receptor on recruited monocytes by IgG-containing immune complexes is a key step in immune-complex-mediated nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The goal of this study was to determine whether expression of Fc receptor (FcgammaR) I on circulating monocytes is associated with systemic inflammation and renal disease in SLE patients.
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Autoantibodies to transcription intermediary factor TIF1? associated with dermatomyositis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
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Myositis specific autoantibodies are associated with unique clinical subsets and are useful biomarkers in polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). A 120 kD protein recognized by certain patients with DM was identified and clinical features of patients with this specificity were characterized.
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Pleiotropic IFN-dependent and -independent effects of IRF5 on the pathogenesis of experimental lupus.
J. Immunol.
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Genetic polymorphisms of IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) are associated with an increased risk of lupus in humans. In this study, we examined the role of IRF5 in the pathogenesis of pristane-induced lupus in mice. The pathological response to pristane in IRF5(-/-) mice shared many features with type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)(-/-) and TLR7(-/-) mice: production of anti-Sm/RNP autoantibodies, glomerulonephritis, generation of Ly6C(hi) monocytes, and IFN-I production all were greatly attenuated. Lymphocyte activation following pristane injection was greatly diminished in IRF5(-/-) mice, and Th cell differentiation was deviated from Th1 in wild-type mice toward Th2 in IRF5(-/-) mice. Th cell development was skewed similarly in TLR7(-/-) or IFNAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that IRF5 alters T cell activation and differentiation by affecting cytokine production. Indeed, production of IFN-I, IL-12, and IL-23 in response to pristane was markedly decreased, whereas IL-4 increased. Unexpectedly, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were not recruited to the site of inflammation in IRF5(-/-) or MyD88(-/-) mice, but were recruited normally in IFNAR(-/-) and TLR7(-/-) mice. In striking contrast to wild-type mice, pristane did not stimulate local expression of CCL19 and CCL21 in IRF5(-/-) mice, suggesting that IRF5 regulates chemokine-mediated pDC migration independently of its effects on IFN-I. Collectively, these data indicate that altered production of IFN-I and other cytokines in IRF5(-/-) mice prevents pristane from inducing lupus pathology by broadly affecting T and B lymphocyte activation/differentiation. Additionally, we uncovered a new, IFN-I-independent role of IRF5 in regulating chemokines involved in the homing of pDCs and certain lymphocyte subsets.
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